Characterization of Volatile Compounds and Sensory Analysis of Jasmine Scented Black Tea Produced by Different Scenting Processes J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-19 Huanhuan Li; Liyong Luo; Mengjun Ma; Liang Zeng
Jasmine scented black tea is widely popular in China and the scenting process is the most crucial issue affecting its aroma quality. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different processes on aroma quality and the specific contribution of volatiles to aroma quality. To achieve it, the headspace solid‐phase microextraction method combined with gas‐chromatography mass‐spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds, and further collected the characteristics according to odor activity values or contents. The quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and traditional sensory analysis (TSA) were used to evaluate its aroma quality and the correlation analysis between QDA and characteristic aroma compounds was carry out to analyze the specific contribution of characteristics to sensory quality. The GC/MS results showed that 130 aroma components and 20 characteristics were identified in 6 tea samples and more new volatile components appeared and less original volatile components disappeared in traditional scenting process (TSP) compared with continuous scenting process (CSP). The QDA and TSA results showed that TSP samples had better “overall” and “jasmine” than CSP samples. The correlation analysis between QDA and characteristics showed that nerolidol and methylbenzoate were related to “overall,” linalool and methyl anthranilate to “jasmine,” and decanal and benzeneacetaldehyde to “sweet floral,” “roasted,” and “fermented.” This study suggested that TSP is a favorable scenting process for black tea, and QDA is an objective and digital sensory evaluation method for jasmine scented black tea.
Scientific Evidence on Functional Food and Its Commercial Communication: A Review of Legislation in Europe and the USA J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-19 Cristina González‐Díaz; Diana Gil‐González; Carlos Álvarez‐Dardet
This study aims at understanding how scientific evidence to substantiate nutrition and health claims in food commercial communication is regulated in Europe and the USA. A literature review was performed on the scientific evidence required by the European Food Safety Authority and the US Food and Drug Administration to substantiate food nutrition and health claims. Studies published in Scopus, Medline, Scirus, and Google Scholar from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed as well as documents released by both agencies. A total of 38 documents met our inclusion criteria out of 743 documents initially identified during our search. These agencies provide general guidelines on how to conduct food and health studies, intended to demonstrate a cause‐and‐effect relationship between a given food and a benefit to health. Despite this, they need to broaden the depth and scope of the guidelines provided to companies seeking to substantiate their claims and to provide further and more precise information concerning the evaluation of studies and application processes. No review has hitherto specifically focused on the subject of scientific evidence required by EU and US food agencies to substantiate health claims. This research thus leads to significant recommendations on how to improve current food industry guides.
Impact of Interfacial Composition on Emulsion Digestion Using In Vitro and In Vivo Models J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-18 Ernesta Malinauskytė; Jovita Ramanauskaitė; Milda Keršienė; Ina Jasutienė; Daiva Leskauskaitė; Tove G. Devold; Gerd E. Vegarud
This study explored the influence of different emulsification layers as mono‐ and bilayers on lipid digestion by using in vitro and in vivo digestion methods. The monolayer emulsion of rapeseed oil contained whey proteins and the bilayer emulsion, whey proteins and carboxymethyl cellulose. The in vitro digestion using human gastrointestinal enzymes showed that the lipid digestion as free fatty acids was slowed down in the bilayer emulsion compared with the monolayer. Droplet size was still low in the gastric phase and pseudoplasticity was well preserved (even though viscosity decreased) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The in vivo studies confirmed a lower fat bioavailability from bilayer emulsions by a reduction in the triglyceride level in the blood of rats, fed by the bilayer emulsion. The results clearly showed that lipid digestion was slower in the bilayer emulsion than in the monolayer. These results provide bio‐relevant information about the behavior of emulsions upon digestion.
Tagatose as a Potential Nutraceutical: Production, Properties, Biological Roles, and Applications J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-18 Sohini Roy; Jayaram Chikkerur; Sudhir Chandra Roy; Arindam Dhali; Atul Puroshtam Kolte; Manpal Sridhar; Ashis Kumar Samanta
Nutraceuticals are gaining importance owing to their potential applications in numerous sectors including food and feed industries. Among the emerging nutraceuticals, d‐tagatose occupies a significant niche because of its low calorific value, antidiabetic property and growth promoting effects on beneficial gut bacteria. As d‐tagatose is present in minute quantities in naturally occurring food substances, it is produced mainly by chemical or biological means. Recently, attempts were made for bio‐production of d‐tagatose using l‐arabinose isomerase enzyme to overcome the challenges of chemical process of production. Applications of d‐tagatose for maintaining health and wellbeing are increasing due to growing consumer awareness and apprehension against modern therapeutic agents. This review outlines the current status on d‐tagatose, particularly its production, properties, biological role, applications, and the future perspectives.
Fruit Bagasse Phytochemicals from Malpighia Emarginata Rich in Enzymatic Inhibitor with Modulatory Action on Hemostatic Processes J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-18 Tamara R. Marques; Pedro Henrique S. Cesar; Mariana A. Braga; Silvana Marcussi; Angelita D. Corrêa
Agro‐industrial wastes are promising sources of phytochemicals for the development of products to be used in health promotion and maintenance. In this study, extracts from acerola bagasse (AB) were characterized by HPLC, and evaluated according to its modulatory action on phospholipases A2 and proteases involved in processes such as inflammation and blood clotting. Snake venoms were used as biological tools once they have high functional and structural homology between their enzymes and human enzymes. Two types of extracts were prepared from AB: aqueous and methanolic. These extracts, evaluated at different proportions (venom:extract, w:w), significantly inhibited the phospholipase activity induced by the venoms of Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops atrox (11% to 31%), and Crotalus durissus terrificus (C. d. t.) (11% to 19%). The hemolytic activity induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and C. d. t. was better inhibited by the methanolic extract (inhibition between 23% and 48%). Thrombolysis induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and C. d. t. was inhibited by both extracts, with inhibition ranging from 13% to 63% for the aqueous extract, and from 12% to 92% for the methanolic one. Both extracts increased the time of coagulation induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and Lachesis muta muta in 26 and up to 68 s. These inhibitory actions were related to the following phenolic compounds present in the extract of AB: gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, syringic acid, p‐coumaric acid, and quercetin. Additional studies are needed to confirm their potential use for nutraceutical purposes.
UPLC‐MS2 Profiling of Blackthorn Flower Polyphenols Isolated by Ultrasound‐Assisted Extraction J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-18 Ivona Elez Garofulić; Zoran Zorić; Sandra Pedisić; Mladen Brnčić; Verica Dragović‐Uzelac
Ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized for fast and effective isolation of blackthorn flower polyphenols. The effects of ethanol concentration (50% and 70%) in extraction solvent, ultrasound amplitude (50%, 75%, and 100%) and extraction time (3, 6, and 9 min) were evaluated. UPLC‐MS2 was used to determine phenolic profile of blackthorn flowers extracts. A total of 28 different phenolic compounds were identified, belonging to the classes of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides and flavanols. Kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were the most abundant compounds represented by kaempferol‐pentoside and rhamnoside in concentrations up to 494.94 and 436.62 mg/100 g and quercetin‐pentoside in concentration up to 226.75 mg/100 g. Observed parameters of UAE did not affect the qualitative phenolic composition of blackthorn flower extracts. On the contrary, the concentration of polyphenols increased with higher ethanol concentration in solvent, higher ultrasound amplitude and prolongation of extraction time. The established conditions for optimal extraction of blackthorn flower polyphenols using ultrasound were: 70% ethanol as extraction solvent, 75% of ultrasound amplitude and 9 min extraction time, resulting in extract rich in polyphenols with a great potential for use in pharmaceutical and food industry.
Effects of Manufacturing Processing Conditions on Retronasal‐Aroma Odorants from a Milk Coffee Drink J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-18 Michio Ikeda; Masayuki Akiyama; Yuta Hirano; Kazuhiro Miyaji; Yasunori Sugawara; Yuriko Imayoshi; Hisakatsu Iwabuchi; Takeshi Onodera; Kiyoshi Toko
To develop a ready‐to‐drink (RTD) milk coffee that retains the original coffee flavor, the effects of manufacturing processing conditions on retronasal‐aroma (RA) odorants were investigated by gas chromatography‐olfactometry (CharmAnalysis™) using an RA simulator (RAS). Twenty‐nine of 33 odorants detected in the RAS effluent (RAS odorants) were identified. The detected odorants were classified into 19 odor‐description groups. The total odor intensity (charm value, CMV) of all coffee RAS odorants decreased approximately 68% following pH adjustment, whereas the total CMV increased 6% to 7% following ultra‐high‐temperature sterilization. The total CMV ratio (about 83%) of the milk coffee produced using a new blending‐after‐sterilization (BAS) process without pH adjustment of the coffee was greater than that (approximately 56%) prepared using a conventional blending‐before‐sterilization (BBS) process with pH adjustment. In BAS‐processed milk coffees, the total CMV ratio (91%) with infusion (INF)‐sterilized reconstituted milk (r‐milk) was greater than that (83%) of plate (PLT)‐sterilized r‐milk. Principal component analysis of odor‐description CMVs indicated that the effect of coffee pH adjustment on odor characteristics was greater than that of sterilization, that BAS and BBS samples differed, and that BAS milk coffee prepared using INF sterilization was more similar to homemade milk coffee (blending unsterilized coffee without pH adjustment with PLT‐sterilized milk) than milk coffee prepared using PLT sterilization. In conclusion, the BAS process using INF sterilization is superior for manufacturing RTD milk coffee that retains odor characteristics similar to targeted homemade milk coffee.
Acetylated Distarch Phosphate/Chitosan Films Reinforced with Sodium Laurate‐Modified Nano‐TiO2: Effects of Sodium Laurate Concentration J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Yuanyuan Wu; Shuai Li; Jingxin Song; Bingxue Jiang; ShanShan Chen; Huimin Sun; Xinxin Li
Nano‐titanium dioxide (TiO2) was modified with the surfactant sodium laurate (SL) via ultrasonic microwave‐assisted technology to improve the dispersion of TiO2 in polymer matrices. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses, SL was well adsorbed onto the TiO2 surface through chemical bonding, resulting in SL‐modified TiO2 (TiO2‐SLx). The hydrophobicity and dispersibility of TiO2‐SLx increased significantly compared to unmodified nano‐TiO2. With an increase in the SL concentration from 5% to 15%, the agglomeration of TiO2‐SLx particles decreased considerably, while the particles were more uniform. TiO2‐SLx nanoparticles (3 wt%) were then incorporated into acetylated distarch phosphate/chitosan (ADPS/CS) blended matrices to reinforce the biopolymers. Relative to unmodified TiO2, TiO2‐SLx exhibited a better dispersion capability. Furthermore, as the SL concentration increased, the tensile strength (TS) of the composite films increased, while the elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP), and solubility all decreased. The composite film containing TiO2‐SL15 (TiO2 modified with 15% SL; ADPS/CS‐TiO2‐SL15 film) displayed the highest TS (31.50 MPa), which was 33.70% higher than that of the pure ADPS/CS film, whereas the ADPS/CS‐TiO2‐SL25 film exhibited the lowest E. Further, the ADPS/CS‐TiO2‐SL15 film displayed the lowest WVP (0.90 × 10−12 g·cm−1·s−1·Pa−1) and solubility (22.91%), which decreased by 30.23% and 26.03% compared to that of the pure ADPS/CS film, respectively. Therefore, SL modification and the use of ultrasonic microwave‐assisted technology are promising for the preparation of nanofillers for biopolymer reinforcement.
Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Plantarum LRCC5193, a Plant‐Origin Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from Kimchi and Its Use in Chocolates J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Jung‐hoon Lim; Seok‐min Yoon; Pei‐Lei Tan; Siyoung Yang; Sae‐hun Kim; Hyun‐jin Park
This study involves an investigation of the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi, and their potential applications in chocolate. Lactobacillus plantarum—LRCC5193 (LP‐LRCC5193) demonstrated a significantly higher degree of heat, acid, and bile acid tolerance compared to other Kimchi isolates. The intestinal adhesion assay also revealed that 84.2 log percentage of LP‐LRCC5193 adhered to the Caco‐2 cells after 2 h of incubation. Furthermore, the lyophilized LP‐LRCC5193 maintained 92.9 log percentage and 97.2 log percentage survival rate within artificial stomach juice (pH 2.5, pepsin 0.04%) and artificial intestinal juice (oxgall 0.5%, trypsin 0.04%, and pancreatin 0.04%), respectively. Meanwhile, we also found that lyophilized LP‐LRCC5193 incorporated in chocolate exhibited significantly higher survivability than lyophilized LP‐LRCC5193 in both artificial gastric and intestinal juice under 1 to 3 hr incubation, where the survivability was within the range of 96.3 to 98.5 log percentage, and 98.8 to 98.9 log percentage, respectively. A 6‐month storage test further revealed that LP‐LRCC5193 demonstrated higher stability than the lyophilized LP‐LRCC5103 in 3 different temperature ranges, where the final survival rates were 97.2 log percentage (20 °C), 89.2 log percentage (33 °C), and 94.4 log percentage (15 to 30 °C/wk). Altogether, our data suggest that chocolate can be used as a tasty delivery vehicle for delivering putative probiotic strain, LP‐LRCC5193 to the gastrointestinal tract.
Influence of Soft Kernel Texture on Fresh Durum Pasta J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 Jessica C. Murray; Alecia M. Kiszonas; Craig F. Morris
This study examined the quality of fresh pasta made from 3 varieties of a new type of durum wheat possessing soft kernel texture, as compared to fresh pasta made from commercial samples of durum semolina, durum flour, and bread flour, each at 3 levels of hydration (28%, 30%, and 32%, respectively). Soft durum possesses a small part of chromosome 5D that carries the Hardness locus and puroindoline genes. The soft durum lines were derived from the durum varieties Svevo, Alzada, and Havasu. The soft durum pasta exhibited low cooking weight increase (water uptake) (115% to 122%), the lowest cooking loss (∼3% to 4%), high firmness (269.3, 265.8, and 297.9 g, Soft Svevo, Soft Havasu, and Soft Alzada, respectively, versus 239.7 and 273.6 g, durum flour and semolina, respectively), low stickiness (4.17 to 4.96 g·s for the soft durums compared with 5.04 for the semolina), and raw and cooked pasta color comparable to or superior to those exhibited by the durum semolina (high L* and b*). The soft durum samples also exhibited pasta quality superior to both the durum flour and bread flour samples. These results challenge the long‐standing view that high‐quality pasta must be made from durum semolina.
Effects of Mono‐, Di‐, and Tri‐Saccharides on the Stability and Crystallization of Amorphous Sucrose J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 Alpana A. Thorat; Laurent Forny; Vincent Meunier; Lynne S. Taylor; Lisa J. Mauer
Amorphous sucrose is a component of many food products but is prone to crystallize over time, thereby altering product quality and limiting shelf‐life. A systematic investigation was conducted to determine the effects of two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), five disaccharides (lactose, maltose, trehalose, isomaltulose, and cellobiose), and two trisaccharides (maltotriose and raffinose) on the stability of amorphous sucrose in lyophilized two‐component sucrose‐saccharide blends exposed to different relative humidity (RH) and temperature environmental conditions relevant for food product storage. Analyses included X‐ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, microscopy, and moisture content determination, as well as crystal structure overlays. All lyophiles were initially amorphous, but during storage the presence of an additional saccharide tended to delay sucrose crystallization. All samples remained amorphous when stored at 11% and 23% RH at 22 °C, but increasing the RH to 33% RH and/or increasing the temperature to 40 °C resulted in variations in crystallization onset times. Monosaccharide additives were less effective sucrose crystallization inhibitors relative to di‐ and tri‐saccharides. Within the group of di‐ and tri‐saccharides, effectiveness depended on the specific saccharide added, and no clear trends were observed with saccharide molecular weight and other commonly studied factors such as system glass transition temperature. Molecular level interactions, as evident in crystal structure overlays of the added saccharides and sucrose and morphological differences in crystals formed, appeared to contribute to the effectiveness of a di‐ or tri‐saccharide in delaying sucrose crystallization. In conclusion, several di‐ and tri‐saccharides show promise for use as additives to delay the crystallization kinetics of amorphous sucrose during storage at moderate temperatures and low RH conditions.
Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and Antioxidant Activities of Mulberry Lees Fermented Products in Diabetic Mice J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 JeanYu Hwang; Den‐En Shieh; Yung‐Shin Shyu; Cheng‐Kuang Hsu; Chuan‐wang Lin
Mulberry lees are the sediment in the bottom of the barrel, which can be obtained from the processing of mulberry wine, and they are considered as low‐value byproducts. In this study, mulberry lees were extracted with ethanol, and then fermented with Monascus pilosus to obtain fermented products (M × M). Male ICR mice were diabetes induced by STZ, and then oral administration of fermented products. The results showed that fermented products could reduce 31.9% to 47.9% plasma glucose, 25.8% to 48.2% total cholesterol, and 16.7% to 25% triglyceride levels in diabetic mice, and it can greatly lower the malondialdehyde (MDA) content by 26.4% to 59.7% but raise antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver of the mice. Moreover, fermented products not only could reduce AST and ALT activity of the diabetic mice, thereby alleviating liver inflammation, but also lowered the urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, improved glomerulus volume, and reduced swelling and inflammation in the kidneys. It was concluded that mulberry lees fermented products could be served as a value‐added resource for human health.
The Mechanisms of Alpha‐Amylase Inhibition by Flavan‐3‐Ols and the Possible Impacts of Drinking Green Tea on Starch Digestion J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 Véronique Desseaux; Pierre Stocker; Pierre Brouant; El Hassan Ajandouz
Many studies have shown that flavan‐3‐ols inhibit mammalian alpha‐amylases but the published IC50 and Ki values vary up to a thousand times. We therefore tested the effects of 6 pure flavan‐3‐ols—abundant in green tea—on the activity of pure porcine pancreatic alpha‐amylase (PPA) under steady‐state kinetic conditions. We used both amylose and maltopentaose as substrates, along with spectrophotometry and chromatography as analytical tools, respectively. A Docking approach was also used to probe the interaction between PPA and each flavan‐3‐ol. The results showed that the 6 flavan‐3‐ols inhibit amylose hydrolysis with Ki comprised between 7 and 34 μM, according to a mixed inhibition profile for gallocatechin gallate, and a competitive inhibition profile for the 5 other flavanols. Only the galloyl‐containing flavan‐3‐ols inhibited the maltopentaose hydrolysis with a Ki of about 30 μM according to a noncompetitive profile. We conclude that dietary flavan‐3‐ols could inhibit starch digestion nonnegligibly. The results of the docking trials were concordant with the kinetic data and have noticeably revealed that the cis‐flavan‐3‐ols epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate bind similarly to PPA, involving π‐stacking with Trp59.
Responses of Different Cancer Cells to White Tea Aqueous Extract J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Liyue Liu; Bo Liu; Jinzhou Li; Shengyang Zhen; Zuyun Ye; Meixia Cheng; Wei Liu
White tea from the eastern Chinese province of Fujian is a unique tea variety. Although the health effects of various teas have been investigated in recent years, most studies focused exclusively on green tea varieties. In order to study effects exerted by white tea from eastern Fujian on the viability of cancer cells, we analyzed its main bioactive ingredients. We also evaluated the antioxidant activity of white tea aqueous extract (WTAE) and employed MTT assay to evaluate effects of WTAE on viabilities of Hela and BEL‐7402 cancer cell lines. Apoptosis rate detection was also applied to estimate efficacy of cellular apoptotic induction by WTAE in these two cells types. Results revealed that WTAE exhibited high antioxidant activity and inhibited effectively the proliferation of Hela and BEL‐7402 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of WTAE for Hela cells (0.05 mg/mL) was lower than that for BEL‐7402 cells (0.1 mg/mL). Although WTAE induced apoptosis in both cell lines, pro‐apoptotic effects were markedly more apparent in Hela cells. Our study demonstrated that WTAE inhibited proliferation of cancer cells via induction of apoptosis and that Hela cells were more sensitive to WTAE than BEL‐7402 cells.
Volatile Profile of Grilled Lamb as Affected by Castration and Age at Slaughter in Two Breeds J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Vasiliki Gkarane; Nigel P. Brunton; Sabine M. Harrison; Rufielyn S. Gravador; Paul Allen; Noel A. Claffey; Michael G. Diskin; Alan G. Fahey; Linda J. Farmer; Aidan P. Moloney; Frank J. Monahan
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of castration and slaughter age on the volatile profile of cooked meat from Scottish Blackface (SB) and Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs. M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled at slaughter and subjected to volatile analysis by SPME‐GC‐MS. Rams had higher relative proportions, expressed as relative abundance (RA), in lipid oxidation products while castrates had higher RA in pyrazines and benzenoid compounds. There was no consistent age effect on the RA of volatiles, although rams in November and January had a different volatile profile to castrates. There were higher proportions of free branched‐chain fatty acids in muscle from SB compared to T × SB lambs. Overall, the results showed that production factors affected the volatile profile of cooked lamb meat which may explain differences in lamb flavor.
Byproduct Generated During the Elaboration Process of Isotonic Beverage as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-21 E.C.B.A. Gonçalves; J. Lozano‐Sanchez; S. Gomes; M.S.L. Ferreira; L.C. Cameron; A. Segura‐Carretero
Agro‐industrial byproducts are considered good sources of macronutrients and phytochemicals. Fruit and vegetable residues (FVR), obtained after the production of an isotonic beverage, have previously been characterized containing 80% insoluble dietary fibers from total fibers (48.4%), 26% available carbohydrates, 9.5% proteins and 5% lipids. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetables provide phytochemicals which have been related to human health such as phenolic compounds. The loss of specific compounds over the production process is related to their partitioning between fruit and vegetables and byproducts. However, phenolic profile of FVR remains unknown. This work is focused on the evaluation of FVR as a natural source of these bioactive compounds. For this purpose, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been proposed as extraction technique for recovering phenolic compounds from FVR. The experimental variables were temperature and percentage of solvent (ethanol and water). Phenolic compounds extracts were characterized by UPLC‐ESI‐Q‐TOF‐MS and a discussion about phenolic and macronutrient interactions was established. Globally, 88 compounds were tentatively identified: phenolic acids (28), flavonoids (32), and other polyphenols (28). The PLE conditions applied yielded different breaking matrix‐analyte interactions leading to an increase in the number of compounds. The highest phenolic acids content was achieved with high temperature while lower temperatures were more efficient in extracting flavonoid. By establishing the phenolics profile in food byproducts such as FVR, it is possible to more effectively apply these byproducts as nutraceutical, food or pharmaceutical ingredients.
Egg Yolk Extracts as Potential Liposomes Shell Material: Composition Compared with Vesicles Characteristics J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Anna Kondratowicz; Grażyna Neunert; Natalia Niezgoda; Joanna Bryś; Aleksander Siger; Magdalena Rudzińska; Grażyna Lewandowicz
Our aim was to propose simple extraction process to obtain phospholipids along with yolk‐derived vitamins and fats. Five extracts marked as ethanol/acetone, methanol‐chloroform/acetone, hot ethanol, hexane, and cold ethanol were developed and compared. Extracts' compositions were analyzed in terms of phospholipid, polar and nonpolar fraction, cholesterol, carotenoids, and tocopherols content. Further, liposomes prepared from extracts were characterized. The highest extraction efficiency was achieved by a one‐step hexane procedure. However, that sample, in contrast to the other four extracts, revealed distinctively lower permeability when used for liposomes membrane formation. Principal component analysis proved that major components contents were decisive for liposomes membranes permeability, whereas minor constituents’ content controlled zeta potential and Z‐average size.
Transport of ACE Inhibitory Peptides Ile‐Gln‐Pro and Val‐Glu‐Pro Derived from Spirulina platensis Across Caco‐2 Monolayers J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Yuan‐Yuan He; Tao‐Tao Li; Jia‐Xin Chen; Xing‐Xing She; Di‐Feng Ren; Jun Lu
This study evaluated transepithelial transport mechanisms of Ile‐Gln‐Pro (IQP) and Val‐Glu‐Pro (VEP), two ACE‐inhibitory peptides derived from Spirulina platensis, using human intestinal Caco‐2 cell monolayers. IQP and VEP were absorbed intact through Caco‐2 cell monolayers with Papp values of 7.48 ± 0.58 × 10−6 and 5.05 ± 0.74 × 10−6 cm/s, respectively. The transport of IQP and VEP were affected neither by Gly‐Pro nor by wortmannin, indicating that they were not PepT1‐mediated and did not involve endocytosis. However, transport of IQP and VEP were increased significantly by sodium deoxycholate, suggesting that the major transport mechanism was paracellular. In addition, the increased transport of VEP and IQP were followed with the addition of sodium azide, suggesting influence of energy to the process. The transport of VEP was also increased by verapamil, indicating an apical‐to‐basolateral flux mediated by P‐gp.
The Formation of Acrylamide from and Its Reduction by 3‐Aminopropanamide Occur Simultaneously During Thermal Treatment J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Haojie Wu; Jie Zheng; Guangwen Zhang; Caihuan Huang; Shiyi Ou
3‐Aminopropanamide (3‐APA) is the direct precursor of acrylamide produced in the Maillard reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars. In this research, we found that 3‐APA could reduce acrylamide by the formation of adducts between acrylamide and 3‐APA via Michael addition. The effects of temperature, heating duration and 3‐APA/acrylamide ratio on the reduction of acrylamide were investigated. Addition of 3‐APA to acrylamide at a molar ratio of 5:3 at 160 °C for 20 min reduced acrylamide by up to 47.29%. The major adduct was identified as 3,3′,3′‐nitrilotris, and its cytotoxicity on Caco‐2 cells was evaluated to be much lower than acrylamide. The viability of Caco‐2 cells retained at 88.31% and 86.43% after incubation with 16 mM 3,3′,3′‐nitrilotris for 24 and 48 hr, respectively, while those incubated with the same concentration of acrylamide were 23.33% and 19.12%, respectively.
Protective Effect of Grape Seed Procyanidins against H2O2‐Induced Oxidative Stress in PC‐12 Neuroblastoma Cells: Structure–Activity Relationships J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Lanxin Luo; Ruifang Bai; Yuqing Zhao; Jing Li; Zongmin Wei; Fang Wang; Baoshan Sun
To establish a structure–activity relationship for procyanidins, we verified the cyto‐protective effect of 13 grape seed procyanidins, ranging from monomers to trimers against H2O2‐induced oxidative stress in PC‐12 neuroblastoma cells. Our study demonstrated some procyanidins were able to significantly protect PC‐12 cells from the H2O2‐induced cytotoxicity suggesting they possess neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. Procyanidins’ protective effects against oxidative stress mainly depended on their polymerization degree in addition to their structural features. A positive correlation was found between procyanidins’ polymerization degree and the protective effect against oxidative stress in PC‐12 cells. The presence of 3‐ or 3’‐galloylated groups in the C‐ring of procyanidin molecules significantly increased their protective activity as well. These results demonstrated that galloylated high‐molecular‐mass procyanidins would be of more interesting as promising antioxidant natural compounds. This work for the first time demonstrated the structure–activity relationships of 13 procyanidins’ antioxidative stress activity, which could have a significant impact on future development of procyanidins for healthy food products or drugs to treat disease such as neurodegenerative disorders.
Lactobacillus plantarum CQPC06 Activity Prevents Dextran Sulfate Sodium‐Induced Colitis by Regulating the IL‐8 Pathway J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Jing Zhang; Ruokun Yi; Yu Qian; Peng Sun; Xin Zhao; Zhennai Yang
Lactobacillus plantarum CQPC06 (LP‐CQPC06) is a newly discovered lactic acid bacterial strain. Here, the beneficial effects of this strain on C57BL/6J mice with dextran sulfate sodium‐induced colitis were investigated. LP‐CQPC06 was more resistant to gastric acid and bile salts than L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB). In the DSS‐induced colitis mouse model, LP‐CQPC06 treatment decreased the colon weight/length ratio and increased the colon length as compared to untreated mice with DSS‐induced colitis. LP‐CQPC06 also reduced the serum levels of interleukin 8 (IL‐8), IL‐1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein‐1 alpha, as well as reducing levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) in the colon tissues of mice with DSS‐induced colitis. In all cases, the effects of LP‐CQPC06 were significantly stronger than those of LB. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions and western blots indicated that LP‐CQPC06 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B‐cells inhibitor alpha, while decreasing the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor kappa‐beta, C‐X‐C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1), and CXCR2. Thus, L. plantarum CQPC06 had a good protective effect against colitis in a mouse model via the IL‐8 pathway. Therefore, L. plantarum CQPC06 might have potential uses as a probiotic for colonic protection.
Effects of Sulfide Flavors on AHL‐Mediated Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation of Hafnia alvei J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Hou Hongman; Wang Yifang; Zhang Gongliang; Zhu Yaolei; Xu Longquan; Hao Hongshun; Wang Yue; Lu Meishan
In this study, 10 different sulfide flavor compounds commonly used as food additives were screened for antiquorum‐sensing activity. Among these, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and methyl 2‐methyl‐3‐furyl disulfide (MMFDS) were found to exert the strongest inhibition against violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum 026, the tested biosensor strain. DADS and MMFDS also inhibited the growth of Hafnia alvei H4, yielding MIC values of 48 and 41.6 mM, respectively. In addition, DADS and MMFDS also inhibited the ability of H. alvei H4 to produce acyl‐homoserine lactone as demonstrated by the reduced level of C6‐HSL in the supernatant of DADS‐treated culture. At concentrations corresponding to 1/4 MIC, DADS, and MMFDS inhibited the swarming ability of H. alvei H4 by 73.50% and 76.43%, respectively, while having virtually no effect on cell growth. The same concentrations of DADS and MMFDS also completely inhibited the formation of biofilm. These antiquorum sensing effects of DADS and MMFDS involved changes in the expression of the quorum‐sensing genes luxI and luxR. Quantitative RT‐PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of both genes were significantly reduced by DADS and MMDFS at concentrations below their MICs. However, further test using a mutant strain of H. alvei lacking luxR (ΔluxR) revealed significant reduction in luxI mRNA level upon treatment of the strain with DADS or MMDFS, but no change in luxR mRNA level occurred when a luxI‐lacking mutant (ΔluxI) was treated with these compounds. The result therefore suggested that the antiquorum‐sensing effect of DADS and MMFDS against H. alvei H4 might operate mainly through the inhibition of luxI expression in the cells.
Preparation and Characterization of Lactobacilli‐Loaded Composite Films with Sustaining Antipathogenic Activity and Preservation Effect J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Lu Dai; Yahong Yuan; Zihan Song; Yue Qiu; Tianli Yue
Bioactive composite films were obtained by adding Lactobacillus paracasei into a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)‐konjac flour (KF) matrix through a casting method. The mechanical, optical, and barrier properties were tested to determine the influence of the addition of lactobacilli into complex films. For purpose of evaluating the surface morphology of the composite films, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X‐ray diffraction analyses were conducted to evaluate intermolecular interactions and crystallinity, respectively. Moreover, the microbial viability of the lactobacilli and the antibacterial activities of the bioactive films against pathogenic organisms were measured. The results indicated that the mechanical properties, crystalline properties, oxygen permeability, and color characteristics were not notably altered; nevertheless, the gloss and water vapor barrier properties were relatively weakened by the incorporation of L. paracase. The HPC–KF–L. paracasei films were effective in inhibiting both gram‐positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram‐negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium) pathogens, and the films can retain physical property and antibacterial activity within a storage period of 30 days. The composite films, acting as suitable carriers for L. paracasei and possessing noteworthy bacteriostatic activities, could be developed as bioactive packaging for preserving food.
In Vitro Digestion of Lipids in Real Foods: Influence of Lipid Organization Within the Food Matrix and Interactions with Nonlipid Components J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Joaquim Calvo‐Lerma; Victoria Fornés‐Ferrer; Ana Heredia; Ana Andrés
In vitro digestion research has scarcely addressed the assessment of the complexity of digestion in real food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intestinal conditions, nonlipid components, and lipid organization within the food matrix on lipolysis extent. A selection of 52 foods was studied under different simulated intestinal conditions, including those related to patients with cystic fibrosis (pH6, bile salts 1 mM due to decreased pancreatic and biliary secretions) and to healthy subjects (pH7, bile salts 10 mM). Linear mixed regression models were applied to explain associations of food properties with lipolysis. Normal intestinal conditions allowed for optimal lipolysis in most of the foods in contrast to the altered intestinal scenario (30 compared with 1 food reaching > 90% lipolysis). Lipid‐protein and lipid‐starch interactions were evidenced to significantly affect lipolysis (P < 0.001) in all the digestion conditions, decreasing in those foods with low fat and high protein or high starch content. In addition, under decreased intestinal pH and bile concentration, lipolysis was lower in foods with complex solid structures and continuous lipid phase than in the oil‐in‐water continuous aqueous phase (global P < 0.01). However, in the normal conditions lipid organization within the food matrix did not show a significant effect on lipolysis (global P = 0.08). In conclusion, food properties play a crucial role in lipolysis, which should be considered when establishing dietary recommendations.
The Dissipative Potential of Gamma Irradiation in Residues of Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam in the Postharvest of Common Beans J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 José Maurício Armelim; Kassio Ferreira Mendes; Rodrigo Floriano Pimpinato; Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo
Gamma irradiation (60Co) in postharvest of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has already proven beneficial, regarding the prolongation of shelf life and physical, chemical, and organoleptic aspects of grains. However, few prior studies have investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on the dissipation of pesticides in foods, especially insecticides in beans. This study aimed to evaluate the waste dissipation of two insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, used in the cultivation of common bean, a variety of Carioca, using gamma irradiation. Ground bean samples were spiked each insecticide in the laboratory at 3, 4, and 5 mg/kg, and were then irradiated at 0, 1, and 2 kGy per irradiator with a 60Co source. Liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify the insecticides. The irradiation promoted dissipation of thiamethoxam at 1 and 2 kGy doses, with the highest dissipation verified at 2 kGy. In general, at this higher dose of irradiation the reduction dissipation of thiamethoxam was 66% of the mean value found in the treatment without irradiation and ∼44% relative to the 1 kGy dose. Conversely, imidacloprid showed no effect of irradiation on waste dissipation, except in the treatment of 5 mg/kg at 2 kGy dose. From the results, it was concluded that the gamma irradiation might have applicability in dissipating thiamethoxam in real bean samples.
Lactobacillus reuteri F‐9‐35 Prevents DSS‐Induced Colitis by Inhibiting Proinflammatory Gene Expression and Restoring the Gut Microbiota in Mice J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Mao‐cheng Sun; Fu‐cheng Zhang; Xue Yin; Bi‐jun Cheng; Chang‐hui Zhao; Yan‐ling Wang; Zheng‐zhe Zhang; Hong‐wei Hao; Tie‐hua Zhang; Hai‐qing Ye
Probiotics are considered to be a potential treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to compare the preventive effect of a space flight‐induced mutant L. reuteri F‐9‐35 and its wild type on UC in vivo. Female mice were randomly assigned to five groups: one normal and four colitic. Mice from colitis groups were daily gavaged with 0.2 mL 12% (w/v) skim milk containing the mutant or wild type (1 × 1011 CFU/mL), skim milk alone or distilled water for the whole experiment period, starting 7 days before colitis induction. UC was induced by administrating mice with 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days, after which DSS was removed and maintained for 3 days as a recovery phase. The results showed that the mice fed with L. reuteri F‐9‐35 had less inflammatory phenotype according to macroscopic and histological analysis, reduced myeloperoxidase activity, and lower expression of proinflammatory genes (Tumor necrosis factor‐α, cyclooxygenase‐2 and interleukin‐6) in colonic tissue compared with control. Furthermore, L. reuteri F‐9‐35 protected the mice from gut microbiota dysbiosis from DDS induced colitis. Neither wild type nor the milk alone had such beneficial effects. From above we conclude that L. reuteri F‐9‐35 has great potential in the prevention of UC as a dietary supplement.
Microsatellite High‐Resolution Melting (SSR‐HRM) to Track Olive Genotypes: From Field to Olive Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Sónia Gomes; Richard Breia; Teresa Carvalho; Valdemar Carnide; Paula Martins‐Lopes
The need to support food labelling has driven to the development of PCR‐based techniques suitable for food analysis. DNA‐based markers have been successfully employed for varietal tracing in Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oils. In this study, we report a fast, sensitive, and easy‐to‐use strategy for PDO olive varietal identification. To achieve this aim four different DNA extraction methods were tested and compared, based on initial volume, extraction time, the gDNA concentration, and quality ratios. The optimized DNA extraction protocol from extra virgin olive oils, based on CTAB–hexane–chloroform extraction, proved to be the most effective. High‐resolution melting (HRM) DNA assay was developed based on nuclear microsatellites (gSSR) and plastid DNA (cpDNA) aiming an accurate identification of the olive varieties present in the olive oil samples. After PCR reproducibility evaluation, six molecular markers: three SSRs and three cpDNA loci were chosen based on their discrimination power. The SSR‐HRM strategy assays were designed to target UDO99‐011, UDO99‐039, UDO99‐024, and ssrOeUA‐DCA16 loci. All SSR‐PCR products generated from these primers were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) for HRM data validation. The SSR coupled with HRM melting curve analysis generated 14 HRM profiles sufficient to genotype all varieties, highlighting their potential use for varietal discrimination. The locus ssrOeUA‐DCA16 generated a specific melting curve that allow a high‐throughput discrimination of the Picual and Cobrançosa varieties in olive oil samples. Further, the UDO99‐024 was also tested by SSR‐HRM assay in commercial olive oil samples with promising results. Considering time, cost, and performance SSR‐HRM proved to be a reliable method suitable for varietal tracing of olive oils.
Fiber‐Rich Food Processing Byproducts Enhance the Expansion of Cornstarch Extrudates J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Maria Dian Pratiwi Masli; Bon‐Jae Gu; Barbara A. Rasco; Girish M. Ganjyal
Expansion characteristics of cornstarch‐based extrudates incorporating fiber‐rich food processing byproducts was explored. Waxy and regular cornstarch were used as the base materials with apple pomace and sugarcane bagasse incorporated at two addition levels (0%, 15%, and 30% w/w). Extrusions were conducted at three different screw speeds (150, 200, and 250 rpm) with other parameters optimized and kept constant. Apple pomace inclusion resulted in higher initial expansion index (4.23 to 5.60) and higher stable expansion index (2.76 to 4.43), but also showed higher shrinkage (8.50% to 34.72%) than sugarcane bagasse extrudates at the same inclusion levels. Inclusion of apple pomace showed potential of producing extrudates with significantly higher expansion than cornstarch control, with relatively lower energy inputs. Extrusion methods used here have the potential to preserve the textural quality and nutritional value of the fiber‐enriched extrudates, providing the base for healthier snack food items.
Analysis of Arsenic Species in Processed Rice Bran Products Using HPLC‐ICP‐MS J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 So Young Kim; Dongwon Seo; Miyoung Yoo; Kwang‐Geun Lee
The purpose of this study was to compare the content of arsenic species (As(V), monomethylarsonic acid [MMA], As(III), and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]) in products, such as bran powder and tablets, using high‐performance liquid chromatography‐inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and to determine the risk of human exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs). The products presented As(III) > As(V) > DMA > MMA, at 241.03 to 579.35, 43.41 to 271.91, 15.16 to 30.43, and limit of quantification to 14.31 μg/kg, respectively. The contents of arsenic species tended to differ among the products (P < 0.05). When the maximum level (0.2 mg/kg) of iAs in white rice was applied to products, it exceeded 1.4 to 3.3 times as 284.43 to 767.10 μg/kg. Also, if more than 109.42 g/day of rice bran powder product containing 767.10 μg/kg as iAs was ingested, the provisional tolerable weekly intake (9.0 μg/kg body weight/wk) was exceeded.
Intact and Damaged Wheat Starch and Amylase Functionality During Multilayered Fermented Pastry Making J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Nand Ooms; Evert Vandromme; Kristof Brijs; Jan A. Delcour
The roles of native and damaged starch (DS) during fermented pastry making were examined by increasing the level of DS in wheat flour by ball‐milling and/or by including amylase in the recipe. Increased DS levels increase laminated dough strength presumably by making less water available for the gluten. This effect was partly overcome by amylase use. During baking, a reduced resistance of the dough to gas cell expansion, as a result of enzymatic starch hydrolysis, seems responsible for increased pastry lift and improved crumb structure. Gelatinization of intact starch limits dough lift and expansion. Even at high amylase dosages structural collapse was limited, which suggests a significant role for gluten in pastry product structure formation. Differential scanning calorimetry and low‐resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated that increased levels of starch damage and amylase use impact the amylose network in the product and respectively increase and decrease the extent to which amylopectin retrogrades during storage.
Iron Fortification of Spiced Vinegar in the Philippines J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Emely C. Lopez Barrera; Shashank Gaur; Juan E. Andrade; Nicki J. Engeseth; Christine Nielsen; William G. Helferich
Despite existent fortification initiatives in the Philippines, approximately 50% of the population still suffers from iron deficiency anemia (IDA), mainly in rural areas. Fortification of staple foods has been proved successful in China and Vietnam. Coconut spiced vinegar (SV) is an inexpensive, widely available, and culturally acceptable condiment in Filipino households; however, no technical evidence exists on its potential as fortification vehicle. This study aimed to physicochemically characterize and evaluate the consumer acceptability of SV fortified with ferrous sulfate (FS), ferrous fumarate (FF), or sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) at 0.2 mg Fe/mL. Iron fortificants were added directly to SV, vortexed, and stored for analysis. A nonfortified SV served as a control. Physicochemical analyses (pH, titratable acidity, color, turbidity, and iron recovery) were conducted from 0 to 6 months postfortification. Consumer acceptability (9‐point hedonic scale: color, appearance, aroma, sourness, and overall acceptability) was conducted using 1‐month fortified vinegar in 96 students and 27 women. Iron recovery of fortified samples was high and similar (>97%) after 3 days of fortification and remained >87% at 6 months postfortification. All samples had minimum acidity of 5.31% and pH between 3.12 and 3.3. Color difference against the control followed the next order: SV‐NaFeEDTA < SV‐FS = SV‐FF. Among students, acceptability of SV‐FS and SV‐FF were lower than the control and SV‐NaFeEDTA for all attributes (P < 0.05) except aroma. In women, overall acceptability and aroma were not different among samples (P > 0.05). Overall, SV‐NaFeEDTA had similar acceptability to the control, and was the most accepted fortified vinegar. SV‐NaFeEDTA shows potential (in terms of physicochemical stability and consumer acceptability) to be used as an iron‐delivery vehicle to address IDA.
Aplysin Protects Against Alcohol‐Induced Liver Injury Via Alleviating Oxidative Damage and Modulating Endogenous Apoptosis‐Related Genes Expression in Rats J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Na Ge; Hui Liang; Yuan‐yuan Zhao; Ying Liu; An‐jing Gong; Wen‐long Zhang
We investigated the protective effects and possible mechanisms of Aplysin against alcohol‐induced liver injury. Rats were given daily either alcohol only (alcohol model group; 8 to 12 mL/kg body weight), one of three doses of Aplysin (50, 100, or 150 mg/kg Aplysin) plus alcohol, or volume‐matched saline. After 6 weeks, the effects of Aplysin were assessed in terms of changes in histology, biochemical indices, and DNA oxidative damage. Potential mechanisms were analyzed through measurements of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems, expression of cytochrome P450 2E1, and expression of apoptosis‐related genes. We found that Aplysin significantly protected the liver against alcohol‐induced oxidative injury, evidenced by improved hepatic histological structure, inhibited alcohol‐induced elevation of serum biochemical indices, attenuated extents of hepatocellular DNA damage. At a mechanistic level, Aplysin alleviated alcohol‐induced oxidative stress as illustrated by the revivification of erythrocyte membrane fluidity, the attenuation of glutathione depletion, the restoration of antioxidase activities, and reduced malondialdehyde overproduction. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Bax, cytochrome c, and cytochrome P450 2E1 were significantly down‐regulated, whereas those of Bcl‐2 and caspase‐9 and caspase‐3 were markedly up‐regulated. These findings suggest that Aplysin provides significant protection against alcohol‐induced liver injury, possibly through alleviating oxidative damage and modulating endogenous apoptosis‐related genes expression.
Using Ethylcellulose to Structure Oil Droplets in Ice Cream Made with High Oleic Sunflower Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Merete B. Munk; Daniel M.E. Munk; Frida Gustavsson; Jens Risbo
In order to mimic physical characteristics of solid fat, ethylcellulose (EC) was used as an oleogelator in ice creams made with high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The aim was to improve structure of ice cream made with fully liquid vegetable oil by inhibiting droplet coalescence and to enable a colloidal fat network by making the oil droplets solid‐like. Two different methods for incorporating EC into emulsions were developed, both designed to involve high pressure homogenization of ice cream mixes as in traditional ice cream production. Ice creams based on 10% HOSO and 1% EC (cP10 or cP20) were successfully made. Two types of emulsifiers in the ice cream formulations were tested: unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU) or saturated mono‐diglyceride. GMU enhanced fat destabilization of ice cream resulting in coalescence of unstructured HOSO droplets. Presence of EC in HOSO based ice cream inhibited coalescence of oil droplets and the structure of the lipid phase resembled the small, evenly distributed fat globules in the reference ice cream made with saturated coconut fat. The resisting effect toward coalescence increased with higher molecular weight of EC, accordingly oil droplets made with EC cP20 were smaller compared to oil droplets containing EC cP10. EC did not increase the amount of air that was incorporated in ice creams based on HOSO, irrespective of the type of emulsifier. In general the overrun in HOSO‐based ice creams (with and without EC) was considerably lower compared to ice cream made with coconut fat.
Assessment of Coagulase‐Negative Staphylococci and Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages as Potential Starters Based on Their Biogenic Amine Profile J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Cristina M. Alfaia; Irani M. Gouveia; Maria H. Fernandes; Maria J. Fernandes; Teresa Semedo‐Lemsaddek; António S. Barreto; Maria J. Fraqueza
The aim of this study was to evaluate the decarboxylase activity of coagulase‐negative staphylococci (CNS) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in meat products fermentation, in order to characterize and select the strains most suitable to be used as safe starter cultures. Isolates were obtained from traditional Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages, identified by PCR and characterized according to their technological properties. Lactobacilli and enterococci were assessed for their bacteriocinogenic potential. Biogenic amines (BA) were screened by culture method and analyzed by RP‐HPLC/UV. The screening method, compared with chromatographic analysis, was not reliable for CNS and LAB strains selection. Tyramine decarboxylase activity was present in CNS strains, with a slight production of amines. No other hazardous BA were produced. Among lactobacilli, moderate production of tyramine was related only to Lactobacillus curvatus, with some strains producing putrescine or 2‐phenylethylamine. Enterococci were high and moderate producers of tyramine and 2‐phenylethylamine, respectively. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, and Staphylococcus carnosus, independent of their genetic and technological profiles and BA production, were adequate for use in meat products, according to the data. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei strains could also be selected for starters.
The Challenges of DNA Extraction in Different Assorted Food Matrices: A Review J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Nurhayatie Sajali; Sie Chuong Wong; Ummi Kalthum Hanapi; Suhaili Abu Bakar @ Jamaluddin; Nor Asmara Tasrip; Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa
High‐quality DNA extracts are imperative for downstream applications in molecular identification. Most processed food products undergo heat treatments causing DNA degradation, which hampers application of DNA‐based techniques for food authentication. Moreover, the presence of inhibitors in processed food products is also problematic, as inhibitors can impede the process of obtaining high qualities and quantities of DNA. Various approaches in DNA extraction and factors in structure and texture of various food matrices affecting DNA extraction are explained in this review.
Content of Selected Vitamins and Antioxidants in Colored and Nonpigmented Varieties of Quinoa, Barley, and Wheat Grains J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Leiter Granda; Amparo Rosero; Karolína Benešová; Helena Pluháčková; Jana Neuwirthová; Radim Cerkal
The diversity in human diets that can be reached by proper use of different crops and varieties, including some underutilized ones, is a potentially powerful strategy to ensure food security and prevent serious health problems caused by current diets that are often not fulfilling nutritional requirements.
Acceptability of Peanut Skins as a Natural Antioxidant in Flavored Coated Peanuts J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Lindsey M. Christman; Lisa L. Dean; Camilla Bueno Almeida; Jacy R. Weissburg
Peanut skins are a low‐value byproduct of the peanut processing industry. Following their removal during the preparation of common peanut products, they are either discarded or used as a minor component of animal feed. Studies have found peanuts skins to be rich in health promoting phenolic compounds and thus have potential as a functional food ingredient. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new product that included the encapsulated phenolic extract from peanut skins in a flavored coating for peanuts. The phenolic compounds were extracted from peanut skins and then encapsulated in 10.5% (w/w) maltodextrin in to reduce the bitter flavor. The encapsulated phenolic extract was added at varying concentrations to honey roast flavored and chili lime flavored coatings which were applied to roasted peanuts. The resulting total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the coated peanuts were evaluated by the Folin‐Ciocalteu, DPPH, and β‐carotene bleaching assays. A best estimate sensory threshold for the peanut skin extract in the honey roasted and chili lime coating was found to be 12.8% (w/w) and 16.6% (w/w), respectively. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity for both the honey roasted and chili lime coated peanuts at their threshold was found to be significantly higher than control peanuts that did not contain peanut skins in the coating. The increased antioxidant activity and unaltered flavor profile at the sensory threshold levels of peanut skins demonstrated their potential as a functional food ingredient.
Effects of Maillard Reaction Products on Sensory and Nutritional Qualities of the Traditional French Baguette J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Céline Jouquand; Céline Niquet‐Léridon; Philippe Jacolot; Noémie Petit; David Marier; Pascale Gadonna‐Widehem
The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of baking time on the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) generated in the crust of the traditional French baguette and to estimate their impact on its sensory characteristics, its acrylamide content, and its bifidogenic effect. Melanoidins, volatile compounds, and acrylamide were evaluated in the crust of traditional French baguettes baked between 12 and 22 min at 225 °C. The increase in melanoidins was positively correlated to the baking time, while volatile compounds only increased until 18 min. The acrylamide content was estimated to be below 18 μg/kg, which confirms the findings of EFSA that bread is not a main contributor to dietary acrylamide. A descriptive sensory analysis showed that the baking time positively affected the sensory quality of the crust. The consumer test revealed the same trend and the panelists favorably judged the well‐baked baguettes based on a better crust flavor and crispness. The bifidogenic effect of the crust and the crumb from the baguettes baked 22 min was evaluated on the in vitro growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. The results demonstrated that the crumb and the crust had exactly the same bifidogenic impact, therefore not caused by melanoidins.
Combination of Multilocus Sequence Typing and GS‐PCR Reveals an Association of Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Clone with Clinical and Seafood Isolates J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Min Zhou; Wanyi Chen; Chunlei Shi; Hongxun Wang; Xianming Shi
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a global leading cause of seafood‐borne bacterial gastroenteritis. Clinical, seafood, and environmental V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the eastern coast of China were analyzed for their virulence, and for phenotypic and molecular traits. The frequency of pandemic isolates was 50.9% among clinical isolates and 42.8% among seafood isolates as confirmed by group‐specific polymerase chain reaction (GS‐PCR). Serological analysis indicated that O3:K6, O1:K25, O1:KUT, O3:K68, and O4:K68 were the predominant serotypes among these pandemic isolates. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples. Rather, they were also isolated from seafood samples. It was also shown by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) typing that isolates from clinical (59), seafood (28), and environmental samples (18) were grouped into 17, 23, and 17 sequence types (STs), respectively. We updated 17 STs in the MLST database. ST‐3 and ST‐189 were the dominant ones among clinical isolates. Interestingly, ST‐3 was also the most abundant among seafood isolates, and represented a significant risk to food safety due to the clear association with tdh and the GS‐PCR marker. A minimum‐evolution (ME) tree generated from the concatenated sequences of the 7 loci of the 54 STs uncovered phylogenetic relationships between seafood and clinical isolates. The MLST results also indicated a high degree of nucleotide diversity in recA that had the greatest influence on the phylogenetic relationships. Our findings provided new insight into the phylogenic relationship among pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates from various samples and enhanced the MLST database as well as microbiological risk assessment.
Consumer Acceptance, Emotional Response, and Purchase Intent of Rib‐Eye Steaks from Grass‐Fed Steers, and Effects of Health Benefit Information on Consumer Perception J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Kennet Mariano Carabante; Ryan Ardoin; Guillermo Scaglia; Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Marlene E. Janes; Witoon Prinyawiwatkul
Sensory acceptability, purchase intent (PI), consumer emotional profile, and fatty acid profile of rib‐eye steaks from four different biological types of grass‐fed cattle (Angus, Brangus, Pineywoods, and Holstein) were evaluated. The effects of health benefit information (HBI) pertaining to grass‐fed beef on the overall liking (OL), emotional profile, and PI were also studied. Consumers rated steaks from the two nontraditional beef biological types (Pineywoods and Holstein) equally or higher than conventional biological types (Angus and Brangus) in several hedonic (9‐point scale) categories. Mean OL scores were 6.1 for Pineywoods and 6.3 for Holstein steaks, versus 5.5 for Angus and 6.0 for Brangus. Hedonic attributes, especially OL and liking of beef flavor, accounted for most of the differences between treatments based on Wilks’ Lambda Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and descriptive discriminant analysis. After knowledge of HBI, OL of all treatments increased, particularly Angus with OL mean score significantly increasing from 5.5 to 6.2. Positive PI increased significantly for Angus (from 48% to 65.33%), Brangus (from 50.67% to 66.67%), and Holstein (from 61.33% to 76%) steaks. Angus steaks, which initially received the lowest beef flavor liking (5.1) showed the most improvement for OL after HBI. Likewise, emotional profiles were improved after HBI, particularly the “Interested” emotion with a 0.5 unit increased.
Effect of Taste Enhancement on Consumer Acceptance of Pureed Cucumber and Green Capsicum J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 Vera L. van Stokkom; Cees de Graaf; Olaf van Kooten; Markus Stieger
Vegetables have low taste intensities, which might contribute to low acceptance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of taste (sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness) and fattiness enhancement on consumer acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees. Three concentrations of sugar, citric acid, caffeine, mono‐sodium glutamate, NaCl, and sunflower oil were added to pureed cucumber and green capsicum. Subjects (n = 66, 35.6 ± 17.7 y) rated taste and fattiness intensity. Different subjects (n = 100, 33.2 ± 16.5 years) evaluated acceptance of all pureed vegetables. Taste intensities of vegetable purees were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the three tastant concentrations except for umami in both vegetable purees, sourness in green capsicum puree, and fattiness in cucumber puree. Only enhancement of sweetness significantly (P < 0.05) increased acceptance of both vegetable purees compared to unmodified purees. In cucumber purees, relatively small amounts of added sucrose (2%) increased acceptance already significantly, whereas in green capsicum acceptance increased significantly only with addition of 5% sucrose. Enhancement of other taste modalities did not significantly increase acceptance of both vegetable purees. Enhancing saltiness and bitterness significantly decreased acceptance of both vegetable purees. We conclude that the effect of taste enhancement on acceptance of vegetable purees differs between tastants and depends on tastant concentration and vegetable type. With the exception of sweetness, taste enhancement of taste modalities such as sourness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness was insufficient to increase acceptance of vegetable purees. We suggest that more complex taste, flavor, or texture modifications are required to enhance acceptance of vegetables.
Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Composition, and Biological Activities of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Seed Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 Xiaohui Zhao; Banmacailang Dong; Pi Li; Wei Wei; Jun Dang; Zenggeng Liu; Yanduo Tao; Hongping Han; Yun Shao; Huilan Yue
Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRM, Solanaceae), also called “black wolfberry” in China, is extremely tolerant drought. Although black wolfberry has seeds that are rich in oil, being considered as a potential alternative for edible oil production, little information has been found regarding its characterization. The present study evaluated the fatty acid profile of the seed oil and its phytosterol contents. Moreover, its antioxidant potential and its inhibition activities on pancreatic lipase, and cholesterol esterase (CEase) were also determined. The key fatty acids of studied oil were linoleic (74.58%), oleic (11.82%), γ‐linolenic (6.60%), palmitic (4.88%), and stearic (1.40%) acids, which together comprised 99.28% of the total fatty acids. Phytosterols including 24‐methylenecholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, dihydrolanosterol, 24‐methyldesmosterol, β‐sitosterol, Δ5‐avenasterol, cycloartenol, and Δ7−avenasterol were identified for the 1st time. The inhibition values (IC50) for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacities of the oil were 7.86 and 15.49 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, LRM seed oil was also demonstrated to possess strong pancreatic lipase, and CEase inhibition activities with IC50 values of 12.38 and 2.63 mg/mL, respectively. The mechanism study indicated that the inhibitory manner of the oil on CEase belonged to uncompetitive inhibition of reversible inhibition. The results derived from above studies suggest that LRM seed oil could be a potential source of high value phytochemicals for developing novel functional food.
Stability of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Kenaf Seed Oil‐in‐Water Nanoemulsions under Different Storage Temperatures J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 Ai Mun Cheong; Chin Ping Tan; Kar Lin Nyam
Kenaf seed oil‐in‐water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta‐cyclodextrin (β‐CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.
Health Risk Assessment of Exposure to Heavy Metals and Aflatoxins via Dietary Intake of Dried Red Pepper from Marketplaces in Antalya, Southern Turkey J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 Serpil Kilic; Ihsan Burak Cam; Timur Tongur; Murat Kilic
Red pepper is used as raw material in industry and as a seasoning in various foods. In this study, the cadmium, lead and arsenic content of 33 red pepper samples sold in open and sealed packages on different markets was investigated in terms of their synthetic color components, aflatoxin amounts and toxic elements, which have been declared as cancerous by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the results, synthetic colorants, arsenic and cadmium were not detected in any of the samples, while lead was detected in 11 samples and aflatoxins were detected in eight of the samples. As a consequence of these investigations, a health risk analysis was carried out by taking into account the amount of consumption in the region. The B1 aflatoxin content in the samples, according to daily consumption data, exceeded the limits set by the European Commission (EC) by almost 150%.
Physicochemical, Microstructural, and Microbiological Properties of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) After High‐Pressure Processing J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-14 Wittawat Jiranuntakul; Nutcha Nakwiang; Pieter Berends; Tunyawat Kasemsuwan; Thunyarat Saetung; Sakamon Devahastin
Properties of skipjack tuna loins subjected to high‐pressure processing (HPP) at 150 to 600 MPa for 1 to 5 min were compared with those of loin that underwent steam cooking for 10 min. Protein denaturation in HPP‐treated loins increased with increasing pressure level, but these loins retained between 1.1% and 2.4% more water than steam‐cooked loin. Water holding capacity decreased from 57% to 44% when the loins were treated at 600 MPa. ΔE value of HPP loins was between 5.8 and 26.3 when treated at 150 to 600 MPa, whereas it was 34.1 for steam‐cooked sample. Hardness of HPP loins increased from 648 to 1,019, 1,918, 5,249, and 4,092 g and springiness changed from 85.2% to 79.7%, 78.2%, 91.7%, and 90.7%, respectively, when treated at 150, 300, 450, and 600 MPa. Protein fibers of HPP loins had a more irregular shape than those of steam‐treated loin. Histamine levels of HPP‐treated loins were in the range of 3.08 to 3.35 μg/g, identical to that of steam‐treated loin. Thiobarbituric acid assay demonstrated that the level of lipid oxidation increment in HPP‐treated loins was twice as high as that in steam‐cooked one. Undesirable volatile compound contents in tuna loins decreased with increasing degree of protein denaturation. Steam cooking and HPP at 150, 300, 450, and 600 MPa decreased the total aerobic counts by 4.75, 0.12, 1.20, 4.69, and 6.08 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that HPP at 450 MPa and above has the potential to be used as an alternative to the tuna precooking process.
Quercetin in Food: Possible Mechanisms of Its Effect on Memory J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Fatemeh Babaei; Mohammadreza Mirzababaei; Marjan Nassiri‐Asl
Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7‐pentahydroxyflavone) is found in vegetables and fruits. It is one of the major flavonoids that is part of human diets. Quercetin has several pharmacological effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective agent. In this review, we summarize the research on quercetin and its role in memory in both animals and humans. Articles were chosen from the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. In this review, we describe and summarize the importance of quercetin's presence in the body, particularly in the brain; its kinetics, including its absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion; its behavioral effects; and some of the possible mechanisms of action of quercetin on memory in different animal models. Several important pathways that may be involved in the processes of learning and memory, long‐term potentiation, and cognition may be impaired during neurological diseases or other medical conditions. As dietary quercetin is important, provision of its best formulation for delivery to the brain as a nutraceutical and in clinical translational research for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia is necessary.
Diverse Profiles of Biofilm and Adhesion Genes in Staphylococcus Aureus Food Strains Isolated from Sushi and Sashimi J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Suat Moi Puah; Jin Ai Mary Anne Tan; Ching Hoong Chew; Kek Heng Chua
Staphylococcus aureus is able to form multilayer biofilms embedded within a glycocalyx or slime layer. Biofilm formation poses food contamination risks and can subsequently increase the risk of food poisoning. Identification of food‐related S. aureus strains will provide additional data on staphylococcal food poisoning involved in biofilm formation. A total of 52 S. aureus strains isolated from sushi and sashimi was investigated to study their ability for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. The presence of accessory gene regulator (agr) groups and 15 adhesion genes was screened and their associations in biofilm formation were studied. All 52 S. aureus strains showed biofilm production on the tested hydrophobic surface with 44% (23/52) strains classified as strong, 33% (17/52) as moderate, and 23% (12/52) as weak biofilm producers. The frequency of agr‐positive strains was 71% (agr group 1 = 21 strains; agr group 2 = 2 strains; agr group 3 = 12 strains; agr group 4 = 2 strains) whereas agr‐negative strains were 29% (15/52). Twelve adhesion genes were detected and 98% of the S. aureus strains carried at least one adhesion gene. The ebps was significantly (p < .05) associated with strong biofilm producing strains. In addition, eno, clfA, icaAD, sasG, fnbB, cna, and sasC were significantly higher in the agr‐positive group compared to the agr‐negative group. The results of this study suggest that the presence of ebps, eno, clfA, icaAD, sasG, fnbB, cna, and sasC may play an important role in enhancing the stage of biofilm‐related infections and warrants further investigation.
Using a Functional Carrot Powder Ingredient to Produce Sausages with High Levels of Nutraceuticals J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Melissa Alvarado‐Ramírez; Jesús Santana‐Gálvez; Arlette Santacruz; Luis Diego Carranza‐Montealvo; Erika Ortega‐Hernández; Joaquín Tirado‐Escobosa; Luis Cisneros‐Zevallos; Daniel A. Jacobo‐Velázquez
In this study, a functional carrot powder (FCP) ingredient was obtained by applying wounding stress to carrot (shredding and storing for 48 hr at 15 °C) prior to dehydration (60 °C) and milling. Likewise, FCP was incorporated into sausage formulations, which were further characterized. The application of wounding stress in carrots resulted in a FCP with higher fiber (30.1%) and chlorogenic acid (798.4%) content as compared with control carrot powder (CCP). Likewise, FCP showed higher water (19%) and oil (3.9%) absorption capacity as compared with CCP. Sausage formulation with 4% (w/w) of FCP was characterized, further evaluated during storage (42 days, 4 °C), and compared with a formulation added with 4% (w/w) CCP. FCP and CCP formulations increased fiber of sausages by 72.7%, and fortified them with carotenoids, providing 30% to 40% of vitamin A daily requirements per portion (62.5 g). FCP did not affect purge loss, and sausages contained 270% and 377% more total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content as compared with CCP sausages. FCP formulation presented adequate sensory acceptability and its carotenoid and phenolic content remained stable during storage. Results indicated that FCP could be used as an ingredient in sausage formulation to increase the content of nutraceuticals without affecting its shelf‐life.
Novel Angiotensin‐Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oncorhynchus mykiss Nebulin: Virtual Screening and In Silico Molecular Docking Study J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Zhipeng Yu; Yue Fan; Wenzhu Zhao; Long Ding; Jianrong Li; Jingbo Liu
Excessive concentrations of angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) can give rise to high blood pressure, and is harmful to the body. ACE inhibitory peptides from food proteins are considered good sources of function food. However, the preparation of ACE inhibitory peptides by classical method faces many challenges. Three novel ACE inhibitory peptides were identified by in silico methods, and showed potent activity against ACE in vitro. The simulation hydrolysis of nebulin was performed with ExPASy PeptideCutter program. Potential activity, solubility, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties of generated peptides were predicted using program online. Molecular docking displayed that EGF, HGR, and VDF were docked into the S1 and S2 pockets of ACE. Meanwhile, Phe and Arg at the C‐terminal enhance ACE affinity. The IC50 values of EGF, HGR, and VDF were 474.65 ± 0.08, 106.21 ± 0.52, and 439.27 ± 0.09 μM, respectively. Three peptides EGF, HGR, and VDF from Oncorhynchus mykiss nebulin were identified, and the molecular mechanism between ACE and peptides was clarified using in silico methods. The results suggested that Oncorhynchus mykiss nebulin would be an attractive raw material of antihypertensive nutraceutical ingredients.
Sensing of L‐Arginine by Gut‐Expressed Calcium Sensing Receptor Stimulates Gut Satiety Hormones Cholecystokinin and Glucose‐Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Secretion in Pig Model J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-08 Chao Wang; Cuicui Kang; Yihan Xian; Mingyu Zhang; Xiaolin Chen; Mingcai Pei; Weiyun Zhu; Suqin Hang
Nutrients regulate the secretion of gut satiety hormones, which is related to the modulation of food intake and blood glucose levels. Calcium‐sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in regulating gut hormone secretion in response to l‐amino acids and multivalent cations. Rodents are often used to investigate the effect of nutrients on these hormonal release. However, results obtained using rodent models are difficult to be applied in humans, we used pigs as a model in this study because their physiology is similar to that of humans. In this study, we investigated whether l‐Arginine (l‐Arg) could induce gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucose‐dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) secretion in the porcine duodenum and if so, whether CaSR mediated l‐Arg‐regulated gut satiety hormone secretion. Our data showed that treatment with 20 and 50 mM l‐Arg induced CCK and GIP secretion compared with 0 mM l‐Arg. However, treatment with d‐Arg (an inactive isomer) failed to elicit this response. The potency of l‐Arg to induce CCK and GIP secretion was enhanced in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and CaSR agonist cinacalcet. However, the effect of Arg on CCK and GIP secretion was attenuated by blocking CaSR and its downstream signaling molecules adenylate cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC). Taken all together, pig duodenum provides an appropriate model to explore the effects of l‐Arg on the secretion of the satiety‐related gut hormones CCK and GIP and the role of CaSR in this effect. Further investigations are needed to verify the effect of l‐Arg on food intake and blood glucose in human study.
Dielectric Properties of Beverages (Tamarind and Green) Relevant to Microwave‐Assisted Pasteurization J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 07 August Arnold David González‐Monroy; Tejinder Kaur Kataria; José Luis Olvera‐Cervantes; Alonso Corona‐Chávez; César Ozuna; Gabriela Rodríguez‐Hernández; María Elena Sosa‐Morales
Dielectric properties (DPs) of two beverages, tamarind and a green drink (based on mix fruits of pineapple, guava, lemon, and nopal), were studied. The DPs were determined using the open‐ended coaxial probe method in the frequency range from 0.25 to 25 GHz at 10, 30, 50, and 70 °C. The dielectric constant decreased when both frequency and temperature increased above 1000 MHz. For both beverages, the dielectric loss factor increased with increasing frequency and increasing temperature. In addition, dielectric constant values ranged from 59.7 to 82.5, and the dielectric loss factors were between 5.8 and 31.1. The penetration depth (dp) of electromagnetic waves in the beverages increased proportionally to temperature at frequencies above 1000 MHz; dp values ranged from 0.2 to 7.5 cm. Because of its complexity and the amount of ingredients and the interactions between them, the green drink showed higher values of dielectric constants in comparison with the tamarind beverage.
Study of the Interactions Occurring During the Encapsulation of Sesamol within Casein Micelles Reformed from Sodium Caseinate Solutions J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Manuel A. Santos Basurto; Anaberta Cardador Martínez; Eduardo Castaño Tostado; Moustapha Bah; Rosalía Reynoso Camacho; Silvia L. Amaya Llano
A casein micelle is a natural structure found in milk, based on the association between individual caseins and colloidal calcium phosphate, which can be used as vehicle for the encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds. In this project the capacity of micelles to encapsulate sesamol, a powerful antioxidant present in roasted sesame seeds, was evaluated. The micelles were reformed from sodium caseinate solutions at 2% or 5% (w/v) concentration, and then 1 or 2 mg/mL sesamol were added. A significant increase on the encapsulation efficiency was observed as caseinate concentration increased, going from 28% to 35% of sesamol encapsulated, while the encapsulation yield was greater in all cases for micelles from solutions with lower caseinate concentration. The average size of micelles ranged from 150 to 165 nm with an average zeta potential of −27.3 ± 1.86 mV. FTIR and fluorescence analysis confirm interactions within the casein chains and sesamol molecules with a bathochromic shift which suggests a predominant hydrophilic nature of such interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed that denaturation enthalpy tended to decrease as sesamol concentration increased, suggesting that sesamol molecules may be displacing the water molecules associated with the casein chains, reinforcing the idea of predominant hydrophilic interactions. Based on the results from encapsulation efficiency, it is estimated that about 7 g of casein micelles reformed from 2% (w/v) caseinate solutions with 2 mg/mL of added sesamol may provide the recommended daily dose and may be useful for the development of new functional food products.
Novel Fortified Blended Foods: Preference Testing with Infants and Young Children in Tanzania and Descriptive Sensory Analysis J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Sirichat Chanadang; Edgar IV Chambers; Rosemary Kayanda; Sajid Alavi; Wences Msuya
The preference of porridge made from extruded fortified blended foods (FBFs) compared to a current nonextruded product (corn soy blend plus [CSB+]) among infants and young children was studied in Mwanza region, Tanzania. Five extruded, fortified blends were chosen as novel FBFs in this study: (i) corn soy blend 14 (CSB14), (ii) white sorghumFontanelle 4525 soy blend (SSB), (iii) white sorghumFontanelle 4525 cowpea blend (WSC1), (iv) white sorghum738Y cowpea blend (WSC2), and (v) red sorghum217X Burgundy cowpea blend (RSC). Paired preference testing between CSB+ and each novel FBF was conducted using approximately 600 children for each pair. Results showed that infants and young children prefer CSB14 and SSB over CSB+. Children did not show a preference between CSB+ and any of the 3 sorghum cowpea blends (WSC1, WSC2, and RSC) probably because of a distinct beany flavor from cowpea that they were not familiar with. This study indicated that novel FBFs have potential to be used successfully as supplementary food with higher or comparable preference compared to FBFs currently used in food aid programs.
Simultaneous Enrichment and Separation of Four Flavonoids from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Leaves by Ultrasound‐Assisted Extraction and Macroporous Resins with Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Zhaochen Wu; Wei Wang; Fengyuan He; Dengwu Li; Dongmei Wang
Quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin are the dominant flavonoids compounds from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves, and they play major roles in the antioxidant activity. Macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) treatment, a simple, low‐cost and efficient method, was combined with ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) to enrich and purify these four flavonoids from Z. bungeanum leaves efficiently. The optimal conditions for UAE based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were determined to be an ethanol concentration of 60%, leaves size of 40 mesh, temperature of 50 °C and ultrasonic power of 400 W with four flavonoids contents of 120.84 mg/g. After the extraction process, five kinds of MARs (D4020, D‐101, NKA‐9, AB‐8, and X‐5) were tested through static adsorption/desorption to enrich and purify the ultrasonic‐assisted extracts, and D‐101 was selected as the most suitable resin. The optimal adsorption conditions were 5 bed volumes (BV) of sample solution with an initial concentration of 7.5 mg/mL and pH 5.0. Meanwhile, the optimal desorption parameters were 5 BV each of deionized water and 30% ethanol, then 10 BV 70% ethanol, and a flow rate of 2 BV/hr. Under the optimized conditions, the contents of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin increased by 276.39%, 187.46%, 221.81%, and 288.45%, respectively, and the recovery yields were 85.47%, 73.53%, 81.35%, and 65.06%. In addition, laboratory preparative‐scale separation indicated that the preparative separation of four flavonoids was feasible and easy. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the purified products were significantly increased after enrichment. In conclusion, all of the results indicated that these methods are highly efficient, low cost, environmentally friendly and easy to scale up.
Effect of Gum Arabic, β‐Cyclodextrin, and Sodium Caseinate as Encapsulating Agent on the Oxidative Stability and Bioactive Compounds of Spray‐Dried Kenaf Seed Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 03 August Sook Chin Chew; Chin Ping Tan; Kar Lin Nyam
Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β‐cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the peroxide value, p‐Anisidine value, and total oxidation value of BRKSO were significantly higher than the MRKSO at day 24. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were reduced 66.1% and 56.8% in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. There was a reduction of 71.7% and 23.5% of phytosterol content in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in BRKSO was higher than that of MRKSO. This study showed that the current microencapsulation technique is a feasible way to retard the oxidation of kenaf seed oil.
Sensory and Chemical Stabilities of High‐Oleic and Normal‐Oleic Peanuts in Shell During Long‐Term Storage J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 María Paula Martín; Antonella Luciana Grosso; Valeria Nepote; Nelson Rubén Grosso
Oxidative rancidity is one of the major causes of peanut quality deterioration. The in‐shell nut industry's greatest concern is to preserve high quality and extended the shelf life of these products. This research determined the sensory and chemical stabilities of raw in‐shell high‐oleic and normal‐oleic peanuts during long‐term storage. In‐shell peanuts samples of normal‐ and high‐oleic types were stored at room temperature (23 °C) for 675 days. The quality parameters, like the fatty acid composition, moisture content, free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), and p‐anisidine value (pAV), as well as sensory attributes, were analyzed every 45 days. High‐oleic samples showed a 4.36‐fold higher oleic acid/linolenic acid (O/L) ratio (O/L = 10.65) than normal‐oleic peanuts (O/L = 2.44). FFA, PV, CD, pAV, and oxidized and cardboard flavors increased in all stored samples but especially in normal‐oleic peanuts. Conversely, roasted peanutty flavor decreased in all samples during storage but in lower proportion in high oleic peanut samples. The sensory and chemical changes that occurred in unshelled normal‐ or high‐oleic peanut samples were not remarkable, suggesting that the shell may protect peanut kernels against deterioration. However, in‐shell high‐oleic samples show greater stability and shelf life than normal‐oleic peanuts under the studied storage condition.
Enhancing the Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Effects of Table Grape Anthocyanins J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Karnell L. Grimes; Connor M. Stuart; Justin J. McCarthy; Baljinder Kaur; Emilio J. Cantu; Sarah C. Forester
The risk for breast and colon cancer may be lowered in part by high intake of fruits and vegetables. Fruits such as grapes are abundant in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. The potential anticancer activity of anthocyanins may be limited by their metabolism in the gut and liver. One metabolic transformation is due to the enzyme catechol‐O‐methyltransferase (COMT), which methylates polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Entacapone is a clinically used inhibitor of COMT, and has been shown to modulate the methylation of food‐derived polyphenols. In this study, we compared the effect of entacapone on the cell viability of colon (Caco‐2 and HT‐29) and breast (MDA‐MB‐231) cancer cell lines treated with anthocyanins. Cells were treated with either cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, delphinidin‐3‐glucoside, or an anthocyanin‐rich grape extract, in the absence or presence of entacapone. Cell viability was assessed using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Entacapone in combination with the anthocyanins had a greater than additive effect on growth inhibition of the Caco‐2 cells. In the MDA‐MB‐231 cell line, entacapone similarly enhanced the growth inhibitory activity of the anthocyanin extract. Entacapone also had antiproliferative effects when used as a single treatment. Total hydroperoxides was quantified in the cell culture media. Greater concentrations of the treatments resulted in higher levels of total hydroperoxides, indicating that oxidative stress may be an important mechanism for growth inhibition. In conclusion, the antiproliferative activity of fruit‐derived anthocyanins was improved in human cancer cell lines by the clinically used drug entacapone. The efficacy and mechanisms of entacapone/anthocyanin combinations should be carefully studied in vivo.
Antiobesity Effects of Purple Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. acuta) on Adipocyte Differentiation and Mice Fed a High‐fat Diet J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Shalom Sara Thomas; Mina Kim; Seung Je Lee; Youn‐Soo Cha
Purple perilla (PE) is a medicinal plant that has several health benefits. In this study, the antiobesity effect of PE was studied in 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes and C57BL/6J mice fed high‐fat diets. Triglyceride quantification and Oil Red O staining in matured adipocytes revealed that PE reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes by downregulating adipogenic gene and upregulating lipolytic gene expressions. Mice were fed normal diet, high‐fat diet and high‐fat diet supplemented with different concentrations of PE. Treatment with PE significantly prevented body weight gain, improved serum lipids, hepatic lipids and reduced the epididymal fat. Furthermore, in the adipose tissue and liver, expression of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid β‐oxidation were upregulated in PE‐ treated mice. Thus, our results suggested that PE has antiobesity effects in rodents and can be effective in obesity management.
Muscle‐Specific Mitochondrial Functionality and Its Influence on Fresh Beef Color Stability J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 30 July 20 Richard A. Mancini; Kaylin Belskie; Surendranath P. Suman; Ranjith Ramanathan
Fresh beef color stability is a muscle‐specific trait. Mitochondria remain biochemically active in postmortem beef muscles and influence meat color. Although several intrinsic factors governing muscle‐specific beef color have been studied extensively, the role of mitochondrial functionality in muscle‐dependent color stability is yet to be examined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial metmyoglobin reducing activity (MMRA), and instrumental color attributes in beef Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Psoas major (PM) during retail display. Using a split‐plot design, six (n = 6) beef LL and PM muscles were fabricated into 2.54‐cm‐thick steaks, packaged in polyvinylchloride overwrap, and randomly assigned to instrumental color measurement for six days and mitochondrial isolation for days 0, 1, 3, or 5 of display at 4 °C. Mitochondria isolated from steaks were used to assess the effects of muscle and display time on OCR and MMRA. The PM steaks were less color‐stable (p < 0.05) during display compared with the LL counterparts. For both muscles, OCR decreased during display, albeit the decrease was more rapid in PM than in the LL. Similarly, MMRA decreased during display for the LL and PM. However, this decrease was less (p < 0.05) for mitochondria from LL steaks, which were more resistant to display‐mediated effects on OCR and MMRA. These results indicated that the muscle‐specific differences in mitochondrial activity may contribute partially to the variations in color stability of beef LL and PM muscles.
Long‐Term Vitamin Stabilization in Low Moisture Products for NASA: Techniques and Three‐Year Vitamin Retention, Sensory, and Texture Results J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 30 July 20 Ann H. Barrett; Michelle J. Richardson; Danielle F. Froio; Lauren F. O' Connor; Danielle J. Anderson; Tshinanne V. Ndou
Multiyear spaceflight will require innovative strategies to preserve vitamins in foods, in order to retain astronaut health and functionality long‐term. Furthermore, space foods must be low weight/volume to comply with cargo restrictions, and must retain sensory quality to ensure consumption. Low water activity products were developed, fortified with vitamins A, B1, B9, C, and E at twice their spaceflight requirements, stored for three years at 21 °C and one year at 38 °C, and analyzed annually for retained vitamin content and organoleptic quality. The vitamins were encapsulated in carbohydrate or lipid coatings and tested in relatively low and high fat versions of compressed bars and powdered drink mix formulations. Susceptibility to degradation at 21 °C followed the sequence B9 > A > B1 > C > E; degradation rates were fitted to first‐order kinetics. Vitamins A and C were more sensitive at the higher storage temperature. Vitamin retention was slightly higher in compressed bars verses powders. Effects of matrix lipid level on stability were vitamin dependent. Sensory characteristics for products stored three years at 21 °C remained mostly above 6.0 on a 9‐point hedonic scale, whereas those stored for one year at 38 °C remained mostly above 5.0. Compressed bars firmed significantly during storage. All vitamin levels after three years at 21 °C remained above the space flight requirements, demonstrating the suitability of the selected fortification schemes and food matrices for long‐term preservation.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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