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  • Caenorhabditis elegans: A Convenient In Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Food Bioactive Compounds on Obesity, Aging, and Alzheimer's Disease
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Peiyi Shen, Yiren Yue, Jolene Zheng, Yeonhwa Park

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a small free-living nematode that lives in temperate soil environments. It has been widely employed as an animal model in research involving obesity, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, because of its various advantages, such as small size, large number of progeny, completely sequenced genome, and short life span, over traditional animal models of vertebrates. These benefits contribute to an ideal research model organism. In this review, we provide an introduction to C. elegans and its applications in obesity, aging, and Alzheimer's disease studies, with the aim of stimulating scientists to use C. elegans as an experimental model in various fields of research.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Updates on the Cronobacter Genus
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Stephen J. Forsythe

    There has been considerable concern related to Cronobacter spp. in foods, especially due to their highlighted association with neonatal infections through the ingestion of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF). This concern resulted in improved microbiological criteria recommendations by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and revised WHO advice on the preparation of infant feeds. In recent years, the diversity of the genus has been well described, and various detection and typing methods have been developed. This review considers our current knowledge of the genus and how DNA-sequence-based methods have contributed considerably to research into improved detection methods and more reliable identification procedures, genotyping schemes, and genomic analysis. The broader occurrence of Cronobacter in food ingredients, finished products, and food manufacturing environments is covered. This review also highlights the significance of clonal lineages in microbial source tracking and the use of CRISPR-cas array profiling.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Role of Proteins on Formation, Drainage, and Stability of Liquid Food Foams
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Ganesan Narsimhan, Ning Xiang

    Foam is a high-volume fraction dispersion of gas into a liquid or a solid. It is important to understand the effect of formulation on shelf life and texture of food foams. The objective of this review is to elucidate mechanisms of formation and stability of foams and relate them to the formulations. Emulsifiers are important in foam formation, whereas proteins are generally preferred to provide long-term stability. Syneresis in foams is a precursor to their collapse in many instances. Intermolecular forces, conformation, and flexibility of proteins play an important role in foam stabilization. An adsorbed protein layer at air/water interfaces imparts interfacial rheology that is necessary to improve the shelf life of foam products. Wettability and spreading of food particles at the interface can stabilize or destabilize foams, depending on their properties. More studies are needed to fully understand the complex interplay of various mechanisms of destabilization in a real-food formulation.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Diet, Microbiota, and Metabolic Health: Trade-Off Between Saccharolytic and Proteolytic Fermentation
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Katri Korpela

    The intestinal microbiota have emerged as a central regulator of host metabolism and immune function, mediating the effects of diet on host health. However, the large diversity and individuality of the gut microbiota have made it difficult to draw conclusions about microbiota responses to dietary interventions. In the light of recent research, certain general patterns are emerging, revealing how the ecology of the gut microbiota profoundly depends on the quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrates and proteins. In this review, I provide an overview of the dependence of microbial ecology in the human colon on diet and how the effects of diet on host health depend partially on the microbiota. Understanding how the individual-specific microbiota respond to short- and long-term dietary changes and how they influence host energy homeostasis will enable targeted interventions to achieve specific outcomes, such as weight loss in obesity or weight gain in malnutrition.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Enzymes in Lipid Modification
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Uwe T. Bornscheuer

    This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine and for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application. In addition to isolated enzymes, whole-cell engineered microorganisms are also used for lipid modification. Thus, the polyunsaturated fatty acid EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) can be produced in a yeast using sugar as a renewable resource.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Radio-Frequency Applications for Food Processing and Safety
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Yang Jiao, Juming Tang, Yifen Wang, Tony L. Koral

    Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages over conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research. The application of mathematical modeling as a useful tool in RF food processing is also reviewed in detail. At the end of the review, we summarize the active research groups in the RF food thermal-processing field, and address the current problems that still need to be overcome.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Uptake of Engineered Nanoparticles by Food Crops: Characterization, Mechanisms, and Implications
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Chuanxin Ma, Jason C. White, Jian Zhao, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing

    With the rapidly increasing demand for and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in agriculture and related sectors, concerns over the risks to agricultural systems and to crop safety have been the focus of a number of investigations. Significant evidence exists for NP accumulation in soils, including potential particle transformation in the rhizosphere and within terrestrial plants, resulting in subsequent uptake by plants that can yield physiological deficits and molecular alterations that directly undermine crop quality and food safety. In this review, we document in vitro and in vivo characterization of NPs in both growth media and biological matrices; discuss NP uptake patterns, biotransformation, and the underlying mechanisms of nanotoxicity; and summarize the environmental implications of the presence of NPs in agricultural ecosystems. A clear understanding of nano-impacts, including the advantages and disadvantages, on crop plants will help to optimize the safe and sustainable application of nanotechnology in agriculture for the purposes of enhanced yield production, disease suppression, and food quality.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides in Foods and Beverages: Isolation, Properties, Characterization, and Health Benefits
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Kieran M. Lynch, Emanuele Zannini, Aidan Coffey, Elke K. Arendt

    Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides produced by many species. They vary widely in their molecular, compositional, and structural characteristics, including mechanisms of synthesis. The physiochemical properties of these polymers mean that they can be exploited for the sensorial and textural enhancement of a variety of food and beverage products. Traditionally, lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides have an important role in fermented dairy products and more recently are being applied for the improvement of bakery products. The health benefits that are continually being associated with these polysaccharides enable the development of dual function, added-value, and clean-label products. To fully exploit and understand the functionality of these exopolysaccharides, their isolation, purification, and thorough characterization are of great importance. This review considers each of the above factors and presents the current knowledge on the importance of lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides in the food and beverage industry.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Methods for the Control of Foodborne Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Alma Fernanda Sánchez-Maldonado, Alvin Lee, Jeffrey M. Farber

    Low-moisture foods (LMFs) have been defined as those food products with a water activity (aw) less than 0.85 and are generally considered less susceptible to microbial spoilage and the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, in recent years, outbreaks linked to LMFs have increased, with Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus being the principal pathogens involved. Because of the new concerns raised as a result of recent outbreaks, new approaches need to be developed to control foodborne pathogens in LMFs. This review summarizes the recent research on novel inactivation methods suitable for use on LMFs. Among the methods discussed are the nonthermal inactivation methods as well as other novel methods such as radio-frequency and microwave heating. Additional research is needed to evaluate older technologies and develop new technologies, either alone or in combination, to understand the mechanisms of inactivation.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Effective Prevention of Oxidative Deterioration of Fish Oil: Focus on Flavor Deterioration
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Kazuo Miyashita, Mariko Uemura, Masashi Hosokawa

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation. Although oxidative stability and quality of commercialized fish oil have improved over the past few years, there is a still a problem with its application: Flavor deterioration can be found even at very low oxidation levels. This review also notes the effective way to inhibit the formation of the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor deterioration.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Advances in Understanding the Molecular Basis of the Mediterranean Diet Effect
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Dolores Corella, Oscar Coltell, Fernando Macian, José M. Ordovás

    Increasingly, studies showing the protective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on different diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, some cancers, and even total mortality and aging indicators) are being published. The scientific evidence level for each outcome is variable, and new studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms whereby the MedDiet may exercise its effects. Here, we present recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of MedDiet effects, mainly focusing on cardiovascular diseases but also discussing other related diseases. There is heterogeneity in defining the MedDiet, and it can, owing to its complexity, be considered as an exposome with thousands of nutrients and phytochemicals. We review MedDiet composition and assessment as well as the latest advances in the genomic, epigenomic (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, and other emerging regulators), transcriptomic (selected genes and whole transcriptome), and metabolomic and metagenomic aspects of the MedDiet effects (as a whole and for its most typical food components). We also present a critical review of the limitations of the studies undertaken and propose new analyses and greater bioinformatic integration to better understand the most important molecular mechanisms whereby the MedDiet as a whole, or its main food components, may exercise their protective effects.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Shelf Life of Food Products: From Open Labeling to Real-Time Measurements
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Maria G. Corradini

    The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply. Selection of appropriate kinetic models and data-analysis techniques is essential to predict shelf life, to account for variability in environmental conditions, and to allow real-time monitoring. Novel analytical tools to determine safety and quality attributes in situ coupled with modern tracking technologies and appropriate predictive tools have the potential to provide accurate estimations of the remaining shelf life of a food product in real time. This review summarizes the necessary steps to attain a transition from open labeling to real-time shelf-life measurements.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Dietary Advanced Glycosylation End-Products (dAGEs) and Melanoidins Formed through the Maillard Reaction: Physiological Consequences of their Intake
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Vincenzo Fogliano

    The main purpose of this review is to clarify whether the consumption of food rich in melanoidins and dietary advanced glycosylation end-products (dAGEs) is harmful or beneficial for human health. There are conflicting results on their harmful effects in the literature, partly due to a methodological issue in how dAGEs are determined in food. Melanoidins have positive functions particularly within the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the intake of dAGEs has controversial physiological consequences. Most of the in vivo intervention trials were done comparing boiled versus roasted diet (low and high dAGE, respectively). However, these studies can be biased by different lipid oxidation and by different calorie density of foods in the two conditions. The attraction that humans have to cooked foods is linked to the benefits they have had during mankind's evolution. The goal for food technologists is to design low-energy-dense products that can satisfy humans’ attraction to rewarding cooked foods.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Stability and Stabilization of Enzyme Biosensors: The Key to Successful Application and Commercialization
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    José I. Reyes-De-Corcuera, Hanna E. Olstad, Rosalía García-Torres

    Fifty-five years have passed and more than 100,000 articles have been published since the first report of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. However, very few biosensors have reached practical application and commercialization. The bulk of the research effort has been on increasing sensitivity and selectivity. In contrast, the number of publications dealing with stability or stabilization of enzyme biosensors is very small. Here, we critically review enzyme stabilization strategies as well as the progress that has been done in the past 20 years with respect to enzyme biosensor stabilization. Glucose oxidase, lactate oxidase, alcohol oxidase, and xanthine oxidase are the focus of this review because of their potential applications in food. The inconsistency in reporting biosensor stability was identified as a critical hurdle to research progress in this area. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are outlined.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Visualizing 3D Food Microstructure Using Tomographic Methods: Advantages and Disadvantages
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Zi Wang, Els Herremans, Siem Janssen, Dennis Cantre, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï

    X-ray micro–computed tomography (micro-CT) provides the unique ability to capture intact internal microstructure data without significant preparation of the sample. The fundamentals of micro-CT technology are briefly described along with a short introduction to basic image processing, quantitative analysis, and derivative computational modeling. The applications and limitations of micro-CT in industries such as meat, dairy, postharvest, and bread/confectionary are discussed to serve as a guideline to the plausibility of utilizing the technique for detecting features of interest. Component volume fractions, their respective size/shape distributions, and connectivity, for example, can be utilized for product development, manufacturing process tuning and/or troubleshooting. In addition to determining structure-function relations, micro-CT can be used for foreign material detection to further ensure product quality and safety. In most usage scenarios, micro-CT in its current form is perfectly adequate for determining microstructure in a wide variety of food products. However, in low-contrast and low-stability samples, emphasis is placed on the shortcomings of the current systems to set realistic expectations for the intended users.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Health Benefits
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual and neurological development, and maternal and child health. Even though many health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs have been reported in the literature, there are also some controversies about their efficacy and certain benefits to human health.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Natural Diversity in Heat Resistance of Bacteria and Bacterial Spores: Impact on Food Safety and Quality
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Heidy M.W. den Besten, Marjon H.J. Wells-Bennik, Marcel H. Zwietering

    Heat treatments are widely used in food processing often with the aim of reducing or eliminating spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in food products. The efficacy of applying heat to control microorganisms is challenged by the natural diversity of microorganisms with respect to their heat robustness. This review gives an overview of the variations in heat resistances of various species and strains, describes modeling approaches to quantify heat robustness, and addresses the relevance and impact of the natural diversity of microorganisms when assessing heat inactivation. This comparison of heat resistances of microorganisms facilitates the evaluation of which (groups of) organisms might be troublesome in a production process in which heat treatment is critical to reducing the microbial contaminants, and also allows fine-tuning of the process parameters. Various sources of microbiological variability are discussed and compared for a range of species, including spore-forming and non-spore-forming pathogens and spoilage organisms. This benchmarking of variability factors gives crucial information about the most important factors that should be included in risk assessments to realistically predict heat inactivation of bacteria and spores as part of the measures for controlling shelf life and safety of food products.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Use of Natural Selection and Evolution to Develop New Starter Cultures for Fermented Foods
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Eric Johansen

    The fermented foods industry is constantly seeking new starter cultures to deal with changing consumer preferences and new fermentation processes. New cultures can either be composed of strains isolated from nature or improved derivatives of existing isolates. A variety of techniques involving natural selection and evolution are available to enhance the performance of existing strains, including the isolation of mutants with desired properties, adaptive laboratory evolution, genome shuffling, and genome editing. Numerous examples of traits that can be improved are provided. These include resistance to bacteriophages; the secretion of glucose to increase sweetness; the production of vitamins, antifungal compounds, bacteriocins, texture, or aroma; enhancement of acidification rates and acid tolerance; and elimination of biofilm formation. Careful consideration is required to ensure the developed strains are suitable for the desired purpose, as some approaches may lead to regulatory concerns.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Milk Glycans and Their Interaction with the Infant-Gut Microbiota
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Nina Kirmiz, Randall C. Robinson, Ishita M. Shah, Daniela Barile, David A. Mills

    Human milk is a unique and complex fluid that provides infant nutrition and delivers an array of bioactive molecules that serve various functions. Glycans, abundant in milk, can be found as free oligosaccharides or as glycoconjugates. Milk glycans are increasingly linked to beneficial outcomes in neonates through protection from pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Indeed, these glycans influence the development of the infant and the infant-gut microbiota. Bifidobacterium species commonly are enriched in breastfed infants and are among a limited group of bacteria that readily consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and milk glycoconjugates. Given the importance of bifidobacteria in infant health, numerous studies have examined the molecular mechanisms they employ to consume HMOs and milk glycans, thus providing insight into this unique enrichment and shedding light on a range of translational opportunities to benefit at-risk infants.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Synbiotics for Improved Human Health: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Janina A. Krumbeck, Jens Walter, Robert W. Hutkins

    Research on combining pro- and prebiotics as synbiotics to enhance human and animal health has accelerated in the past 10 years, including many clinical trials that have assessed a diverse range of synbiotic formulations. In this review, we summarize these studies as well as the commercial applications of synbiotics that are available. In particular, we critically assess the claimed health benefits of synbiotic applications and the ecological and therapeutic factors to consider when designing synbiotics and discuss the implications of these concepts for future research in this field.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Tailoring Delivery System Functionality Using Microfluidics
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Giovana Bonat Celli, Alireza Abbaspourrad

    Various methods are currently used by the food industry to investigate and prepare emulsions, encapsulates, and other structures. However, these techniques do not allow accurate control over processing variables, which can negatively impact the resultant product properties. In this context, microfluidic technology has been proposed as a powerful tool for the development of innovative food structures, given its use of small amounts of fluids and high reproducibility, resulting in monodisperse droplets and particles. These benefits prove useful when a researcher is interested in investigating the fundamental effects of specific variables while keeping the others under precise control. This review presents an overview of the use of microfluidic devices as technological tools for the preparation of innovative food products and discusses their potential for the development of tailored delivery systems.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Conversion of Agricultural Streams and Food-Processing By-Products to Value-Added Compounds Using Filamentous Fungi
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Lauryn G. Chan, Joshua L. Cohen, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell

    The design of new food products and increased agricultural activities have produced a diversity of waste streams or by-products that contain a high load of organic matter. The underutilization of these streams presents a serious threat to the environment and to the financial viability of the agricultural sector and the food industry. Oleaginous microorganisms, such as yeast and microalgae, have been used to convert the organic matter present in many agricultural waste streams into an oil-rich biomass. Filamentous fungi are promising oleaginous microorganisms because of their high lipid accumulation potential and simple biomass recovery, the latter being related to their pellet-like growth morphology in submerged cultivation. This review highlights the use of oleaginous filamentous fungi to convert food by-products into value-added components, including the effect of cultivation conditions on biomass yield and composition. Special attention is given to downstream processing for the commercial production of fungal oil. Also discussed are innovative techniques to optimize the biomass oil yield and to minimize the challenges associated with biomass harvesting and oil extraction at industrial scale.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Use of Electrohydrodynamic Processing for Encapsulation of Sensitive Bioactive Compounds and Applications in Food
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Charlotte Jacobsen, Pedro J. García-Moreno, Ana C. Mendes, Ramona V. Mateiu, Ioannis S. Chronakis

    The use of vitamins, polyphenolic antioxidants, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and probiotics for the fortification of foods is increasing. However, these bioactive compounds have low stability and need to be protected to avoid deterioration in the food system itself or in the gastrointestinal tract. For that purpose, efficient encapsulation of the compounds may be required. Spray drying is one of the most commonly used encapsulation techniques in the food industry, but it uses high temperature, which can lead to decomposition of the bioactive compounds. Recently, alternative technologies such as electrospraying and electrospinning have received increasing attention. This review presents the principles of electrohydrodynamic processes for the production of nano-microstructures (NMSs) containing bioactive compounds. It provides an overview of the current use of this technology for encapsulation of bioactive compounds and discusses the future potential of the technology. Finally, the review discusses advanced microscopy techniques to study the morphology of NMSs.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Formation, Structure, and Functionality of Interfacial Layers in Food Emulsions
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Claire C. Berton-Carabin, Leonard Sagis, Karin Schroën

    Emulsions, i.e., the dispersion of liquid droplets in a nonmiscible liquid phase, are overwhelmingly present in food products. In such systems, both liquid phases (generally, oil and water) are separated by a narrow region, the oil-water interface. Despite the fact that this interface is very thin (in the nanometer range), it represents a large surface area and controls to a great extent the physicochemical stability of emulsions. This review provides an overview of the aspects that govern the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of interfaces in food emulsions, taking into account the complexity of such systems (presence of numerous surface-active molecules, influence of processing steps, and dynamic evolution due to chemical changes). We also review methods that have conventionally, or recently, been used to study liquid-liquid interfaces at various scales. Finally, we focus on the link between interfacial properties and the physical, chemical, and digestive stability of emulsions at different levels and point out trends to control stability via interfacial engineering.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Recent Past, Present, and Future of the Food Microbiome
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Francesca De Filippis, Eugenio Parente, Danilo Ercolini

    Sequencing technologies have deeply changed our approach to the study of food microbial communities. This review describes recent exploitations of high-throughput sequencing applications to improve our knowledge of food microbial consortia. In the past 10 years, target amplicon sequencing has become routinely used in many food microbiology laboratories, providing a detailed picture of food-associated microbiota. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches are still underexploited in food microbial ecology, despite their potential to uncover the functionality of complex communities. In a near future, sequencing technologies will surely advance our understanding of how to effectively use the invaluable microbial resources to improve food quality and safety.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Recent Advances in the Application of Cold Plasma Technology in Foods
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Chaitanya Sarangapani, Apurva Patange, Paula Bourke, Kevin Keener, P.J. Cullen

    The past decade has seen a surge in the scientific literature investigating the potential food-related applications of plasma. A multidisciplinary scientific effort has started to demonstrate process efficacy for a range of plasma applications, including antimicrobial, pesticidal, food functionalization, and waste treatment. Insights into the interactions of plasma species with food and the mechanisms of action are also emerging. This review examines the current status of cold plasma technology within the food sector with a particular emphasis on emerging applications. Opportunities and current challenges that need to be addressed for successful adoption of the approach by industry are detailed.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Who Would Have Thought? The Story of a Food Engineer
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Daryl B. Lund

    Food engineering is a hybrid of food science and an engineering science, like chemical engineering in my particular case, resulting in the application of chemical engineering principles to food systems and their constituents. With the complexity of food and food processing, one generally narrows his or her interests, and my primary interests were in the kinetics of reactions important in foods, thermal processing, deposition of unwanted materials from food onto heated surfaces (fouling), and microwave heat transfer in baking. This review describes how I developed an interest in these topics and the contributions I have hopefully made to understanding food and to the application of engineering.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Enzyme-Based Strategies for Structuring Foods for Improved Functionality
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Benjamin Zeeb, David Julian McClements, Jochen Weiss

    Enzyme technologies can be used to create food dispersions with novel functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes that utilize food-grade proteins and/or polysaccharides as substrates have gained recent interest among food scientists. The utilization of enzymes for structuring foods is an ecologically and economically viable alternative to the utilization of chemical cross-linking and depolymerization agents. This review highlights recent progress in the use of enzymes to modify food structures, particularly the interfacial and/or bulk properties of food dispersions with special emphasis on commercially available enzymes. Cross-linking enzymes such as transglutaminase and laccase promote the formation of intra- and intermolecular bonds between biopolymers to improve stability and functionality, whereas various degrading enzymes such as proteases alter the native conformation of proteins, leading to self-assembly of hierarchically ordered colloids. Results of this bio-inspired approach show that rational use of structure-affecting enzymes may enable food manufacturers to produce food dispersions with improved physical, functional, textural, and optical properties.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Bioavailability of Nutrients and Micronutrients: Advances in Modeling and In Vitro Approaches
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Sébastien Marze

    The bioavailability of food nutrients and microconstituents is recognized as a determinant factor for optimal health status. However, human and animal studies are expensive and limited by the large amount of potential food bioactive compounds. The search for alternatives is very active and raises many questions. On one hand, in vitro digestion systems are good candidates, but to date only bioaccessibility has been correctly assessed. To go further, to what degree should natural processes be reproduced? What techniques can be used to measure the changes in food properties and structures in situ in a noninvasive way? On the other hand, modeling approaches have good potential, but their development is time-consuming. What compromises should be done between food and physiology realism and computational ease? This review addresses these questions by identifying highly resolved analytical methods, detailed computer models and simulations, and the most promising dynamic in vitro systems.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Food Analysis Using Organelle DNA and the Effects of Processing on Assays
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Jane M. Caldwell

    Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens. Non-nuclear DNA is also used as an assay normalizer for detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods. This review describes these protocols plus the effects of processing on efficacy, with special emphasis on thermally produced DNA fragmentation. Future research may incorporate molecular techniques beyond detection, used instead as time-temperature indicators in thermal food processing or quality indicators in food fermentation or acidification.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Martina Foschia, Stefan W. Horstmann, Elke K. Arendt, Emanuele Zannini

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Side Streams of Plant Food Processing As a Source of Valuable Compounds: Selected Examples
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Andreas Schieber

    Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products. The criteria used were economic importance, amounts generated, relevance of side streams as a source of valuable compounds, and reviews already published. Despite a plethora of studies carried out on the utilization of side streams, relatively few processes have yet found industrial application.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Translating Omics to Food Microbiology
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Aaron M. Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Marcus J. Claesson, Paul D. Cotter

    This review examines the applications of omics technologies in food microbiology, with a primary focus on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. We discuss the different sequencing approaches applicable to the study of food-related microbial isolates and mixed microbial communities in foods, and we provide an overview of the sequencing platforms suitable for each approach. We highlight the potential for genomics, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics to guide efforts to optimize food fermentations. Additionally, we explore the use of comparative and functional genomics to further our understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic action and we describe the applicability of HTS as a food safety measure. Finally, we consider the use of HTS to investigate the effects that ingested microbes have on the human gut microbiota.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • A New Look at Kinetics in Relation to Food Storage
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Micha Peleg, Mark D. Normand, Maria G. Corradini

    Modern mathematical software and user-friendly interactive programs can simplify and speed up kinetics calculations. They also open the way for new approaches to storage data gathering and analysis. This is demonstrated with a recently introduced simple exponential model that is interchangeable with the Arrhenius equation and endpoints and successive points methods and that estimates chemical degradation kinetics parameters from a small number of isothermal or nonisothermal experimental data. Also presented are a method to determine shelf life using two chemical markers and a global phenomenological model for peaked reactions, such as those encountered in lipid oxidation. Also recently introduced are freely downloadable Wolfram Demonstrations and other interactive software to generate, visualize, examine, and/or compare actual or hypothetical storage scenarios in minutes. They include programs that solve pairs of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic or differential rate equations by passing two reconstructed degradation curves, or a single nonisothermal curve, through two entered experimental points by moving the degradation parameters’ sliders on the screen.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Anthocyanins and Flavanones Are More Bioavailable than Previously Perceived: A Review of Recent Evidence
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Colin D. Kay, Gema Pereira-Caro, Iziar A. Ludwig, Michael N. Clifford, Alan Crozier

    This review considers recent investigations on the bioavailability of anthocyanins and flavanones. Both flavonoids are significant dietary components and are considered to be poorly bioavailable, as only low levels of phase II metabolites appear in the circulatory system and are excreted in urine. However, when lower molecular weight phenolic and aromatic ring-fission catabolites, produced primarily by the action of the colonic microbiota, are taken into account, it is evident that anthocyanins and flavanones are much more bioavailable than previously envisaged. The metabolic events to which these flavonoids are subjected as they pass along the gastrointestinal tract and are absorbed into the circulatory system prior to their rapid elimination by renal excretion are highlighted. Studies on the impact of other food components and the probiotic intake on flavonoid bioavailability are summarized, as is the bioactivity of metabolites and catabolites assayed using a variety of in vitro model systems.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Strategies for Producing and Incorporating Conjugated Linoleic Acid–Rich Oils in Foods
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Sara E. Shinn, Chuan Min Ruan, Andrew Proctor

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is in ruminant-derived foods and is known to combat obesity-related diseases. However, CLA levels in a healthy diet are too low to produce a clinical effect. Therefore, CLA has been produced by linoleic isomerization through fermentation and chemical catalysis. Many of these techniques are not practical for food production, but a recent development has enabled production of CLA-rich triglyceride vegetable oils from high linoleic acid oils by a minor modification of conventional food-oil processing techniques. These oils were used to produce common lipid-based food, such as margarine, shortenings, and salad dressings, whose quality was enhanced by the presence of CLA-rich oil and provided a significant CLA source. Meat and egg CLA content and subsequent food quality can also be increased by addition of dietary CLA. However, consumer awareness of CLA benefits needs to increase prior to commercial-scale production of CLA-rich oil.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Recent Advances in the Utilization of Natural Emulsifiers to Form and Stabilize Emulsions
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    David Julian McClements, Long Bai, Cheryl Chung

    Consumer concern about human and environmental health is encouraging food manufacturers to use more natural and sustainable food ingredients. In particular, there is interest in replacing synthetic ingredients with natural ones, and in replacing animal-based ingredients with plant-based ones. This article provides a review of the various types of natural emulsifiers with potential application in the food industry, including phospholipids, biosurfactants, proteins, polysaccharides, and natural colloidal particles. Increased utilization of natural emulsifiers in food products may lead to a healthier and more sustainable food supply. However, more research is needed to identify, isolate, and characterize new sources of commercially viable natural emulsifiers suitable for food use.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • In Vitro Release Kinetics of Microencapsulated Materials and the Effect of the Food Matrix
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Floirendo P. Flores, Fanbin Kong

    Many biomaterials are encapsulated to preserve their health-promoting properties and promote targeted delivery. Numerous papers have been published about extraction and purification methods, encapsulation techniques, and release properties of encapsulated biomaterials. Despite the abundant information, the food applications of encapsulated materials are currently limited. One approach to increase the food applications is to investigate the mathematical aspects of release behavior and the effect of the food matrix. Such information is useful in evaluating suitable food matrices and predicting the extent of bioavailability of the biomaterial. This review aims to discuss the kinetic models of release, current efforts to promote sustained release, and food matrices currently used in in vitro investigations. Information from pharmaceutical studies is integrated and reviewed to determine possible food applications. Future research on microencapsulated biomaterials conducted along these aspects may hopefully hasten nutraceutical applications.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Gregory T. Sigurdson, Peipei Tang, M. Mónica Giusti

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Cyanobacterial Toxins in Freshwater and Food: Important Sources of Exposure to Humans
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Jiyoung Lee, Seungjun Lee, Xuewen Jiang

    A recent ecological study demonstrated a significant association between an increased risk of nonalcoholic liver disease mortality and freshwater cyanobacterial blooms. Moreover, previous epidemiology studies highlighted a relationship between cyanotoxins in drinking water with liver cancer and damage and colorectal cancer. These associations identified cyanobacterial blooms as a global public health and environmental problem, affecting freshwater bodies that are important sources for drinking water, agriculture, and aquafarms. Furthermore, as a result of climate change, it is expected that our freshwater environments will become more favorable for producing harmful blooms that produce various cyanotoxins. Food is an important source of cyanotoxin exposure to humans, but it has been less addressed. This paper synthesizes information from the studies that have investigated cyanotoxins in freshwater and food on a global scale. We also review and summarize the health effects and exposure routes of cyanotoxins and candidates for cyanotoxin treatment methods that can be applied to food.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • From Bits and Pieces to Whole Phage to Nanomachines: Pathogen Detection Using Bacteriophages
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    H. Anany, Y. Chou, S. Cucic, R. Derda, S. Evoy, M.W. Griffiths

    The innate specificity of bacteriophages toward their hosts makes them excellent candidates for the development of detection assays. They can be used in many ways to detect pathogens, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Whole bacteriophages can carry reporter genes to alter the phenotype of the target. Bacteriophages can act as staining agents or the progeny of the infection process can be detected, which further increases the sensitivity of the detection assay. Compared with whole-phage particles, use of phage components as probes offers other advantages: for example, smaller probe size to enhance binding activity, phage structures that can be engineered for better affinity, as well as specificity, binding properties, and robustness. When no natural binding with the target exists, phages can be used as vehicles to identify new protein-ligand interactions necessary for diagnostics. This review comprehensively summarizes many uses of phages as detection tools and points the way toward how phage-based technologies may be improved.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Xingyun Peng, Yuan Yao

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Engineered Probiotics: Applications and Biological Containment
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Babasola Sola-Oladokun, Eamonn P. Culligan, Roy D. Sleator

    Bioengineered probiotics represent the next generation of whole cell–mediated biotherapeutics. Advances in synthetic biology, genome engineering, and DNA sequencing and synthesis have enabled scientists to design and develop probiotics with increased stress tolerance and the ability to target specific pathogens and their associated toxins, as well as to mediate targeted delivery of vaccines, drugs, and immunomodulators directly to host cells. Herein, we review the most significant advances in the development of this field. We discuss the critical issue of biological containment and consider the role of synthetic biology in the design and construction of the probiotics of the future.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • The Challenges of Eliminating or Substituting Antimicrobial Preservatives in Foods
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Marilyn C. Erickson, Michael P. Doyle

    Consumers’ criteria for evaluating food safety have evolved recently from considering the food's potential to cause immediate physical harm to considering the potential long-term effects that consumption of artificial ingredients, including antimicrobial preservatives, would have on health. As bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents to prevent microbial spoilage, antimicrobials not only extend shelf life, but they also enhance the product's safety. Antimicrobials and their levels that may be used in foods are specified by regulatory agencies. This review addresses the safety of antimicrobials and the potential consequences of removing those that are chemically synthesized or replacing them with antimicrobials from so-called natural sources. Such changes can affect the microbiological safety and spoilage of food as well as reduce shelf life, increase wastage, and increase the occurrence of foodborne illnesses.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Mass Transport Phenomena in Lipid Oxidation and Antioxidation
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Mickaël Laguerre, Antoine Bily, Marc Roller, Simona Birtić

    In lipid dispersions, the ability of reactants to move from one lipid particle to another is an important, yet often ignored, determinant of lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidants. This review describes three putative interparticle transfer mechanisms for oxidants and antioxidants: (a) diffusion, (b) collision-exchange-separation, and (c) micelle-assisted transfer. Mechanism a involves the diffusion of molecules from one particle to another through the intervening aqueous phase. Mechanism b involves the transfer of molecules from one particle to another when the particles collide with each other. Mechanism c involves the solubilization of molecules in micelles within the aqueous phase and then their transfer between particles. During lipid oxidation, the accumulation of surface-active lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) beyond their critical micelle concentration may shift their mass transport from the collision-exchange-separation pathway (slow transfer) to the micelle-assisted mechanism (fast transfer), which may account for the transition from the initiation to the propagation phase. Similarly, the cut-off effect governing antioxidant activity in lipid dispersions may be due to the fact that above a certain hydrophobicity, the transfer mechanism for antioxidants changes from diffusion to collision-exchange-separation. This hypothesis provides a simple model to rationalize the design and formulation of antioxidants and dispersed lipids.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • CRISPR-Cas Technologies and Applications in Food Bacteria
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Emily Stout, Todd Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form adaptive immune systems that occur in many bacteria and most archaea. In addition to protecting bacteria from phages and other invasive mobile genetic elements, CRISPR-Cas molecular machines can be repurposed as tool kits for applications relevant to the food industry. A primary concern of the food industry has long been the proper management of food-related bacteria, with a focus on both enhancing the outcomes of beneficial microorganisms such as starter cultures and probiotics and limiting the presence of detrimental organisms such as pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. This review introduces CRISPR-Cas as a novel set of technologies to manage food bacteria and offers insights into CRISPR-Cas biology. It primarily focuses on the applications of CRISPR-Cas systems and tools in starter cultures and probiotics, encompassing strain-typing, phage resistance, plasmid vaccination, genome editing, and antimicrobial activity.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Edible Nanoemulsions as Carriers of Active Ingredients: A Review
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Laura Salvia-Trujillo, Robert Soliva-Fortuny, M. Alejandra Rojas-Graü, D. Julian McClements, Olga Martín-Belloso

    There has been growing interest in the use of edible nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic active substances, such as oil-soluble vitamins, antimicrobials, flavors, and nutraceuticals, because of their unique physicochemical properties. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions consist of oil droplets with diameters typically between approximately 30 and 200 nm that are dispersed within an aqueous medium. The small droplet size usually leads to an improvement in stability, gravitational separation, and aggregation. Moreover, the high droplet surface area associated with the small droplet size often leads to a high reactivity with biological cells and macromolecules. As a result, lipid digestibility and bioactive bioavailability are usually higher in nanoemulsions than conventional emulsions, which is an advantage for the development of bioactive delivery systems. In this review, the most important factors affecting nanoemulsion formation and stability are highlighted, and a critical analysis of the potential benefits of using nanoemulsions in food systems is presented.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Advances in Nanotechnology as They Pertain to Food and Agriculture: Benefits and Risks
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Rohollah Sadeghi, Randol J. Rodriguez, Yuan Yao, Jozef L. Kokini

    Nanotechnology is an emerging and rapidly developing toolbox that has novel and unique applications to food science and agriculture. Fast and impressive developments in nanotechnology for food and agriculture have led to new experimental prototype technologies and products. Developing various types of nanodelivery systems, detection tools, nanoscale modifications of bulk or surface properties, fabrication of wide-range bionanosensors, and biodegradable nanoplatforms can potentially improve consumer health and safety, product shelf life and stability, bioavailability, environmental sustainability, efficiency of processing and packaging, and real-time monitoring. Some recently developed nanotechnology techniques and potential product applications of nanotechnology are summarized in this review. Exposure to nanomaterials may be harmful to the consumer and the environment and might increase the potential of risk. For this reason, evaluation of the potential risks resulting from the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems, humans, and the environment is also reviewed.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Application of Microrheology in Food Science
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Nan Yang, Ruihe Lv, Junji Jia, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Yapeng Fang

    Microrheology provides a technique to probe the local viscoelastic properties and dynamics of soft materials at the microscopic level by observing the motion of tracer particles embedded within them. It is divided into passive and active microrheology according to the force exerted on the embedded particles. Particles are driven by thermal fluctuations in passive microrheology, and the linear viscoelasticity of samples can be obtained on the basis of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation. In active microrheology, tracer particles are controlled by external forces, and measurements can be extended to the nonlinear regime. Microrheology techniques have many advantages such as the need for only small sample amounts and a wider measurable frequency range. In particular, microrheology is able to examine the spatial heterogeneity of samples at the microlevel, which is not possible using traditional rheology. Therefore, microrheology has considerable potential for studying the local mechanical properties and dynamics of soft matter, particularly complex fluids, including solutions, dispersions, and other colloidal systems. Food products such as emulsions, foams, or gels are complex fluids with multiple ingredients and phases. Their macroscopic properties, such as stability and texture, are closely related to the structure and mechanical properties at the microlevel. In this article, the basic principles and methods of microrheology are reviewed, and the latest developments and achievements of microrheology in the field of food science are presented.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Gastric Mixing During Food Digestion: Mechanisms and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 9.523) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Gail M. Bornhorst

    Gastric mixing is a complex process that is governed by meal properties, such as food buffering capacity, physical properties, and the rate of breakdown as well as physiological factors, such as the rate of gastric secretions, gastric emptying, and gastric motility. Gastric mixing processes have been studied through the use of experimental and computational methods. Gastric mixing impacts the intragastric pH distribution and residence time in the stomach for ingested materials. Development of a fundamental understanding of the advective and diffusion processes and their roles in gastric mixing will be important in furthering our understanding of food breakdown, microbial survival, and drug dissolution during gastric digestion.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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