Fast and Quantitative Analysis of Ediphenphos Residue in Rice Using Surface‐Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Shizhuang Weng; Fang Wang; Ronglu Dong; Mengqing Qiu; Jinling Zhao; Linsheng Huang; Dongyan Zhang
Detection of residual farm chemicals in agricultural crops is a hot topic in the field of food safety. In this study, ediphenphos residue in rice was detected using surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on a portable Raman spectrometer. A simple pretreatment method for rice samples was developed, and uniform gold nanorods were used for SERS measurement. Characteristic signals can still be detected when ediphenphos concentration in rice extraction solution was higher than or equal to 0.1 mg/L. Quantitative analysis of ediphenphos was conducted by regression models developed using partial least‐squares regression, random forest and kernel principal component analysis, and root‐mean‐square error of cross validation, coefficient of determination and relative predicted deviation of optimal model were 0.022 mg/L, 0.9967 and 297.45, which indicated the proposed method can predict ediphenphos concentration with high precision. To validate the feasibility of practical application further, rice samples spiked with 10, 5, 1, 0.5, and 0.1 μg/g ediphenphos residue were analyzed using the above method. The predicted recovery was in the range of 93.4% to 102%, and the predicted error was small for residue of each concentration. These results demonstrated that the presented method could be used for accurate and quantitative detection of ediphenphos residue in rice.
Influence of Tannin Extract and Yeast Extract on Color Preservation and Anthocyanin Content of Mulberry Wine J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Yilin You; Na Li; Xue Han; Jielong Guo; Guojie Liu; Weidong Huang; Jicheng Zhan
The color of mulberry wine is extremely unstable in processing and aging. This paper investigates the effects of tannin extract and yeast extract on the color and color‐preserving characteristics of mulberry wine made from the Dashi cultivar. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength in both tannin extract and yeast extract groups changed generating the red shift effect. The color of the tannin extract maintained a good gloss in the first 4 months, while the yeast extract group showed remarkable color preservation for the first 3 months. The total anthocyanin and cyanidin‐3‐rutinoside contents in both experiment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, thus proving that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during its aging. Moreover, sensory analysis indicated that the quality of mulberry wine treated with tannin extract was significantly higher than that of the control.
The Effects of Residual Air and Viscosity on the Rate of Heat Penetration of Retort Food Simulant in Pouch When Using Static and Oscillating Motions J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Mollye S. MacNaughton; William S. Whiteside; James R. Rieck; Ronald L. Thomas
The objectives of this work were to determine the effect of 3 levels of residual air and 2 different retort motions on the value of the average heating slope of the rate of heat penetration of 3 different viscosities of a food simulant in flexible retort pouches. Pouches were thermally processed in a water spray automated batch retort system using 2 different methods of motion: static and oscillating continuously at a speed of 10.5 rotations per min (RPM) with an angle of 15°. Nine residual air and viscosity combinations were processed during each experimental run: low viscosity with no residual air (LV‐NRA), medium viscosity with no residual air (MV‐NRA), high viscosity with no residual air (HV‐NRA), low viscosity with medium residual air (LV‐MRA), medium viscosity with medium residual air (MV‐MRA), high viscosity with medium residual air (HV‐MRA), low viscosity with high residual air (LV‐HRA), medium viscosity with high residual air (MV‐HRA), and high viscosity with high residual air (HV‐HRA). As the amount of residual air in the pouches increased, the average heating slope value decreased in both static and oscillating motions. As the viscosity of the product increased the amount of residual air affected the average heating slope less in static and oscillating motions. Overall, the oscillating motion resulted in faster rates of heat penetration in all viscosities compared to static mode. The oscillating motion reduced processing times up to 27% compared to static mode.
Composition and Physicochemical Characterization of Fiber‐Rich Food Processing Byproducts J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Maria Dian Pratiwi Masli; Barbara A. Rasco; Girish M. Ganjyal
A wide range of fiber‐rich food processing byproducts from various sources have been proposed as value‐added ingredients for producing healthier food products. Characterizing their composition and physicochemical properties is crucial to understand their potential uses. Eight fiber‐rich byproducts from different sources were fractionated into 2 different particle‐size ranges. Different (P ≤ 0.05) proximate composition and physicochemical properties (pasting properties, water‐binding capacity, and oil‐binding capacity) were exhibited by them. These properties enabled hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis to group the byproducts into 3 different clusters by functionality and from this, assigned ingredients in each cluster to a potential end‐uses. Some end use examples include, as a source of fat, protein, sugar, and insoluble fiber; and for uses as a thickening agent, water‐binder, emulsion‐enhancer, and fat‐binder.
Whole Tibetan Hull‐Less Barley Exhibit Stronger Effect on Promoting Growth of Genus Bifidobacterium than Refined Barley In Vitro J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Lingxiao Gong; Wenyan Cao; Jie Gao; Jing Wang; Huijuan Zhang; Baoguo Sun; Meng Yin
The gut microbiota has recently become a new route for research at the intersection of diet and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole Tibetan hull‐less barley (WHB) and refined Tibetan hull‐less barley (RHB) caused differentiation of the fecal microbiota in vitro. The microbiota‐accessible ingredients in the 2 barley samples were studied using an in vitro enzymatic digestion procedure. After in vitro digestion, insoluble dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, and β‐glucans were 93.2%, 103.4%. 18.8%, and 10.2% higher provided by WHB flour as compared with RHB flour based on the same mass amount. However, due to the significantly higher content of insoluble dietary fiber, WHB digesta had lower percentage contents of fast fermentable substrates including dietary fiber and starch as compared with RHB digesta. The results of Next‐generation sequencing of the bacterial 16SrRNA gene showed that both WHB and RHB fermentation had significantly promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium and inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Dorea, Escherichia, Oscillopira, and Ruminococcus. Moreover, in response to WHB fermentation, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium increased by 78.5% and 92.8% as compared with RHB and fructo‐oligosaccharides (FOs). Both WHB and RHB are good sources of fermentable dietary fiber with the ability to yield high concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as compared to FOs. However, the higher fraction of soluble fiber in RHB digesta increase higher amounts of SCFA compared with WHB digesta. Our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health.
Effects of Hydrogen‐Donating or Metal‐Chelating Antioxidants on the Oxidative Stability of Organogels Made of Beeswax and Grapeseed Oil Exposed to Light Irradiation J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Seungmi Hong; Mi‐Ja Kim; Sungkwon Park; Suyong Lee; Jonggil Lee; JaeHwan Lee
To enhance the oxidative stability of organogels made from grapeseed oil, the antioxidant effects of sesamol, α‐tocopherol, β‐carotene, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and citric acid were determined in beeswax‐based organogels stored under light or in the dark conditions at 25 °C. Without the addition of antioxidants, the organogels rapidly oxidized under light irradiation but not during storage in the dark. Sesamol showed the highest antioxidant activity at concentrations of 10 to 40 ppm, whereas the other compounds exhibited no antioxidant activity at 10 ppm. α‐Tocopherol and β‐carotene improved the oxidative stability of organogels at concentrations above 40 and 100 ppm, respectively. The addition of sesamol yielded better oxidative stability than the addition of EDTA or a mixture of sesamol and citric acid. Sesamol can improve the oxidative stability of organogels, which could lead to economic benefits for the food industry.
Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Strip for Listeria monocytogenes Detection in Food J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Xin‐jun Du; Yu‐xuan Zang; Hai‐bin Liu; Ping Li; Shuo Wang
Listeria monocytogenes is an important food‐borne pathogenic bacterium that causes human disease, resulting in economic losses worldwide. The current detection methods for L. monocytogenes are not well suited for direct field testing because they involve complicated, time‐consuming operations. A simple, efficient method is vital for L. monocytogenes detection. In this study, we combined isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with a lateral flow (LF) strip to rapidly and reliably detect L. monocytogenes. In the presence of biotin‐ and digoxin‐modified primers, RPA produced numerous digoxin‐ and biotin‐attached duplex DNA products. These products were detected on an LF strip via dual immunoreactions (digoxin on the duplex DNA reacted with the anti‐digoxin antibody on the gold nanoparticle (Au‐NP) and the biotin on the duplex DNA captured by the streptavidin on the LF test zone). The accumulation of Au‐NPs produced characteristic bands, enabling the visual detection of L. monocytogenes without instrumentation. This assay could be used to detect L. monocytogenes within 15 min, including DNA amplification with RPA for 10 min at 39 °C and visualization of the amplicons by LF strips for 5 min. Experiments confirmed a detection limit as low as 300 fg of DNA and 1.5 × 101 CFU in pure cultures. Furthermore, RPA‐LF exhibited no cross‐reactions with pathogens. Evaluation of the method with food samples indicated that the detection limit was substantially improved to 1.5 × 10° CFU for the original bacterial content in 25 g/mL samples after enrichment for 6 hr. RPA‐LF can be used as a sensitive and rapid detection technique for L. monocytogenes.
Origin and Processing Methods Slightly Affect Allergenic Characteristics of Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale) J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Marit Reitsma; Shanna Bastiaan‐Net; Lutske Sijbrandij; Evelien de Weert; Stefano Sforza; Roy Gerth van Wijk; Huub F. J. Savelkoul; Nicolette W. de Jong; Harry J. Wichers
The protein content and allergen composition was studied of cashews from 8 different origins (Benin, Brazil, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Mozambique, Tanzania, Vietnam), subjected to different in‐shell heat treatments (steamed, fried, drum‐roasted). On 2D electrophoresis, 9 isoforms of Ana o 1, 29 isoforms of Ana o 2 (11 of the acidic subunit, 18 of the basic subunit), and 8 isoforms of the large subunit of Ana o 3 were tentatively identified. Based on 1D and 2D electrophoresis, no difference in allergen content (Ana o 1, 2, 3) was detected between the cashews of different origins (P > 0.5), some small but significant differences were detected in allergen solubility between differently heated cashews. No major differences in N‐ and C‐terminal microheterogeneity of Ana o 3 were detected between cashews of different origins. Between the different heat treatments, no difference was detected in glycation, pepsin digestibility, or IgE binding of the cashew proteins.
Effect of Dipping and Vacuum Impregnation Coating Techniques with Alginate Based Coating on Physical Quality Parameters of Cantaloupe Melon J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Tugce Senturk Parreidt; Markus Schmid; Kajetan Müller
Edible coating based on sodium alginate solution was applied to fresh‐cut cantaloupe melon by dipping and vacuum impregnation coating methods. One aim of this work is to produce more technical information concerning these conventional and novel coating processes. For this purpose, the effect of various coating parameters (dipping time, draining time, time length of the vacuum period, vacuum pressure, atmospheric restoration time) with several levels on physical quality parameters (percentage of weight gain, color, and texture) of noncoated and coated samples were determined in order to define adequate coating process parameters to achieve a successful coating application. Additionally, the effects of dipping and vacuum impregnation processes were compared. Both processes improved the firmness of the melon pieces. However, vacuum impregnation application had higher firmness and weight gain results, and had significant effect (P < 0.05) on color (lower luminosity, higher redness, yellowness, and chroma values). Experimental results affirm that vacuum impregnation method can be used successively to improve mechanical and structural properties of food products.
One‐Step and Nondestructive Reduction of Cr(VI) in Pork by High‐Energy Electron Beam Irradiation J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Jingya Ren; Guilong Zhang; Dongfang Wang; Jie Han; Zhengyan Wu; Dongqing Cai
Because of the wide use of chromium‐containing feed, much hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) tends to accumulate in pork. In order to decrease the toxicity of Cr(VI)‐containing pork for human beings, high‐energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation was used to reduce highly toxic Cr(VI) to low toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) in lean, fat, and marbled pork. HEEB irradiation could efficiently and nondestructively reduce both free and adsorbed Cr(VI) in pork, achieving the highest reductive efficiency (RE) of 98.03%. Therein, hydrated electrons (eaq−) and hydrogen radical (•H) generated during the irradiation process probably played key roles in the reduction. The effects of irradiation dose, initial concentration of Cr(VI), pH, temperature, salinity, and oil on the RE were investigated to obtain the optimal reduction conditions, proving the high universality of this approach. This work provides a clean and low‐cost method for removing Cr(VI) from pork, which is important to ensure food safety.
Postharvest Ultrasound‐Assisted Freeze‐Thaw Pretreatment Improves the Drying Efficiency, Physicochemical Properties, and Macamide Biosynthesis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Jin‐Jin Chen; Peng‐Fei Gong; Yi‐Lan Liu; Bo‐Yan Liu; Dawn Eggert; Yuan‐Heng Guo; Ming‐Xia Zhao; Qing‐Sheng Zhao; Bing Zhao
A novel technique of ultrasound‐assisted freeze‐thaw pretreatment (UFP) was developed to improve the drying efficiency of maca and bioactive amide synthesis in maca. The optimal UFP conditions are ultrasonic processing 90 min at 30 °C with 6 freeze‐thaw cycles. Samples with freeze‐thaw pretreatment (FP), ultrasound pretreatment (UP), and UFP were prepared for further comparative study. A no pretreatment (NP) sample was included as a control. The results showed that UFP improved the drying efficiency of maca slices, showing the highest effective moisture diffusivity (1.75 × 10−9 m2/s). This result was further supported by low‐field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF‐NMR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rehydration capacity and protein content of maca slices were improved by UFP. More importantly, contents of bioactive macamides and their biosynthetic precursors were increased in 2.5‐ and 10‐fold, respectively. In conclusion, UFP is an efficient technique to improve drying efficiency, physicochemical properties, and bioactive macamides of maca, which can be applied in the industrial manufacture of maca products.
Aerated Steam Sanitization of Whole Fresh Cantaloupes Reduces and Controls Rind‐Associated Listeria but Enhances Fruit Susceptibility to Secondary Colonization J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Greg S. Bezanson; Timothy C. Ells; Lihua Fan; Charles F. Forney; Denyse I. LeBlanc
Recent bacterial illnesses and outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh and fresh‐cut fruit and vegetables emphasize the need to supply produce that is microbiologically safe while retaining its quality and nutrient value. We assessed the capacity of aerated steam to reduce initial levels and control the posttreatment proliferation of a 4‐strain mixture of Listeria innocua, a surrogate for L. monocytogenes, and microflora native to the rind of whole cantaloupes. Studies were conducted at the pilot‐scale level by passing deliberately contaminated melons through a prototype stainless‐steel, continuous‐feed heating device. Exposure for 240 s to aerated steam heated to 85 °C achieved a mean reduction in surface‐inoculated L. innocua of 3.9 ± 0.6 log10 CFU/cm2 (n = 3) and decreased background microorganisms (yeast, moulds, and coliforms) to undetectable levels. No significant outgrowth of surviving L. innocua or yeast and moulds was observed on heat‐treated melons during their storage at 4, 7, and 10 °C for 14 days. Treated fruit continued to respire. Although rind quality was altered, edible fleshy portions remained largely unaffected. Cantaloupe inoculated with L. innocua subsequent to its exposure to aerated steam provided a suitable environment for surrogate growth (mean 3.3 log10 increase in rind density over 10 days at 7 °C), whereas its proliferation was restricted on nonheated cantaloupe (mean 0.7 log10 increase). Steam sanitization provides an effective means for the control of pathogen and spoilage organisms, but the proliferation of surrogate organisms on heated cantaloupes raises concern regarding the impact of postprocessing contamination on consumer health risk.
Inactivation of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Listeria Innocua by Benzoic Acid, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Their Combination in Model Wash Water and Simulated Spinach Washing J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Solmaz Alborzi; Luis J. Bastarrachea; Qiao Ding; Rohan V. Tikekar
An antimicrobial effect of benzoic acid (BA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated as a potential antimicrobial treatment against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua. A 30 min exposure to the combination of 15 mM BA and 1 mM EDTA at 22 °C resulted in approximately 3 logarithmic reductions in stationary phase E. coli O157:H7. Logarithmic phase E. coli O157:H7 was more sensitive (P < 0.05) to the treatment and 1 mM EDTA alone caused more than 5 logarithmic reductions. L. innocua was also sensitive to a treatment with 15 mM BA alone, which induced 5 logarithmic reductions. By increasing the temperature of the solution containing 15 mM BA and 1 mM EDTA to 40 °C, more than 5 logarithmic reductions in stationary phase E. coli O157:H7 was observed after 5 min of treatment. However, the antimicrobial effect was attenuated (reaching less than 1 logarithmic reductions) at 4 °C. In addition, the combined BA and EDTA treatment retained its antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 for at least 6 cycles of treatment over 6 days at room temperature (22 °C). In a simulated spinach washing study, 15 mM BA and 1 mM EDTA together were able to prevent cross‐contamination of E. coli O157:H7. The results highlight the potential use of combination of BA (15 mM) and EDTA (1 mM) to address microbial risk from E. coli O157:H7 and L. innocua in fresh produce industry.
Sonocrystallization of Interesterified Soybean Oil: Effect of Saturation Level and Supercooling J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Juhee Lee; Roberta Claro da Silva; Veronique Gibon; Silvana Martini
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supercooling and degree of saturation on lipid sonocrystallization under similar driving force of crystallization. Samples consisting of 100%, 50%, and 20% interesterified soybean oil (IESBO) diluted in high‐oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO) were crystallized with and without high‐intensity ultrasound (HIU). Two power levels were used by changing the amplitude of vibration of the tip (24 μm and 108 μm of tip amplitude). HIU operating at a frequency of 20 kHz was applied for 10 s. Sonication induced crystallization in the 100% IESBO sample and sonication power did not affect the results. A greater induction in crystallization was observed when higher power levels were used in the 50% IESBO sample, while no effect was observed in the crystallization kinetics of the 20% IESBO samples. Changes in the crystallization kinetics affected physical properties of the material, influencing elasticity. For example, sonication increased the elasticity of the 100% IESBO sample for both tip amplitudes from 435.9 ± 173.3 Pa to 72735.0 ± 9547.9 Pa for the nonsonicated and sonicated samples using 108 μm of amplitude, respectively. However, sonication only increased the elasticity in the 50% sample when used at the higher power level of 108 μm from 564.2 ± 175.2 Pa to 21774.0 ± 5694.9 Pa, and it did not affect the elasticity of the 20% IESBO samples. These results show that the level of saturation and the degree of supercooling affect sonication efficiency.
Cover Caption J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
March Online Cover: The dot-dash apple model based on real apple geometrical parameters, and schematic diagram of modal test system, from “Prediction of Firmness and pH for “Golden Delicious” Apple Based on Elasticity Index from Modal Analysis” by Jumin Hou, Yuxia Zhang, Yonghai Sun, Na Xu, and Yue Leng. p. 661.
Sodium Threshold in Model Reduced and Low Fat Oil-in-Water Emulsion Systems J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Ginnefer O. Cox, Soo-Yeun Lee
Abstract Sodium and fat reduction in the diet are key factors in the nutrition management of hypertensive individuals. Several reduced and lower fat foods have higher amounts of sodium than their regular fat counterparts, which contradict sodium and fat reduction goals for hypertensive individuals. The objective of this research was to determine the threshold of sodium in a model reduced and low fat oil-in-water emulsion system analogous to salad dressings, so as to identify a reduction level of sodium that may not compromise consumer acceptability. Thirty panelists used the R-index by rating method to evaluate a model reduced fat emulsion system with 7 sodium concentrations (175, 200, 230, 265, 305, and 350 mg) and a model low fat emulsion system with 6 sodium concentrations (160, 170, 180, 190, and 200 mg). For both emulsion systems, 30 g servings of each concentration were presented to panelists. Panelists received 10 replicates of noise and signal samples for both fat levels. The group sodium threshold for the reduced and low fat emulsions was 241.11 and 183.56 mg, respectively. Results indicate saltiness perception is increased when fat content is decreased, and threshold for sodium in the reduced fat emulsion system is higher than the low fat emulsion system with lower fat content. Study findings show opportunities for sodium reduction in reduced and low fat food emulsion systems, particularly additional reductions of sodium without consumer detection. Practical Application Study results demonstrated sodium difference thresholds for the reduced and low fat emulsions were at levels lower than the mean sodium content found in comparable processed food emulsion systems. Results indicate sodium content can potentially be decreased in reduced and lower fat food emulsion systems without consumer detection. Having insight for where consumers are able to detect a difference in sodium levels within reduced and low fat food systems can contribute to a successful reduction of sodium in reduced and lower fat food systems and benefit individuals requiring reductions of sodium and fat in processed food systems.
Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacities and Phenolic Compounds of Oat and Buckwheat Vinegars During Production Processes J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Xiao Yu, Mei Yang, Jilin Dong, Ruiling Shen
Abstract This study aimed to explore the dynamic changes in the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid profiles of oat and buckwheat vinegars during different production stages. The results showed that both oat and buckwheat vinegar products comparably attenuated D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in mice serum and liver, indicating no obvious dose dependence within the tested concentrations. However, oat vinegar product revealed more favorable in vitro antioxidant activities than those in buckwheat vinegar product as evaluated by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, the alcoholic fermentation, acetic acid fermentation and fumigating induced successive increase in DPPH radical scavenging abilities and phenolic acid contents of the fermentation substrates of oat and buckwheat vinegars. Importantly, the different fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars were accompanied by the dynamic migration and transformation of specific phenolic acids across bound, esterified and free fractions. Thus, the antioxidant activities of oat and buckwheat vinegars could be improved through targeted modulation of the generation of specific phenolic acid fractions during production processes. Practical Application We had evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of oat and buckwheat vinegars, and further explored the dynamic changes of bound, esterified and free phenolic acid fractions during successive fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars. This study provided the theoretical guidance for obtaining minor grain vinegar with the optimal antioxidant activities through targeted modulation of fermentation processes.
Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Silvia Alejandra Villarreal-Soto, Sandra Beaufort, Jalloul Bouajila, Jean-Pierre Souchard, Patricia Taillandier
Abstract Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Practical Application Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production.
The Influence of Adding Spices to Reduced Sugar Foods on Overall Liking J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 John C. Peters, Ryan Marker, Zhaoxing Pan, Jeanne Anne Breen, James O. Hill
Abstract Reducing sugar intake is a major public health goal but many consumers are reluctant to use low calorie sweeteners. Two studies were conducted in healthy adults aged 18 to 65 to investigate whether addition of culinary spices to foods reduced in sugar could preserve hedonic liking. Test foods, black tea, oatmeal, and apple crisp, were prepared in full sugar (FS), reduced sugar (RS), and reduced sugar with spice (RSS) versions. Sugar reductions were 100%, 35%, and 37% for tea, oatmeal, and apple crisp, respectively. In Study 1, 160 subjects rated absolute liking of FS, RS, and RSS versions of a breakfast of oatmeal and tea and an afternoon snack of apple crisp on consecutive weeks. In Study 2, 150 subjects rated relative liking of all 3 versions of one food at the same seating, with different foods tested 1 wk apart. Liking was assessed using a 9-point Likert scale. Both studies yielded similar results. For all 3 test items, liking was significantly higher for FS than for RS (P < 0.03). For tea, addition of spices did not significantly improve liking in either study. For oatmeal, addition of spices did not consistently improve liking compared to RS. For apple crisp, relative liking of RSS was not different then FS. These results indicate that it is possible to preserve the hedonic pleasure of a reduced sugar version of a dessert food, apple crisp, by addition of culinary spices. This may be a promising strategy to reduce sugar in some foods without using low calorie sweeteners. Practical Application Reducing sugar consumption is an important public health goal. Many consumers are reluctant to use low calorie sweeteners and alternative approaches are needed. Using culinary spices to enhance the flavor of foods may allow sugar reduction while still preserving acceptable overall liking.
Growth Capacity of a Novel Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei K5 Strain Incorporated in Industrial White Brined Cheese as an Adjunct Culture J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Antonia Terpou, Loulouda Bosnea, Maria Kanellaki, Stavros Plessas, Argyro Bekatorou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Athanasios A. Koutinas
Abstract In this study, a novel potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei K5, previously isolated from traditional Greek Feta cheese and kefir grains, was evaluated as an adjunct culture for industrial white brined cheese production. Targeting industrial applications, apart from free cell cultures, a novel ready-to-use freeze-dried immobilized biocatalyst was prepared. The biocatalyst composed of L. paracasei K5 cells immobilized on delignified wheat bran prebiotic carrier and was freeze-dried without cryoprotectants. The adjunct free or immobilized culture was added separately without prior adaptation during white brined cheese manufacture and the produced cheeses were compared with commercial white brined cheeses. Several parameters that affect the acceptability and quality of the cheeses, including microbial populations, physicochemical parameters, volatile by-products and organoleptic characteristics, were analyzed through 70 days of storage. Results showed that the viability of the adjunct culture added either free or immobilized remained in high levels (7 to 8 log cfu/g) during maturation and storage. In addition, all white brined cheeses with the adjunct probiotic culture showed a sharp decrease in spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms such as enterobacteria, salmonella, staphylococci and coliforms during cheese maturation, especially when compared with the commercial white brined cheeses. Finally, after maturation time exceeded, all cheeses were characterized as safe for human consumption. Cheeses volatile compounds were significantly enhanced by the incorporated immobilized biocatalysts. These findings indicate the potential industrial use of freeze-dried ready-to-use immobilized lactobacilli as reinforcement adjunct cultures for the production of good-quality functional cheese products. Practical Application The launch on market of novel foods developed by the incorporation of functional ingredients provides potential benefits to consumers’ diet and new business opportunities for producers. Probiotic food products are one significant category of functional foods. Thus, this study focused on the development of a novel ready-to-use freeze-dried potential probiotic biocatalyst for functional white brined cheese production. The potential industrial application of such biocatalysts is highlighted by their incorporation as adjunct cultures that resulted in good-quality functional cheeses.
Sensory Acceptability of Iron-Fortified Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Dal J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Rajib Podder, Shaan M. Khan, Bunyamin Tar'an, Robert T. Tyler, Carol J. Henry, Chowdhury Jalal, Phyllis J. Shand, Albert Vandenberg
Abstract Panelists in Saskatoon, Canada (n = 45) and Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 98) participated in sensory evaluations of the sensory properties of both cooked and uncooked dehulled red lentil dal fortified with FeSO4·7H2O, NaFeEDTA or FeSO4·H2O at fortificant Fe concentrations of 800, 1,600 (both cooked and uncooked), or 2,800 ppm. Appearance, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked and uncooked samples were rated using a 9-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely to 9 = like extremely). Taste and texture were rated for the cooked samples prepared as typical south Asian lentil meals. Significant differences in sensory quality were observed among all uncooked and cooked samples at both locations. Overall, scores for all sensory attributes and acceptability of uncooked lentil decreased with increasing concentration of Fe in the fortificant; however, Fe fortification (particularly with NaFeEDTA) had small effects on acceptability. Panelists from Saskatoon provided a wider range of scores than those from Bangladesh for all attributes of cooked lentil. Overall, sensory evaluation of Fe fortification using NaFeEDTA minimally affected consumer perception of color, taste, texture, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked lentil. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha [CA]) indicated that consumer scores were generally consistent for all attributes of all lentil samples (mean CA > 0.80). NaFeEDTA was found to be the most suitable Fe fortificant for lentil based on consumer acceptability. Consumption of 45 to 50 g of NaFeEDTA-fortified lentil (fortificant Fe concentration of 1,600 ppm) per day meets the estimated average requirements (EARs) of Fe for humans (10.8 to 29.4 mg). Practical Application Iron fortification of dehulled lentil dal may change organoleptic attributes that can influence consumer acceptability. Sensory evaluation by consumers helps to determine the effect on appearance, odor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability of fortified lentils. In this study, consumer acceptability was evaluated with panelists who consume lentil regularly. Panelists provided significantly different scores for 5 sensory attributes for 10 uncooked and 3 cooked lentil samples. Panelists reliably preferred NaFeEDTA as the most suitable Fe fortificant for dehulled lentils for 5 attributes. Overall, lentil dal fortified with NaFeEDTA can offer a simple and low-cost solution to human health problems associated with iron-related malnutrition.
Development of Portable Flow-Through Electrochemical Sanitizing Unit to Generate Near Neutral Electrolyzed Water J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jufang Zhang, Hongshun Yang, Joel Zhi Yang Chan
Abstract We developed a portable flow-through, electrochemical sanitizing unit to produce near neutral pH electrolyzed water (producing NEW). Two methods of redirecting cathode yields back to the anode chamber and redirecting anode yields the cathode chamber were used. The NEW yields were evaluated, including: free available chlorine (FAC), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and pH. The performances of 2 electrodes (RuO2-IrO2/TiO2 and IrO2-Ta2O5/TiO2) were investigated. The unit produced NEW at pH 6.46 to 7.17, an ORP of 805.5 to 895.8 mV, and FAC of 3.7 to 82.0 mg/L. The NEW produced by redirecting cathode yields had stronger bactericidal effects than the NEW produced by redirecting anode yields or NEW produced by mixing the commercial unit's anode and cathode product (P < 0.05). Electron spin resonance results showed hydroxyl free radicals and superoxide anion free radicals were present in the NEW produced by developed unit. The NEW generator is a promising sanitizing unit for consumers and the food industry to control foodborne pathogens. Practical Application Current commercial NEW-producing units are quite large and are not convenient for family using. The developed portable flow-through, NEW-producing unit has great potential in a wide range of applications, such as organic farm, households, and small food industries. The examined sanitizing treatments showed effective control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.
Microbial Quality and Shelf Life of Blueberry Purée Developed Using Cavitation Technology J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Lihua Fan, Alex Martynenko, Craig Doucette, Timothy Hughes, Sherry Fillmore
Abstract Blueberry purée was developed using hydrodynamic cavitation technology. The product was made from entire blueberries without adding any food additives. In this study, microbial reduction following each processing stage (at the industry setting) and after product pasteurization at 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, and 96 °C was investigated. Microbial quality including total plate counts, yeast and molds, and heat-resistant molds counts was determined. Shelf life of pasteurized products stored for up to 24 weeks at room temperature were assessed for microbial quality, soluble solids (°Brix), titratable acidity (citric acid %), pH, viscosity (cP) and flow rate (cm/30 s). Our results indicated that heat-resistant molds, initially present in frozen blueberries with counts at 2.03 log CFU/200g, were totally inactivated at 94 to 96 °C with 1 to 2 min holding time. Shelf life study showed that no product spoilage was caused by bacteria, yeasts and heat-resistant molds along with non-significant changes of textural characteristics. This study provided useful information for the food industry to develop variety of fruit purée products with no wastes of fruit materials. Practical Application This study provides useful information for the food industry to develop safe liquid food products using cavitation technology without wasting any raw materials.
Identification of pyrG Used as an Endogenous Reference Gene in Qualitative and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Detection of Pleurotus ostreatus J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Shi Zheng, Luying Shan, Yongliang Zhuang, Ying Shang
Abstract As a well-known edible fungus rich in nutrients, Pleurotus ostreatus has been used as an alternative to expensive wild edible fungi. Specifically, the fact that using P. ostreatus instead of other expensive wild edible fungi has damaged the rights and interests of consumers. Among the existing methods for detection of food adulteration, the amplification of endogenous reference gene is the most accurate method. However, an ideal endogenous reference gene for P. ostreatus has yet to be developed. In this study, a DNA extraction method for P. ostreatus was optimized, and pyrG was selected as a species-specific gene through sequence alignment. This gene was subsequently subjected to qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays with 3 different P. ostreatus varieties and 7 other species. A low detection limit of 5 pg/μL was obtained by TaqMan quantitative PCR, and no pyrG amplification product was observed in the 7 other species. No allelic variation was detected in P. ostreatus varieties. These experiments confirmed that pyrG was an ideal endogenous reference gene for the qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of P. ostreatus. This method was also suitable for the examination of processed P. ostreatus samples and determination of adulteration in wild mushrooms. Practical Application The pyrG gene was chosen as an ideal endogenous reference gene for the qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of P. ostreatus, and the detection limit was 5 pg/μL for the quantification. This method is used not only for raw materials but also for processed P. ostreatus products and other processed mushroom foods.
Prediction of Firmness and pH for “Golden Delicious” Apple Based on Elasticity Index from Modal Analysis J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Jumin Hou, Yuxia Zhang, Yonghai Sun, Na Xu, Yue Leng
Abstract An experimental modal test system was established to extract the natural frequencies of “Golden Delicious” apple, after which the elasticity index was calculated to predict the apple quality parameters based on the orthogonal polynomials method. The elasticity index in every vibration mode changed dramatically (P = 0.01) along time revolution. The multivariate regression methods were used to model the predictive relationship between the elasticity index and the apple quality parameters. The models of the apple juice pH based on support vector regression presented adequate determination coefficients of calibration set (Q2 = 0.68) and prediction set (R2 = 0.55), respectively. The models based on partial least squares regression could be used for predicting the apple firmness parameter offset gradient (Q2 = 0.76 and R2 = 0.72). It helped understanding the fruit dynamic properties of the fruit and spontaneously obtaining the fruit chemical parameters. A nondestructive and portable device was viable for fruit quality estimation by the modal test system during storage, transport, and even growth on the tree. Practical Application A nondestructive and portable device was provided for fruit quality detection during storage, transport and even growth based on experimental modal analysis. A systematic statistical analysis method about outlier detection, data set partitioning, parameter optimization, and multiple regression models were provided.
Antifungal, Mechanical, and Physical Properties of Edible Film Containing Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus Antagonistic Yeast J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Gulsah Karabulut, Arzu Cagri-Mehmetoglu
Abstract The molding of food products causing health risks is a main problem in the food industry. In this study, as an alternative solution for preventing mold growth, an antifungal edible film was developed by incorporating Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus (0; 3; 7; and 9 logs CFU/cm2) into whey protein concentrate (WPC) based films. Antifungal properties of the films against Penicilium expansum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed using the disc diffusion method. Physical (barrier, solubility, color), mechanical (tensile strength and percent elongation) properties of the films as well as the survival of W. saturnus in the film were assessed during 28 days of storage at 23 °C. According to the results, the viability of W. saturnus (7 and 9 logs CFU/cm2) in WPC films stored for 28 days under vacuum or non-vacuum decreased to 36% and 60%, respectively. In addition, films containing W. saturnus decreased the viability of P. expansum and A. niger by 29% and 19%, respectively. Adding yeast did not change the tensile strength (P > 0.05), but significantly decreased % elongation and increased water vapor and oxygen permeability and water solubility (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that the developed films may be useful for inhibiting mold growth on foods.
A Novel Modified Lipid: Enzymatic Esterification of 2-Monoacylglycerol with N-acetyl-l-leucine J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Hasene Keskin Çavdar, Derya Koçak Yanık, Fahrettin Göğüş, Sibel Fadıloğlu
Abstract The objective of this research was to synthesize and characterize a novel modified lipid which is composed of mainly oleic acid at sn-2 position and a hydrophobic essential amino acid derivative (N-acetyl-l-leucine) at sn-1(3) or sn-1, 3 positions. LC-MS-MS analysis indicated that the target modified lipid structure was obtained at the end of the developed reaction. Response surface methodology was applied to enhance a reliable empirical model for prediction and to optimize reaction conditions: reaction time (8 to 24 hr), reaction temperature (40 to 55 °C), and enzyme load (15 to 30 wt%). The percentage of total reaction products was found to be 28.5 at the optimum conditions of 54 °C, 8 hr and 15% (by mass) enzyme load. This result is closely correlated to the predicted highest total reaction product (29.3%) obtained by response surface methodology. The physical and thermal characteristics of the modified lipid and refined olive pomace oil were compared and found to be similar. Caloric value of modified lipid was decreased by 18.65% compared to that of refined olive pomace oil. A novel modified lipid which may have potential uses in healthy food industries was successfully produced with the incorporation of N-acetyl-l-leucine to 2-monoacylglycerol. Practical Application A novel modified lipid was synthesized by enzymatic incorporation of a “hydrophobic and essential amino acid derivative” into 2-monoacylglycerol. This modified lipid contains mainly oleic acid at sn-2 position and N-acetyl-l-leucine at sn-1,3 positions. The product behaved as an oil above 10 °C. Caloric value of the novel oil-like product was reduced by 18.65%. The modified lipid may have the potential for replacement with the oil in food products such as margarine, shortenings, salad dressing, and mayonnaise.
Molecular Analysis, Biochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Immunological Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Broilers J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Hung-Yueh Yeh, John E. Line, Arthur Hinton
Abstract Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is ubiquitous in the environment and is considered as the normal microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often causing urinary tract infections. Moreover, Proteus has been frequently isolated from food animals, including poultry. Whether this bacterium contributes to the foodborne illness in humans is unclear. In this report, P. mirabilis isolates recovered from broilers during housing in the units were characterized, their antimicrobial activity was assayed, and broiler immune response to the soluble proteins was determined. Cecal contents and fecal droppings were treated according to the standard protocol for isolation. Speciation based on biochemical reactions and the antimicrobial activity of the isolates were carried out using commercial kits. Immunoblot was assayed to determine immune status of broilers against P. mirabilis. A total of 10 isolates of P. mirabilis were selected for further characterization. These isolates could grow in pH 6.0 and 1% NaCl conditions. They were resistant to sodium lactate, troleandomycin, rifamycin SV, vancomycin, but sensitive to nalidixic acid, cefotaxime and novobiocin. Moreover, the CTX, ACC, CMY-1, BIC, NDM, VEB, qnrB and qnrD genes were detected by PCR amplification in all isolates. Sera from broilers harboring this bacterium reacted to the P. mirabilis soluble proteins, but not from litter- and age-matched P. mirabilis negative and SPF chickens, indicating that this bacterium infected chickens that could have humoral immune response against P. mirabilis. This study provides a rationale for further monitoring P. mirabilis during poultry production to determine whether this bacterium poses potential threats to public health.
Lectin Isolated from Japanese Red Sword Beans (Canavalia gladiata) as a Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agent J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Satsuki Une, Koji Nonaka, Junich Akiyama
Abstract In this study, we investigated the chemical and biological profile of lectin isolated from Japanese red sword beans (Canavalia gladiata; RSBs). RSB lectin was purified using maltamyl-Sepharose 4B and subjected to amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequencing analyses, and evaluated for blood and carbohydrate specificity, mitogenic activity, splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, and its effect on B16 melanoma cell proliferation, compared with Concanavalin A (Con A). The amino acid composition and sequences of RSB lectin were similar to those of Con A. RSB lectin showed specificity to mannose, glucose, maltose, methyl-D-mannoside, and thyroglobulin, but not rhamnose, using mouse, sheep, and rabbit erythrocytes. Compared with Con A, RSB lectin showed low resistance to proteases and to temperatures greater than 70 °C, but high mitogenic activity for mouse splenic cells. Notably, while treatment with RSB lectin and Con A (0.01 and 0.1 μg/mL) promoted similar levels of splenic NK cell activity, which were higher than that observed in the control (0 μg/mL) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) (25 U)-treated populations, RBS lectin exerted a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than Con A at a concentration of 125.0 μg per well. Overall, our results show that RSB lectin might exert immunological effects on mouse splenic cells and could thus be used as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. Practical Application Japanese red sword bean (RSB) is a tropical perennial legume consumed in many Asian countries. RSB lectin shows specificity to mannose, glucose, maltose, methyl-d-mannoside, and thyroglobulin, but not to rhamnose, using mouse, sheep, and rabbit erythrocytes. RSB lectin exhibits similarities to Concanavalin A in amino acid composition and sequence, shows mitogenic activity for mouse splenic cells and strong antiproliferative activity for B16 melanoma cells, and also enhances the activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells against YAC-1 cells. Thus, RSB lectin has the potential to be used as a bioactive protein in medical research.
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids from Cannabis Sativa L. Optimized by Response Surface Methodology J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Charu Agarwal, Katalin Máthé, Tamás Hofmann, Levente Csóka
Abstract Ultrasonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from Cannabis sativa L. such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and cannabinoids. The influence of 3 independent factors (time, input power, and methanol concentration) was evaluated on the extraction of total phenols (TPC), flavonoids (TF), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and the overall yield. A face-centered central composite design was used for statistical modelling of the response data, followed by regression and analysis of variance in order to determine the significance of the model and factors. Both the solvent composition and the time significantly affected the extraction while the sonication power had no significant impact on the responses. The response predictions obtained at optimum extraction conditions of 15 min time, 130 W power, and 80% methanol were 314.822 mg GAE/g DW of TPC, 28.173 mg QE/g DW of TF, 18.79 mM AAE/g DW of FRAP, and 10.86% of yield. A good correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental values of the responses, which validated the mathematical model. On comparing the ultrasonic process with the control extraction, noticeably higher values were obtained for each of the responses. Additionally, ultrasound considerably improved the extraction of cannabinoids present in Cannabis. Practical Application Low frequency ultrasound was employed to extract bioactive compounds from the inflorescence part of Cannabis. The responses evaluated were–total phenols, flavonoids, ferric reducing assay and yield. The solvent composition and time significantly influenced the extraction process. Appreciably higher extraction of cannabinoids was achieved on sonication against control.
Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Giulia Tabanelli, Federica Pasini, Ylenia Riciputi, Lucia Vannini, Giorgia Gozzi, Federica Balestra, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Fausto Gardini, Chiara Montanari
Abstract Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Practical Application Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens).
Green Tea Polyphenols Modulate Colonic Microbiota Diversity and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Treated HFA Mice J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Li Wang, Benhua Zeng, Zhiwei Liu, Zhenlin Liao, Qingping Zhong, Lihui Gu, Hong Wei, Xiang Fang
Abstract There is an increasing interest in the effect of dietary polyphenols on the intestinal microbiota and the possible associations between this effect and the development of obesity. However, limited information is available on how these polyphenols affect the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism. The co-action of a high-fat diet (HFD) and tea polyphenol (TP) on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using a human flora-associated (HFA) C57BL/6J mice model is studied. TP reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, glucose (GLU) and insulin (INS) levels of HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). TP also significantly increased acetic acid and butyric acid levels in HFA mice. 16S rRNA V3 region Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles showed that HFD mice had significantly reduced microbial diversity. This reduction could be alleviated by TP, with a significant increase in the richness and diversity of colonic microbiota in the high-fat diet with 0.2% TP (TPM) and high-fat diet with 0.05% TP (TPL) groups (P < 0.05). 454 pyrosequencing analysis showed that the HFD group had a significant increase in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (F/B) ratio (P < 0.001), which could effectively be reversed by TP. The results showed that the changes in composition and diversity of colonic microbiota by TP administration suppressed the host body weight and blood lipid increase in high-fat diet HFA mice. Practical Application A high fat diet significantly impacted gut microbiota composition and lipid metabolism in human flora-associated mice, which were largely ameliorated by tea polyphenol (TP). Therefore, TPs may be effectively used in controlling or treating obesity, hyperlipidemia and other related metabolic diseases.
Cover Caption J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
February Online Cover: Depiction of active packaging from Feature Article “Photo-Curable Metal-Chelating Coatings Offer a Scalable Approach to Production of Antioxidant Active Packaging” by Zhuangsheng Lin and Julie Goddard. Illustration: Zhuangsheng (Jason) Lin. p. 367.
Influence of Expectation Measure on the Sensory Acceptance of Petit Suisse Product J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Maria Micheline Teixeira Lopes, Maria do Carmo Passos Rodrigues, Ana Maria Souza de Araújo
Abstract The consumer's expectation has an important role in the consumption of food products. It is one of the factors that influence the perception of sensory attributes and interact with the physiological, behavioral and cognitive factors influencing consumer decisions. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of consumer's expectations on the acceptance of Petit Suisse. Products of 4 different brands were used for the sensory analysis, 2 international brands and 2 regional ones. The 9-point regular hedonic scale was employed to carry out affective sensory and expectation measure tests (with and without product information). Concerning the present research, photos of the packaging of each product were printed in color and presented to the participants. These photos displayed the following pieces of information: the product brand, pictures, colors, product name, nutritional information and date of manufacture. International samples obtained higher grades when presented with their packaging, and obtained lower values both in the blind test and in the real expectation test evaluation. It can be concluded that the sensory analysis of the expectation measure showed that the brand influences the acceptance of the product, for the consumer's expectations for international brands had positively confirmed and disconfirmed acceptance. Practical Application This study generated a significant contribution, especially for companies that aim for a wider market. The application of sensory analysis with a focus on expectation measure, it shows that the brand determines the purchase, based on the results of this study. Therefore, the product's visual identity must be invested in; it must arouse children and adults’ attention. That is, it reinforces that the image of the product, the label and what it arouses in the consumers are extremely important for the final choice.
Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Kenaf Seed Oil, Macroemulsion, and Nanoemulsion in High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Rats J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Ai Mun Cheong, Jue Xi Jessica Koh, Nwabueze Okechukwu Patrick, Chin Ping Tan, Kar Lin Nyam
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of kenaf seed oil (KSO), kenaf seed oil-in-water macroemulsion (KSOM), kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (KSON), and emulsifier mixtures (EM) on serum lipid profile, liver oxidative status, and histopathological changes in high-cholesterol fed rats. Stability and characteristic of KSOM and KSON were carried out prior to in vivo study. Forty-two Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups (6 rats each) and induced hypercholesterolemia by feeding high cholesterol diet (HCD) for 14 days prior to treatments. Different treatments were introduced on day 15 to 29 while supplemented with HCD and removal of HCD during treatment on day 30 to 43, except for HCD group. Body weight and serum lipid profiles were measured at 3 different points: after hypercholesterolemia was induced, on day 29, and at the end of the experiment. Relative liver weight, atherogenic index, coronary risk index, and fecal total bile acids were also determined at the end of experiment. KSON showed significantly higher stability than KSOM and FTIR exhibited good encapsulation of KSO after 1.5 years of storage. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipid peroxidation levels in HCD group without treatment were significantly higher compared to normal control group and all treatment groups. All samples demonstrated hypocholesterolemic effect, but KSON exhibited higher efficiency in cholesterol-lowering properties, weight control and decreased liver fat as confirmed by histopathological evaluation. The overall results revealed that the efficacy of different treatments was in descending order of KSON, KSO, KSOM, and EM. Practical Application Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsion (KSON) has the potential to be used as a natural alternative to the synthetic hypocholesterolemic drug in the future. However, larger sample size and clinical trial are needed to confirm on this potential application. In addition, treatment with KSON was suggested to prevent cardiovascular disease and fatty liver.
Shelf to Health: Does Product Innovation Change National Estimates of Dietary Impacts? J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Christopher A. Taylor, Rosanna P. Watowicz, Colleen K. Spees, Neal H. Hooker
Abstract This paper presents a simulation process to augment nutrition surveillance in the United States which incorporates product innovation data. Traditional point-estimates of nutritional quality in a food category are compared to those based on distributions of nutrient compositions using product-level variability seen in the market. Nationally representative consumption patterns provide dietary intakes. Cookies are used as an example food category. Nutrient composition data from Global New Product Database (GNPD) for 5259 cookies launched 2005 to 2012 were matched to dietary intakes from 2005 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the 2 y cycles of NHANES for 8284 cookie consumers. Average dietary intakes from traditional NHANES and GNPD-based estimations produced similar mean values for energy, carbohydrates, sugars, total fat, and protein. Saturated fat, fiber and cholesterol contributions using new product compositions were significantly higher than traditional NHANES approaches, estimates of sodium were significantly lower. These differences become pronounced when comparing adult and child consumption patterns and over time. This process also simulated trans fat consumption estimates not traditionally available within NHANES. On average cookies contributed 0.3 g/d (range 0 to 4.1 g/d). Much variability in food composition is seen in the market which is shown to influence estimates of the national diet. Practical Application Numerous factors drive changes in the food supply, including health trends, firm strategic choices, and food policy. This evolution presents a challenge for dietary assessments and nutrition monitoring. The public health impact of variability in nutritional composition, subpopulation consumption patterns and market dynamics are particularly difficult to evaluate and are shown to influence estimates of the national diet.
Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Differently-Charged Emulsifiers Under Chlorophyll Photosensitization J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 BoRa Yi, Mi-Ja Kim, JaeHwan Lee
Abstract The antioxidative or prooxidative properties of astaxanthin at the concentrations of 0, 10, and 100 μM were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing neutral, anionic, and cationic emulsifiers, which was Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), respectively, under chlorophyll photosensitization. The oxidative parameters and headspace volatiles were analyzed in O/W emulsions. In the 24 h period of visible light irradiation, 100 μM of astaxanthin acted as an antioxidant in O/W emulsions containing neutral and anionic emulsifiers. However, astaxanthin in O/W emulsions with a cationic emulsifier was neither an antioxidant nor a prooxidant. The profiles of volatile compounds showed that astaxanthin served as a singlet oxygen quencher in O/W emulsions containing neutral and anionic emulsifiers. However, in O/W emulsion with a cationic emulsifier, astaxanthin was neither a singlet oxygen quencher nor a free radical scavenger because prooxidant properties of CTAB overwhelmed the antioxidant effects of astaxanthin. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of astaxanthin were influenced by the emulsifier charges in O/W emulsions. Practical Application Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble pigment and has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties and beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Many lipid-based foods are displayed on the shelves in the markets under fluorescent light. The addition of astaxanthin can extend the shelf life of O/W emulsion type foods such as beverage and dressing products under visible light irradiation. Also, oxidative stability in emulsion type foods containing astaxanthin rich natural ingredients can be predicted.
Effects of Processing Conditions During Manufacture on Retronasal-Aroma Compounds from a Milk Coffee Drink J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Michio Ikeda, Masayuki Akiyama, Yuta Hirano, Kazuhiro Miyazi, Masaya Kono, Yuriko Imayoshi, Hisakatsu Iwabuchi, Takeshi Onodera, Kiyoshi Toko
To develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee retaining the original coffee flavor, the effects of processing conditions during manufacture on retronasal-arma (RA) compounds from the milk coffee were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an RA simulator (RAS). Thirteen of 46 detected compounds in the RAS effluent (RAS compounds) decreased significantly following pH adjustment of coffee (from pH 5.1 to 6.8) and 5 compounds increased. RAS compounds from coffee tended to decrease through the pH adjustment and subsequent sterilization. Significantly higher amounts of 13 RAS compounds were released from the milk coffee produced using a blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process without the pH adjustment than from that using a blending-before-sterilization (BBS) process with the pH adjustment. In BAS-processed milk coffee, significantly lower amounts of 8 high-volatility compounds and 1H-pyrrole were released from coffee containing infusion-sterilized (INF) milk than from coffee containing plate-sterilized (PLT) milk, whereas 3 low-volatility compounds were released significantly more from coffee using PLT milk. Principal component analysis revealed that the effect of the manufacturing process (BAS, BBS, or homemade (blending unsterilized coffee without pH adjustment with sterilized milk)) on milk coffee volatiles was larger than that of the sterilization method (INF or PLT) for milk, and that the sterilization method could result in different RAS volatile characteristics in BAS and homemade processes. In conclusion, a BAS process was found to be superior to a BBS process for the manufacture of an RTD milk coffee that retains volatile characteristics similar to that of a homemade milk coffee. Practical Application Ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee manufactured using the conventional blending-before-sterilization process does not retain its original coffee flavor due to pH adjustment of the coffee during the process. The new blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process enabled the production of RTD milk coffee whose volatiles are closer to that of homemade milk coffee, as demonstrated by the results of RAS-GC-MS analysis. The BAS process has already been applied to the manufacture of RTD milk coffees in Japan.
Ascorbic Acid-Based Oxygen Scavenger in Active Food Packaging System for Raw Meatloaf J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Jung-Soo Lee, Yoonjee Chang, Eun-Sil Lee, Hong-Geon Song, Pahn-Shick Chang, Jaejoon Han
Abstract A nonferrous oxygen scavenger (NFOS) comprising activated carbon and sodium l-ascorbate was developed to enhance the preservative efficacy of raw meatloaves. To determine the optimum formulation of activated carbon and sodium l-ascorbate, NFOSs with varying ratios of components (1:1, 1:1.2, 1:1.4, 1:1.6, 1:1.8, and 1:2, w/w) were prepared and their oxygen-scavenging volumes were measured over 4 d at 25 °C. Assays of oxygen-scavenging capacities indicated that the optimum NFOS formulation of activated carbon and sodium l-ascorbate was achieved at a ratio of 1:1.6 (w/w). Finally, the optimal NFOS sachet was applied to packaging of raw meatloaves and its oxygen-scavenging capacity was periodically analyzed. Moreover, microbiological changes (including total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds) and an effect on lipid oxidation during the storage were examined at 4 °C for 4 d. The meatloaves packaged with NFOS sachet had lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and microbiological changes than control meatloaves, indicating the practical utility in the food packaging industry. Practical Application Oxygen-scavenging sachets containing iron powder have been generally used although those have several problems. Therefore, to solve them, an ascorbic acid-based oxygen scavenger composed of activated carbon and sodium l-ascorbate was newly developed. It did not only inhibit lipid oxidation but also reduce microbial growth in meatloaves. It could be used as a promising packaging material to protect meat products from lipid oxidation and microbial contamination.
Lethality Prediction for Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Uropathogenic E. coli in Ground Chicken Treated with High Pressure Processing and Trans-Cinnamaldehyde J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Shiowshuh Sheen, Chi-Yun Huang, Rommel Ramos, Shih-Yung Chien, O. Joseph Scullen, Christopher Sommers
Abstract Pathogenic Escherichia coli, intestinal (O157:H7) as well as extraintestinal types (for example, Uropathogenic E. coli [UPEC]) are commonly found in many foods including raw chicken meat. The resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to UPEC in chicken meat under the stresses of high hydrostatic Pressure (HHP, also known as HPP–high pressure processing) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (an essential oil) was investigated and compared. UPEC was found slightly less resistant than O157:H7 in our test parameter ranges. With the addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde as an antimicrobial to meat, HPP lethality enhanced both O157:H7 and UPEC inactivation. To facilitate the predictive model development, a central composite design (CCD) was used to assess the 3-parameter effects, that is, pressure (300 to 400 MPa), trans-cinnamaldehyde dose (0.2 to 0.5%, w/w), and pressure-holding time (15 to 25 min), on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken. Linear models were developed to estimate the lethality of E. coli O157:H7 (R2 = 0.86) and UPEC (R2 = 0.85), as well as dimensionless nonlinear models. All models were validated with data obtained from separated CCD combinations. Because linear models of O157:H7 and UPEC had similar R2 and the significant lethality difference of CCD points was only 9 in 20; all data were combined to generate models to include both O157:H7 and UPEC. The results provide useful information/tool to predict how pathogenic E. coli may survive HPP in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde and to achieve a great than 5 log CFU/g reduction in chicken meat. The models may be used for process optimization, product development and to assist the microbial risk assessment. Practical Application The study provided an effective means to reduce the high hydrostatic pressure level with incorporation of antimicrobial compound to achieve a 5-log reduction of pathogenic E. coli without damaging the raw meat quality. The developed models may be used to predict the high pressure processing lethality (and process optimization), product development (ingredient selection), and to assist the microbial risk assessment.
Modeling Transfer of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus During Peeling of Raw Shrimp J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Xingning Xiao, Haiying Pang, Wen Wang, Weihuan Fang, Yingchun Fu, Yanbin Li
Abstract This study aimed to qualify the transfer of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during the shrimp peeling process via gloves under 3 different scenarios. The 1st 2 scenarios provided quantitative information for the probability distribution of bacterial transfer rates from (i) contaminated shrimp (6 log CFU/g) to non-contaminated gloves (Scenario 1) and (ii) contaminated gloves (6 log CFU/per pair) to non-contaminated shrimp (Scenario 2). In Scenario 3, bacterial transfer from contaminated shrimp to non-contaminated shrimp in the shrimp peeling process via gloves was investigated to develop a predictive model for describing the successive bacterial transfer. The range of bacterial transfer rate (%) in Scenarios 1 and 2 was 7% to 91.95% and 0.04% to 12.87%, respectively, indicating that the bacteria can be transferred from shrimp to gloves much easier than that from gloves to shrimp. A Logistic (1.59, 0.14) and Triangle distribution (−1.61, 0.12, 1.32) could be used to describe the bacterial transfer rate in Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. In Scenario 3, a continuously decay patterning with fluctuations as the peeling progressed has been observed at all inoculation levels of the 1st shrimp (5, 6, and 7 log CFU/g). The bacteria could be transferred easier at 1st few peels, and the decreasing bacterial transfer was found in later phase. Two models (exponential and Weibull) could describe the successive bacterial transfer satisfactorily (pseudo-R2 > 0.84, RMSE < 1.23, SEP < 10.37). The result of this study can provide information regarding cross-contamination events in the seafood factory. Practical Application This study presented that Vibrio parahaemolyticus cross-contamination could be caused by gloves during the shrimp peeling process. The bacterial transfer rate distribution and predictive model derived from this work could be used in risk assessment of V. parahaemolyticus to ensure peeled shrimp safety.
Frying of the Dispersion Droplets with Varying Contents of Chickpea Flour and Gum Arabic: Product Characterization and Modeling J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 J. Shanthilal, R. Babylatha, M.C. Navya, A. Chakkaravarthi, Suvendu Bhattacharya
Abstract Dispersions having chickpea (37%, 40%, and 43%, w/w) and gum arabic (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%, w/w) solids were prepared. These dispersion droplets were fried, and the physical, sensory, and microstructural characteristics of the fried products were determined. The oil content in the fried snack decreased up to 20.3% when the level of chickpea and/or gum in the dispersions was increased. The compression curve for fried snack showed 5 major zones and exhibited the failure phenomenon. Failure force (6.5 to 11.4 N) increased with chickpea flour in the dispersions. Fracture strain (12.0% to 19.5%) indicated that all the fried samples were soft-crisp products. An increase in chickpea flour concentration offered an ovoid/oblong shape of dispersion droplets while falling to oil, and changed the spherical shape of the fried snack. The near-spherical product could be obtained by using 37% chickpea flour containing 0 to 2% of gum arabic, or with the 40% and 0 to 1% combinations. The hue or dominant wavelength increased from 578.5 nm (flour) to 581.0 to 582.7 nm (product) indicating a shift toward red coloration. A porous microstructure with scattered small cavities and large vacuoles of the fried snack were observed; big vacuoles were located in the inner portion of the fried product. The cells were divided into closed and open cells and were characterized by image analysis. The air cells usually had an elliptical shape with varying sizes; the cell wall thickness was between 12 and 80 μm. An artificial neural network (ANN) structure of 2-9-2 was developed for the prediction of sensory overall acceptability and oil content of the fried snack. Practical Application Chickpea flour is used in several food preparations. The addition of gum arabic affects the textural and structural characteristics, and the sensory acceptance; the fried dispersion droplets have a lower fat content when gum arabic is used compared to samples fried without the addition of gum arabic. The fried dispersion droplets change their shape with the level of the ingredients used in the dispersion.
Degradation of L-Ascorbic Acid in the Amorphous Solid State J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Juan O. Sanchez, Yahya Ismail, Belinda Christina, Lisa J. Mauer
Abstract Ascorbic acid degradation in amorphous solid dispersions was compared to its degradation in the crystalline state. Physical blends and lyophiles of ascorbic acid and polymers (pectins and polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]) were prepared initially at 50:50 (w/w), with further studies using the polymer that best inhibited ascorbic acid crystallization in the lyophiles in 14 vitamin : PVP ratios. Samples were stored in controlled environments (25 to 60 °C, 0% to 23% RH) for 1 mo and analyzed periodically to track the physical appearance, change in moisture content, physical state (powder x-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy), and vitamin loss (high performance liquid chromatography) over time. The glass transition temperatures of select samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry, and moisture sorption profiles were generated. Ascorbic acid in the amorphous form, even in the glassy amorphous state, was more labile than in the crystalline form in some formulations at the highest storage temperature. Lyophiles stored at 25 and 40 °C and those in which ascorbic acid had crystallized at 60 °C (≥70% ascorbic acid : PVP) had no significant difference in vitamin loss (P > 0.05) relative to physical blend controls, and the length of storage had little effect. At 60 °C, amorphous ascorbic acid lyophiles (≤60% ascorbic acid : PVP) lost significantly more vitamin (P < 0.05) relative to physical blend controls after 1 wk, and vitamin loss significantly increased over time. In these lyophiles, vitamin degradation also significantly increased (P < 0.05) at lower proportions of ascorbic acid, a scenario likely encountered in foods wherein vitamins are naturally present or added at low concentrations and production practices may promote amorphization of the vitamin. Practical Application Vitamin C is one of the most unstable vitamins in foods. This study documents that amorphous ascorbic acid is less stable than crystalline ascorbic acid in some environments (for example, higher temperatures within 1 wk), especially when the vitamin is present at low concentrations in a product. These findings increase the understanding of how material science properties influence the stability of vitamin C.
Effects of Emulsifier, Overrun and Dasher Speed on Ice Cream Microstructure and Melting Properties J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Maya M. Warren, Richard W. Hartel
Abstract Ice cream is a multiphase frozen food containing ice crystals, air cells, fat globules, and partially coalesced fat globule clusters dispersed in an unfrozen serum phase (sugars, proteins, and stabilizers). This microstructure is responsible for ice cream's melting characteristics. By varying both formulation (emulsifier content and overrun) and processing conditions (dasher speed), the effects of different microstructural elements, particularly air cells and fat globule clusters, on ice cream melt-down properties were studied. Factors that caused an increase in shear stress within the freezer, namely increasing dasher speed and overrun, caused a decrease in air cell size and an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Increasing emulsifier content, especially of polysorbate 80, caused an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Both overrun and fat destabilization influenced drip-through rates. Ice creams with a combination of low overrun and low fat destabilization had the highest drip-through rates. Further, the amount of remnant foam left on the screen increased with reduced drip-through rates. These results provide a better understanding of the effects of microstructure components and their interactions on drip-through rate. Practical Applications Manipulating operating and formulation parameters in ice cream manufacture influences the microstructure (air cells, ice crystals, and fat globule clusters). This work provides guidance on which parameters have most effect on air cell size and fat globule cluster formation. Further, the structural characteristics that reduce melt-down rate were determined. Ice cream manufacturers will use these results to tailor their products for the desired quality attributes.
Human Milk Oligosaccharides Attenuate Antigen–Antibody Complex Induced Chemokine Release from Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-27 Sehrish Zehra, Ibrahim Khambati, Megan Vierhout, M. Firoz Mian, Rachael Buck, Paul Forsythe
Abstract There has been increased interest in the use of dietary ingredients, including prebiotics such as human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HMOs is important to realizing their therapeutic potential. Here we demonstrate that the HMO, 6’-sialyllactose (6’SL) inhibited chemokine (IL-8 and CCL20) release from T-84 and HT-29 cells stimulated with antigen–antibody complex, TNFα or PGE2; an effect that was PPARγ dependent and associated with decreased activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB. In contrast, 2’-fucosyllactose (2’FL) selectively inhibited CCL20 release in response to antigen antibody complex in a PPARγ independent manner. This study reinforces the concept that structurally different oligosaccharides have distinct biological activities and identifies, for the first time, that the HMOs, 6’SL, and 2’FL, modulate human epithelial cell responses related to allergic disease. These findings encourage further investigation of the therapeutic potential of specific HMOs in food allergy. Practical Application This study provides evidence for direct effects of HMOs in addition to their prebiotic role and demonstrates, for the first time, modulation of Ag–IgE complex activation of human epithelial cells that may have important implications for food-allergy. The study also reinforces the concept that structurally different oligosaccharides have distinct biological activities. In determining the composition of infant formula, addition of oligosaccharides with specific structures may provide direct modulation of immune responses and potentially attenuate symptoms or development of food allergy.
Chemical Composition of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Oil from Six Saudi Arabian Cultivars J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-27 Imeddedine Arbi Nehdi, Hassen Mohamed Sbihi, Chin Ping Tan, Umer Rashid, Saud Ibrahim Al-Resayes
Abstract This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein. Practical Application This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia.
Photo-Curable Metal-Chelating Coatings Offer a Scalable Approach to Production of Antioxidant Active Packaging J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-27 Zhuangsheng Lin, Julie Goddard
Abstract Synthetic metal chelators (for example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) are widely used as additives to control trace transition metal induced oxidation in consumer products. To enable removal of synthetic chelators in response to increasing consumer demand for clean label products, metal-chelating active food packaging technologies have been developed with demonstrated antioxidant efficacy in simulated food systems. However, prior work in fabrication of metal-chelating materials leveraged batch chemical reactions to tether metal-chelating ligands, a process with limited industrial translatability for large-scale fabrication. To improve the industrial translatability, we have designed a 2-step laminated photo-grafting process to introduce metal chelating functionality onto common polymeric packaging materials. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functionalized materials were fabricated by photo-grafting poly(acrylic acid) onto polypropylene (PP) films, followed by a second photo-grafting process to graft-polymerize an IDA functionalized vinyl monomer (GMA-IDA). The photo-grafting was conducted under atmospheric conditions and was completed in 2 min. The resulting IDA functionalized metal-chelating material was able to chelate iron and copper, and showed antioxidant efficacy against ascorbic acid degradation, supporting its potential to be used synergistically with natural antioxidants for preservation of food and beverage products. The 2-step photo-grafting process improves the throughput of active packaging coatings, enabling potential roll-to-roll fabrication of metal-chelating active packaging materials for antioxidant food packaging applications. Practical Application To address consumer and retail demands for “clean label” foods and beverages without a corresponding loss in product quality and shelf life, producers are seeking next generation technologies such as active packaging. In this work, we will report the synthesis of metal-chelating active packaging films, which enable removal of the synthetic additive, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. The new synthesis technique improves the throughput of metal-chelating active packaging coatings, enabling potential roll-to-roll fabrication of the materials for antioxidant food packaging applications.
A Fast and Reliable Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Ten Animal Species in Meat Products J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-27 Lissandra Sousa Dalsecco, Rafael Melo Palhares, Pollyana Carvalho Oliveira, Lilian Viana Teixeira, Marcela Gonçalves Drummond, Denise Aparecida Andrade Oliveira
Abstract Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product. The method combines species-specific and universal (used here as internal positive control) primers, and applies melt curve analysis for amplicon checking. Method accuracy was evaluated on 46 experimental meat mixtures and all species were correctly identified in all cases, at 1% test sensitivity. Analysis of 14 commercial meat products revealed that 6 of 14 samples had nondeclared bovine and/or chicken material. We performed an interlaboratory comparison using the reference meat mixtures and commercial samples, achieving 100% of reproducibility. The developed test proved to be effective and reliable for routine analysis of meat products. Practical Application This paper describes a fast and reliable method for species detection in meat products based on real-time PCR. It can be applied for analysis of in natura or processed meat. The method proposed here can play an important role in controlling the origin of meat products, ensuring their quality and safety for the entire food industry—producers to consumers.
Influence of Food with High Moisture Content on Oxygen Barrier Property of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Vermiculite Nanocomposite Coated Multilayer Packaging Film J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Jung Min Kim, Min Hyeock Lee, Jung A. Ko, Dong Ho Kang, Hojae Bae, Hyun Jin Park
Abstract This study investigates the potential complications in applying nanoclay-based waterborne coating to packaging films for food with high moisture content. Multilayer packaging films were prepared by dry laminating commercially available polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/vermiculite nanocomposite coating films and linear low-density polyethylene film, and the changes in oxygen barrier properties were investigated according to different relative humidity using 3 types of food simulants. When the relative humidity was above 60%, the oxygen permeability increased sharply, but this was reversible. Deionized water and 3% acetic acid did not cause any large structural change in the PVA/vermiculite nanocomposite but caused a reversible deterioration of the oxygen barrier properties. In contrast, 50% ethanol, a simulant for the semifatty food, induced irreversible structural changes with deterioration of the oxygen barrier property. These changes are due to the characteristics of PVA rather than vermiculite. Practical Application We believe this manuscript would be of interest to the wide group of researchers, organizations, and companies in the field of developing nanoclay-based gas barrier packaging for foods with high moisture content. Hence, we wish to diffuse our knowledge to the scientific community.
Influence of Selected Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces Strains and Their Mixed Cultures on Chemical Composition of Apple Wines J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Paweł Satora, Dorota Semik-Szczurak, Tomasz Tarko, Andrzej Bułdys
Abstract Currently in apple winemaking, pure cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus strains are mainly used. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Johannisberg Riesling – LOCK 105), S. bayanus (DSMZ 3774), S. paradoxus (CBS 7302), and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (DSMZ 70576) applied in pure and mixed cultures on the chemical composition and sensory profile of apple wines. Pasteurized Gloster apple musts with addition of sucrose (up to 22°Blg) were inoculated with specific volume (0.6 g dry weight per liter) of yeast pure or mixed cultures (in a ratio of 1:1, 1:1:1, or 1:1:1:1) and fermented for 28 d at 22 °C. The influence of pure/mixed culture on the chemical composition, volatile profile, and sensory properties of apple wines was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) methods. All pure culture of yeasts used for the apple wines production are characterized by good enological profiles. S. bayanus and Sch. pombe are the most distinct to S. cerevisiae. S. bayanus strain increases the level of malic acid and carbonyl compounds in apple wines, whereas Sch. pombe highly deacidifies it and produces the most of glycerol, esters, and acetic acid. The wines obtained with these 2 species gained also, respectively, the best and the worse notes during sensory analysis. Mixed cultures (in most cases) produce greater amounts of ethanol, methanol, and volatile esters compared to pure cultures. The presence of S. bayanus in the mixed culture is beneficial for the quality of apple wines. Practical Application Good understanding of the properties of yeasts and the procedures for their selection will make it easier to find strains that could improve the quality of wine. Since wine is formed by the action of a number of species and strains of yeasts, many authors have studied the effect of mixed cultures on the final quality of the product. Most of this research was focused on the effect of the inoculation of Saccharomyces yeast with other species on the aroma of wine. However, there is a little data on the fermentation using simultaneous inoculation of different strains of S. cerevisiae.
Efficacy of Peracetic Acid in Inactivating Foodborne Pathogens on Fresh Produce Surface J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Prashant Singh, Yen-Con Hung, Hang Qi
Abstract Washing treatment with effective sanitizer is one of the critical steps in ensuring fresh produce safety. This study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA; VigorOx® 15 F&V), chlorine-based sanitizers (acidic electrolyzed water [AEO], near neutral electrolyzed water and bleach), lactic acid, and deionized (DI) water to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from fresh produce surfaces. A 5-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium DT104 was separately prepared and used for surface inoculation on produce samples (E. coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce, lemons, tomatoes, and blueberries; L. monocytogenes on romaine lettuce and cantaloupe; S. Typhimurium DT104 on lemons, tomatoes, cantaloupe, and blueberries). PAA at 45, 85, and 100 mg/L; AEO, NNEO, and bleach at 100 mg/L of free chlorine; lactic acid at 2%; and DI water were used for washing inoculated produce in an automated produce washer for 5 min. In general, PAA at 100 mg/L achieved the highest microbial inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 (lettuce, lemon, tomato, and blueberry at 2.2, 5.7, 5.5, and 6.7 log CFU/g, respectively), S. Typhimurium DT104 (lemon, tomato, cantaloupe, blueberry at 5.4, 6.8, 4.5, and 5.9 log CFU/g, respectively), and L. monocytogenes (lettuce and cantaloupe at 2.4 and 4.4 log CFU/g, respectively). Efficacy of sanitizers on produce with coarse surface (for example, lettuce and cantaloupe) was lower than produce with smooth texture (lemon, tomato, and blueberry). Cross-contamination of E. coli O157:H7 among romaine lettuce heads during simulated retail crisping process was greatly reduced by the application of PAA and NNEO. Practical Application NNEO and PAA showed high efficacy in foodborne pathogen removal from fresh produce. Produce surface texture plays an important role in pathogen removal. NNEO and PAA effectively prevented cross-contamination during the crisping process.
Comparison of Cinnamon Essential Oils from Leaf and Bark with Respect to Antimicrobial Activity and Sensory Acceptability in Strawberry Shake J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Wafaa I. Brnawi, Navam S. Hettiarachchy, Ronny Horax, Geetha Kumar-Phillips, Han-Seok Seo, John Marcy
Abstract Cinnamon leaf and bark essential oils have long been used as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in foods. This study determined antimicrobial effects of leaf and bark of cinnamon essential oils (CEOs) against 2 foodborne pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), at 2 initial bacterial levels (4- and 9-log CFU/mL) in strawberry shakes. The antimicrobial study of CEOs at 0.1% and 0.5% in strawberry shakes against S.T. and L.M. showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in log reductions of both bacterial growth at low (4-log CFU/mL) and high (9-log CFU/mL) initial bacterial levels. Addition of 0.5% CEOs into strawberry shakes at 4 °C completely inhibited both bacteria after a period of 8 d storage. Shelf-life study showed that acidity and total solid content were not affected during storage. The strawberry shakes containing bark CEO had higher ratings of sensory acceptability compared to leaf CEO, with or without the addition of 1% masking agent. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CEO derived from bark was better than that from leaf in terms of their antimicrobial activity and sensory aspect. Practical Application This study demonstrates that essential oils derived from cinnamon bark and leaf have the potential to be used as natural antimicrobial ingredient in milk beverages with respect to sensory aspect. This finding promotes the acceptance of natural antimicrobials among consumers, while providing enhanced safer products to the food industry application.
Monitoring Shelf Life of Pasteurized Whole Milk Under Refrigerated Storage Conditions: Predictive Models for Quality Loss J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-25 Mohamed Ziyaina, Byju N. Govindan, Barbara Rasco, Todd Coffey, Shyam S. Sablani
Abstract The shelf life of pasteurized milk is generally determined through microbiological analysis. The objective of this study was to correlate microbial quality parameters then to design predictive models for shelf life of pasteurized milk. We analyzed pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) for aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophic bacteria counts (PBCs), and Bacillus spp. counts at 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, and 19 (±1 °C) to the end of storage time. We also monitored titratable acidity, pH, and, lipase, and protease activity and correlated this with APC, which is the principal index defining shelf life. Results indicate that the shelf life of pasteurized milk was 24, 36, and 72 h at 19, 15, and 13 °C respectively, as determined by APC and acidity indicators. However, milk stored at lower temperatures of 5, 7, and 10 °C had longer shelf life of 30, 24, and 12 d, respectively. A sharp increase in titratable acidity, while decrease pH were observed when APCs reached 5.0 log10 CFU/mL at all storage temperatures. Lipase and protease activities increased with storage temperature. At 5 and 7 °C, however, protease activity was very low. Therefore, we eliminated this parameter from our quality parameters as a potential spoilage indicator. Practical Application Findings of this research are useful for monitoring the quality of commercial pasteurized milk, particularly in locations where environmental conditions make longer storage difficult. The study also provides valuable information for development of colorimetric shelf life indicators.
Effect of Thermostable α-Amylase Addition on Producing the Porous-Structured Noodles Using Extrusion Treatment J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-23 Jingpeng Li, Aiquan Jiao, Marwan M.A. Rashed, Li Deng, Xueming Xu, Zhengyu Jin
Abstract Problems with rehydration and palatability are considered as unacceptable quality characteristics for the noodles produced using high-strength extrusion technique. Thus, the aim of this study was to solve these problems by designing a novel method to create a porous structure for the high-strength extruded noodles (HENs). The quality indices of HENs were significantly improved after adding to them thermostable α-amylase (TαA) at 0.05% to 0.10%. The microstructure graphs showed that a well-developed porous structures was successfully created throughout noodle strands. This indicated that the TαA has effectively worked on starch granules in spite of the high-strength performance of the extrusion process. MALLS-GFC, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimeter investigations showed that the appearance of a porous structure was mainly attributed to the internal collapse of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds and the dissolution of water-soluble degradation products, such as dextrin and oligosaccharides. Moreover, the slight inhibited effect of excess TαA on the starch gelatinization was because of the fact that the high enzyme concentration might cause TαA to adhere or overlay on it. Practical Application The rehydration and palatability properties of HENs were greatly improved by creating a well-developed or honeycomb-like porous structure using TαA at low concentration. The findings of this study could be applied to enhance the quality characteristics of HENs and to encourage the research and development in the noodle industry.
Characterization of a New α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Oil: Eucommia ulmoides Seed Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Zhen-shan Zhang, Yu-lan Liu, Li-ming Che
Abstract Eucommia ulmoides seed oil is the main byproduct of E. ulmoides cultivation. To better understand its functions, E. ulmoides seed oil is characterized comprehensively in this work. The composition of E. ulmoides seed, physicochemical properties, thermal properties, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and Vitamin E composition of E. ulmoides seed oil were determined. The results show that the E. ulmoides seed contained about 34.63% oil. The excellent physicochemical properties of E. ulmoides seed oil ensured it has a potential to be developed as an edible oil. The main fatty acids in E. ulmoides seed oil were linolenic acid (61.36%), oleic acid (17.02%), and linoleic acid (12.04%). HPLC-ELSD method determined that LnLnLn (37.99%), LnLnO (22.62%), LnLnL (14.5%), and LnLnP (8.78%) were the oil's major TAG components. The oil exhibited a unique thermal curve which contained 2 melting peaks at –38.45 and –22.22 °C, respectively. The total content of vitamin E in E. ulmoides seed oil was 190.96 mg/100g, which exist mainly in γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol isomer. Overall, the results indicated that E. ulmoides seed oil is a promising oil in food, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and other nonfood industries.
Investigation into the Microstructure, Texture and Rheological Properties of Chocolate Ganache J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Jade McGill, Rich W. Hartel
Abstract Ganache is a mixture of chocolate and dairy. Although a popular confection, little is known about how it functions as a system. Objectives were to (1) determine if dairy fats and cocoa butter mix in ganache, (2) characterize ganache microstructure, and how structure affects texture and rheology, and (3) identify how changes in chocolate composition alter ganache. Textural analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, stress sweep tests, and microscopy were used to examine ganache formulations that varied in dairy source (cream or butter) or in solid fat content (SFC), composition or type of chocolate. Melting temperatures for all ganache formulations were lower than for chocolate, indicating that cream milk fat globules rupture during processing, and mix with cocoa butter. Altering the SFC of chocolate affected ganache hardness, spreadability, melting enthalpy, and resistance to deformation. Chocolate systems made with constant fat content and greater amounts of defatted cocoa powder relative to sugar or nonfat milk powder yielded ganache that was harder, less spreadable, and more resistant to deformation. Ganache made with commercially produced dark, milk, and white chocolates behaved similarly to model chocolate systems. Ganache attributes are affected by chocolate crystalline fat content in addition to particle phase volume—greater levels of cocoa powder, which is mostly insoluble, strengthens ganache structure, producing a firmer product, whereas greater levels of milk powder and sugar, which dissolve in the aqueous cream component, produce a softer ganache. Practical Application Understanding how ganache functions as a system and how differences in chocolate composition affect its textural and rheological properties may allow for greater control over the desired characteristics of the final product. For example, this research shows how changing cocoa content of the chocolate affects ganache, which is useful when developing formulations involving chocolates with different cocoa percentages. There may also be cost saving implications; for example, using a chocolate with a harder cocoa butter may allow less total chocolate to be used in a formulation, while still achieving an appropriate texture.
Effects of Storage Conditions on Consumer and Chemical Assessments of Raw ‘Nonpareil’ Almonds Over a Two-Year Period J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Emily A. Pleasance, William L. Kerr, Ronald B. Pegg, Ruthann B. Swanson, Anna N. Cheely, Guangwei Huang, Daniel R. Parrish, Adrian L. Kerrihard
Abstract Raw almonds are a major commodity, yet much is unknown about how storage conditions determine their shelf life. The storage stability, as measured by consumer assessments and chemical measures, of raw almonds was determined for samples stored in cardboard boxes and polypropylene packaging for 2 years at 4, 15, 25, and 35 °C, and at 50% and 65% relative humidity (RH). Samples stored in unlined cartons always failed (>25% rejection) before their counterparts stored in polypropylene bags under identical environmental conditions. Models determined that polypropylene packaging (as opposed to unlined cardboard cartons) extended the time until sample rejection by more than 7 months. Temperature and RH were both negatively associated with storage time until failure. Flavor was a greater contributor to consumer acceptability than texture or odor, while peroxide values and free fatty acids were of greater importance in predicting raw almond consumer quality than measures of conjugated dienes or 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Practical Application The results of this study will allow almond producers to determine packaging types and environmental storage conditions that provide shelf life of a specified time.
Application of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Cold Plasma (Dbd-Acp) for Eshcerichia Coli Inactivation in Apple Juice J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Xinyu Liao, Jiao Li, Aliyu Idris Muhammad, Yuanjie Suo, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian Ye, Donghong Liu, Tian Ding
Abstract Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a promising non-thermal technology in food industry. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)-ACP exhibited strong bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli in apple juice. Under a 30 to 50 W input power, less than 40 s treatment time was required for DBD-ACP to result in 3.98 to 4.34 log CFU/mL reduction of E. coli in apple juice. The inactivation behavior of ACP on E. coli was well described by the Weibull model. During the treatment, the cell membrane of E. coli was damaged severely by active species produced by plasma, such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and nitrate. In addition, the ACP exposure had slight effect on the °Brix, pH, titratable acidity (TA), color values, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of apple juice. However, higher level of DBD-ACP treatment, 50 W for more than 10 s in this case, resulted in significant change of the pH, TA, color and total phenolic content of apple juice. The results in this study have provided insight in potential use of DBD-ACP as an alternative to thermal processing for fruit juices in food industry. Practical Application Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice is a potential risk for public health. This study demonstrated that 30 s cold plasma treatment resulted in more than 4 log CFU/mL reduction under 50 W, while the quality attributes of apple juice were not significantly affected. Therefore, cold plasma technology is a promising alternative substitute of traditional thermal processing for juice pasteurization.
Impact of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shelling Efficacy, Physicochemical Properties, and Microstructure of Fresh Razor Clam (Sinonovacula constricta) J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-22 Xiao-Ting Xuan, Yan Cui, Xu-Dong Lin, Jing-Feng Yu, Xiao-Jun Liao, Jian-Gang Ling, Hai-Tao Shang
Abstract The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments (200, 300, and 400 MPa for 1, 3, 5 and 10 min) on the shelling efficacy (the rate of shelling, the rate of integrity and yield of razor clam meat) and the physicochemical (drip loss, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, lipid oxidation, Ca2+-ATPase activity, myofibrillar protein content), microbiological (total viable counts) and microstructural properties of fresh razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. HHP treatments significantly (P < 0.05) increased shelling efficiency, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and lipid oxidation, and HHP-treated razor clam showed lower levels of microorganisms and drip loss than untreated razor clam. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBA) in HHP-treated razor clam were greatly increased (up to 0.93 ± 0.09 mg MDA/kg at 400 MPa for 10 min) which was caused by the formation of hydroperoxides during HHP treatment. All HHP treatments were found to have adverse effects on the activity of Ca2+-ATPase and the content of myofibrillar protein (MP), which might be due to the substantial damage to the tertiary structure of proteins at high pressure. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the compaction of the muscle fibers and a decrease in the extracellular space with increasing pressure and holding time. This phenomenon was mainly correlated with the compaction of muscle fibers and denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of muscle protein triggered by high pressure. In general, HHP could be applied as a safe and effective nonthermal technology to produce high-quality shelled razor clam. Practical application High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is now well known as a nonthermal processing technology and becoming increasingly acknowledged. However, it has not been widely applied to shell seafood due to its uncertain influence on its quality and shelling property. This study could provide valuable information regarding the shelling efficacy, physicochemical properties, and microstructure of razor clam treated by HHP. And it demonstrated that HHP showed a positive impact on quality of razor clam treated by HHP.
Microbial and Chemical Shelf-Life of Vacuum Steam-Pasteurized Whole Flaxseed and Milled Flaxseed J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Manoj Shah, Bridget Eklund, Luiz Gustavo Conde Lima, Teresa Bergholz, Clifford Hall
Abstract Flaxseed is an oilseed with many health benefits. Flaxseed may be consumed raw or in processed form. In the raw form, there is a potential for microbial contamination. Several pasteurization methods have been used to reduce microbial contamination. However, such treatments may affect chemical properties of foods. In this study, vacuum steam-pasteurization was conducted on whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed using 4 different conditions (3 min at 75 °C, 3 min at 90 °C, 9 min at 90 °C, and 3 min at 105 °C). Microbial and chemical shelf-life was monitored for 28 wk (36 wk for aerobic plate counts). Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in microbial counts (total aerobic plate counts, and yeast and mold counts) occurred after pasteurization and during storage of both whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed. Although both the moisture content and aw increased after pasteurization, they were similar to the unpasteurized samples during storage. Peroxide value, free fatty acid, headspace volatiles, fatty acid profiles, oil content, and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) content were chemical indices measured. Only small changes were observed in the chemical indices after vacuum steam-pasteurization for both pasteurized whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed as compared to the unpasteurized flaxseed at most instances. Vacuum steam-pasteurization can be used as a safe alternative for the microbial reduction of low-moisture products, such as flaxseed, without significantly affecting chemical stability. Practical Application Vacuum steam-pasteurization can be effectively used for the treatment of whole flaxseed and milled flaxseed to reduce spoilage microorganisms, such as total aerobes and yeasts and molds. In addition, this pasteurization method had minimal effects on several chemical shelf-life parameters with positive impact on SDG of the processed flaxseed.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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