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  • Ion mobility-derived collision cross section as an additional measure to support the rapid analysis of abused drugs and toxic compounds using electrospray ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Ru Lian, Fang Zhang, Yurong Zhang, Zhongping Wu, Haiying Ye, Chunfang Ni, Xiaobao Lv, Yinlong Guo

    Despite recent advances in analytical techniques, high-throughput and rapid screening of abused drugs and toxic compounds is imperative. In this study, a method hyphenating ion mobility spectrometry with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IM-TOF MS) was developed to measure the common abused drugs and toxic compounds. IM spectrometry allows the measurement of the collision cross section (CCS) value while TOF MS provides the measurement of accurate mass. A total of 124 abused drugs and toxic compounds was evaluated. As a result, the experimental precision of the experimental CCS values was 0.25% or better and not affected by the processed matrices (|ΔCCS|blood≤0.77% and |ΔCCS|urine≤0.93%). The experimental mass error was low than 5 ppm. The screening limit of detection (LOD) was below 400 ng/mL for 93% of the test compounds in urine and 90% in blood). Finally, the method was applied to the real samples from a local forensic laboratory and methamphetamine was identified successfully. It was demonstrated that IM-TOF MS was a promising approach for rapid screening of abused compounds and would increase the detection throughout.

    更新日期:2018-01-16
  • Detection of procalcitonin (PCT) using the double antibody sandwich method based on fluorescence resonant energy transfer between upconversion nanoparticles and quantum dots
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Yang Zhou, Xiangming Shao, Yuwang Han, Hongman Zhang

    A nanosensor is designed using a double antibody sandwich method based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4 (Yb, Er) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for the determination of procalcitonin (PCT). The UCNPs (donor) and CdTe QDs (acceptor) were modified separately with two PCT monoclonal antibodies, and they were bound together through a specific immune reaction via the addition of PCT antigen. The fluorescence intensity of UCNPs was quenched because of the resonant energy transferred between upconversion nanoparticles and quantum dots. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence quenching efficiency showed a linear response to the PCT concentration with values ranging from 0.1 to 10 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.25 ng/mL. This method can be easily extended to the double antibody sandwich assay with potential applications in in vitro diagnostics (IVD).

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based LAMP biosensing platform for a novel colorimetric detection of Listeria monocytogenes
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    zhanmin liu, Chenhui Yao, Yanming Wang, Cuiyun Yang

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most commonly pathogenic bacteria. After infection, the main symptoms of listeriosis are sepsis, meningitis and mononucleosis. For this purpose, a G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based LAMP biosensing platform was developed to colorimetric detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Four primers were designed to hybridize against six distinct sequences in the target DNA making the highly specific amplification in the step of LAMP. The G-quadruplex sequence amplified simultaneously in LAMP could form DNAzyme with the addition of hemin. The catalytic horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes allowed the colorimetric responses of target DNA from L. monocytogenes. The response surface methodology was used to screen and optimize the crucial factors affecting the response. This assay could detect L. monocytogenes specifically with as low as 47.5 cfu per reaction by the naked eye. Furthermore, this colorimetric detection assay was successfully applied to detect L. monocytogenes in spiked pork sample. Therefore, the rapid, specific and visual detection of L. monocytogenes has demonstrated the potentially broad applicability in the food safety.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Analysis of Coffee Seed Vigor by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Yalian Zhou, Meng Cui, Qin Yin, Min Deng, Yingbin Hao, Xueyong Huang, Liping Luo

    Water extracts of coffee seeds of various ages were analyzed in positive ion mode by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) without any sample pretreatment, and the typical metabolites were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. Further assessment using principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and discriminant analysis (DA) demonstrated that combination of EESI-MS and multivariate analysis could effectively distinguish coffee seeds with different vigor. In PCA, the first three principal components explained 99.3% of the total variation, and coffee seeds with the same vigor were clustered closely together in CA with an accuracy of 100%. In DA, the accuracy rate of discrimination of the training muster and the success rate of cross validation analysis were both 100%. We concluded that coffee seeds with diverse vigor could be differentiated by EESI-MS coupled with multivariate analysis, providing a novel, sensitive, and rapid measurement of seed vigor in coffee.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • A sensitive gold nanoparticle-based aptasensor for colorimetric detection of Aβ1-40 oligomers
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Xu Zhu, Ningning Zhang, Yintang Zhang, Baoxia Liu, Zhu Chang, Yanli Zhou, Yuanqiang Hao, Baoxian Ye, Maotian Xu

    In this work, a gold nanoparticle-based label-free homogeneous phase colorimetric bioassay was developed for the detection of Aβ1-40 oligomers, an important biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prepared Aβ1-40 oligomer-aptamer decorated AuNPs tended to aggregate in a solution with high concentration of salt, and displayed a purple color with maximum absorption peak at 650 nm, a characteristic absorption of aggregated AuNPs. In the presence of Aβ1-40 oligomer, the specifical binding of the target with the apt would generate folded aptamer structures, which can stabilize AuNPs towards the salt-induced aggregation, and thus achieving a hypsochromic shift in the absorption spectra. On basis of this sensitive spectral transformation, the proposed aptasensor was successfully applied for the detection of Aβ1-40 with a dymanic range of 1-600 nM and a low limit detection of 0.56 nM. The reliability and practicality of this aptasensor was demonstrated by analysis of Aβ oligomers in real serum sample and in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). We anticipate that the proposed facile colorimetric assay for Aβ1-40 oligomer would provid applicable information for the early diagnosis of AD.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • A high-throughput method for orthophosphate determination of a thermostable membrane-bound pyrophosphatase activity
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-15
    Keni Vidilaseris, Juho Kellosalo, Adrian Goldman

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (mPPases) are homodimeric integral membrane proteins that hydrolyse pyrophosphate into orthophosphates coupled to the active transport of protons or sodium ions across membranes. They occur in bacteria, archaea, plants, and protist parasites. As they are essential in protist parasites and there are no homologous proteins in animals and humans, these enzymes represent an excellent drug target for treating protistal diseases. Experimental screening to find drug candidates is an important step to discover new hit compounds. For that, a cheap, simple, and robust assay is needed. Here we report the application of the molybdenum blue reaction method for a medium throughput microplate activity assay of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima mPPase and the possible application of the assay to screen inhibitors of membrane-bound pyrophosphatases.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • 更新日期:2018-01-15
  • 更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Ratiometric detection of biothiols by the DNA-templated silver nanoclusters-Hg2+ system
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Zheng-Yu Yan, Chunqing Tian, Xiaoyan Sun, Yi Wu, Dan Li, Baofen Ye

    A novel fluorescent sensor for ratiometric detection of biothiols, such as cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), was developed. This sensor was based on the system composed of fluorescent silver nanoclusters stabilized by single-stranded DNA (DNA-Ag NCs) and Hg2+. The Ag NCs we synthesized had two fluorescence emission peaks, red and green. The red peak was strongly quenched by Hg2+ while the green peak showed a concomitant increase in fluorescence intensity in the presence of Hg2+. On the contrary, when biothiols were added to the DNA-Ag NCs-Hg2+ system, there was an increase in the intensity of the red emission peak and a decrease in the intensity of the green emission peak because of the robust Hg-S interaction. By employing the ratio of the DNA-Ag NCs-Hg2+ system’s red to green fluorescence emission intensity as the function of biothiols’ concentration, we obtained satisfactory detection limits and linear relationships of Cys and GSH. Cys and GSH were detected at concentrations as low as 1.59 nM and 2.88 nM, respectively. The capability and potential for practical applications of this method were also demonstrated by detecting biothiols in human serum samples.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Effect of mobile phase composition on the analysis of aggregates of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) using size exclusion chromatography
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-14
    Rabin Neupane, Malin Källsten, Fredrik Lehmann, Jonas Bergquist
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • A “turn-on” fluorescence sensor for ascorbic acid based on graphene quantum dots via fluorescence resonance energy transfer
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Yue Gao, Xiaolu Yan, Meng Li, Han Gao, Jing Sun, Shuyun Zhu, Shuang Han, Li-Na Jia, Xian-en Zhao, Hua Wang

    A novel turn-on fluorescent sensor for the detection of ascorbic acid (AA) has been developed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and squaric acid (SQA)-iron(III). In this assay, iron(III) can rapidly coordinate with the SQA to produce SQA-iron(III). The absorbance band of SQA-iron(III) could be largely overlapped with the emission band of GQDs, thus resulting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-induced fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Moreover, the fluorescence of GQDs can be sensitively turned on by AA through the oxidation-reduction between iron(III) and AA. Because the absorbance of the solution reduced and thus the FRET decreased after the transformation of SQA-iron(III) into SQA-iron(II). This FRET-based nanosensor shows high selective and sensitive response in the concentration of AA ranging from 1.0-95 μM with the detection limit as lower as 200 nM, which is lower than other fluorescent assays. Finally, the proposed sensing system was successfully applied to direct analysis of AA in real samples with satisfactory results.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • A novel multicommuted flow analysis strategy for the spectrophotometric determination of cadmium in water at µg L-1 levels without using a preconcentration step
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Ticiane da Silva Magalhães da Silva Magalhães, Boaventura F. Reis

    An automated flow analysis approach for the photometric determination of cadmium in water with improved sensitivity is described. The setup comprises a flow system module with the ability to perform sample circulation using a closed-loop strategy, and a LED-based photometer. The photometric method is based on the reaction of Cd(II) with 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in alkaline medium containing the surfactant Triton X100. The combination of the closed-loop facility, which prevents sample dilution, with the beneficial effect of the long optical path length of the flow cell (200 mm), allows cadmium to be determined at μg L-1 levels without the need for a preconcentration step. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was evaluated by analyzing water samples. The results show a linear response with concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 62.5 μg L-1 (r2 = 0.9989). The method has a limit of detection 3.0 μg L-1, which is the guideline value established by the World Health Organization (WHO). A coefficient variation of 1.6% (n = 10) for a 30.0 μg L-1 standard Cd(II) solution, a reagent consumption of 4 μg dithizone per determination, and a sampling rate of 43 determinations per hour were also achieved.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • A rapid, sensitive and green analytical method for the determination of sulfite in vinegars using pararosaniline reaction with image detection
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Pedro L. Almeida, Jr, Thais H. Figueiredo do Bonfim, Francisco Antonio S. Cunha, Kássio M. G. Lima, Jailane S. Aquino, Luciano F. Almeida
    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Quantitative imaging of translocated silver following nanoparticle exposure by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    David P. Bishop, Mandy Grossgarten, Dörthe Dietrich, Antje Vennemann, Nerida Cole, Michael Sperling, Martin Wiemann, Philip A. Doble, Uwe Karst
    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Electrochemiluminescence biosensing platform for Hg2+ determination based on host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin functionalized Pd nanoparticles and ferrocene
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Yijie Hu, Zhimin Liu, Haijun Zhan, Zhiqiang Shen

    A solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) switch biosensor using Ru(bpy)32+/β-cyclodextrin-Pd nanoparticles (β-CY-PdNPs)/Gelatin (Gel) complex and ferrocene-labeled DNA probe (Fer-DNA) for the detection of Hg2+ was successfully developed. The ECL biosensor includes an ECL substrate and an ECL signal switch. Ru(bpy)32+/β-CY-PdNPs/Gel composite modified on the glassy carbon electrode was used as an ECL substrate, which could bring about a clear and stable ECL signal by Ru(bpy)32+. Meantime, hairpin-like Fer-DNA probe was acted as an ECL signal switch, which was designed by molecular recognition strategy and attached to β-CY-PdNPs through host-guest interaction between β-CY and ferrocene. Our investigation indicated that, when Hg2+ was absent, the Fer-DNA probe retained its hairpin structure and led to an obvious quenching effect of Ru(bpy)32+ signal. However, when the biosensor incubated with Hg2+, the specific T-Hg2+-T interaction brought about the change of the of Fer-DNA conformation, and such conformation adjustment resulted in a clear signal recovery of Ru(bpy)32+ owing to the reduced quenching effect of ferrocene. The ECL switch biosensor offered good linear responses for Hg2+ in the range of 0.003 ~ 600 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.0015 ng/mL at the 3sblank level.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Hydrogen-bonding-induced colorimetric detection of melamine based on the peroxidase activity of gelatin-coated cerium oxide nanospheres
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Xiaoyong Jin, Wenqing Yin, Gang Ni, Juan Peng

    Herein, we developed a simple and rapid colorimetric assay for detection of melamine using gelatin-coated cerium oxide (Gel-CeO2) nanospheres as peroxidase mimics. Highly monodispersed Gel-CeO2 nanospheres were synthesized through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal process. The Gel-CeO2 nanospheres showed excellent peroxidase activity, which can catalyze the oxidation of ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) by H2O2, resulting in formation of blue oxidation products. In the presence of melamine, H2O2 will react with melamine through strong hydrogen-bonding. With the consumption of H2O2, the catalytic reaction was interrupted and the blue ABTS oxidation product solution turned pale. There was a linear relationship between absorbance intensity of ABTS oxidation product and logarithm value of melamine concentration ranging from 50 nM to 5.0 mM. Moreover, the detection limit (S/N=3) was 5.5 nM, which is far below the regulatory level. This method was simple, rapid, sensitive and reliable, suggesting the promising practical usage of this sensing system. Finally, this method was applied to melamine detection in milk and milk powder.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • 更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Label-Free Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enrichment from Bone Marrow Samples by Inertial Microfluidics
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Lap Man Lee, Jenna M. Rosano, Yi Wang, George Klarmann, Charles J. Garson, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Kapil Pant, Luis M. Alvarez, Eva Lai

    Isolation of pure populations of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow aspirate is a critical need in regenerative medicine such as orthopedic and cartilage reconstruction with important clinical and therapeutic implications. Currently available stem cell isolation systems mainly rely on intrusive immuno-labeling techniques. Mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow samples are typically larger than other cells, which can be used as a distinctive biophysical cue for non-invasive isolation. In this work, a spiral-shaped inertial microfluidic sorter was developed to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow samples with minimal sample preparation steps. To characterize the sorting performance, cultured mesenchymal stem cells were spiked into tissue-digested mouse bone marrow cells. Under a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min, an average enrichment of 6.0 and recovery of 73% were demonstrated. About 3106 tissue-digested bone marrow cells can be processed in 1 minute with a single microfluidic run. Recovered mesenchymal stem cells after microfluidic sorting retained high (>95%) viability, similar immuno-phenotype expression, and multi-potency in tri-differentiation lineages as with unprocessed cells. This rapid, label-free and non-invasive inertial microfluidic sorter has practical applications in target stem cells enrichment in stem cell therapy.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • 更新日期:2018-01-09
  • A liquid chromatographic method for separations of sacubitril-valsartan and their stereoisomeric impurities
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Lu Zhou, Liang Zou, LiLi Sun, Hui Zhang, Wenkai Hui, Qiaogen Zou

    Sacubitril-valsartan (SV) is a first-in-class inhibitor of the angiotensin II receptor and neprilysin for the treatment of chronic heart failure(HF) and hypertension. A stereoselective normal-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for separations of sacubitril (SA), valsartan (VA) and their stereoisomeric impurities. Chromatography was performed using mobile phase A of n-hexane with 0.1%TFA added and mobile phase B comprising ethanol, isopropanol and TFA (80:20:0.1, v/v/v) and delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min on a Chiralcel OJ-H column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm). The stereoisomers were monitored at wavelength of 254 nm and the whole separation was achieved within 50 min. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity (R2≥0.998), accuracy (98.3%-99.5%), precision (%RSD≤1.82), limit of detection (0.06μg/mL and 0.10μg/mL) and limit of quantification (0.2μg/mL and 0.3μg/mL). The sample solution and mobile phase were found to be stable for at least 48 hours. The final optimized method was successfully applied to separate sacubitril-valsartan from their stereoisomers and was characteristic of good repeatability and accuracy for quantitative determination of the stereoisomers in bulk drug.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Bobby Bhatt, Hudson Angeyo Angeyo Kalambuka, Alix Dehayem-Kamadjeu

    Nuclear forensics (NF) is an important tool for analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) to establish the relationship between NRM and their attribution in support of nuclear security. The critical challenge in NF at present is the lack of direct, rapid and non-invasive analytical techniques, especially for concealed and limited size NRM. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with chemometrics has the potential to rapidly detect, quantify and attribute concealed NRM of limited sample size in air at atmospheric pressure. The goal of this study was to explore LIBS in air at atmospheric pressure in conjunction with chemometrics towards direct and rapid NF analysis. In this work, the limit of detection of uranium in cellulose was obtained at 76 ppm. The uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm and 386.592 nm were identified in the LIBS spectra of uranium trioxide (bound in cellulose) and uranium bearing mineral ores. The uranium lines were classified into weak and resonant lines based on the signal-to-background. Multivariate calibration models utilizing weak and resonant uranium lines were developed using artificial neural network (back-propagation algorithm). The model using weak lines predicted the uranium concentration in the certified reference material with relative error prediction (REP) = 4.32 % while that using resonant lines predicted with REP = 9.75 %, thus demonstrating the robustness of chemometrics enabled LIBS. The calibration model using weak uranium lines, predicted uranium concentration in Kenya’s uranium-bearing mineral ores between 103 ppm - 837 ppm. Principal component analysis based on spectral feature selection, successfully grouped the samples to their mineral mines (origin). Thus, LIBS in air under atmospheric pressure combined with chemometrics not only realizes direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of trace levels of uranium in typical uranium bearing mineral ores but also aids in source attribution of these ores.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Portable near-infrared spectroscopy applied to abuse drugs and medicines analyses
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Radigya M Correia, Eloilson Domingos, Flávia Tosato, Nayara Araujo, Julia Almeida, Mayara Silva, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre Marcelo, Rafael S Ortiz, Paulo R Filgueiras, Wanderson Romão

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy using portable instrument (microNIR) associated with chemometrics model (partial least squares regression (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)) was applied to quantify cocaine, and to classify synthetic drugs a a function of their chemical composition present in 19 ecstasy tablets, 22 seals of designer drugs and 23 medicines samples. Cocaine content in range of 0 to 100 wt% was quantified by PLS model with root means square error of prediction of 6 wt%. Then the PLS model was applied in 38 cocaine samples seized and their results were compared to liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. microNIR spectra was able to discriminate the seals samples between LSD and NBOMes derivatives while for the ecstasy tablets, five groups were formed containing (1) MDMA; (2) amphetamine, ATS, methamphetamine, MDMA, 2C-B; (3) amphetamine and Caffeine; (4) MDMA; and (5) ethylone and ketamine. Lastly, the results of the medicines analysis indicated a lack of quality control (with distinct dosages than specified on the packaging) or the falsification of them.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Electrospinning: A Carbonized Gold/Graphene/PAN Nanofiber for High Performance Biosensing
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Pongpol Ekabutr, Wimonwan Klinkajon, Pakakrong Sangsanoh, Orawan Chailapakul, Pimolpun Niamlang, Thitikan Khampieng, Pitt Supaphol

    In this study, a novel biosensor was produced from a carbonized hybrid gold (Au)/graphene (G) nanowire fabricated upon a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in order to amplify signals. The processes of carbonization and electrospinning were merged in order to determine dopamine (DA) in a selective and sensitive manner when it is present in uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). In order to assess the nature of the surface morphology and the physical product properties, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction were employed prior to and following the carbonization step. The modified electrode (CPAN-Au/G) in [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- and DA was examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in order to establish the electrochemical behavior. The findings from this test revealed that the modified electrode was capable of selectively identifying DA in 0.1 M PBS at pH 7.4 when other substances were present to provide interference. This process did not require the use of an anionic surfactant to serve as the discriminating agent. From analysis of the DPV current, a linear dependence upon DA concentrations became apparent, in the range of 0.001 to 60 μM when the detection limit was 0.8 nM (S/N=3) and sensitivity was 1.4351 μA/cm2. DA quantities in human serum could be effectively detected using the CPAN-Au/G electrode, and the modified electrode raises considerable expectations for application as a high-potential electrode. This would permit the determination of DA in a selective and sensitive manner while achieving sensor stability over the longer term.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Fe3O4 sphere-assisted microwave distillation coupled with ionic liquid-based HS-SDME followed by GC-MS for the rapid analysis of essential oil in dried lavender
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Jihong Fu, Yan Zhu, Bing Liu, Jun Tang

    In this work, Fe3O4 sphere-assisted microwave distillation (MD) coupled with ionic liquid-based headspace single-drop microextraction (IL-HS-SDME) followed by GC-MS was developed for the analysis of essential oil in dried lavender. The loose Fe3O4 spheres were used as microwave absorption medium for dry distillation of dried lavender. A home microwave oven without any modifying was used in the MD-IL-HS-SDME. The effects of the experimental parameters were investigated. The optimal analytical conditions were: extraction solvent of [C6mim]BF4, single-drop volume of 2 μL, irradiation time of 5 min, extraction time of 20 min, sample amount of 30 mg and the addition of 5 mg Fe3O4 to sample. The relative standard deviations for determining six representative compounds were in the range from 2.70 to 8.82%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze 12 samples of three varieties of lavender (French blue, C-197(2) and H-701). A total of 36 compounds were identified by the proposed method. Principal component analysis was used to differentiate lavender varieties and to identify discriminant varietal markers. The results showed that the Fe3O4 sphere-assisted MD-IL-HS-SDME is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the essential oil in dried plant materials.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Development and validation of an HPLC-FLD technique for colistin quantification and its plasma monitoring in hospitalized patients
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    A. R. Pinho, M. J. Rocha, G. Alves, A. C. Falcão, A. C. Fortuna
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Nitrogen Doped Carbon Quantum Dots-enhanced Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Mn2+
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Junmei Zhang, Xiaoxia Chen, Yue Li, Suqin Han, Yao Du, Haizhen Liu

    Nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) was synthesized via a ultrasonic method with ascorbic acid as carbon sources and ammonia as nitrogen sources. The synthesized NCQDs could significantly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between luminol with KMnO4 in an alkaline condition based on its catalysis. The increased CL intensity also depended on the synthetic temperature and time of NCQDs. The trace amount of Mn2+ could cause a visible restraining the CL intensity of the NCQDs-KMnO4-luminol system because the form of the complexes between Mn2+ with some groups such as NH-, CH2- in the surface of NCQDs, which resulted in the aggregation of NCQDs and scavenging of O2•– free radicals and then the catalytic capacity reduction of NCQDs. Under the optimum conditions, the decrease CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of Mn2+ in the range of 0.3 to 50.0 μ. The detection limit (3) was 43.0 nM. The feasibility of the method was also demonstrated for determining Mn2+ concentration in water samples.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Rapid and sensitive colorimetric sensing of the insecticide pymetrozine using melamine-modified gold nanoparticles
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Jing-yan Kang, Yu-jie Zhang, Xing Li, Chen Dong, Hong-yu Liu, Li-jing Miao, Paul J. Low, Zhi-xian Gao, Narayan S. Hosmane, Ai-guo Wu
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • A gold immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of parathion and triazophos in agricultural products
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Beibei Liu, Hang Gong, Yulong Wang, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Pan Li, Yulou Qiu, Limin Wang, Xiude Hua, Yirong Guo, Minghua Wang, Fengquan Liu, Xianjin Liu, Cunzheng Zhang
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • A non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on the CuS nanoflakes–reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Xiaoyi Yan, Yue Gu, Cong Li, Bo Zheng, Yaru Li, Tingting Zhang, Zhiquan Zhang, Ming Yang
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Colorimetric detection of residual hydrogen peroxide in soaked food based on Au@Ag nanorods
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Qingai Chen, Tianran Lin, Jianli Huang, Yi Chen, Liangqia Guo, Fengfu Fu

    A simple and selective colorimetric method for H2O2 detection in soaked food samples was developed by using Au@Ag nanorods (Au@Ag NRs) as the signal conducer. In the presence of H2O2, silver atoms on the surface of Au@Ag NRs are oxidized to silver ions, thereby resulting in the red-shift of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of Au@Ag NRs and accompanying a sharp-contrast multicolor change. The linear range for the detection of H2O2 was ranged from 0 to 100 μmol L-1 with a limit of detection 3.2 μmol L-1. Compared with the commercialized test strip, the proposed colorimetric sensor showed a much higher color resolution by naked eyes.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • A lysosome-targeting colorimetric and fluorescent dual signal probe for sensitive detection and bioimaging of hydrogen sulfide
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Cuiyan Wu, Xiaojun Hu, Biao Gu, Peng Yin, Wei Su, Yaqian Li, Qiujun Lu, Youyu Zhang, Haitao Li

    In this study, we developed a lysosome-targeting fluorescent probe, 3-(2,4-dinitrophenoxy)-2-(4-morpholinophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (DMC), for the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) based on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Upon the treatment with H2S, a significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed along with a distinct color change from yellow to colorless. This probe shows a low background spectroscopic signal, large Stokes shift, good sensitivity, and high selectivity towards H2S. Most importantly, DMC has low toxicity and excellent cell permeability, and could be applied to visualizing H2S in lysosomes.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Analysis of Cuban nickeliferous minerals by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): non-conventional sample preparation of powder samples
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Marco Sperança, Mario Pomares, Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho

    In the present study, a new method to quantify Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr and Ni in nickeliferous minerals by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed. Thirty-three mineral powder solid samples, previously analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP OES), and two certified reference materials were used as reference samples for the calibration, and an innovative sample preparation was implemented and described. The use of Bi, Sc and Y as internal standards and the usefulness of other normalization modes were assessed in the normalization of the LIBS emission signal from the analytes. A slurry was made by mixing the solid mineral samples, grinding them in a fine powder, and using water in different proportions. Then, the mixture was homogenized and instantly weighed with a constant mass of a standard liquid solution of Y, which was preliminary chosen as the internal standard among the three elements assessed, and a 10% (w v-1)-polyvinyl-alcohol solution. After 2 h in an oven at 50 °C, the samples, which were immobilized in the polymer film, were subjected to LIBS analysis. The best sample dilution, emission line and normalization of the emission signal were selected for each analyte. The concentrations of the assessed analytes varied from 0.49 to 26.82% for Al, 0.40 to 2.21% for Cr, 6.8 to 52.93% for Fe, 0.41 to 20.53% for Mg, 0.11 to 1.50% for Mn and 0.23 to 3.02% for Ni. The standard error of validation (SEV) for the newly developed method was 1.34, 0.16, 6.08, 0.88, 0.09, and 0.35% for Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Ni, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • 更新日期:2018-01-04
  • 更新日期:2018-01-04
  • An aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for simple and sensitive detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in milk
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Xiaohui Xiong, Xinping Shi, Yuanjian Liu, Lixia Lu, Jingjing You
    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Graphene oxide–ZnO nanocomposite modified electrode for the detection of phenol
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Tanvir Arfin, Stephy N. Rangari
    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Quantitative analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate and AMPA in irrigation water by in situ derivatization - dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with UPLC-MS/MS
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Edgar Pinto, António Gomes Soares, I. M. P. L. V. Ferreira

    A novel method was developed for the sensitive, cheap and fast quantitation of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in irrigation water by in-situ derivatization and dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (DLLME) combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Water samples were filtered with a 0.22 μm nylon filter, pH adjusted to 9 with ammonium bicarbonate and derivatized with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl). Afterwards, DLLME was applied to concentrate the compounds of interest, which were then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The best results were obtained when acetone and dichloromethane were used as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Two-level full factorial designs and a central composite design were applied to select the most appropriate derivatization and DLLME conditions. The method performance was evaluated according to the SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines and was linear in the 1.0 to 200 µg/L range for glyphosate, glufosinate and AMPA, with r2 ≥ 0.997 and individual residuals <13%. Repeatability (RSDr) and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDwr) ranged from 2.7 to 9.1% and from 3.4 to 14.3%, respectively, and the trueness between 94.9 and 118.1%. The limits of detection were of 0.35, 0.05 and 0.10 µg/L for glyphosate, glufosinate and AMPA, respectively and the limits of quantitation were of 1.0 µg/L for all three compounds. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of irrigation water (surface and groundwater). No sign of the three compounds was detect in the groundwater samples but glyphosate was quantified in surface waters.

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Carbon nitride quantum dots enhanced-chemiluminescence of hydrogen peroxide and hydrosulfite and its application in ascorbic acid sensing
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Bing Chen, Feifei Wang, Wensong Yao, Zhen Lin, Xiaomin Zhang, Shu Luo, Linlin Zheng, Xinhua Lin

    Weak chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of hydrogen peroxide and hydrosulfite was greatly enhanced by carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs). CL experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation indicated that g-CNQD increased the production of singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide radical (•O2−) and sulphite radical anion( •SO3−) in the hydrogen peroxide-hydrosulfite CL system, which could attribute to the enhanced-CL intensity and gave us new insights into the character of fluorescent carbon nitride quantum dots. Ascorbic acid exerted inhibition effect on the hydrogen peroxide–hydrosulfite–g-CNQD CL system. This phenomenon was utilized as a determination method of ascorbic acid in the concentration ranging from 2.85×10-7 to 2.85×10-4 mol/L, with a detection limit of 8.0×10-8 mol/L. Ascorbic acid in tablets and injections has been successfully detected with recoveries in the range of 96.2 % to 106%.

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with chemometric algorithms of multivariate classification in the discrimination between clinical samples Healthy vs Dengue vs Chikungunya vs Zika
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Marfran Santos, Yasmin Nascimento, Joelma Monteiro, Brenda Alves, Marília Melo, Anne Paiva, Hannaly Pereira, Leandro Medeiros, Ingryd Morais, João Neto, José Fernandes, Josélio Galvão, K. M. G. de Lima

    Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. In clinical diagnostic routines, cross reactions between Dengue and Zika may occur because they are viruses of the same family (Flaviviridae), on the other hand, Chikungunya is an Alphavirus. In this study we suggest the use of FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with PCA-LDA, SPA-LDA and GA-LDA multivariate classification algorithms as a tool sensitive to biochemical variation caused by the presence of different viruses in the blood. We used 45 blood samples from patients diagnosed with Dengue, 33 blood samples from patients diagnosed with Zika, 13 samples from patients diagnosed with Chikungunya and 45 blood samples from people without the presence of these viruses. The objective of the study was to evaluate, mainly, the specificity of the technique in discriminating the blood samples based only on the presence or not of different viruses and to compare with some standard diagnostic methods. The results showed sensitivity and specificity values of 100% for the healthy, dengue and chikungunya classes and values close to 90% for zika, suggesting that spectroscopic techniques have a great potential in detecting the biochemical variations that the presence of the virus causes in the blood, through a fast methodology.

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol by in situ silver nanoparticles decorated graphene dot for glucose analysis
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Foad Salehnia, Morteza Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Ganjali

    A rapid, linker free, single-step strategy for in situ synthesis of graphene quantum dot-Luminol-Ag nanoparticle (GQD-Luminol-AgNPs) nano-composites was designed by reducing AgNO3 with electrochemiluminescent reagent luminol in the presence of GQD. The nano-composites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectra and EDS pattern. The results indicated that many Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average diameter of about 5 nm were dispersed uniformly on the surface of GQD nanosheets. Luminol molecules were also decorated on the nano-composites surface. Thus, the nano composites showed excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) activity in presence of H2O2. In order to build a glucose ECL-based biosensor, the prepared sensor was also modified with glucose oxidase (GOx). GOx enzyme was covalently immobilized on GQD-Luminol-AgNPs modified glassy carbon electrode. The designed ECL biosensor showed great performance toward glucose detection in a concentration range between 25 and 250 μM with a satisfactory detection limit (8 μM).

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Synthesis and modification of mercapto-submicron scavenger for real-time extraction and preconcentration of As(III)
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Nezar H. Khdary, Ahmed E. H. Gassim, Alan G. Howard, Tamil S. Sakthivel, Sudipta Seal
    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Correction: Tridentate tripodal sulfur ligand as a stable molecular surface anchor for the fabrication of oligonucleotide-gold based label-free biosensors
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Tejal J. Deodhar, Huancai Yin, Mingli Chen, Yihong Lu, Daxi Xiong, Jun Jack Hu

    Correction for ‘Tridentate tripodal sulfur ligand as a stable molecular surface anchor for the fabrication of oligonucleotide-gold based label-free biosensors’ by Huancai Yin et al., Anal. Methods, 2017, 9, 600–608.

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • On-site monitoring of occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds by a portable comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography device
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Jiwon Lee, Stephanie K. Sayler, Menglian Zhou, Hongbo Zhu, Rudy J. Richardson, Richard L. Neitzel, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Xudong Fan
    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • 更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Construction of novel nanocomposite ZnO@CoFe2O4 microspheres grown on nickel foam for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Araveeti Eswar Reddy, Tarugu Anitha, Chandu V. V. Muralee Gopi, S. Srinivasa Rao, Bandari Naresh, Hee-Je Kim
    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • 更新日期:2018-01-03
  • A new wipe-sampling instrument for measuring the collection efficiency of trace explosives residues
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Elizabeth L. Robinson, Edward Sisco, Matthew E. Staymates, Jeffrey A. Lawrence
    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Dengue serotyping with a label-free DNA sensor
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-11-30
    S. K. Chan, Y. S. Choong, D. Perera, T. S. Lim
    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • 更新日期:2018-01-03
  • 更新日期:2018-01-03
  • 更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Preparation of an anti-formoterol monoclonal antibody for indirect competitive ELISA detection of formoterol in urine and pork samples
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Chunsheng Li, Yujing Li, Yan Zhang, Jingjing Liu, Junhua Li, Meng Wu, Haiyan Liu, Zhencai Yang

    In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established to detect formoterol (FMT) residue in pork and urine samples. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against FMT was prepared using hybridoma technology. The developed ELISA method had a standard curve ranging from 0.098 to 6.25 μg/L. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value and the limit of detection (LOD) were 1.04 μg/L and 0.15 μg/L, respectively. The cross-reactivity (CR) values of 7 compounds were less than 0.01%, but the CR value of clenbuterol was not (CR<0.62%). Urine and pork samples supplemented with different concentrations of FMT were analysed using ELISA. The intra-assay recovery rates and coefficients of variation were 91.5–118% (n=5) and 7.9–14.7% (n=5), respectively. In contrast, the inter-assay recovery rate ranged from 87% to 124% (n=5), and the coefficients of variation were within 6.3–18.6% (n=5), indicating that the assay had high accuracy and precision. Correlation values for urine and pork were higher (R2=0.99 and 0.98, respectively) for the optimized ELISA than for standard LC-MS/MS analysis in a variety of samples. This optimized mAb-based ELISA provides a rapid method for detecting FMT residue in urine and pork samples with high specificity and sensitivity.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Electrochemical Immunosensor Detection of Tumor Markers based on GO Composite Nanoprobe for Signal Amplification
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Jing Wang, Dongcheng Yang, Mifa Chen, Beifang Liu, Hou Chen, Hui Xu, Wenxiang Wang, Liangjiu Bai

    A novel strategy based on nanoprobes for signal amplification was introduced in electrochemical immunoassay platform. The nanoprobes based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-r-poly(acrylic acid) (PHEMA-r-PAA) and graphene oxide (GO) have the effect of double signal amplification. The resulting sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was able to detect tumor markers alpha fetal protein (AFP) with high sensitivity and high selectivity. A good linear relationship showed in the range of AFP concentration with 3.5 pg/mL ~ 35 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9898), and the minimum detection limit was 0.106 pg/mL. In addition, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibited good stability and could be applied to AFP detection in clinical serum.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • mRMR-based wavelength selection for NIRS quantitative detection of Chinese yellow wine
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Lingyi Chen, Zhonggai Zhao, Fei Liu

    Wavelength selection plays an important role in the analysis of near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy.This paper introduces the minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance(mRMR) algorithm into NIR analysis for wavelength selection, by which relevance between spectrum and target component is maximized while redundancy among selected wavelengths is minimized. The wavelength selection method is applied in Chinese yellow wine to make prediction for concentration of ethanol. Prediction performance of mRMR algorithm is compared with another two widely used wavelength selection methods (correlation coefficient method and successive projections algorithm). Meanwhile, the adaptability of mRMR is verified by combining with partial least square regression model and support vector regression. A total of 30 wavelengths were selected as the optimal set. The correlation coefficient, root mean square errors of prediction and residual predictive deviation are employed to evaluate model performance, and the three indices reach 0.9848, 0.8159 and 3.6875 by mRMR based support vector regression. The results indicate that mRMR algorithm can be applied to NIR analysis as an effective wavelength selection tool and has a stable prediction performance no matter which kind of regression method is used.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Magnetic-based SERS approach for highly sensitive and reproducible detection of cancer-related serum microRNAs
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Hao Zhang, Chaopeng Fu, Yu Yi, Xiangdong Zhou, Chun-Hui Clayton ZHOU, Guoqing Ying, Youqing Shen, Yifeng Zhu

    This paper describes the combination of silica-coated, analyte-tagged gold nanoparticles (SA@GNPs) and gold-coated paramagnetic nanoparticles (Au@MNPs) in a sandwich assay for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of cancer-related serum microRNA, miRNA 141. The target sequence is captured by hybridization reactions with complementary oligonucleotide probes conjugated to the SA@GNPs and Au@MNPs, respectively. The resultant hybridization complexes, SA@GNP/miRNA 141/Au@MNP, are removed from solution by an external magnet. Laser excitation of the concentrated complexes provide a SERS signature spectrum diagnostic for the analyte molecules embedded in the SA@GNPs and specific to the target sequence, miRNA 141. The limit of detection (LOD) for target sequences in serum was 1.8 pM that is lower by a factor of ~110 than the previous LOD reported in a similar magnetic-based SERS assay using uncoated, Raman-tagged GNPs as SERS nanotags, which have been demonstrated to suffer signal lost due to the serum protein displacement of Raman analyte molecules on the surface. These results indicate that silica coating plays an essential role in preventing disassociation of Raman reporters from the GNPs, allowing more quantitative and reproducible detection of serum miRNAs than conventional uncoated SERS nanotags.

    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • A novel paper based colorimetric assay for the detection of TiO2 nanoparticles
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Gonca Bulbul, Hamed Eskandarloo, Alireza Abbaspourrad
    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • 更新日期:2018-01-02
  • 更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Layer-by-layer fabrication of g-C3N4 coating for headspace solid-phase microextraction of food additives followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Yixin Yang, Peige Qin, Xiaoting Zhang, Jiahua Niu, Shufang Tian, Minghua Lu, Jinhua Zhu, Zongwei Cai
    更新日期:2018-01-02
  • Synergetic improvement of mechanical properties and surface activities in γ-irradiated carbon fibers revealed by radial positioning spectroscopy and mechanical model
    Anal. Methods (IF 1.9) Pub Date : 2017-12-27
    Mingjing Shan, Haibo Wang, Zhiwei Xu, Nan Li, Cheng Chen, Jie Shi, Liangsen Liu, Liyun Kuang, Meijun Ma, Ce Zhang

    The relationship between microstructures, surface activities and mechanical properties of γ-irradiated carbon fibers had been evaluated quantitatively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with argon ion sputtering indicated that outer-surface part (~10nm) was functionalized and disordered by grafting reaction, which led to the increase of surface activities and sacrifice of mechanical properties of γ-irradiated carbon fibers. The degree of covalent cross-linking between graphene layers of sub-surface (~1.5μm) showed more notable increase than that of core (~4μm), which indicated that sub-surface part was mainly responsible for the improvement on tensile strength of γ-irradiated carbon fibers. Increases of 15.5% (argon) and 13.3% (epoxy chloropropane) in tensile strength were achieved separately. Meanwhile, interfacial shear strength of single fiber in matrix increased by 19.15% (argon) and 75.03% (epoxy chloropropane), respectively. Therefore, such spatially resolved study paved a meaningful way to understand the relationship among microstructures, surface activities and mechanical properties of γ-irradiated carbon fibers.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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