Analytical Method for Pesticides in Avocado and Papaya by Means of Ultra‐High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to a Triple Quadrupole Mass Detector: Validation and Uncertainty Assessment J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-14 Norma S. Pano‐Farias; Silvia G. Ceballos‐Magaña; Jose M. Jurado; Ismael A. Aguayo‐Villarreal; Roberto Muñiz‐Valencia
In this work, the uncertainty estimation for the determination of ametryn, carbofuran, atrazine, carbaryl, and methyl parathion in papaya and avocado is presented, along with other validation parameters. The analytical method was developed using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe extraction and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass detector. The method validation showed that the linear correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99 for both fruits. The limits of detection for avocado and papaya were in the range of 0.022 to 0.46 and 0.003 to 0.109 μg/g, respectively. Intermediate precision varied from 5.3% to 13.0% in papaya, and from 4.8% to 20.2% in avocado. Recoveries obtained for each pesticide in both matrices ranged between 61.3% and 119.0%. Matrix effect was calculated for all compounds in both fruits. Finally, the overall uncertainty was lower than 36% for both fruits.
Covalent Whey Protein–Rosmarinic Acid Interactions: A Comparison of Alkaline and Enzymatic Modifications on Physicochemical, Antioxidative, and Antibacterial Properties J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-14 Mostafa Ali; Julia K. Keppler; Tom Coenye; Karin Schwarz
The covalent interactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and rosmarinic acid (RosA) at two different conditions, alkaline (pH 9) and enzymatic (in the presence of tyrosinase, PPO), at room temperature with free atmospheric air were studied. The conjugates formed between WPI and RosA were characterized in terms of their physicochemical and functional properties. The changes in protein structure were analyzed by intrinsic fluorescence and binding of 8‐anilino‐1‐naphthalenesulfonic acid. The findings show that the covalent interactions caused a decrease in free amino and thiol groups and tryptophan content at both conditions. The decrease at enzymatic conditions was lower than at alkaline conditions. In addition, modified WPI at alkaline conditions exhibited higher antioxidative capacity compared to the modification at enzymatic conditions. However, WPI modified at enzymatic condition showed mild antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus LMG 10147 and MU50 compared to WPI modified at alkaline conditions and unmodified WPI (control). The modified WPI can be used as multifunctional ingredient into various food products with an additional health promoting effect of the bound phenolic compounds.
Coconut Milk and Coconut Oil: Their Manufacture Associated with Protein Functionality J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Umesh Patil; Soottawat Benjakul
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economic plant cultivated in tropical countries, mainly in the Asian region. Coconut fruit generally consists of 51.7% kernel, 9.8% water, and 38.5% shell. Coconut milk is commonly manufactured from grated coconut meat (kernel). Basically, coconut milk is an oil‐in‐water emulsion, stabilized by some proteins existing in the aqueous phase. Maximization of protein functionality as an emulsifier can enhance the coconut milk stability. In addition, some stabilizers have been added to ensure the coconut milk stability. However, destabilization of emulsion in coconut milk brings about the collapse of the emulsion, from which virgin coconut oil (VCO) can be obtained. Yield, characteristics, and properties of VCO are governed by the processes used for destabilizing coconut milk. VCO is considered to be a functional oil and is rich in medium chain fatty acids with health advantages.
Improving the Antimicrobial Power of Low‐Effective Antimicrobial Molecules Through Nanotechnology J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-06 María Ruiz‐Rico; Édgar Pérez‐Esteve; Cristina de la Torre; Ana I. Jiménez‐Belenguer; Amparo Quiles; María D. Marcos; Ramón Martínez‐Máñez; José M. Barat
The objective of this work was on the one hand to assess the antibacterial activity of amines anchored to the external surface of mesoporous silica particles against Listeria monocytogenes in comparison with the same dose of free amines as well. It was also our aim to elucidate the mechanism of action of the new antimicrobial device. The suitability of silica nanoparticles to anchor, concentrate and improve the antimicrobial power of polyamines against L. monocytogenes has been demonstrated in a saline solution and in a food matrix. Moreover, through microscope observations it has been possible to determine that the attractive binding forces between the positive amine corona on the surface of nanoparticles and the negatively charged bacteria membrane provoke a disruption of the cell membrane. The surface concentration of amines on the surface of the nanoparticles is so effective that immobilized‐amines were 100 times more effective in killing L. monocytogenes bacteria than the same amount of free polyamines. This novel approach for the creation of antimicrobial nanodevices opens the possibility to put in value the antimicrobial power of natural molecules that have been discarded because of its low antimicrobial power.
Antidiabetic Effect of High‐Chromium Yeast Against Type 2 Diabetic KK‐Ay Mice J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Lu Liu; Shu‐wen Zhang; Jing Lu; Xiao‐yang Pang; Jia‐ping Lv
High chromium yeast has attracted many researchers for its high efficiency and high safety among chromium supplements. The preventive effect of oral high‐chromium yeast on diabetes was assessed using KK‐AY mice. Sixteen‐wk‐old type 2 diabetic KK‐AY mice were divided into five groups and orally administered with two types of drying processed high‐chromium yeast, chromium picolinate at 1000 μg Cr/kg/d, metformin (positive control), and normal yeast (negative control) for 13 weeks. The spray‐dried high‐chromium yeast significantly delayed the onset of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic KK‐AY mice (P < 0.05) and significantly improved fasting blood glucose, TG(triglyceride), and TCHO(total cholesterol) . Histopathological analysis showed that the spray‐dried high‐chromium yeast led to high affinities for the stains to the β‐cells in the islets of Langerhans and alleviated hepatic steatosis. High‐chromium yeast could be a potential candidate for nutritional supplement to ameliorate diabetes.
Uptake and Transport Mechanism of Dihydromyricetin Across Human Intestinal Caco‐2 Cells J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Dong Xiang; Li Fan; Xiao‐long Hou; Wei Xiong; Chun‐yang Shi; Wen‐qing Wang; Jian‐guo Fang
A variety of beneficial pharmacological activities have been reported for dihydromyricetin (DMY), however, its oral bioavailability is poor and the intestinal absorption profiles of DMY remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake and transport mechanism of DMY in human intestinal Caco‐2 cells. DMY was detected using a liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry method. Several factors including time, concentration, pH, temperature and efflux transporters were systematically evaluated. DMY was poorly absorbed by a passive diffusion mechanism. The uptake and transport of DMY were time and concentration dependent. Interestingly, decreasing the pH from 8.0 to 6.0 markedly enhanced the DMY uptake, but didn't significantly affect its bidirectional transport. Efflux transporters, multidrug resistance protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein also influenced the DMY uptake and transport processes. This work details the uptake and transport characteristics of DMY and provides basis for future study.
Effects of in vitro Human Digestion on the Antioxidant Activity and Stability of Lycopene and Phenolic Compounds in Pork Patties Containing Dried Tomato Prepared at Different Temperatures J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Hyeong Sang Kim; Sun Jin Hur
The antioxidant activity can be changed during digestion. The effects of in vitro human digestion on the antioxidant activity and stability of tomato powders (TPs), dried at three different temperatures (60, 80, and 100 °C) and added to pork patties (1% TP by weight), were investigated. The pork patties with three TPs underwent in vitro human digestion with enterobacteria. Lycopene and individual phenolic compounds were analyzed by using HPLC. The highest total phenolic compounds (6.96 g/100 g) and lycopene concentrations (2.68 mg/100 g) were observed in pork patties with TP dried at 100 °C. In addition, antioxidant activity of pork patties containing TPs were measured during in vitro human digestion. Gallic acid (23.8 to 41.6 g/100 g), chlorogenic acid (11.2 to 25.7 g/100 g), and caffeic acid (11.1 to 21.7 g/100 g) were detected as the main phenolic compounds in the TPs. Lycopene, and total and individual phenolic compound contents increased with increasing drying temperatures. Moreover, in vitro human digestion increased the antioxidant activity of TP‐containing pork patties. The lycopene and total phenolics contents were increased during in vitro human digestion with enterobacteria by 146% to 220% and 1549% to 2095%, respectively as compared to the samples of before digestion. Hence, we hypothesized that the antioxidant activity of each TP increased during in vitro human digestion and depended on the amount of lycopene and phenolic compounds released. The TP dried at the highest temperature (100 °C) had the highest antioxidant activity in pork patties during in vitro human digestion.
Effect of Xanthan Gum/Soybean Fiber Ratio in the Batter on Oil Absorption and Quality Attributes of Fried Breaded Fish Nuggets J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Jinhui Shan; Jiwang Chen; Dan Xie; Wenshui Xia; Wei Xu; Youling L. Xiong
Xanthan gum (XG) and soybean fiber (SF) at varying ratios were incorporated into the batter to inhibit oil absorption in fried battered and breaded fish nuggets (BBFNs). BBFNs were prepared with 1.2% XG and SF blends (at ratios 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 w/w), fried at 170 °C (40 s) followed by 190 °C (30 s), then evaluated for pickup, oil absorption, textural characteristics, and other quality attributes. Compared with the control (without the addition of XG and SF), fried BBFNs prepared with XD and SF had a significantly reduced fat content (P < 0.05). Among all the treatments, fried BBFNs with a 1:2 w/w ratio of XG and SF had the lowest fat content in the crust and the core (16.2% and 0.6%, respectively) and the highest moisture content. When compared with other treatments, the 1:2 w/w treatment group displayed a more intense golden yellow color, higher crispness, lower hardness, and a more compact structure in the crust, a greater elasticity and chewiness of the core, and the least oil penetration. The results proved that the combined addition of XG and SF in the batter can effectively inhibit oil absorption, which may be used to guide the production of low‐fat fried BBFNs.
Enzymatic Modification of Rice Bran Polysaccharides by Enzymes from Grifola Frondosa: Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-25 Shiyao Liu; Xuhui Zhuang; Xiaolin Zhang; Wei Han; Yuchun Liu; Dongmei Sun; Weiqun Guo
Rice bran polysaccharides (RBPSs) are the major active constituents of rice bran (RB). In this study, we utilized intracellular enzymes from Grifola frondosa to modify RBPSs, which were extracted from RB using ultrasound. To enhance the effect on natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity of modified polysaccharides (mRBPSs) generated from RBPSs, an orthogonal test (L94) was employed to optimize the modification conditions. Based on the results of a single‐factor test, the enzyme to polysaccharide ratio, reaction temperature, reaction pH, and reaction time were the main factors affecting mRBPSs‐enhanced NK‐cell cytotoxicity. The best conditions were determined to be an enzyme to polysaccharide ratio of 1:5, a reaction temperature of 40 °C, a reaction pH of 4, and a reaction time of 4 hr. By optimizing the conditions, the NK‐cell cytotoxicity induced by mRBPSs6 was the highest, increasing by 12.01% ± 0.08%. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that mRBPSs6 consists of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose at a molar ratio of 7:21:6:5:53:48, which was 8:13:8:5:44:44 before modification. High‐performance liquid chromatography results indicated molecular weights for the RBPSs of approximately 106 Da, which decreased to 104 to 105 Da after modification. Antioxidant activity tests revealed high capacity of mRBPSs6 for scavenging 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl free radicals at 1.0 mg/mL.
Evaluation of Micronutrient Sensors for Food Matrices in Resource‐Limited Settings: A Systematic Narrative Review J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Anna W. Waller; Jennifer L. Lotton; Shashank Gaur; Jeanette M. Andrade; Juan E. Andrade
In resource‐limited settings, mass food fortification is a common strategy to ensure the population consumes appropriate quantities of essential micronutrients. Food and government organizations in these settings, however, lack tools to monitor the quality and compliance of fortified products and their efficacy to enhance nutrient status. The World Health Organization has developed general guidelines known as ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User‐friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment‐free, and Deliverable to end‐users) to aid the development of useful diagnostic tools for these settings. These guidelines assume performance aspects such as sufficient accuracy, reliability, and validity. The purpose of this systematic narrative review is to examine the micronutrient sensor literature on its adherence towards the ASSURED criteria along with accuracy, reliability, and validation when developing micronutrient sensors for resource‐limited settings. Keyword searches were conducted in three databases: Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus and were based on 6‐point inclusion criteria. A 16‐question quality assessment tool was developed to determine the adherence towards quality and performance criteria. Of the 2,365 retrieved studies, 42 sensors were included based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results showed that improvements to the current sensor design are necessary, especially their affordability, user‐friendliness, robustness, equipment‐free, and deliverability within the ASSURED criteria, and accuracy and validity of the additional criteria to be useful in resource‐limited settings. Although it requires further validation, the 16‐question quality assessment tool can be used as a guide in the development of sensors for resource‐limited settings.
Interactions with 8‐Anilinonaphthalene‐1‐Sulfoniac Acid (ANS) and Surface Hydrophobicity of Black Gram (Vigna mungo) Phaseolin J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Maithili Deshpande; S. K. Sathe
Surface hydrophobicity (SH) properties of the trimeric storage protein phaseolin (black gram phaseolin [BGP]) of black gram (Vigna mungo) were investigated using 8‐anilinonaphthalene‐1‐sulfonate (ANS) as an extrinsic fluorescent probe. The emission maxima of fluorescence spectra of BGP:ANS complex were blue‐shifted to 455 nm as compared to 515 nm for the free ANS. Saturation binding occurred at a dye‐to‐protein ratio of about 30:1. The quantum yield of the complex increased with increasing ionic strength. The Kd values were 1.7 × 10−5 and 1.37 × 10−5 M using fractional occupancy and Scatchard analysis, respectively. Analysis of the binding data using Klotz plot revealed 4 binding sites/protomer. SH of BGP was 48%, which rapidly decreased due to the perturbation of the binding sites as the protein unfolded in GdnHCl and urea. By varying processing conditions, it may be possible to alter the surface exposure of SH of BGP to extend its applications in novel food products with desired textural attributes.
Antitumor Perspectives of Oleuropein and Its Metabolite Hydroxytyrosol: Recent Updates J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Muhammad Imran; Muhammad Nadeem; Syed Amir Gilani; Shaista Khan; Muhammad Wasim Sajid; Rai Muhammad Amir
Olive fruit is a significant and promising source of potential bioactive compounds such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4‐dihydroxyphenyl ethanol (HT). It is the main glycoside in olives, the degradation of which results in the formation of hydroxytyrosol in olive oil. Both plays a significant role in the reduction of coronary heart diseases and a certain type of cancers. Both olive oil phenols have an effective role counter to cell proliferation, cell growth, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. They down regulate the expression of BCL‐2 and COX‐2 proteins, and reduced DNA damage. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein inhibited the multiple stages in colon carcinogenesis; initiation, promotion, and metastasis. They also provide protection against various human cancers including colorectal, skin, breast, thyroid, digestive, lung, brain, blood, and cervical. This review article discusses the anticancer perspectives and mechanisms of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in cell cultures and animal and human studies.
Incorporating Phage Therapy into WPI Dip Coatings for Applications on Fresh Whole and Cut Fruit and Vegetable Surfaces J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Erica L. Vonasek; Angela H. Choi; Juan Sanchez; Nitin Nitin
There is a significant unmet need to develop antimicrobial solutions to reduce the risk of contamination in fresh produce. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a potential approach for controlling foodborne pathogens. This study evaluated the combination of edible dip coatings with T7 bacteriophages on whole and cut produce. The evaluation includes an assessment of phage loading, phage storage stability, antimicrobial activity, and phage stability during simulated gastric digestion on sliced cucumbers, sliced apples, and whole cherry tomatoes. In this evaluation, phages coated on fresh produce using edible whey protein isolate (WPI) were compared with phages coated from an aqueous suspension (control coating). The results demonstrated that WPI coatings load more phages than the control and enhanced phage stability during cold storage (4 °C) for cut apples and whole cherry tomatoes. Phage stability decreased by 1 to 3 log(PFU) in a simulated gastric environment. Phage antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli BL21 decreased 2 to 4 log(CFU) of bacteria on cut apples and whole cherry tomatoes, while no significant bacterial reduction was observed for sliced cucumbers. Overall, the results show that WPI dip coating provides phage loading, stability, and antimicrobial activity to produce surfaces compared to the control coating, and thus may be considered an effective approach for extending phage therapy on fresh produce.
Migration of Water in Litopenaeus Vannamei Muscle Following Freezing and Thawing J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Qi Deng; Yaling Wang; Lijun Sun; Jianrong Li; Zhijia Fang; Ravi Gooneratne
Water and protein are major constituents of shrimp, any changes in protein and the state of water influence the quality of shrimp. Therefore, a study to examine the law of moisture migration and protein denaturation under different freezing and thawing conditions is important. The proton density images of thawed frozen‐shrimp revealed that the water loss during quick‐freezing was much greater than that during slow freezing or microfreezing. At room temperature (25 °C), the water loss from brine‐thawing was more than still‐water thawing and still‐water thawing was more than thawing spontaneously. Freezing‐thawing resulted in uniform water redistribution in shrimp muscle. Nuclear magnetic resonance technology (low field magnetic imaging) was used to directly monitor the dynamic processes of fluidity state in shrimp and indirectly monitor protein denaturation and thereby determine the optimal method of freezing‐thawing shrimp. Our research showed that microfreezing preservation minimized weight loss, juice leakage and protein denaturation in shrimp muscle during thawing.
Lactobacillus plantarum AR501 Alleviates the Oxidative Stress of D‐Galactose‐Induced Aging Mice Liver by Upregulation of Nrf2‐Mediated Antioxidant Enzyme Expression J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Xiangna Lin; Yongjun Xia; Guangqiang Wang; Zhiqiang Xiong; Hui Zhang; Fengxi Lai; Lianzhong Ai
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as ingredients of functional foods to promote health and prevent diseases because of their beneficial effects. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative effects of LAB on the hepatotoxicity in D‐galactose‐induced aging mice. LAB were isolated from the traditional Chinese fermented foods and screened by the tolerance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were subcutaneously injected with D‐galactose for 5 weeks and then gastric gavage with LAB for 6 weeks. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum AR113 and AR501, and Pediococcu pentosaceus AR243 could tolerate up to 1.5 mM H2O2 in vitro, and they could live through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to colonizing the GIT of host. In vivo, oral administration of L. plantarum AR113 and AR501 improved the antioxidant status of D‐galactose‐induced oxidative stress mice such as alleviated liver damages and reduced abnormal activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase to normal levels. In addition, L. plantarum AR501 markedly elevated the gene expression of nuclear factor erythroid‐2‐related factor 2 and upregulated the expressions of several antioxidant genes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione S‐transferase, glutamate‐cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate‐cysteine ligase modifier subunit, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in the liver of an aging mice. Therefore, L. plantarum AR501 could be a good candidate for producing antiaging functional foods.
Quality and Consumer Acceptance of Berry Fruit Pomace–Fortified Specialty Mustard J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Lissa Davis; Jooyeoun Jung; Ann Colonna; Aimee Hasenbeck; Virginia Gouw; Yanyun Zhao
Blueberry pomace (BP) and cranberry pomace (CP) are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolics. This study aimed to develop berry fruit pomace (FP)‐fortified specialty mustard with elevated bioactive compounds and ascertain consumer acceptance of a new product. Wet BP and CP were ground and incorporated into Dijon‐style mustard at concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w). Total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were evaluated for samples obtained from both chemical extraction (CE) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD). Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance were also examined. Increasing concentrations of BP or CP significantly increased TDF of mustards from both CE (AOAC methods) and SGD, with the highest values from 25% fortifications. TDF from AOAC ranged from 26.86% to 40.16% for BP and from 26.86% to 38.42% for CP, while TDF from SGD ranged from 31.02% to 42.68% for BP and 31.02% to 63.65% for CP. From CE, no significant variation of TPC was found, but RSA significantly increased with increasing concentration of BP and CP. TPC from SGD was higher than that from CE, where TPC decreased with increasing concentration of BP or CP. RSA from SGD was lower than that from CE. Sensory scores of pomace‐fortified samples were significantly lower than the control; however, informed panelists scored BP‐fortified mustard significantly higher on appearance and color liking than uninformed panelists. This study demonstrated that with proper marketing, the utilization of FP in condiments is a viable option for potential health benefits.
Detection and Verification of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes Using Flow Cytometry and Standard Plating J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 George Kwabena Afari; Yen‐Con Hung
The use of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water to inactivate microorganisms on foods has been extensively studied and shown to be effective. However, the prospect of the formation of “viable but nonculturable” (VBNC) cells in pathogens after low free chlorine concentration (FCC) treatments under high organic loads presents safety concerns. This study investigated the effect of EO water FCC on inducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes into the VBNC state and studied possible resuscitation triggering procedures of the VBNC cells. A 5‐strain cocktail of each pathogen (106 colony forming units [CFU]/mL) was exposed to EO water (FCC of 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 mg/L) and allowed to stand for 1 and 5 min, followed by the addition of neutralizing broth. Treated samples were plated on nonselective agar and analyzed using flow cytometry. For resuscitation, samples treated with identified VBNC induction conditions were exposed to elevated temperatures (37 °C) as well as addition of sodium pyruvate (SP) and Tween® 20 (T20) solutions. The initial culturing procedures suggested complete inactivation of both pathogens at 2.5 and 1.25 mg/L FCC in the growth medium. However, flow cytometry profiles showed VBNC cells were present. Subjecting samples to the recovery procedures further proved that VBNC E. coli O157:H7 can be resuscitated after exposure to SP and T20 at 37 °C, while L. monocytogenes did not resuscitate. These findings show that treating pathogens at low FCC can induce the VBNC state, and culturability of E. coli O157:H7 can be restored under appropriate conditions.
Enological Qualities and Interactions Between Native Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria from Queretaro, Mexico J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Dalia E. Miranda‐Castilleja; Ramón Á. Martínez‐Peniche; Montserrat Nadal Roquet‐Jalmar; J. Alejandro Aldrete‐Tapia; Sofía M. Arvizu‐Medrano
Despite the importance of strain compatibility, most of the enological strain selection studies are carried out separately on yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, the enological traits and interactions between native yeasts and LAB were studied. The H2S and acetic acid production, growth rates at 8 °C, killer phenotypes, flocculation, and tolerance to must and wine inhibitors were determined for 25 Saccharomyces yeasts. The ability to grow under two wine‐like conditions was also determined in 37 LAB (Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus plantarum). The yeast–LAB compatibility of selected strains was tested in a sequential scheme. Finally, microvinification trials were performed using two strains from each group to determine the efficiencies and quality parameters. The phenotypic characterization by the K‐means and hierarchical clusters indicated a correlation between flocculation and optical density increase in simulated must and wine medium (r = −0.415) and grouped the prominent yeasts SR19, SR26, and N05 as moderately flocculent, killer, acid producing, and highly tolerant strains. Among the LAB, L. plantarum FU39 grew 230% more than the rest. With regard to interactions, LAB growth stimulation (14‐fold on average) due to the previous action of yeasts, particularly of SR19, was observed. The final quality of all wines was similar, but yeast SR19 performed a faster and more efficient fermentation than did N05, Also L. plantarum FU39 fermented faster than did O. oeni VC32. The use of quantitative data, and multivariate analyses allowed an integrative approach to the selection of a compatible and efficient pair of enological yeast–LAB strains.
Intragastric Gelation of Heated Soy Protein Isolate‐Alginate Mixtures and Its Effect on Sucrose Release J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Zhaozhi Huang; Ingolf Gruen; Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti
The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS‐PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively. Increasing alginate concentration led to increased negative surface charge, particle size, as well as viscosity and pseudoplastic behavior; however, no phase separation was observed. SPI beverages formed intragastric gel during in vitro gastric digestion when the formulations contained alginate or at pH 6.0 without alginate. Formation of the intragastric gel led to delayed protein digestion and release of sucrose. Higher resistance to digestion and a slower sucrose release rate were exhibited at increased alginate concentration, and to a lesser extent, at pH 6.0. This suggests that electrostatic interaction between SPI and alginate that occurred when the beverages were under gastric condition could be responsible for the intragastric gelation. These results could potentially lead to the formulation of SPI beverages with functionality to lower postprandial glycemic response.
Sea Squirt Shell Protein and Polylactic Acid Laminated Films Containing Cinnamon Bark Essential Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Songee Beak; Hyeri Kim; Kyung Bin Song
Sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) shell protein (SSP) was used as a biodegradable film material and laminated with polylactic acid (PLA) to improve its physical and water barrier properties. Cinnamon bark oil (CBO) was incorporated into the SSP film as a bioactive material. After laminating with PLA, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the SSP film increased from 4.07 to 9.09 MPa and from 8.68 to 138.84%, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability and water solubility decreased from 5.62 to 0.91 × 10−9 g m/m2 s Pa and from 42.17% to 23.93%, respectively. DSC results of the SSP films indicate that melting point temperature increased 140.05 to 163.52 °C by laminating PLA. The addition of 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% CBO conferred the antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic bacteria to the SSP/PLA‐laminated films. The SSP/PLA‐laminated films containing CBO also had antioxidant activities. Therefore, the SSP/PLA‐laminated films containing CBO are applicable as biodegradable packaging films.
Immunoreactivity of Biochemically Purified Amandin from Thermally Processed Almonds (Prunus dulcis L.) J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Valerie D. Zaffran; Shridhar K. Sathe
Almond seeds were subjected to select thermal processing and amandin was purified from processed and unprocessed (control) seeds using cryoprecipitation. Amandin immunoreactivity was assessed using two murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)–4C10 and 4F10 detecting human IgE‐relevant conformational and linear epitopes, respectively. Overall amandin immunoreactivity following thermal treatment ranged from 64.9% to 277.8% (4C10) and 81.3% to 270.3% (4F10). Except for autoclaving (121 °C, 15 psi, 30 min) and roasting (160 °C, 30 min), the tested processing conditions resulted in increased immunoreactivity as determined by mAbs 4C10 and 4F10‐based enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A significant, yet not complete, reduction in immunoreactivity was caused by autoclaving (121 °C, 15 psi, 30 min) and roasting (160 °C, 30 min). Western‐ and dot‐blot immunoassays corroborated the ELISA results, confirming amandin thermal stability.
Serving Duplicates in a Single Session Can Selectively Improve Sensitivity of Duplicated Intensity Ranking Tests J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Kennet Mariano Carabante; Witoon Prinyawiwatkul
Duplicating ranking tests can improve the power of preference and sensory intensity tests, and reduce the number of panelists required. With multiple‐samples rankings, duplications could be served using different protocols: in two serving sessions (two sample sets, that is, 2SS) to allow a break period or jointly in one serving session (one sample set, that is, 1SS). Evaluating the duplicates in a single session improves statistical data analysis but increases concerns of sensory fatigue, adaptation, memory, and possible irritation. The extent to which each serving protocol for duplicated ranking affects detection of differences has not been reported. This study used panelists (n = 75) who performed both ranking test protocols on two sets of orange juice samples (k = 3). One set was designed to obtain higher similarity than the other set to investigate the effects of degree of difference. Sweetness and yellow color intensity rankings were performed separately for each set to compare the protocols between attributes. The magnitude of the differences was evaluated using Mack–Skillings (M–S) statistics, and the total and individual rank sum differences at varied n (10 to 75) values. With similar set samples, the 2SS serving protocol improved differentiation for yellow color intensity. Although in sweetness, using the 1SS serving protocol showed higher M–S statistics and higher sum of total rank sum differences. Paired comparisons followed the same pattern. With very different samples, both protocols had comparable performance. This study showed that serving duplicates in the 1SS can improve duplicated ranking's power, depending on the task difficulty and attribute, and should be considered before splitting replications into two sessions.
Are Processed Bilberry Products a Good Source of Phenolics? J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Zala Zorenc; Robert Veberic; Maja Mikulic‐Petkovsek
Bilberries are processed into different food products and beverages. Therefore, we studied how various bilberry items (puree, infusion, liqueur, and fresh and pasteurized juices) differ in secondary metabolites as compared to the fresh fruit. For this purpose, we identified phenolics with a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrophotometry (LC‐MS) system and compared phenolic profiles and phenolic contents in various bilberry products prepared from the same raw material. Our results show that processing significantly affected the biochemical pattern and levels of phenolics. Total analyzed phenolics decreased with processing, mostly due to anthocyanins, which had the highest share in phenolic profile of all bilberry‐based products. The highest differences among products in flavanol (63.7‐fold), followed by flavonol contents (26.3‐fold). Fresh fruits had the highest content of total anthocyanins (5,190 mg/100 g dry weight [DW]), followed by puree (2,719 mg/100 g DW), infusion (2,469 mg/100 g DW), and liqueur (1,830 mg/100 g DW), whereas fresh and pasteurized juices had the lowest content of total anthocyanins (921 and 1,099 mg/100 g DW).
Influence of Various Phenolic Compounds on Properties of Gelatin Film Prepared from Horse Mackerel Trachurus japonicus Scales J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Thuy Le; Hiroki Maki; Emiko Okazaki; Kazufumi Osako; Kigen Takahashi
Influence of various phenolic compounds on physical properties and antioxidant activity of gelatin film from horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus scales was investigated. Tensile strength (TS) of the film was enhanced whereas elongation at break was declined by adding 1% to 5% phenolic compounds. Rutin was the most effective to improve the TS compared to the other tested phenolic compounds including ferulic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and catechin. Gelatin films with the phenolic compounds showed the excellent UV barrier properties. FTIR spectra exhibited that wavenumber of amide‐A band of films decreased with formation of hydrogen bonding between amino groups of gelatin and hydroxyl groups of the phenolic compounds. Gelatin film incorporated with rutin which has the largest number of hydroxyl groups among the tested compounds demonstrated the lowest wavenumber for the amide‐A peak. It is indicated that hydroxyl groups contained in the phenolic compounds contribute to formation of hydrogen bonds involved in improvement of the mechanical properties of the films. The incorporation of the phenolic compounds with gelatin films also led to the increasing of total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Thus, it is concluded that phenolic compounds can promote the quality of gelatin film.
Effect of Goat and Cow Milk Ratios on the Physicochemical, Rheological, and Sensory Properties of a Fresh Panela Cheese J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Carolina Ramírez‐López; Jorge Fernando Vélez‐Ruiz
Fresh cheeses, Panela type, were manufactured from cow milk and with goat milk incorporation, constituting 4 blends of milks (G10:C90, G20:C80, G30:C70, G40:C60, v/v). The cheeses were analyzed to determine the effect of the different goat milk ratios on the physicochemical, textural, rheological, and sensory properties over 15 d of storage. Significant differences in protein (14.6% to 18.5%), fat (13.0% to 19.4%), and moisture contents (51.7% to 61.3%), pH (6.38 to 6.67), color (Lh > 64.4, ah > 1.06, bh > 5.14), textural (σf > 14.8 kPa, εC: 0.77 to 0.79, elasticity modulus > 13.5 kPa), and rheological parameters (G′ > G′′, G′: 10.6 to 31.9 kPa, G′′: 2.39 to 7.31 kPa, tan δ: 0.21 to 0.24) were detected as a function of the milks ratio, as well as a function of the storage time. The incorporation of goat milk improved the overall quality in the formulation of Panela cheese, enhancing the texture, flavor and aroma, commonly associated with hand‐crafted cheeses when they are used in the proper ratio. Furthermore, the nutritional value of the cheese is increased with the incorporation of goat milk, which can contribute to a better consumer health.
Comparison of Antioxidant Constituents of Agriophyllum squarrosum Seed with Conventional Crop Seeds J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Hai ‐Yan Xu; Hua‐Chuan Zheng; Hui ‐Wen Zhang; Jin‐Yu Zhang; Chao‐Mei Ma
Twelve chemical constituents were identified from the Agriophyllum squarrosum seed (ASS). ASS contained large amounts of flavonoids, which were more concentrated in the seed coat. ASS‐coat (1 g) contained 335.7 μg flavonoids of rutin equivalent, which was similar to the flavonoid content in soybean (351.2 μg/g), and greater than that in millet, wheat, rice, peanut, and corn. By LC‐MS analysis, the major constituents in ASS were 3‐O‐[α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl‐(1→6)‐β‐D‐ glucopyranosyl]‐7‐ O‐(β‐D‐glucopyranosyl)‐quercetin (1), rutin (4), quercetin‐3‐O‐β‐D‐ apiosyl(1→2)‐[α‐L‐rhamnosyl(l→6)]‐β‐D‐glucoside (2), isorhamnetin‐3‐O‐rutinoside (5), and allantoin (3), compared with isoflavonoids‐genistin (16), daidzin (14), and glycitin (18) in soybean. Among constituents in ASS, compounds 1, 2, 4, protocatechuic acid (8), isoquercitrin (11), and luteolin‐6‐C‐glucoside (12) potently scavenged DPPH radicals and intracellular ROS; strongly protected against peroxyl radical‐induced DNA scission; and upregulated Nrf2, phosphorylated p38, phosphorylated JNK, and Bcl‐2 in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that ASS is rich in antioxidant constituents that can enrich the varieties of food flavonoids, with significant beneficial implications for those who suffer from oxidative stress‐related conditions.
Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Cell‐Free Supernatants on Modulation of Mucin and Cytokine Secretion on Human Intestinal Epithelial HT29‐MTX Cells J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Murphy Lam‐Yim Wan; Zhijian Chen; Nagendra P. Shah; Hani El‐Nezami
This study examined modulation effects of cell‐free supernatants of two commonly studied probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on mucin and cytokine profiles of human intestinal epithelial HT29‐MTX cells. It was found that LGG and EcN supernatants differentially modulated MUC5AC and MUC5B mRNA and protein, and total mucin‐like glycoprotein secretion. Regarding modulation of cytokine profiles, LGG supernatants moderately influenced the secretion of anti‐inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)‐4, IL‐5, and IL‐10, while those of EcN exerted a broad proinflammatory effect to intestinal epithelial cells by inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL‐8, monocyte chemotactic protein‐1, transforming growth factor α, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte macrophage colony‐stimulating factor, and interferon γ. These results suggested that LGG and EcN might produce different bioactive products that display differential modulation of mucin and cytokines, which may contribute to intestinal health and/or defense against bacteria/pathogens.
Nutritional Quality and Physical Characteristics of Soluble Proteins Recovered from Silver Carp J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 Derek Warren; Ilgin Paker; Jacek Jaczynski; Kristen E. Matak
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality and physical characteristics of soluble proteins separated from silver carp at 4, 20, and 40 °C. Ground silver carp was diluted, and soluble proteins were separated by centrifugation and dried. The proximate composition (dry wt) of the protein powders averaged 82.42% protein, 3.25% lipid, and 14.50% ash. Average protein recovery yield was 11.78% with the better yields occurring at 20 °C (P < 0.05). Mineral profile revealed greater concentrations of Fe, Mg, P, and Na when compared to the initial homogenate. More saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were recovered in the 4 °C powder and the least in the 40 °C powder (P < 0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acids displayed a reverse trend, with the greatest concentration in the 40 °C powder and the least in the 4 °C powder (P < 0.05). The amino acid profile revealed that the protein powder met all FAO/WHO/UNO amino acid requirements for adults. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) revealed high amounts of low and medium molecular weight (MW) proteins (10–15 and 25–50 kDa, respectively). Two‐dimensional (2‐D) electrophoresis indicated that the low MW proteins possessed a neutral isoelectric point relative to that of the medium MW proteins. The protein powder was significantly less soluble (P < 0.05) than whey protein concentrate 80 at every pH tested (pH 3.0 to 11.0). Similar tendencies were seen when ionic strength was shifted (0.0 to 1.1 I; P < 0.05). Soluble protein powders derived from silver carp are nutrient rich and have physical characteristics resembling whey protein concentrate. Changes in process temperature had limited effects on protein powder composition.
Layer‐by‐Layer Alginate and Fungal Chitosan Based Edible Coatings Applied to Fruit Bars J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 Cristina Bilbao‐Sainz; Bor‐Sen Chiou; Kaylin Punotai; Donald Olson; Tina Williams; Delilah Wood; Victor Rodov; Elena Poverenov; Tara McHugh
Food waste is currently being generated at an increasing rate. One proposed solution would be to convert it to biopolymers for industrial applications. We recovered chitin from mushroom waste and converted it to chitosan to produce edible coatings. We then used layer‐by‐layer (LbL) electrostatic deposition of the polycation chitosan and the polyanion alginate to coat fruit bars enriched with ascorbic acid. The performance of the LbL coatings was compared with those containing single layers of fungal chitosan, animal origin chitosan and alginate. Bars containing alginate‐chitosan LbL coatings showed increased ascorbic acid content, antioxidant capacity, firmness and fungal growth prevention during storage. Also, the origin of the chitosan did not affect the properties of the coatings.
Authentication of Small Berry Fruit in Fruit Products by DNA Barcoding Method J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-29 Yajun Wu; Meige Li; Yange Yang; Li Jiang; Mingchang Liu; Bin Wang; Yingchun Wang
Small berry fruit products are gaining an expanded market due to their high nutrition value. However, the authenticity of products is challenged by adulteration and mislabeling. To establish an accurate and robust method for identifying both known and unknown fruit species in small berry fruit products, DNA barcoding technology based on Sanger sequencing was adopted. To overcome the influence of processing conditions on DNA recovery, mini‐barcodes of rbcL and ITS and a medium‐barcode of psbA‐trnH were applied. To identify ingredients in products containing mixed species, plasmid cloning was applied to separate mixed barcodes. The method established in this paper could detect 1% to 10% target species in mixed fruit juice.
Far‐Infrared Optimization of the Fragrance‐Improving Process with Temperature and Humidity Control for Green Tea J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-28 Jin‐Jie Hua; Hai‐Bo Yuan; Yu‐Liang Deng; Yong‐Wen Jiang; Jin‐Jin Wang; Chun‐Wang Dong; Jia Li
In this study, a Box–Behnken design was used to explore the effect of a new technology on green tea fragrance improvement and to optimize fragrance‐improving with a bilayer far‐infrared fragrance‐improving machine with temperature and humidity control. Based on the results of previous single‐factor experiments, the main biochemical composition and sensory evaluation scores of the fragrance‐improved samples were used as investigation indices. The new fragrance‐improving technology was compared with the traditional far‐infrared fragrance‐improving process, roller pot fragrance improvement, and hot air rotary fragrance improvement. The results show that the optimal parameter combination of the new technology consists of a temperature of 128.00 °C, relative humidity of 70.00 g/h, and transmission speed of 435.00 r/min. With these process parameters, the amino acids, tea polyphenols, flavonoids, soluble sugar, catechins, and caffeine in the fragrance‐improved samples reached 3.86%, 32.29%, 5.59%, 4.45%, 8.97%, and 2.75%, respectively. The quality material weight value was 11.72%. The shape, color, taste, and aroma of the fragrance‐improved samples made using these parameters were found to be best, with a sensory quality score of 87.40, which is significantly higher than that of other fragrance‐improving methods. The energy consumption was 0.19 RMB/kg, which was reduced by more than 50% compared with the other methods, and the production efficiency was more than 30% higher than the traditional methods. This new far‐infrared fragrance‐improving technology overcomes the yellowish and grayish color of fragrance‐improved tea samples that is caused by the traditional fragrance‐improving approach, and will provide technical guidance for actual green tea production.
Identification and Quantification of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant Activity, and Bile Acid‐Binding Capacity of Garnet Stem Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Maricella K. Gomez; Jashbir Singh; Pratibha Acharya; G. K. Jayaprakasha; Bhimanagouda S. Patil
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) var. Garnet Stem was harvested from Texas and New Jersey for identification, quantification of phytochemicals, measurement of free radical scavenging activity, and bile acid binding capacity. The red midrib and petioles were extracted with methanol or ethanol and with or without water in combination with four different acids such as formic, hydrochloric, acetic, and citric acid. LC‐ESI‐HR‐QTOF‐MS was used to identify four anthocyanins including cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, cyanidin‐3‐(6‐malonyl)‐glucoside (A‐1), cyanidin‐3‐(6‐malonyl)‐glucoside (A‐2), and peonidin‐3‐(malonyl)‐glucoside for the 1st time. In New Jersey samples, vitamin C and β‐carotene were highest in the leaf blades versus whole leaf and petioles. Samples from Texas had highest amount of lutein, violaxanthin, and chlorophyll a and b in leaf blades versus whole leaf and petioles. Maximum DPPH free scavenging activity was found in MeOH: water: acid (80:19:1) and the combination of FA with EtOH: water: acid (80:19:1) demonstrated the higher level of total phenolic. Among six bile acids, sodium chenodeoxycholate was bound maximum in both Texas and New Jersey samples. This is the first report of anthocyanin identification from the midvein and petiole of Garnet Stem dandelion and results suggested that the phytochemicals and nutrients are highest in the leaf but may vary the amount depending on harvest location.
Progress on the Antimicrobial Activity Research of Clove Oil and Eugenol in the Food Antisepsis Field J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Qiao Hu; Meifang Zhou; Shuyong wei
As potential and valuable antiseptics in the food industry, clove oil and its main effective composition eugenol show beneficial advantages on antibacterial and antifungal activity, aromaticity, and safety. Researches find that both clove oil and eugenol express significantly inhibitory effects on numerous kinds of food source microorganisms, and the mechanisms are associated with reducing the migratory and adhesion and inhibiting the synthesis of biofilm and various virulence factors of these microorganisms. Clove oil and eugenol are generally regarded as safe in vivo experiments. However, they may express certain cytotoxicity on fibroblasts and other cells in vitro. Studies on the quality and additive standard of clove oil and eugenol should be strengthened to promote the antiseptic effects of them in the food antiseptic field.
Surface Modification Mechanism of Cross‐Linking and Acetylation, and Their Influence on Characteristics of High Amylose Corn Starch J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Hongbo Tang; Yefang Qu; Yanping Li; Siqing Dong
Through dual modification of high amylose corn starch (HACS), the surface modification mechanism of cross‐linking and acetylation was mainly studied, and their effect on the physicochemical properties of HACS was further investigated. The variation in surface hydroxyl numbers showed that the influence of acetylation on the structure of particles was obviously different from cross‐linking. Cross‐linking was carried out only on the granule surface, whereas acetylation was finished not only on the surface but also in the interior of grains. Cross‐linking could unevenly produce many micropores on the particle surface. The destruction level of HACS granules caused by acetylation was greater than that of cross‐linking according to XRD. The surface hydroxyl groups were not distributed evenly on HACS particles. Cross‐linking did not improve the freeze‐thaw stability of HACS, but acetylation could improve its freeze‐thaw stability. The variation in the blue value caused by cross‐linking was more than by acetylation.
Detection of Enterotoxin Genes and Methicillin‐Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Water Buffalo Milk and Dairy Products J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Erdem Saka; Goknur Terzi Gulel
The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from water buffalo milk and dairy products. A total of 200 samples (100 raw milk, 50 clotted cream, and 50 cheese samples) was collected from different dairy farms and smallholders in Samsun, Turkey. All samples were analyzed using the standard procedure EN ISO 6888‐1 and isolates were confirmed for the presence of the target 16S rRNA specific for Staphylococcus genus specific and nuc gene specific for S. aureus species by PCR. S. aureus was identified in 30 of 100 milk (30%), 9 of 50 clotted cream (18%), and 17 of 50 cheese (34%) samples. A total of 99 isolates was confirmed as S. aureus. Genotypic methicillin resistance was evaluated using PCR for the mecA gene. Out of 99 isolates, nine (9%) were found to be methicillin resistant (mecA gene positive). Twelve out of 99 (12%) S. aureus isolates were found positive for one or more genes encoding the enterotoxins. The gene coding for enterotoxin, sea, was the most frequent (five isolates, 41.6%), followed by sec (two isolates, 16.6%), sed (1 isolates, 8.3%) and see (1 isolate, 8.3%). While three isolates (25%) contained both sec and sed, none of the samples was positive for seb. In conclusion, the presence of se gene‐positive and methicillin‐resistant S. aureus in buffalo milk and products revealed that consumption of these products is a potential risk of foodborne infection in this region.
Effect of Emulsification Method and Particle Size on the Rate of in vivo Oral Bioavailability of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Ai Mun Cheong; Chin Ping Tan; Kar Lin Nyam
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil‐in‐water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta‐cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil‐in‐water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil‐in‐water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α‐tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil‐in‐water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and <3), suggesting that it can be fortified into beverages within this pH range
Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Perlite Beads for the Decontamination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Marjan Foroughi; Mahboobe Sarabi Jamab; Javad Keramat; Mahsa Foroughi
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination presents one of the most serious concerns in milk safety. In this study, the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to detoxify AFM1‐contaminated milk. The yeasts were immobilized on perlite for 24 and 48 hr, and the best immobilization time was achieved at 48 hr. Microscopic examination confirmed successful immobilization. The milk samples with 0.08, 0.13, 0.18, and 0.23 ppb AFM1 contamination were passed through the biofilter for 20, 40, and 80 min. The results showed a significant reduction in AFM1 concentration for all the milk samples with various initial AFM1 contents. The contaminated milk with 0.08 ppb AFM1 was completely cleared after 40 min of circulation while for the milk solution with 0.23 ppb, the highest AFM1 reduction was obtained at about 81.3% after 80 min circulation. In addition, the biofilter was saturated after the third step of milk circulation, containing 0.23 ppb AF, in which each step duration was 20 min. This study showed the excellent capability of the immobilized cells on the perlite beads to detoxify the AFM1‐contaminated milk without any side effects on its physicochemical properties.
Effect of a Sodium Alginate Coating Infused with Tea Polyphenols on the Quality of Fresh Japanese Sea Bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) Fillets J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Xiaobao Nie; Lihong Wang; Qi Wang; Jilin Lei; Wanshu Hong; Baosheng Huang; Changfeng Zhang
Sodium alginate (SA) and tea polyphenols (TP) are natural preservatives commonly used in the food industry, including the production of fish products. The effect of SA coating infused with TP on the quality of fresh Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets was evaluated over a 20‐day period at 4 °C. SA (1.5%, w/v) or TP (0.5%, w/v) treatment alone, and the SA coating infused with TP (SA‐TP) all reduced microbial counts, with the SA‐TP providing the greatest effect. Fish fillet samples treated with SA‐TP had significantly lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, and protein decomposition during the storage period, relative to the remaining treatments. The samples treated with SA‐TP had the highest sensory quality rating as well. Collectively, sodium alginate coating infused with tea polyphenols may represent a promising treatment for preservation of Japanese sea bass fillets during cold storage.
Current and Future Technologies for Microbiological Decontamination of Cereal Grains J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Agata Los; Dana Ziuzina; Paula Bourke
Cereal grains are the most important staple foods for mankind worldwide. The constantly increasing annual production and yield is matched by demand for cereals, which is expected to increase drastically along with the global population growth. A critical food safety and quality issue is to minimize the microbiological contamination of grains as it affects cereals both quantitatively and qualitatively. Microorganisms present in cereals can affect the safety, quality, and functional properties of grains. Some molds have the potential to produce harmful mycotoxins and pose a serious health risk for consumers. Therefore, it is essential to reduce cereal grain contamination to the minimum to ensure safety both for human and animal consumption. Current production of cereals relies heavily on pesticides input, however, numerous harmful effects on human health and on the environment highlight the need for more sustainable pest management and agricultural methods. This review evaluates microbiological risks, as well as currently used and potential technologies for microbiological decontamination of cereal grains.
Development of a Chlorine Dosing Strategy for Fresh Produce Washing Process to Maintain Microbial Food Safety and Minimize Residual Chlorine J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Xi Chen; Yen‐Con Hung
The residual free chlorine level in fresh produce wash solution is closely correlated to the chemical and microbial safety of produce. Excess amount of free chlorine can quickly react with organic matters to form hazardous disinfection by‐products (DBPs) above EPA‐permitted levels, whereas deficiency of residual chlorine in produce wash solution may result in incompletely removing pathogens on produce. The purpose of this study was to develop a chlorine dosing strategy to optimize the chlorine dosage during produce washing process without impacting the microbial safety of fresh produce. Prediction equations were developed to estimate free chlorine needed to reach targeted residual chlorine at various sanitizer pH and organic loads, and then validated using fresh‐cut iceberg lettuce and whole strawberries in an automated produce washer. Validation results showed that equations successfully predicted the initial chlorine concentration needed to achieve residual chlorine at 10, 30, 60, and 90 mg/L for both lettuce and strawberry washing processes, with the root mean squared error at 4.45 mg/L. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 reductions only slightly increased on iceberg lettuce and strawberries with residual chlorine increasing from 10 to 90 mg/L, indicating that lowering residual chlorine to 10 mg/L would not compromise the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine‐based sanitizer. Based on the prediction equations and E. coli O157:H7 reduction results, a chlorine dosing strategy was developed to help the produce industry to maintain microbial inactivation efficacy without adding excess amount of free chlorine.
Plasticizers and BPA Residues in Tunisian and Italian Culinary Herbs and Spices J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Giuseppa Di Bella; Hedi Ben Mansour; Asma Ben Tekaya; Asma Beltifa; Angela Giorgia Potortì; Emanuele Saiya; Giovanni Bartolomeo; Giacomo Dugo; Vincenzo Lo Turco
In the present study, 18 plasticizers and residues in 10 different Tunisian and Italian culinary herbs and spices (black pepper, mint, caraway, coriander, oregano, rosemary, thyme, fennel, verbena, and laurel) were determined by GC/MS. Di‐methylphthalate, di‐(2‐methylpropyl)adipate, di‐n‐butyladipate, di‐propylphthalate, benzylbenzoate, di‐phenylphthalate, and bisphenol A were lower than their LOQ in all 118 samples. Among the Tunisian samples, di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)phthalate was found in all types of samples and di‐butylphthalate in 50% of types; all other phthalates were rarely dectected. Among the adipates, only di‐methyladipate was found in 90% of types; di‐ethyladipate was seldom found and di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)adipate only in samples of caraway. Di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)terephthalate was found in all types of samples; di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)sebacate was detected rarely but with high values. Among the Sicilian samples, di‐ethylphthalate and di‐(2‐methylpropyl)phthalate were detected only in samples of mint; di‐methyladipate, di‐butylphthalate, and benzylbutylphthalate were identified in oregano and laurel; di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)terephthalate and di‐(2‐ethylhexyl)sebacate only in oregano. In any case, the results suggested that intake of these contaminants through spices and herbs is not a dangerous risk to the consumers. Probably, as already observed for the other food, these contaminants could result from pollution of the environment (air, water, and/or soil) and/or farming methods.
Cysteamine‐Modified Gold Nanoparticles as a Colorimetric Sensor for the Rapid Detection of Gentamicin J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Joshua C. Gukowsky; Chen Tan; Zexiang Han; Lili He
A simple, rapid, and specific colorimetric method for gentamicin detection using cysteamine‐modified gold nanoparticles (cys‐AuNPs) has been developed. The maximum residue limits of gentamicin allowed in foods are typically below 100 nM, so an effective detection method for low concentrations of the drug is required. The aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was used as the basis for this method, and adding cysteamine to the AuNPs helped to enhance their aggregative abilities. The cys‐AuNPs are capable of detecting gentamicin concentrations as low as 12.45 nM in water, which could be quantified using UV‐vis spectroscopy. Samples extracted from skim milk with a simple pretreatment showed that gentamicin concentrations down to at least 100 nM could be observed using the cys‐AuNPs. This study demonstrates the ability of the cys‐AuNPs to rapidly detect and quantify gentamicin in both simple and complex matrices.
Effect of Canning and Freezing on the Nutritional Content of Apricots J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Erin Claire Adkison; William B. Biasi; Veronique Bikoba; Dirk M. Holstege; Elizabeth J. Mitcham
The effect of commercial canning and freezing on the nutritional content of fresh apricots was investigated. Processed samples were analyzed post‐processing and after 3 months of storage and compared directly to fresh apricots from the same source. Vitamin C, beta‐carotene, total phenols, and antioxidants were quantified. Compared to fresh, canned apricots initially exhibited similar levels of antioxidants, a 17% increase in beta‐carotene, and a 48% increase in phenols, while vitamin C was reduced by 37%. After 3 months of storage, antioxidant levels were 47% higher than fresh. Vitamin C did not change significantly following storage and beta‐carotene decreased by 15%. The canned apricot fruit packed in light syrup did not have higher total soluble solids (TSS) levels indicating no increase in fruit sugar content. Frozen apricots exhibited large increases in antioxidants (529%), beta‐carotene (35%), vitamin C (3,370%), and phenols (406%) compared to fresh. After 3 months of storage, frozen apricots decreased in vitamin C (29%) and phenols (17%), but remained 2,375% and 318% higher than fresh, respectively. Beta‐carotene increased during storage, reaching levels 56% higher than fresh while antioxidant activity was unchanged. This study demonstrates that key nutrients in canned and frozen apricots are retained or amplified upon processing, with the exception of vitamin C in canned apricots. The routine addition of citric and ascorbic acid to fruit prior to freezing resulted in significantly higher antioxidants, vitamin C, and phenols. Consumers eating canned or frozen apricots can feel confident of similar or superior nutritional content as compared to fresh apricots.
High Intensity Ultrasound for Salmonella Enteritidis Inactivation in Culture and Liquid Whole Eggs J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Chayapa Techathuvanan; Doris Helen D'Souza
High intensity ultrasound (HIU) continues to be researched as a nonthermal inactivation technology of appeal to food manufacturers. The advantages of HIU include maintenance of product quality, freshness, product homogenization, along with simultaneous inactivation of pathogens. Besides, it is simple, relatively inexpensive, and easily adaptable to most processing environments. This study investigated the effect of HIU for Salmonella Enteritidis inactivation in culture and liquid whole eggs (LWEs) to decrease egg‐associated outbreaks. Overnight S. Enteritidis cultures and spiked LWE (both at 8 log CFU/mL) were treated with 20‐kHz HIU for 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30 min (n = 6) in a temperature‐controlled system, not to exceed 20 °C, and replicated thrice. At each time point, samples were enumerated on XLT4 agar and morphologically analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, with measurements of color and rheological properties. Our results revealed significant reduction of healthy S. Enteritidis cells up to 3.6 log CFU/mL and 2.3 log CFU/25 mL after HIU treatment of merely 10 min of overnight culture and 30 min in LWE, respectively (P < 0.05). After 5 and 10‐min HIU treatment, significant reduction of 1.4‐log CFU/25 mL healthy S. Enteritidis in LWE was obtained (P < 0.05). Even at 1‐min exposure time, HIU showed significant 1.9 log CFU/mL reduction of cultures (P < 0.05); however, no log‐reduction was observed in LWE after 1 min. Scanning electron micrographs showed increased cell structural damage using longer HIU exposure. For product color changes, lower redness and yellowness of LWE were observed visually and instrumentally after 5‐min HIU treatment (P < 0.05). The rheological properties of LWE measured at 0 to 200 s−1 shear rate, showed that shear stress of HIU‐treated LWEs decreased after 5‐min HIU exposure, but increased after 30‐min treatment. This study demonstrated that HIU shows promise for rapid Salmonella control in LWE and other liquid foods, as an alternative inactivation method for use in hurdle approaches.
Spray‐Drying of Milk–Blackberry Pulp Mixture: Effect of Carrier Agent on the Physical Properties of Powder, Water Sorption, and Glass Transition Temperature J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Matheus Boeira Braga; Sandra Cristina dos Santos Rocha; Miriam Dupas Hubinger
Spray dryer was used to produce particles from a milk–blackberry pulp mixture (25%:75% (w/w)). Maltodextrin 10DE and 20DE and gum Arabic were used as adjuvants in order to improve powder quality. The particles were analyzed with emphasis on physical and physicochemical characteristics: moisture content, bulk density, particle size, morphology, water activity, anthocyanins retention, anthocyanins content, hygroscopicity, solubility, water sorption, and glass transition temperature. The best results were obtained for the paste composition of 25% concentrated milk‐70% blackberry pulp‐5% gum Arabic, yielding high anthocyanins retention (>87.5%), low powder moisture content of 0.0265 g H2O/g dry matter and a higher powder solubility (>71.8%) when compared with other formulations. The increase of water content led to a decrease of powder's glass transition temperature. Powder stability was evaluated and the critical values of relative humidity and moisture content were estimated based on state diagrams of glass transition combined with sorption isotherm data.
Muffins Elaborated with Optimized Monoglycerides Oleogels: From Solid Fat Replacer Obtention to Product Quality Evaluation J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Anabella S. Giacomozzi; María E. Carrín; Camila A. Palla
This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using oleogels from high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and monoglycerides as solid fat replacers in a sweet bakery product. Firstly, a methodology to obtain oleogels with desired properties based on mathematical models able to describe relationships between process and product characteristics variables followed by multi‐objective optimization was applied. Later, muffins were prepared with the optimized oleogels and their physicochemical and textural properties were compared with those of muffins formulated using a commercial margarine (Control) or only HOSO. Furthermore, the amount of oil released from muffins over time (1, 7, and 10 days) was measured to evaluate their stability. The replacement of commercial margarine with the optimized oleogels in muffin formulation led to the obtention of products with greater spreadability, higher specific volume, similar hardness values, and a more connected and homogeneous crumb structure. Moreover, these products showed a reduction of oil migration of around 50% in contrast to the Control muffins after 10 days of storage, which indicated that the optimized oleogels can be used satisfactorily to decrease oil loss in this sweet baked product. Fat replacement with the optimized monoglycerides oleogels not only had a positive impact on the quality of the muffins, but also allowed to improve their nutritional profile (without trans fat and low in saturated fat).
A Simple and Portable Screening Method for Adulterated Olive Oils Using the Hand‐Held FTIR Spectrometer and Chemometrics Tools J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Meng Pan; Suqin Sun; Qun Zhou; Jianbo Chen
Extra virgin olive oil has been one of the most common targets for economically motivated food adulteration. This research employed the hand‐held FTIR spectrometer to develop the simple and portable screening methods for extra virgin olive oils adulterated with other cheaper vegetable oils. With the help of the ATR probe and chemometrics tools, oil samples can be measured directly without any pretreatment, then the spectra can be interpreted automatically to determine the possibility of adulteration and estimate the content of adulterant oil. A feasibility study of the hand‐held FTIR screening method was carried out using olive oils adulterated with canola oil, peanut oil, corn oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. The SIMCA model using the hand‐held FTIR spectra can identify different kinds of vegetable oils correctly and recognize olive oils with not less than 10% of adulterant oils. Meanwhile, the content of adulterant oil in the range of 5% to 45% can be estimated by the PLS model using the hand‐held FTIR spectra within an error of 3%. This research shows the potential of the hand‐held FTIR technique in the rapid and field screening of olive oils adulterated with some cheaper vegetable oils.
Isolation and Characterization of Wheat Derived Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein 2 (nsLTP2) J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Sara Bosi; Jessica Fiori; Giovanni Dinelli; Neil Rigby; Emanuela Leoncini; Cecilia Prata; Valeria Bregola; Ilaria Marotti; Roberto Gotti; Marina Naldi; Luca Massaccesi; Marco Malaguti; Paul Kroon; Silvana Hrelia
Numerous studies support the protective role of bioactive peptides against cardiovascular diseases. Cereals represent the primary source of carbohydrates, but they also contain substantial amounts of proteins, therefore representing a potential dietary source of bioactive peptides with nutraceutical activities. The analysis of wheat extracts purified by chromatographic techniques by means of HPLC‐UV/nanoLC‐nanoESI‐QTOF allowed the identification of a signal of about 7 kDa which, following data base searches, was ascribed to a nonspecific lipid‐transfer protein (nsLTP) type 2 from Triticum aestivum (sequence coverage of 92%). For the first time nsLTP2 biological activities have been investigated. In particular, in experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), nsLTP2 displayed antioxidant and cytoprotective activities, being able to significantly decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and to reduce lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, generated following oxidative (hydrogen peroxide) and inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin‐1β, and lipopolysaccharide) stimulation. The obtained promising results suggest potential protective role of nsLTP2 in vascular diseases prevention.
The Influence of Scalded Flour, Fermentation, and Plants Belonging to Lamiaceae Family on the Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Content J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Elena Bartkiene; Vadims Bartkevics; Vita Krungleviciute; Iveta Pugajeva; Daiva Zadeike; Grazina Juodeikiene; Dalia Cizeikiene
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of additives such as plants belonging to Lamiaceae family (Thymus vulgaris, Carum carvi, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum), scalded flour (SF) or scalded flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 (SFFLp) on the quality and acrylamide formation in wheat bread. The formation of acrylamide and bread quality significantly depended on the king of plants used and the amount of SF and SFFLp used. The additives of T. vulgaris and SF increased the content of acrylamide by 3.4‐fold in comparison with bread prepared without SF, whereas the addition of SFFLp significantly reduced the content of acrylamide in bread, especially using 5% of SFFLp supplemented with O. vulgare and 15% of SFFLp supplemented with C. sativum (respectively by 40% and 29.4%) therefore could be recommended for safer bread production.
Effect of Meat Type, Animal Fatty Acid Composition, and Isothermal Temperature on the Viscoelastic Properties of Meat Batters J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Seline Glorieux; Liselot Steen; Jos De Brabanter; Imogen Foubert; Ilse Fraeye
The aim of this research was to simultaneously study the effect of meat type (chicken breast and leg meat), animal fatty acid composition (selected pork backfats having a low and high degree of saturation, respectively), and isothermal temperature (50, 60, 70, and 80 °C) on the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during and after application of different time–temperature profiles. Gelation of meat proteins contributed most to the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during heating, whereas crystallization of the lipids especially contributed to the viscoelastic properties during the cooling phase. Although the meat type had little effect on the final viscoelastic properties of the meat product, the fatty acid composition had a clear impact on the melting peak area (and therefore solid fat content) of lard, and subsequently on the final viscoelastic properties of meat batters prepared with different types of fats, with higher G′ (elastic modulus) values for the most saturated animal fat. The crystallization of the fat clearly transcended the effect of the meat type with regard to G′ at the end of the process. With increasing (isothermal) temperature, G′ of meat batters increased. Therefore, it could be concluded that the structural properties of heated meat batters mainly depend on the heating temperature and the fatty acid composition, rather than the meat type.
Assessment of Antibiotic Susceptibility within Lactic Acid Bacteria and Coagulase‐Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Hunan Smoked Pork, a Naturally Fermented Meat Product in China J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Jing Wang; Xinyuan Wei; Mingtao Fan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase‐negative staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from naturally fermented smoked pork produced in Hunan, China. A total of 48 strains were isolated by selective medium and identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as follows: Staphylococcus carnosus (23), Lactobacillus plantarum (12), Lactobacillus brevis (10), Lactobacillus sakei (1), Weissella confusa (1), and Weissella cibaria (1). All strains were typed by RAPD‐PCR, and their susceptibility to 15 antibiotics was determined and expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using agar dilution method. High resistance to penicillin G, streptomycin, gentamycin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and neomycin was found among the isolates. All the strains were sensitive to ampicillin, while the susceptibility to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, lincomycin, and roxithromycin varied. The presence of relevant resistance genes was investigated by PCR and sequencing, with the following genes detected: str(A), str(B), tet(O), tet(M), ere(A), and catA. Eleven strains, including 3 S. carnosus, 6 L. plantarum, and 2 L. brevis, harbored more than 3 antibiotic resistance genes. Overall, multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were widely observed in LAB and S. carnosus strains isolated from Hunan smoked pork. Risk assessment should be carried out with regard to the safe use of LAB and CNS in food production.
Edible Gum–Phenolic–Lipid Incorporated Gluten Films for Food Packaging J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Rui Liu; Xu Cong; Yingshi Song; Tao Wu; Min Zhang
The aim of this investigation was to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of gluten films and further explore their application in the packaging of seasonings. The effects of flaxseed gum (FG), oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs), and lauric acid (LA) on the water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, and peroxide value (POV) were determined. FG and OPCs improved the WVP properties of the gluten films, whereas LA significantly improved the oxygen‐barrier properties. The FG/OPCs/LA/GP composite film was then optimized, and the morphological, microstructural, and thermal properties of the composite gluten film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface hydrophobicity analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results confirmed that gluten is compatible with FG, OPCs, and LA, thereby leading to the formation of a more uniform, dense, and hydrophobic film. The changes in the preservation properties (appearance, POV, and acid value) of the composite gluten film for oil, salt, and vegetable packaging were also examined. The composite gluten film maintained some degree of seasoning packaging capacity over a 75‐day storage period, indicating its potential for uses as a packaging material for seasonings in food production.
Characterization of Pectins Extracted from Different Varieties of Pink/Red and White Grapefruits [Citrus Paradisi (Macf.)] by Thermal Treatment and Thermosonication J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Enzo L. La Cava; Esteban Gerbino; Sonia C. Sgroppo; Andrea Gómez‐Zavaglia
The physical and chemical properties of pectin extracts obtained from different white and pink/red varieties of grapefruit [Citrus paradisi (Macf.)], using both conventional heating (CHE) and thermosonication (TS), were investigated. The content of galacturonic acid (GalA), degree of esterification (%DM), color and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Fourier‐Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) associated with multivariate analysis enabled a structural comparison among the pectin extracts, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) completed a full landscape of the investigated extracts. Pectin extracts obtained by CHE showed mostly higher GalA than those obtained by TS. All the extracts had a high antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2,2 diphenyl 1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) and 2,2′‐Azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS*+) assays, and a high correlation with the GalA content. The main differences observed in the FTIR spectra occurred in the 1200 to 900 cm−1 region (differences in GalA). The glass transition temperatures (Tgs) of all extracts were above 85 °C, making them interesting as stabilizing agents for the food industry.
Speciation of Bio‐Available Iodine in Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography Hyphenated with Inductively Coupled Plasma‐Mass Spectrometry Using an In Vitro Method J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Han Sol Doh; Hyun Jin Park
Abalone is one of the most valuable marine products found in East Asia because it is rich in nutritious substances including iodine. In this study, the in vitro dialyzability approach was used to assess the bio‐available iodine species in abalone. Iodide, iodate, 3‐iodo‐L‐tyrosine (MIT), and 3,5‐diiodo‐L‐tyrosine (DIT) were separated by high‐performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma‐mass spectrometry (HPLC‐ICP‐MS). To assure the consistency, reliability, and accuracy of the data, the method was validated. Comparison of the total iodine in abalone muscle and viscera indicated that abalone muscle showed greater digestion/absorption efficiency than abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 68.13 ± 2.59% and 47.88 ± 5.76% and absorption efficiency: 59.78 ± 2.93% and 35.12 ± 1.43% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). However, evaluation of the sum of the analyzed iodine species targeted in this study by HPLC‐ICP‐MS indicated that abalone muscle showed lower digestion efficiency and similar absorption efficiency compared to that of abalone viscera (digestion efficiency: 35.52 ± 5.41% and 28.84 ± 1.83%; absorption efficiency: 23.56 ± 4.38% and 27.56 ± 1.51% for abalone viscera and muscle, respectively). The main forms of iodine detected in abalone muscle were iodide and MIT, whereas iodide was the major form in abalone viscera.
Functionalization of Lipid‐Based Nutrient Supplement with β‐Cyclodextrin Inclusions of Oregano Essential Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Shashank Gaur; Emely C. Lopez; Ankur Ojha; Juan E. Andrade
Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the main causes of acute undernutrition in children. Oral consumption of oregano essential oil (OEO) can reduce intestinal parasitic infections, however, its addition to therapeutic and supplementary foods is hampered by its undesirable flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a functional lipid‐based nutrient supplement (LNS) containing OEO, which is stable, acceptable and provides targeted intestinal delivery of bioactive. β‐cyclodextrin (β‐CyD) inclusion complexes of OEO (β‐CyD‐OEO), and carvacrol (β‐CyD‐CV) (1:1 molar) were prepared using slurry complexation (‐20 °C) method and characterized based on encapsulation efficiency, moisture content, morphology, and 2‐phase in vitro digestion stability. Carvacrol (CV) content was measured using reverse phase HPLC‐UV. LNS containing β‐CyD‐OEO (27.2 mg encapsulate/20 g LNS) was formulated using Indian staples and ingredients. Discriminatory sensory tests (triangle) were performed with college students (n = 58) and low‐income women (n = 25), with young children at home (1 to 6 years), living in Mehsana, India to evaluate differences between LNS with and without bioactive ingredient (β‐CyD‐OEO only). Moisture of dried complexes ranged 9.1% to 9.7% d.b., whereas water activity 0.35 to 0.412. The complex size and encapsulation efficiency of β‐CyD‐OEO and β‐CyD‐CV were 1.5 to 7 μm and 4 to 20 μm, and 86.04 ± 4.48% and 81.39 ± 3.34%, respectively. The bioactive complexes were stable through the gastric and intestinal phases. Bioaccessibility of encapsulated CV ranged 6.0% to 7.7%. Sensory tests revealed no differences (P > 0.05) in color, aroma, and taste between LNS with and without β‐CyD‐OEO complexes. Functionalization of LNS with β‐CyD‐OEO is feasible based on in vitro stability and sensory studies.
Development of Safe and Flavor‐Rich Doenjang (Korean Fermented Soybean Paste) Using Autochthonous Mixed Starters at the Pilot Plant Scale J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-15 Eun Jin Lee; Jiye Hyun; Yong‐Ho Choi; Byung‐Serk Hurh; Sang‐Ho Choi; Inhyung Lee
Doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste) with an improved flavor and safety was prepared by the simultaneous fermentation of autochthonous mixed starters at the pilot plan scale. First, whole soybean meju was fermented by coculturing safety‐verified starters Aspergillus oryzae MJS14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens zip6 or Bacillus subtilis D119C. These fermented whole soybean meju were aged in a brine solution after the additional inoculation of Tetragenococcus halophilus 7BDE22 and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii SMY045 to yield doenjang. Four doenjang batches prepared using a combination of mold, bacilli, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast starters were free of safety issues and had the general properties of traditional doenjang, a rich flavor and taste. All doenjang batches received a high consumer acceptability score, especially the ABsT and ABsTZ batches. This study suggests that flavor‐rich doenjang similar to traditional doenjang can be manufactured safely and reproducibly in industry by mimicking the simultaneous fermentation of autochthonous mixed starters as in traditional doenjang fermentation.
Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Compounds, Anthelmintic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Various Extracts Isolated from Nepeta cadmea: An Endemic Plant for Turkey J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Arzu Kaska; Nahide Deniz; Mehmet Çiçek; Ramazan Mammadov
Nepeta cadmea Boiss. is a species endemic to Turkey that belongs to the Nepeta genus. Several species of this genus are used in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the phenolic compounds, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and cytotoxic activities of various extracts (ethanol, methanol, acetone, and water) of N. cadmea. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed using scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS, and H2O2 scavenging activity), the β‐carotene/linoleic acid test system, the phosphomolybdenum method, and metal chelating activity. Among the 4 different extracts of N. cadmea that were evaluated, the water extract showed the highest amount of radical scavenging (DPPH, 25.54 μg/mL and ABTS, 14.51 μg/mL) and antioxidant activities (β‐carotene, 86.91%). In the metal chelating and H2O2 scavenging activities, the acetone extract was statistically different from the other extracts. For the phosphomolybdenum method, the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the range of 8.15 to 80.40 μg/mg. The phenolic content of the ethanol extract was examined using HPLC and determined some phenolics: epicatechin, chlorogenic, and caffeic acids. With regard to the anthelmintic properties, dose‐dependent activity was observed in each of the extracts of N. cadmea. All the extracts exhibited high cytotoxic activities. The results will provide additional information for further studies on the biological activities of N. cadmea, while also helping us to understand the importance of this species. Furthermore, based on the results obtained, N. cadmea may be considered as a potentially useful supplement for the human diet, as well as a natural antioxidant for medicinal applications.
Optimization and Scale‐Up Preparation of Egg White Hydrolysate with Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Qiyi Li; Wang Liao; Hongbing Fan; Jianping Wu
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulation of blood pressure as it converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor). Food protein‐derived ACE inhibitory peptides have been considered as a safer alternative to antihypertensive drugs. In our previous study, three ACE inhibitory peptides were characterized from egg white ovotransferrin and their antihypertensive activity has been validated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, it is too costly to prepare these peptides from purified egg white ovotransferrin. The aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of preparing these peptides using egg white and then to optimize the conditions of preparing egg white hydrolysate. Taguchi's method was used to design experiments for optimization, which was established as follows: substrate %, pH of thermoase, time of thermoase digestion, ratio of pepsin to substrate, pH of pepsin, temperature of pepsin, and time of pepsin digestion were 7.5%, pH 8, 90 min, 1%, pH 2.5, 55 °C, and 180 min, respectively. The ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value) and peptide yield obtained under optimal condition were 30 ± 2 μg/mL and 77.5% ± 0.3%, respectively, which were comparable to the predicted values. Hydrolysate prepared at 150 L reactor showed comparable activity but low peptide yield. Results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of using egg white protein as the starting material to prepare a functional ingredient with potent ACE inhibitory activity.
Preparation of Novel Iodized Salt with Natural Iodine‐Rich Sources by Spray Drying J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Han Sol Doh; Jung A Ko; Hyun Jin Park
Marine products are rich in not only micronutrients but also iodine content. However, the applications of iodine in marine products in the food industry have not been studied extensively. Therefore, in this study, a novel iodized salt was prepared through a simple method for iodine extraction from natural iodine‐rich sources and spray drying. Laminaria ochroleuca (kombu), Porphyra umbilicalis (nori), Undaria pinnatifida (wakame), and Haliotis discus hannai (abalone) were selected as natural iodine‐rich sources. Through hot water extraction, iodine was extracted from the iodine‐rich sources and iodized salt was successfully prepared with extracted iodine and sea salt by spray drying; extraction efficiency varied from 64.88% to 129.67%; yield, 38.45% to 57.09%; loading efficiency, 99.34% to 124.08%. Chemical interactions were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR) and thermal dynamics was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the salt crystals was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, a storage test was performed to investigate iodine loss due to temperature, relative humidity, and oxidation for 10 weeks in harsh condition. On comparing our salt with commercial products, novel iodized salts displayed similar or superior stability. Therefore, the novel iodized salt prepared in this study can be applied in the food industry.
Effects of Processing on Structure and Thermal Properties of Powdered Preterm Infant Formula J. Food Sci. (IF 2.018) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Xiaomeng Sun; Cuina Wang; Hao Wang; Mingruo Guo
Powdered infant formula is usually manufactured by ingredients mixing, homogenization, pasteurization, evaporation and spray drying. Effects of unit operations on the microstructure, thermal properties and other characteristics of preterm infant formula, fat (F), serum (S), and pellet (P) fractions on centrifugation were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After homogenization, particles which may be casein and denatured whey proteins were observed on the surface of F fraction in microstructure images. DSC results showed that the onset temperature of the second endothermic peak of F fraction shifted to higher temperature, and an endothermic transition appeared at 173.3 °C in P fraction. The ‐CH2 group corresponding to F fraction showed less intensity in FTIR spectrum after homogenization. Microstructure images for S and P fractions showed larger aggregates due to the pasteurization processing. Apparent exothermic transition in DSC curve occurred at 101.6 °C indicated whey protein aggregation. Spray drying resulted in some open areas in F fraction and lager aggregates in S fraction revealed by microstructure pictures. A new exothermic transition appeared at 93.6 °C in DSC curve of S fraction. Changes in amide I and amide II regions in FTIR spectra of samples resulted from pasteurization and spray drying indicated the changes in secondary structure of casein and whey proteins. All results indicated that homogenization, pasteurization, and spray drying exhibited pronounced impacts on the microstructure, thermal properties and structural characteristics of samples.
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