Iron Encapsulation in Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Concentration and Fat Crystal Formation on Oxidative Stability J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Nattapong Prichapan, David Julian McClements, Utai Klinkesorn
Abstract Iron deficiency is a major global human health concern. Encapsulation of iron in functional food products may help to solve this problem. However, iron is highly reactive and may promote rapid lipid oxidation in fatty foods. In this study, the effect of ferrous sulfate (0.1 to 0.5 wt%) and rice bran stearin (0 or 30 wt%) on the physical properties, oxidative stability, and encapsulation efficiency of 20 wt% water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized with polyglycerol polyricinoleate was investigated. In the presence of rice bran stearin crystals in the continuous oil phase, W/O emulsions had smaller mean droplet diameters (d ∼ 250 nm) and better physical stability than its absence (d ∼ 330 nm). An increase in the ferrous sulfate concentration in the water droplets led to a decrease in the oxidative stability of the W/O emulsions. However, the presence of rice bran stearin significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved their oxidative stability. Moreover, addition of rice bran stearin also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved the encapsulation efficiency and delayed ferrous sulfate release from the W/O emulsions. The impact of pH and ionic strength on the encapsulation efficiency of the W/O emulsion was also investigated. Ionic strength affected the encapsulation efficiency much more than pH. The W/O emulsions created in the present study may be useful for the encapsulation and delivery of iron and other water-soluble nutrients into food products. Practical Application Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions may be used to encapsulate, protect, and deliver water-soluble bioactive compounds or nutrients into food products. In this study, W/O emulsions stabilized using an oil-soluble surfactant (polyglycerol polyricinoleate, PGPR) and fat crystal network (rice bran stearin) were shown to be useful for encapsulation and delivery of iron into foods. This strategy may be a promising approach to reduce iron deficiency, a major nutritional deficiency for people with inadequate food supplies.
Cover Caption J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
January Online Cover: Central slices of gluten-free bread formulations obtained from experimental mixture designs, from “Mixture Design Applied to the Development of Chickpea-Based Gluten-Free Bread with Attractive Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Quality” by Fernanda G. Santos, Camilly Fratelli, Denise G. Muniz, and Vanessa D. Capriles. p. 188.
Evaluation of an Extraction Method for the Detection of GI and GII Noroviruses in Fruit and Vegetable Salads J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Dongqing Cheng, Songyan Zou, Ningbo Liao, Xiaofeng Shi, Jiang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Liang Sun, Ronghua Zhang
Abstract Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major foodborne virus causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Salad products can be vectors of transmission for foodborne viruses such as HuNoV when these products are contaminated naturally or through unsanitary food handling. Therefore, development of simple, reliable and sensitive techniques for the detection of HuNoV in salad products is needed to ensure food safety. The purpose of our study was to optimize a method for the detection of HuNoV in artificially contaminated salad products. To this end, 2 different kinds of salads (fruit salads and vegetable salads) were experimentally inoculated with HuNoV GI, HuNoV GII, and MS2 suspensions. The selected method was based on treatment with pectinase followed by Trizol-chloroform purification, and the recovery efficiencies were 6.07% to 26.52% for HuNoV GI and 5.54% to 37.36% for HuNoV GII. MS2 was used as the process control, and the recovery efficiencies for fruit salad and vegetable salad samples were 38.57% and 41.13%, respectively. The optimized method could be applied in diagnostic laboratories to identify NoV contamination in composite foods, such as salad products, should an event of foodborne outbreak occur.
Biological Activities of Camelina and Sophia Seeds Phenolics: Inhibition of LDL Oxidation, DNA Damage, and Pancreatic Lipase and α-Glucosidase Activities J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Md. Jiaur Rahman, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan, Fereidoon Shahidi
Abstract The free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics of defatted meals of camelina and sophia seeds were extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted procedure and alkaline hydrolysis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays as well as inhibition of bleaching of β-carotene in an oil-in-water system. Moreover, inhibition activity against pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase, low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and DNA damage induced by peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals were examined for all seed extracts using in vitro systems. The seed extracts of camelina and sophia not only showed significant antioxidant activity but also inhibited pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase activities effectively. These enzymes in the digestive tract are associated with lipid and carbohydrate digestion, respectively, and control obesity and blood glucose level in the human body. The findings of this work may provide supporting information that camelina and sophia meals may inhibit human LDL oxidation and DNA nicking caused by free radicals and upon consumption may also exert anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects. However, further research is required to confirm these biological activities in vivo. Practical Application The seed phenolic extracts of camelina and sophia not only showed significant antioxidant activity but also effectively inhibited the activities of pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase. Thus, camelina and sophia seed meals may serve as nutritional ingredients with bioactive phenolics that show in vitro antioxidant and biological effects. However, further research is required to confirm these health effects in vivo.
Calorimetric Methods for Measuring Stability and Reusability of Membrane Immobilized Enzymes J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Marco Mason, Matteo Scampicchio, Colette F. Quinn, Mark K. Transtrum, Nicholas Baker, Lee D. Hansen, Jason D. Kenealey
Abstract The aim of this work is to develop calorimetric methods for characterizing the activity and stability of membrane immobilized enzymes. Invertase immobilized on a nylon-6 nanofiber membrane is used as a test case. The stability of both immobilized and free invertase activity was measured by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the thermal stability of the structure and areal concentration of invertase on the membrane. This is the 1st demonstration that ITC can be used to determine activity and stability of an enzyme immobilized on a membrane. ITC and spectrophotometry show maximum activity of free and immobilized invertase at pH 4.5 and 45 to 55 °C. ITC determination of the activity as a function of temperature over an 8-h period shows a similar decline of activity of both free and immobilized invertase at 55 °C. Practical Application Enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur in mild and environmentally friendly conditions, but are usually too costly to use in food manufacturing. When free enzymes are used, they are used once and replaced for each reaction, but enzymes immobilized on a solid support can be reused and have the additional advantage of being removed from the product. In this study, new calorimetric methods that are universally applicable to characterizing immobilized enzymes are used to determine the activity, stability, and reusability of invertase immobilized on a nanofiber support.
Hyperspectral Imaging in Tandem with R Statistics and Image Processing for Detection and Visualization of pH in Japanese Big Sausages under Different Storage Conditions J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Chao-Hui Feng, Yoshio Makino, Masatoshi Yoshimura, Dang Quoc Thuyet, Juan Francisco García-Martín
Abstract The potential of hyperspectral imaging with wavelengths of 380 to 1000 nm was used to determine the pH of cooked sausages after different storage conditions (4 °C for 1 d, 35 °C for 1, 3, and 5 d). The mean spectra of the sausages were extracted from the hyperspectral images and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to relate spectral profiles with the pH of the cooked sausages. Eleven important wavelengths were selected based on the regression coefficient values. The PLSR model established using the optimal wavelengths showed good precision being the prediction coefficient of determination (Rp2) 0.909 and the root mean square error of prediction 0.035. The prediction map for illustrating pH indices in sausages was for the first time developed by R statistics. The overall results suggested that hyperspectral imaging combined with PLSR and R statistics are capable to quantify and visualize the sausages pH evolution under different storage conditions. Practical Application In this paper, hyperspectral imaging is for the first time used to detect pH in cooked sausages using R statistics, which provides another useful information for the researchers who do not have the access to Matlab. Eleven optimal wavelengths were successfully selected, which were used for simplifying the PLSR model established based on the full wavelengths. This simplified model achieved a high Rp2 (0.909) and a low root mean square error of prediction (0.035), which can be useful for the design of multispectral imaging systems.
Physicochemical, Thermal, and Sensory Properties of Blue Corn (Zea Mays L.) J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Ceren Mutlu, Sultan Arslan-Tontul, Cihadiye Candal, Ozlem Kilic, Mustafa Erbas
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate some physicochemical and sensory properties of blue corn cultivated in Turkey. The length and width of the cob with kernels, hectoliter, and 1000-kernel weight of blue corn were measured as 7.66, 2.02 mm, 84.40 kg/100 L, and 44.27 g, respectively. The gelatinization onset, peak, and end temperatures were measured as 61.12 °C, 64.35 °C, and 75.65 °C, respectively. The water activity, moisture content, total protein, lipid, and crude fiber contents of the blue corn sample were detected as 0.44, 9.39%, 13.13%, 4.30%, and 2.68%, respectively. Total starch and resistant starch contents of blue corn were determined as 63.94% and 8.89%, respectively. Also, total monomeric anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of blue corn were detected as 915.43 mg CGE/kg and 7.99 μmol TE/g, respectively. Additionally, the major fatty acids detected in blue corn samples were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Practical Application Blue corn can be utilized in the production of enjoyable and healthier snacks, such as popcorn and chips, because of its color and high phenolic, anthocyanin, and fiber contents.
Mechanism of Antibacterial Activities of a Rice Hull Smoke Extract (RHSE) against Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium In Vitro and in Mice J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Sung Phil Kim, Sang Jong Lee, Seok Hyun Nam, Mendel Friedman
Abstract The present study tested antibacterial activity of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and examined its mode of suppressive action in vitro and in mice. In vitro studies showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 1.29% (v/v). The inactivation was confirmed by complete loss of cell viability in the range of 104 to 107 colony forming units of the resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Agarose and sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses were used to evaluate the integrities of bacterial genomic DNA and total cellular protein profiles. The antibacterial action of RHSE results from a leakage of intracellular macromolecules following rupture of bacterial cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells shows that RHSE also induced deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane of the pathogens. In vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE at a 1 × MIC concentration was examined in a bacterial gastroenteritis model using Balb/c mice orally infected with the Salmonella Typhimurium. The results show greatly decreased excretion of the bacteria into the feces and suppressed translocation of the bacteria to internal organs (cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver) compared with the infected mice not subjected to the RHSE treatment. Collectively, the present findings indicate that the mechanism of the antibacterial activities both in vitro and in the gastroenteritis environment of the animal model is the result of the direct disruption of cell structure, leading to cell death. RHSE has the potential to serve as a multifunctional food additive that might protect consumers against infections by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Practical Application The rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived smoke as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application in foods and feeds.
Effect of Grinding at Modified Atmosphere or Vacuum on Browning, Antioxidant Capacities, and Oxidative Enzyme Activities of Apple J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Ah-Na Kim, Kyo-Yeon Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jiyeon Chun, William L. Kerr, Sung-Gil Choi
This study evaluated the effects of grinding at atmospheric pressure (control), under vacuum (∼2.67 kPa), or with modified atmosphere (N2 and CO2) on the browning, antioxidant activity, phenolics, and oxidative enzyme activity of apples as a function of time. The control group was affected most, showing distinct browning and losing most of the antioxidant activity and concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. The modified atmosphere groups retained color, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds better than the control group. Least changes were obtained with vacuum grinding, particularly in terms of preventing enzymatic browning and oxidation of antioxidants apples. At 12 h after grinding, vacuum-ground apples retained total phenolic contents 5.32, 1.54, and 1.49 times higher than control, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide gas-ground samples, respectively. The oxidative enzyme activity, including that of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, decreased in the control and modified atmosphere group, but they were maintained in the samples ground under the vacuum. In this study, we found that grinding with modified atmosphere or vacuum conditions could effectively prevent browning as well as loss of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of ground apples. These results can help scientists and engineers build better grinding systems for retaining nutrient and quality factors of ground apples. In addition, these results may be useful to other fruit and vegetable industries that wish to retain fresh-like quality and nutritional value during grinding and storage.
A Reaction-Based Novel Fluorescent Probe for Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide and Its Application in Wine J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Hao Wang, Jialin Wang, Shaoxiang Yang, Hongyu Tian, Baoguo Sun, Yongguo Liu
A new reaction-based fluorescent probe 6-cyanonaphthalen-2-yl-2,4- dinitrobenzenesulfonate (probe 1) was designed and synthesized for detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The addition of H2S to a solution of probe 1 resulted in a marked fluorescence increased accompanied by a visual color change from colorless to yellow. Importantly, this distinct color response indicates that probe 1 could be used as a visual tool for detection of H2S. H2S can be detected quantitatively in the concentration range 0 to 25 μM and the detection limit was 30 nM. Moreover, probe 1 was successfully used as a sensor to determine H2S levels in red wine and beer. Fluorescent probe 1 could be employed as a visible sensor for H2S. Probe 1 could be used to detect H2S quantitatively in food simple.
Effects of Pro-Oxidants and Antioxidants on the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Oxidation Products of Milk During Refrigerated Storage J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Angelica M. Gutierrez, Terri D. Boylston, Stephanie Clark
Oxidized flavor is a major problem that affects the dairy industry because of its adverse effect on milk acceptability. The objectives of this research were to examine the roles of pro-oxidants and antioxidants on the oxidative stability of whole milk. In the 1st experiment, the effect of light (2300 Lux) and/or cupric sulfate (0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) as pro-oxidants in milk were investigated during an 11-d refrigerated storage period. The effects of added retinyl palmitate (1.16 mg/L; 2113 IU Vitamin A/L) and tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg milk fat; 5.02 IU Vitamin E/L) as antioxidants in the presence of light (2300 Lux) and light with cupric sulfate (0.05 mg/kg) during a 7-d study were investigated in the 2nd experiment. The presence of pro-oxidants significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and increased the lipid oxidation products in milk during storage. Light had a greater effect in the decrease of TAC, although cupric sulfate in the presence of light significantly increased the formation of lipid oxidation products. The addition of antioxidants resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in TAC on day 0. However, with exposure to light and light with cupric sulfate, the antioxidants did not result in a higher TAC in comparison to the treatments without added antioxidant. Analysis of lipid oxidation products by instrumental and sensory methods showed that the presence of light and cupric sulfate significantly (P < 0.05) increased the oxidized flavor from the control, but no significant (P > 0.05) difference in oxidized flavor intensity was detected between milk with and without added antioxidants. Production and processing variables can affect the content of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in milk, which has an impact on flavor. An understanding of the role of these components in contributing to or minimizing off-flavor formation in milk, will help dairy producers to provide quality products to consumers.
The Role of the Dynamic Sensory Perception in the Reformulation of Shakes: Use of TDS for Studying the Effect of Milk, Fiber, and Flavor Addition J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Barbara Tomadoni, Susana Fiszman, María R. Moreira, Amparo Tarrega
Various factors need to be taken into account when reformulating a food or beverage. The food components, not only macronutrients but also minor ingredients such as flavoring agents, could affect the perception of the sensory sensations, importantly their dynamic aspects, as rising and duration, which are not normally considered. The novelty of this approach is the study of the effects of the addition of several ingredients (fiber, extra milk powder, and strawberry flavoring) on the dynamic perception of a food item (strawberry shakes) using the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) technique. The occurrence and duration of the key sensory sensations (acid, natural strawberry flavor, thick, sweet, candy strawberry flavor, and milk flavor) extracted from the TDS curves were analyzed and linked to the composition factors and liking and expectations of satiety scores. For example, the addition of flavoring increased the liking scores (increments ranging from 0.3 to 1.1) that was linked to the attenuation of acid sensation; and the addition of extra milk powder increased the expectation of satiety scores (increments ranging from 0.5 to 0.7) that was linked to the perception of early thick sensation in the mouth. In general, the more complex sensory profiles the higher liking and expectations of satiety. This work is a case study on how temporal sensory methods can contribute important information on the actual perception of food during consumption. Depending on the ingredients added these sensory properties appear at different times and with different dominance during evaluation affecting liking or fullness expectations. In consequence, the temporal sensory properties should be taken into account when designing or reformulating food.
Antidiabetic and Lipid-Lowering Effects of the Polyphenol Extracts from the Leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Fansheng Kong, Zhipeng Su, Xiaoming Guo, Feng Zeng, Yongguang Bi
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels (Wampee) is widely grown in China and considered as a healthy fruit. Its leaves are also considered as traditional herbs. This study analyzed polyphenol compounds in polyphenol extracts of the leaves C. lansium (lour.) Skeels (PEL) and investigated the protective effect of PEL against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in T2DM rats. The result showed that PEL is composed mainly of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, coffee acid, ferulic acid, and rutin. PEL could obviously relieve some symptoms of T2DM rats, including emaciation, hyperhidrosis, polyphagia, diuresis, liver swelling, kidney, and pancreas hypertrophy, as well as reduce fasting blood glucose. Moreover, the supplementation of PEL significantly ameliorated lipids disorder and protected liver in T2DM rats, including fat accumulation, improvement of lipid distribution and hepatocyte protection. These results indicate that the Oral of PEL have potential effects of against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic disorders. The leaves Clausena lansium (lour.) Skeels is rich in polyphenol and other ingredients. In this research, the preliminary study shows that PEL can reduce fasting blood glucose and improve lipids disorder in rats, which will bring to diabetic patients a way to improve the disease and enhance the quality of life. The PEL therefore can be used for the production of pharmaceutical raw materials and the design of novel functional foods by simple conversion.
Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Cholesterol Removal J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Jun Sun, Bin Xu, Yaoyao Mu, Haile Ma, Wenjuan Qu
In this study, magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with carboxylated β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD; referred to Fe3O4@CM-β-CD) were synthesized and used for the efficient removal of cholesterol from milk and egg yolk via host–guest interactions. The results of Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the CM-β-CD was successfully conjugated to the surface of Fe3O4, and the amount of CM-β-CD attached on Fe3O4@CM-β-CD was determined to be 9.164%. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy data revealed that the process of CM-β-CD coating did not result in a phase change of the Fe3O4, and the Fe3O4@CM-β-CD nanoparticles were determined to have an average size of about 15 nm. The results of isotherm adsorption and kinetic properties indicated that CM-β-CD functionalization increased the cholesterol removal efficiency, and the characteristics of cholesterol adsorption on Fe3O4@CM-β-CD were fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption model and Lagergren pseudo-1st-order kinetic models. Furthermore, compared with the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the functionalized Fe3O4@CM-β-CD nanoparticles exhibited greater cholesterol removal efficiency, and saponification of the milk and egg yolk was found to be beneficial for the cholesterol removal; using the Fe3O4@CM-β-CD nanoparticles, 98.8% and 94.6% of the cholesterol was extracted in 1 h from saponified milk and egg yolk, respectively, and the Fe3O4@CM-β-CD nanoparticles still displayed efficient cholesterol removal after 6 reuses.
Bioactive Peptides Derived from Seaweed Protein and Their Health Benefits: Antihypertensive, Antioxidant, and Antidiabetic Properties J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Habtamu Admassu, Mohammed Abdalbasit. A. Gasmalla, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao
Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are the biggest causes of death globally. Therefore, prevention of these diseases is a focus of pharmaceuticals and functional food manufacturers. This review summarizes recent research trends and scientific knowledge in seaweed protein-derived peptides with particular emphasis on production, isolation and potential health impacts in prevention of hypertension, diabetes and oxidative stress. The current status and future prospects of bioactive peptides are also discussed. Bioactive peptides have strong potential for use in therapeutic drug and functional food formulation in health management strategy, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Seaweeds can be used as sustainable protein sources in the production of these peptide-based drugs and functional foods for preventing such diseases. Many studies have reported that peptides showing angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antidiabetics activities, have been successfully isolated from seaweed. However, further research is needed in large-scale production of these peptides, efficient isolation methods, interactions with functional foods and other pharmaceuticals, and their ease to digestion in in vivo studies and safety to validate the health benefits of these peptides.
The Impact of Long-Term Intake of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Grape Pomace on Rat Gut Microbiota J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Stéphanie Chacar, Tarek Itani, Joelle Hajal, Youakim Saliba, Nicolas Louka, Jean-François Faivre, Richard Maroun, Nassim Fares
The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact on the rat microbiota of long-term feeding with phenolic compounds (PC) rich grape pomace extracts. Thirty, 2-mo-old rats, were divided into 5 groups. Four groups were treated with different concentrations of PC (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d diluted in 0.1% DMSO), and 1 group received 0.1% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (control group). The daily treatment lasted 14 mo. Major phenolic compounds constituents were characterized by the high-performance liquid chromatography and free radical scavenging capacity was measured by means of the DPPH assay. Fecal samples from young rats (2-mo old), and rats daily fed with PC or DMSO were collected at 6 and 14 mo posttreatment. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bifidobacterium was significantly higher in the groups PC 2.5 and PC 5 than in control and young rats. Lactobacillus decreased with time in all treated and untreated groups. Bacteroides, Clostridium leptum subgroup (Clostridium cluster IV), and Enterococcus were not significantly changed by PC at any concentration when compared to control; nevertheless, after 14 mo of treatment all concentrations of PC abolished the increase of Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I) (Clostridium Cluster I) observed in the control group when compared to young rats. PC do modulate selectively rat gut microbiome to a healthier phenotype in long-term feeding rats, and could counteract the adverse outcomes of aging on gut bacterial population. This research shows that phenolic-rich grape pomace extracts exhibiting a high antioxidant activity, selectively modulate rat gut microbiota to a healthier phenotype within age in a long-term feeding rats.
Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Jin Sung Won, Seung Jo Lee, Hyeon Hwa Park, Kyung Bin Song, Sea C. Min
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C.
Characterization of Peanut Oil Bodies Integral Proteins, Lipids, and Their Associated Phytochemicals J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-11 Farah Zaaboul, Husnain Raza, Cao Chen, Yuanfa Liu
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270.76 to 278.2 mg/g when pH got increased. δ-Tocopherols are slightly associated with peanut OBs, as it was resistant to the alkaline washing; however, α-tocopherols were discovered to be weakly associable. On the contrary, phytosterols content decreased when pH got increased, with 631.49 μg/g for pH 6.8 and 614.96 μg/g for pH 11.0. Peanut oil is widely used in food industries in the form of emulsified oil. OBs can be presented as a better alternative solution, which is stable emulsified oil, with high content of antioxidant and phytosterols. Our results showed that peanut OBs are rich in nutritional components such as essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytosterols. Moreover, peanut OBs are surrounded with 2 oleosin isoforms and caleosin, which offer more stability to the emulsion system. Thus, peanut OBs can be perfect for food like mayonnaise and vinaigrettes products in the form of encapsulated oil with high content of vitamin E.
Phenolic Analysis and Theoretic Design for Chinese Commercial Wines’ Authentication J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Si-Yu Li, Bao-Qing Zhu, Malcolm J. Reeves, Chang-Qing Duan
To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines’ varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines. The phenolic data of 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines was processed with different statistical tools for varietal, regional, and vintage differentiation. A promising theoretical design was summarized, which might be helpful for wine authentication in practical situation.
Fishy Odor and TMA Content Levels in Duck Egg Yolks J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Xingzheng Li, Gongjiao Yuan, Xia Chen, Yuying Guo, Ning Yang, Jinsong Pi, Hao Zhang, Jiangxia Zheng
The differences between the trimethylamine (TMA) content levels in duck and chicken egg yolks under normal dietary conditions were compared. Moreover, the association between the polymorphisms of the duck FMO3 gene and TMA content levels in duck egg yolks was analyzed. Then, to detect the mutations associated with the fish-flavor trait, duck populations were selected for a high-choline diet experiment, which was followed by full-length sequencing of the FMO3 exons. The results showed that the TMA content levels in duck eggs (3.60 μg/g) were significantly higher than those in chicken eggs (2.35 μg/g) under normal dietary conditions (P < 0.01). With regard to the high-choline diet, the average TMA content levels in duck egg yolks (9.21 μg/g; P < 0.01) increased significantly. Furthermore, 5 SNPs reported in Ensembl database were detected in duck FMO3 exons. However, no mutation loci were found to be significantly associated with the TMA content levels in duck egg yolks. Besides, duck liver FMO3 mRNA expression levels were not associated with the TMA content levels. The results indicated that excessive TMA deposition in duck eggs is one of main factors causing the fishy odor in duck eggs, and the addition of choline in the ducks’ diets was responsible for inducing an increase in the TMA content levels in duck eggs. Our study can help to diminish the fishy taste in duck eggs by reducing the amount of supplemented choline. Furthermore, this study laid a solid foundation for revealing the genetic factors involved in the fishy odor in duck eggs.
A Kinetic Approach to Evaluate the Structure-Based Performance of Antioxidants During Lipid Oxidation J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Reza Farhoosh
Thermal kinetic parameters of fish oil oxidation, as affected by o-hydroxyl, o-methoxy, and alkyl ester derivatives of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in various concentrations (0.02% to 0.16%) at 35 to 55 °C, were calculated. The average extent of increase (2% to 10%) in the values of free energy of activation, ∆G++, as well as the average extent of change in the Arrhenius equation parameters, including activation energy (Ea, –40.5% to 13.6%) and frequency factor (A, –55.0% to 4.3%), could be employed well to show structure-based performance of antioxidants. Temperature coefficient (TC) and Q10 number, which were considered as the quantitative measures of thermal sensitivity of the lipid system, showed changes from –40.3% and –27.2% to 13.5% and 11.5%, respectively, in the presence of the antioxidants.
Inactivation Methods of Trypsin Inhibitor in Legumes: A Review J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Sara Avilés-Gaxiola, Cristina Chuck-Hernández, Sergio O. Serna Saldívar
Seed legumes have played a major role as a crop worldwide, being cultivated on about 12% to 15% of Earth's arable land; nevertheless, their use is limited by, among other things, the presence of several antinutritional factors (ANFs - naturally occurring metabolites that the plant produces to protect itself from pest attacks.) Trypsin inhibitors (TIs) are one of the most relevant ANFs because they reduce digestion and absorption of dietary proteins. Several methods have been developed in order to inactivate TIs, and of these, thermal treatments are the most commonly used. They cause loss of nutrients, affect functional properties, and require high amounts of energy. Given the above, new processes have emerged to improve the nutritional quality of legumes while trying to solve the problems caused by the use of thermal treatments. This review examines and discusses the methods developed by researchers to inactivate TI present in legumes and their effects over nutritional and functional properties.
Mixture Design Applied to the Development of Chickpea-Based Gluten-Free Bread with Attractive Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Quality J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Fernanda G. Santos, Camilly Fratelli, Denise G. Muniz, Vanessa D. Capriles
The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared. The results showed that CF alone is suitable for bread production, resulting in GFB with higher volume and crumb firmness and lower crumb moisture than single formulations of other raw materials. However, the interactions between CF and PS or CS enhanced the loaf volume and decreased the crumb firmness values. The GFB prepared with only CF was accepted (overall acceptability score of 7.1- on a 10-cm scale). Nevertheless, the composite formulations prepared with CF75:PS25 or CF75:CS25 (flour basis) received overall acceptability scores of 8.2, like those of their white GFB, prepared with RF50:PS50 blend (flour basis), and wheat bread counterparts, used as positive controls. Compared to white GFB, both composite formulations presented nearly a twofold increase in ash and protein contents and a threefold increase in total fiber content. These results show that blends of CF75:PS25 or CF75:CS25 can be used to develop GFB with a good physical and sensory properties, as well as an enhanced nutritional composition. Gluten-free bread (GFB) made with 75% chickpea flour (CF) blend with 25% potato or cassava starch showed improved total minerals, protein and dietary fiber content and bread quality characteristics. Therefore, CF is a valuable ingredient for food technologists in manufacturing better-tasting and healthy GFB, which is important for consumers with gluten-related disorders since GFB often lack nutrition content, appearance, texture, and mouthfeel.
A Combined Approach of Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for the Simultaneous Determination of Sugars and Fructans in Strawberry Juices During Storage J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Lucía Cassani, Mauricio Santos, Esteban Gerbino, María Moreira, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
In this work, a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based method was developed for simultaneously quantifying simple sugars and exogenously added fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in strawberry juices preserved for up to 14 d using nonthermal techniques (geraniol and vanillin+ultrasound). The main spectral differences were observed in the 1200 to 900 cm−1 region. The presence of FOS was identified by the typical bands at 1134, 1034, and 935 cm−1. During storage, a significant decrease of sucrose was concomitant to an increase of glucose and fructose in juices stored without any previous preservation treatment, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A principal component analysis was performed on the FTIR spectra corresponding to the different treatments. The groups observed explained more than 94% of the variance and were related to changes in the carbohydrate composition during storage. Then, different partial least square models (PLS) were defined to determine the concentrations of glucose, sucrose, fructose, and those of exogenously added FOS with degrees of polymerization within 3 and 5. The carbohydrates' concentrations determined by HPLC were used as reference method. The models were validated with independent sets of data. The mean of predicted values fitted nicely those obtained by HPLC (correlation and R2 > 0.97), thus supporting the use of the PLS models to monitor the quality of strawberry juices in unknown samples. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy appears as an adequate analytical tool to quick assess whether juice formulations meet specifications in terms of authenticity, contamination and/or deterioration. FTIR spectroscopy provided a method potentially transferable to the food industry when associated with the multivariate analysis. The robust 21 PLS models defined in this work provided reliable tools for the rapid monitoring of juices’ authenticity and/or deterioration. In this regard, FTIR associated to multivariate analysis enabled the determination of different sugars in a single measurement without the need of pure sugars as standards. This experimental simplicity supports the use of FTIR at the production line, and also contributes to save time in determining carbohydrates' composition and stability, in an environmentally friendly way.
Exploring the Potential of Mesquite Gum–Nopal Mucilage Mixtures: Physicochemical and Functional Properties J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Stefani Cortés-Camargo, Raquel Gallardo-Rivera, Blanca E. Barragán-Huerta, Octavio Dublán-García, Angélica Román-Guerrero, César Pérez-Alonso
In this work the physicochemical and functional properties of mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) mixtures (75-25, 50-50, 25-75) were evaluated and compared with those of the individual biopolymers. MG–NM mixtures exhibited more negative zeta potential (ZP) values than those displayed by MG and NM, with 75-25 MG–NM showing the most negative value (–14.92 mV at pH = 7.0), indicative that this biopolymer mixture had the highest electrostatic stability in aqueous dispersions. Viscosity curves and strain amplitude sweep of aqueous dispersions (30% w/w) of the individual gums and their mixtures revealed that all exhibited shear thinning behavior, with NM having higher viscosity than MG, and all displaying fluid-like viscoelastic behavior where the loss modulus predominated over the storage modulus (G″>G′). Differential Scanning Calorimetry revealed that MG, NM, and MG–NM mixtures were thermally stable with decomposition peaks in a range from 303.1 to 319.6 °C. From the functional properties viewpoint, MG (98.4 ± 0.7%) had better emulsifying capacity than NM (51.9 ± 2.0%), while NM (43.0 ± 1.4%) had better foaming capacity than MG. MG–NM mixtures acquired additional functional properties (emulsifying and foaming) regarding the individual biopolymers. Therefore, MG–NM mixtures represent interesting alternatives for their application as emulsifying and foaming agents in food formulations. Mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) are promising raw materials with excellent functional properties whose use has been largely neglected by the food industry. This work demonstrates MG–NM mixtures acquired additional functional properties regarding the individual biopolymers, making these mixtures multifunctional ingredients for the food industry.
Contribution of Histidine and Lysine to the Generation of Volatile Compounds in Jinhua Ham Exposed to Ripening Conditions Via Maillard Reaction J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Chao-Zhi Zhu, Jing-Li Zhao, Wei Tian, Yan-Xia Liu, Miao-Yun Li, Gai-Ming Zhao
To evaluate the role of Maillard reactions in the generation of flavor compounds in Jinhua ham, the reactions of glucose and ethanal with histidine and lysine, respectively, were studied by simulating the ripening conditions of Jinhua ham. The volatile products produced were analyzed using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results showed that 8 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and histidine and 10 volatile compounds were generated by the reaction of glucose and lysine. Reactions of ethanal with lysine and with histidine both generated 31 volatile compounds that contributed to the flavor of Jinhua ham. This indicates that histidine and lysine related to Maillard reactions possibly play important roles in the generation of the unique flavor compounds in Jinhua ham. This research demonstrates that free amino acids participate in the generation of volatile compounds from Jinhua ham via the Maillard reaction and provides a basic mechanism to explain flavor formation in Jinhua ham. Jinhua ham is a well-known traditional Chinese dry-cured meat product. However, the formation of the compounds comprising its special flavor is not well understood. Our results indicate that Maillard reactions occur in Jinhua ham under ripening conditions. This work illustrates the contribution of Maillard reactions to the flavor of Jinhua ham.
The Flexitarian Flip™: Testing the Modalities of Flavor as Sensory Strategies to Accomplish the Shift from Meat-Centered to Vegetable-Forward Mixed Dishes J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Molly Spencer, Jean-Xavier Guinard
The American diet is lacking in plant-based foods and vegetables, higher in protein than necessary, and too centered on meat and poultry. Two major dietary shifts recommended by the 2015-2020 U.S. Dietary Guidelines are to increase vegetable intake and to increase the variety of protein food sources. One suggested strategy for doing this is to partially replace meat and poultry with vegetables and plant-based ingredients in mixed dishes. This research tested the potential of flavor modalities (taste, aroma, trigeminal, and their combination) as strategies to increase the sensory appeal of plant-forward dishes. Consumer testing (n = 141) was conducted in a cross-sectional design in a laboratory setting on 24 recipe variations. Three factors were tested: cuisine (Latin American, Mediterranean, and Asian), meat proportion (high-meat/low-vegetable versus low-meat/high-vegetable), and flavor strategy (taste, aroma, trigeminal, and a reduced-intensity trimodal combination). Statistical analysis was performed in R and XLSTAT-Sensory® 2017. Four consumer preference segments were uncovered. The low-meat dishes achieved parity or higher in consumer acceptance across all recipes and flavor strategies. The taste and trigeminal strategies both had higher overall acceptability scores than the aroma strategy, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05) in some consumer preference segments. The consumers successfully characterized the samples using a Check-All-That-Apply task, verifying the flavor strategy design. This research provides insight into consumer preferences regarding flavor strategies to partially replace meat with vegetables in mixed dishes. The trigeminal and trimodal combination strategies were found to be the most promising flavor modalities to use to implement this shift. There is little knowledge of American consumer preferences regarding vegetables in mixed dishes. Mixed dishes are a strategy recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines to increase vegetable consumption and variety of protein sources. This research explores various flavor and culinary strategies with which to carry out the mixed dish meat-vegetable swap and to test the potential of the Flexitarian Flip™ (the shift from meat-centric to plant-centric diets). This research shows that individuals have different preferences regarding the type of flavor they prefer in mixed dishes (for example, some consumers prefer salty and some prefer spicy), so if the dietitian can recommend recipes that cater to that client's food and flavor preferences, the client will be more likely to adhere to their diet.
Chemical Constituents of Sweetpotato Genotypes in Relation to Textural Characteristics of Processed French Fries J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Ai Sato, Van-Den Truong, Suzanne D. Johanningsmeier, Rong Reynolds, Kenneth V. Pecota, G. Craig Yencho
Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity, however limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study investigated the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics of SPFF. Sixteen sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for (1) chemical constituents; (2) instrumental and sensory textural properties of SPFF; and (3) the relationship between chemical components, instrumental measurements, and sensory attributes. Dry matter (DM), alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS), starch, sugar, and oil content, and also α- and β-amylase activities were quantified in raw sweetpotatoes and SPFF. Peak force and overall hardness describing instrumental textural properties of SPFF were measured using a texture analyzer. Descriptive sensory analysis was conducted and 10 attributes were evaluated by a trained panel. Results showed that DM, AIS, and starch content in raw sweetpotatoes were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with instrumental peak force and overall hardness (r = 0.41 to 0.68), and with sensory surface roughness, hardness, fracturability, and crispness (r = 0.63 to 0.90). Total sugar content in raw sweetpotatoes was positively correlated with sensory smoothness and moistness (r = 0.77), and negatively correlated with instrumental peak force and overall hardness (r = –0.62 to –0.69). Instrumental measurements were positively correlated with sensory attributes of hardness, fracturability, and crispness (r = 0.68 to 0.96) and negatively correlated with oiliness, smoothness, moistness, and cohesiveness (r = –0.61 to –0.91). Therefore, DM, AIS, starch, and total sugar contents and instrumental measurements could be used as indicators to evaluate sweetpotato genotypes for SPFF processing. In recent years, sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) have grown in popularity, but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to the differences in chemical constituents among sweetpotato varieties. This study demonstrated that sensory texture attributes of SPFF varied widely and were significantly correlated with chemical components such as dry matter, starch, and total sugar contents of raw sweetpotatoes and instrumental texture measurements of SPFF. The knowledge generated from this study will benefit the food industry and breeding programs with the selection of sweetpotato varieties for improved SPFF quality.
Effect of Dairy Cow Crossbreeding on Selected Performance Traits and Quality of Milk in First Generation Crossbreds J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Kamila Puppel, Ewa Bogusz, Marcin Gołębiewski, Teresa Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Beata Kuczyńska, Jan Slósarz, Arkadiusz Budziński, Paweł Solarczyk, Małgorzata Kunowska-Slósarz, Tomasz Przysucha
The main goal of crossbreeding Holstein–Friesian (HF) cows with bulls of other dairy or combined breeds is to improve their performance traits. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to compare the dairy performance traits of first generation crossbreds produced by crossbreeding Polish HF cows with bulls of other breeds (Norman, Norwegian Red, Danish Red, Brown Swiss, Montbeliarde, and Simmental). This was done by analyzing the fatty acid profile and technological quality of the milk from these first generation crossbreds. The investigation showed that crossbreeding greatly influenced the performance parameters and technological quality of the milk of the first generation crossbreds obtained from crossbreeding Polish HF cows with bulls of other dairy or combined breeds. The crossbreed cows characterized by the highest both quantity and quality of milk. Also, the best parameters of milk fat dispersion (that is, the highest values of these parameters) that are useful in the production of hard ripening cheeses and butter were found in the milk of crossbreed cows. Health beneficially, saturated fatty acids level in milk of crossbreeds was by 25.96% lower in crossbreds milk when compared to purebred cows. The most beneficial content of whey proteins was found in the milk of Polish HF and Norwegian Red crosses, where it was 19.04% higher than in pure breed Holsteins. F1 cows tend to express better functional traits than Holstein (PHF) cows. Effect of heterosis was larger and gave better results when there was a greater genetic distance between the animals used for crossbreeding. The effects of heterosis are opposite to the effects of inbreeding depression, and it extends the lifespan and use of animals as well as improves their fertility and health. The main goal of crossbreeding Holstein–Friesian cows with bulls of other dairy or combined breeds is to improve their performance traits. F1 cows tend to express better functional traits than Holstein (PHF) cows. Effect of heterosis was larger and gave better results when there was a greater genetic distance between the animals used for crossbreeding.
Warm-Up Effect in Panelist-Articulated-2-Alternative Forced Choice Test J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 David J. Bloom, Hwa-Young Baik, Soo-Yeun Lee
Panelist performance in discrimination tests has been shown to increase when warm-up samples are provided prior to the actual test. Samples are used prior to the actual test for the attribute articulation process of a panelist-articulated-2-alternative forced choice (PA-2-AFC) procedure; however, it is yet unknown if the pretest articulation phase adds to the power of this testing method as with the warm-up. The goal of the study was to determine if a “warm-up” effect was displayed in the PA-2-AFC test resulting in greater power compared to the researcher-designated-2-AFC (RD-2-AFC) test. A RD-2-AFC test, with and without warm-up samples, and a PA-2-AFC test were performed by 61 panelists. A reduced calorie, citrus-flavored, and carbonated beverage was used in the tests. During RD-2-AFC testing, panelists were asked to identify which sample was more sour. For PA-2-AFC testing, panelists individually articulated the nature and direction of the difference between the 2 samples through a pretesting articulation procedure. The articulated difference was, then, used in standard 2-AFC test procedure. A warm-up effect was observed when comparing the standard RD-2-AFC with and without warm-up samples. The addition of warm up samples significantly increased the power of the test, in addition, the PA-2-AFC method had lower power than the RD-2-AFC method. The increase in power with the addition of warm-up samples for the RD-2-AFC procedure supports literature findings on the benefit of providing warm-up samples. No warm-up effect can be attributed to the PA-2-AFC method evidenced by the overall low power observed, which may be attributed to sample complexity. Selecting a specified discrimination testing method is advantageous and can reduce costs of sensory testing, but has been considered unpractical when samples may differ in unknown ways. This research explores the use of panelist derived terms to circumvent the need for researchers to identify these differences and compares the results to using research designated terms in discrimination testing. Results from this study can be utilized in creating ways to incorporate more powerful methods into sensory discrimination testing plans and provides researchers with a means for selecting terms for use in specified discrimination testing methods.
Influence of Images on the Evaluation of Jams Using Conjoint Analysis Combined with Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Questions J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Marcelo Miraballes, Adriana Gámbaro
A study of the influence of the use of images in a conjoint analysis combined with check-all-that apply (CATA) questions on jams was carried out. The relative importance of flavor and the information presented in the label in the willingness to purchase and the perception of how healthy the product is has been evaluated. Sixty consumers evaluated the stimuli presented only in text format (session 1), and another group of 60 consumers did so by receiving the stimuli in text format along with an image of the product (session 2). In addition, for each stimulus, consumers answered a CATA question consisting of 20 terms related to their involvement with the product. The perception of healthy increased when the texts were accompanied with images and also increased when the text included information. Willingness to purchase was only influenced by the flavor of the jams. The presence of images did not influence the CATA question's choice of terms, which were influenced by the information presented in the text. The use of a check-all-that-apply question in concepts provided an interesting possibility when they were combined with the results from the conjoint analysis, improving the comprehension of consumers’ perception. Using CATA questions as an alternative way of evaluating consumer involvement seems to be beneficial and should be evaluated much further.
Towards a Kieselguhr- and PVPP-Free Clarification and Stabilization Process of Rough Beer at Room-Temperature Conditions J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Alessio Cimini, Mauro Moresi
In this work, the main constraint (that is, beer chilling and chill haze removing) of the current beer conditioning techniques using Kieselguhr filtration and Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) treatment was overcome by developing a novel higher-throughput conditioning process, operating at room temperatures with no use of filter aids. The effect of filtration temperature (TF) in the range of 0 to 40 °C on the hydraulic permeability of ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membranes with nominal pore size of 0.2 to 1.4 μm, as well as on their limiting permeation flux (J*) when feeding precentrifuged rough beer, was preliminarily assessed. When using the 1.4-μm HF membrane operating at TF ≥ 20 °C, it was possible to enhance the average permeation flux at values (676 to 1844 L/m2/h), noticeably higher than those (250 to 500 L/m2/h) characteristics of conventional powder filtration. Despite its acceptable permanent haze, the resulting beer permeate still exhibited colloidal instability. By resorting to the commercial enzyme preparation Brewers Clarex® before beer clarification, it was possible to significantly improve its colloidal stability as measured using a number of European Brewing Convention forcing tests, especially with respect to that of precentrifuged rough beer by itself. By combining the above enzymatic treatment with membrane clarification at 30 °C across the ceramic 1.4-μm HF membrane module, it was possible to limit the haze development due to chilling, sensitive proteins, and alcohol addition to as low as 0.78, 4.1, and 4.0 EBC-U, respectively, the enzymatic treatment being by far more effective than that using PVPP. A novel Kieselguhr- and PVPP-free rough beer conditioning process at room temperatures was set up. By submitting precentrifuged rough beer to commercial preparation Brewers Clarex ® and then to membrane clarification at 30 °C across a ceramic 1.4-μm hollow-fiber membrane module, it was possible to obtain a clear and stable beer with a throughput (1306 ± 72 L/m2/h) by far higher than that (250 to 500 L/m2/h) characterizing the current powder filters. The haze development due to chilling, sensitive proteins, and alcohol adding was by far lower than that observed when microfiltering PVPP-pretreated rough beer.
In Vivo Therapeutic Effect of Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz in Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Male Albino Rats J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Mingge Shen, Ketian Li, Hongying Jing, Linyi Zheng
This study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective and antioxidant effect of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz in ischemia-induced male albino Wistar strain rats. Rats were grouped into 5 of 6 numbers each. Group I served as a sham, group II served as control and group III, IV, and V served for 1, 10, and 25 mg/kg/d of an extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz for 15 consecutive days of treatment. Serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase were increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes were reduced in control due to injury. Increased phenol and anthocyanin contents and increased free radical scavenging activity was noted following treatment. Serum marker enzymes, necrosis, and lipid peroxidation, were reduced, whereas antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione were increased. Nitric oxide synthase and Akt expression were also increased following treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that Vaccinium meridionale Swartz may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic injury.
Shelf-Life of Boiled Salted Duck Meat Stored Under Normal and Modified Atmosphere J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 Yang Zhai, Jichao Huang, Iftikhar Ali Khan, Yuchen Guo, Ming Huang, Guanghong Zhou
The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and changes in the microbial counts of boiled salted duck (BSD) meat packed under various conditions. BSD meat was stored under normal atmosphere (C) and two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions: M1 (N2, 100%) and M2 (CO2/N2, 30%/70%) at 4 °C. Microbiological quality, pH, redness, lipid oxidation, headspace gas composition, and water activity of BSD meat were measured. The results showed that the time to reach the maximum acceptable total viable counts (TVC, 4.9 log CFU/g) was 12, 18, and 21 d in C, M1, and M2 samples, respectively. Significant difference in the redness values was observed in all treatments during storage. The redness value of C group was significantly lower than that in M1 and M2 groups at the end of storage. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values under MAP were 0.24 to 0.26 mg MDA/kg meat at the end of storage, lower (P < 0.05) than that in C group (0.78 mg MDA/kg meat). The water activity in M2 group was the lowest among all 3 groups. The CO2 concentration in M2 decreased significantly during storage. Our study demonstrates that packaging with 30% CO2 and 70% N2 (M2) could extend the shelf-life of BSD meat to 21 d during storage at 4 °C, suggesting that MAP can be a practical approach to extend the shelf-life and maintain the quality of BSD products. This study evaluated the application of MAP for a cooked duck product. Our results showed that MAP can be utilized to extend the shelf-life. This technology may be used for preservation of other cooked meat products.
Development of Mayonnaise with Substitution of Oil or Egg Yolk by the Addition of Chia (Salvia Hispânica L.) Mucilage J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Sibele Santos Fernandes, Myriam de las Mercedes Salas Mellado
Chia mucilage is formed by the hydration of chia seeds and presents characteristics that potentiate its application as substitute of fat in several foods. In this study, mayonnaises were prepared with different levels of freeze-dried chia mucilage instead of oil or egg yolk. The substitution of oil in mayonnaise promoted increased stability and texture parameters, and the mayonnaise substituted by egg yolk presented similar stability and texture parameters as the control mayonnaise. The substitution of oil in mayonnaise was about 50% with 45% oil substitution, whereas for the mayonnaise with 35% of egg yolk replacement it was about 0.94%. Sensorially, an inverse relation was found, the mayonnaises with substitution of the egg yolk that presented a smaller reduction of the lipid content, presented better sensory acceptance than the mayonnaise with substitution of the oil. Therefore, the results indicated that chia mucilage has potential to substitute part of the amount of oil in the mayonnaise formulation. As for the use of the mucilage in the substitution of the egg yolk, it is not possible to promote a significant reduction in the lipid content nor maintain emulsion stability. Chia mucilage presents high emulsifying hability and water-holding capacity that potentiabilize its use as a substitute for fat in various foods. Mayonnaises developed with up to 45% oil substitution by chia mucilage, presented a reduction in the lipid content by about 50%, an increasing stability and a good sensorial acceptance.
Reverse Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice and Seeds Aqueous Extract on Gastric Emptying and Small-Bowel Motility in Rat J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Khouloud Saidani, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) induced constipation. To evaluate the antisecretory effect, we were used as a hypersecretion agent, the castor oil at the dose of 5 mL/kg. Compared to the control and standard groups, we were showed that the prickly pear has an opposite effect on small-bowel motility and gastric emptying. Indeed, the juice at various doses has a laxative effect of gastrointestinal transit in healthy and constipated-rats. However, the aqueous extract of the seeds leads to a reduction of motility in normal rats which gives it a remarkable antidiarrhoeal activity, a notable intestinal fluid accumulation decline and electrolyte concentrations reestablishment. Moreover, orally juice administered at different doses accelerated the stomach emptying time in contrast to the seeds aqueous extract. More importantly, a significant variation in the phytochemical constituents levels between juice and seeds was found. These findings confirm the reverse therapeutic effects of this fruit in the treatment of digestive disturbances such as difficulty stool evacuation and massive intestinal secretion, likewise, the gastric emptying process perturbation.
Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Tomato Juice from Garden Gem and Roma Tomatoes with Comparison to Commercial Tomato Juice J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Yaozhou Zhu, Charles A. Sims, Harry J. Klee, Paul J. Sarnoski
The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor of a premium Florida tomato variety that has significant potential for producing a high quality processed juice product. A high-quality Florida plum tomato variety (Garden Gem), and a typical grocery-store plum tomato variety (Roma) were thermally processed into tomato juices without any additives. The 2 pilot products and a popular commercially available tomato juice (low sodium with sugar and flavor added) were compared using sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Flavor compounds in these products were identified using dynamic headspace purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) by MS library match and retention index and were semi-quantitated using internal standards. Color, uniformity, overall liking, tomato flavor, sweetness and texture were rated using a hedonic scale. Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were used to analyze both sensory and flavor data. Among the 3 products, Garden Gem juice was rated significantly (P < 0.05) higher for overall liking, tomato flavor, and sweetness by the 119 consumer panelists in both seasons. Garden Gem juice was found to contain higher levels of 3 sweet/fruity related aroma compounds: 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, and β-ionone. The commercial tomato juice contained a high level of the Maillard reaction-related notes furfural, dimethyl sulfide, and the least amount of green-related notes (hexanal, E-2-hexenal and Z-2-heptenal). The flavor profile of the Roma tomato juice was similar to Garden Gem juice except it contained substantially lower amounts of hexanal and 2-isobutylthiazole. The compound β-ionone (fruity note) was not detected in either the commercial or Roma juice. This proof of concept study demonstrates that high flavor quality tomatoes can be used to create better tasting processed tomato products. The study also demonstrates how sensory preference can confer a potential market advantage over existing commercial products. The Garden Gem variety has potential to add desirable flavor attributes to processed tomato products. This research may also provide insights for product developers to which flavor volatiles best reflect sensory observations for different aspects of tomato flavor.
Cover Caption J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
December Online Cover: Temperature and Salmonella reduction in eggs under various water heating treatments, from “Radiofrequency Heating for Enhancing Microbial Safety of Shell Eggs Immersed in Deionized Water” by Soon Kiat Lau, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, and Jeyamkondan Subbiah. p. 2933.
Effect of House Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Flour Addition on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsion Under Various Formulations J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Hyun-Wook Kim, Derico Setyabrata, YongJae Lee, Owen G. Jones, Yuan H. Brad Kim
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour addition on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion under various formulations. As an initial marker of functionality, protein solubility, water absorption, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were determined at pH (2 to 10) and NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.10 M). Control emulsion was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% back fat, and 20% ice. Six treatment emulsions were prepared with replacement of lean pork and/or back fat portions with spray-dried house cricket flour at 5% and 10% levels, based on a total sample weight. The protein solubility of house cricket flour (67 g protein/100 g) was significantly altered depending upon pH (P < 0.0001) and NaCl concentration (P = 0.0421). Similar water absorption capacity, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were found between 0 and 2.10 M NaCl concentration (P > 0.05). The replacement of lean meat/fat portion with house cricket flour within 10% level could fortify protein and some micronutrients (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) in meat emulsion, without negative impacts on cooking yield and textural properties. Our results suggest that house cricket flour can be used as an effective nonmeat functional ingredient to manufacture emulsified meat products. To better utilize house cricket flour as a food ingredient in wide application, understanding its technological properties in various pH, and ionic strength conditions is a pivotal step. Protein solubility of house cricket flour would be considerably affected by the varying pH and NaCl concentrations of applied conventional foods. In the case of meat emulsion, within 10% lean meat and/or fat portions could be successfully substituted with house cricket flour without detectable adverse impacts on technological properties associated with cooking yield and instrumental analysis of texture. Thus, our findings suggest that house cricket flour possess the necessary physical properties to be used as an alternative nonmeat ingredient for incorporation within emulsified meat products, which could be further explored in subsequent sensory-based studies.
Composition, Granular Structure, and Pasting Properties of Native Starch Extracted from Plectranthus edulis (Oromo dinich) Tubers J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-12-01 Tom Hellemans, Gifty Abera, Ingrid Leyn, Paul der Meeren, Koen Dewettinck, Mia Eeckhout, Bruno De Meulenaer, Filip Bockstaele
Chemical composition, granular morphology and pasting properties of native starch extracted from tubers of Plectranthus edulis were analyzed. Starch was extracted from tubers of 6 accessions collected from 4 different areas in Ethiopia. Particle size analysis (PSA) and cryo-scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM) imaging were used to examine the granular morphology and visualize the starch paste, respectively. Pasting properties, water absorption, and gelation capacity were compared. A wide range was found for the amylose (14.2% to 23.9%), calcium (216 to 599), potassium (131 to 878), and phosphorus (1337 to 2090) contents (parts per million per dry matter). PSA showed a bimodal distribution containing small spherical (14.6 μm) and large ellipse-shaped (190.4 μm) granules. Major differences were found for the pasting with peak viscosities differing from 3184 to 7312 mPa⋅s. Starch from accessions Chencha and Inuka showed a difference in packing density as clearly seen through cryo-SEM image at 75% of the peak viscosity (PV), and the granular integrity was mainly responsible for the significant difference in their PV and breakdown. Principal component analysis revealed 2 distinct groups: native starch extracted from accessions at the Wolayta zone (Inuka, Lofua, and Chenqoua) and other accessions (Jarmet, Arjo white, and Chencha). The study revealed the potential of P. edulis starch for its application in food industries. However, the inherent variation due to environmental conditions on physicochemical properties of the starch needs further investigation. Plectranthus edulis is cultivated in considerable amounts throughout Ethiopia, which makes it a valuable starch source. Due to its low tendency to retrograde, it could be applied in food industry as an equivalent for the current starch sources. Moreover, the low amylose content makes it preferable for an application in refrigerated foods as this unique quality trait prevents syneresis in end products during storage. Based on the significantly higher pasting temperature of the studied P. edulis starch extracts, it can form an alternative for potato starch, which is less suitable for its use in pasteurized foods.
Natural Occurrence of Aldol Condensation Products in Valencia Orange Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Ingo Abreu, Neil C. Da Costa, Alfred Es, Jung-A Kim, Uma Parasar, Mauricio L. Poulsen
Cold pressed orange oils contain predominantly d-limonene (approximately 95%) and various other lower concentration monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sinensals plus 3 key aliphatic aldehydes: hexanal, octanal. and decanal. The aldol self-condensation products or “dimers” for each aldehyde have been postulated as being present at low concentrations in the oil. However, to date only the hexanal dimer has been previously reported. In this paper, cold pressed Valencia orange oil was fractionally distilled/folded and analyzed by GC and high resolution GC-MS to detect these compounds on 2 different capillary column phases. Subsequently the hexanal, octanal, and decanal self-aldol condensation products, 2-butyl-2-octenal, 2-hexyl-2-decenal, and 2-octyl-2-dodecenal, respectively, were detected in the folded oil. These predominantly trans configuration isomeric compounds were synthesized, to confirm them as being present in nature and evaluated organoleptically by a panel of evaluators. To further confirm the mechanism of their formation, the enriched oil was made into a simple beverage to show the effect on the formation of these aldol compounds under acidic conditions. Finally aliphatic aldehydes from hexanal to undecanal were reacted together in various combinatorial pairs to give an additional 33 self and mixed aldol condensation products, some of which were also detected in the folded oil. This paper discloses the structural elucidation and synthesis of 8 novel aldol condensation products found at trace concentrations in citrus and leading to a further 31 mass spectrally determined aldol products. Sensory evaluations and application of some of these components were demonstrated in a model citrus beverage.
Characterization of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Moutai Liquors by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection and Odor Activity Value J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Shuang Chen, Sha Sha, Michael Qian, Yan Xu
This study investigated the aroma contribution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Moutai liquors. The VSCs were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD). The influences of SPME fibers, ethanol content in the sample, pre-incubation time, and extraction temperature and time on the extraction of VSCs were optimized. The VSCs were optimally extracted using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, by incubating 10 mL diluted Chinese liquor (5% vol.) with 3 g NaCl at 30 °C for 15 min, followed by a subsequent extraction for 40 min at 30 °C. The optimized method was further validated. A total of 13 VSCs were identified and quantified in Moutai liquors. The aroma contribution of these VSCs were evaluated by their odor activity values (OAVs), with the result that 7 of 13 VSCs had OAVs > 1. In particular, 2-furfurylthiol, methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide, ethanethiol, and methional had relatively high OAVs and could be the key aroma contributors to Moutai liquors. In this study, a method for analyzing volatile sulfur compounds in Chinese liquors has been developed. This method will allow an in-depth study the aroma contribution of volatile sulfur compounds in Chinese liquors. Seven volatile sulfur compounds were identified as potential key aroma contributors for Moutai liquors, which can help to the quality control of Moutai liquors.
Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Fernanda S. Ferreira, Geni R. Sampaio, Laura M. Keller, Alexandra C.H.F. Sawaya, Davy W.H. Chávez, Elizabeth A.F.S. Torres, Tatiana Saldanha
The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P < 0.05) in the control samples. However, the use of herbs as natural antioxidants proved to be effective reducing such levels of COPs in most samples. The addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation. Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants.
Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of 3 Species of Oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri) J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Erick Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Miguel Angel Angulo-Escalante, Josefina León-Félix, J. Basilio Heredia
Oregano phenolic compounds have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, after ingestion, the gastrointestinal environment can affect their antioxidant stability and thus their bioactive properties. To evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion on the phenolic compounds of 3 species of oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia palmeri), the total reducing capacity, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated before and after in vitro GI digestion. In addition, the phenolic compounds of the 3 oregano species were identified and quantified by UPLC-PDA before and after in vitro GI digestion. It was shown that the reducing capacity, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were affected by the GI digestion process. Moreover, the phenolic compounds identified were apigenin-7-glucoside, scutellarein, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, and their levels were affected by the in vitro GI process. Our results showed that the phenolic compounds from these 3 species of oregano are affected by the in vitro digestion process, and this effect is largely attributable to pH changes. These changes can modify the bioavailability and further anti-inflammatory activity of oregano phenolics, and thus, further research is needed. Oregano is a rich source of polyphenols that have shown bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory potential. However, little is known of the gastrointestinal fate of oregano polyphenols which is imperative to fully understand its bioaccessibility. Our results are important to develop new administration strategies which could help protect the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and bioaccessibility of such compounds.
Chemical Mapping of Essential Oils, Flavonoids and Carotenoids in Citrus Peels by Raman Microscopy J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Ying Yang, Xiaohe Wang, Chengying Zhao, Guifang Tian, Hua Zhang, Hang Xiao, Lili He, Jinkai Zheng
Citrus peels, by-products in large quantity, are rich in various functional and beneficial components which have wide applications. Chemical analysis of these components in citrus peels is an important step to determine the usefulness of the by-products for further applications. In this study, we explored Raman microscopy for rapid, nondestructive, and in situ chemical mapping of multiple main functional components from citrus peels. The relative amount and distribution in different locations (flavedo, albedo, and longitudinal section) of 3 main functional components (essential oils, carotenoids, and flavonoids) in citrus peels were systematically investigated. The distribution profiles of these components were heterogeneous on the peels and varied between different species of citrus peels. Essential oil was found mainly existed in the oil glands, while carotenoids were in the complementary location. Some flavonoids were observed in the oil glands. This study showed the capability of Raman microscopy for rapid and nondestructive analysis of multiple bio-components without extraction from plants. The information obtained from this study would assist the better production and application of the functional and beneficial components from citrus by products in an effective and sustainable manner. This study indicated the capability of Raman microscopy for rapid and nondestructive analysis of multiple bioactive components in plant tissues. The information obtained from the study would be valuable for developing effective and sustainable strategy of utilization of citrus peels for further applications.
Effects of Hydrolyzed Rapeseed Cake Extract on the Quality Characteristics of Mayonnaise Dressing J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Ye-Seul Kim, Jeung-Hee Lee
Combined fractions (H2O and 30% and 50% ethanol) of crude rapeseed cake extracts with 80% ethanol were hydrolyzed with NaOH solution. The hydrolyzed extract showed significantly higher contents of total phenolics (41.8 mg SAE/g) and sinapic acid (425.8 mg/g), as well as higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity (91.98 RSC%) than the crude extract (P < 0.05). Antimicrobial activity of the hydrolyzed extract was remarkably higher than that of the crude extract against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast, as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Hydrolyzed extract (100, 250, or 500 ppm) was added to mayonnaise dressing, and several quality characteristics of the dressing were investigated by assessments of microbial, physical, and oxidative stabilities during 8 wk of storage. Microbial stability was higher in the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added (4.3 to 4.6 Log CFU/g) than the control (4.9 Log CFU/g). Physical characteristics of the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added were better than those of the control, based on increased viscosity and reduced emulsion separation. Hydrolyzed extract increased oxidative stability in a concentration-dependent manner, and the dressing with added 500 ppm of hydrolyzed extract resulted in a lower free fatty acid content (4.8% at week 8), peroxide value (13.5 meq/kg at week 6), and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (66.2 μg/100 g at week 8) than the control. Therefore, it is expected that hydrolyzed rapeseed cake extract containing high sinapic acid content can be used in emulsion system as a value-added ingredient. Crude extract of rapeseed cake was fractionated and alkaline-hydrolyzed to convert sinapine into sinapic acid, and the produced hydrolyzed extract showed higher antimicrobial and antioxidative activities than the crude extract. When the hydrolyzed extract was added to mayonnaise dressing, microbial stability increased along with physical characteristics and oxidative stability, thereby supporting the potential of hydrolyzed rapeseed extract as a food additive for quality management of mayonnaise dressing during storage.
Effects of Different Pretreatments to Fresh Fruit on Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of Crude Palm Oil J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Minmin Tang, Qiuyu Xia, Brendan J. Holland, Hui Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Rui Li, Hongxing Cao
This study selected 5 methods, including boiling, hot air drying, high-pressurized steam, freezing, and microwave radiation to pretreat fresh oil palm fruit before solvent extraction of the oil. Using fresh fruit as a control, the pretreatment methods were compared for the effects on the activity of the 2 main enzymes in the fruit and some physicochemical properties of the crude palm oil. The results indicated, although all the 5 pretreatments could inactivate lipase and peroxidase in the treated flesh significantly (P < 0.05), the high-pressurized steam was the most effective. There were also differences in the unsaturated fatty acid contents of the 6 oils. The crude oil from frozen fruit contained significantly more vitamin E (37829.33 ppm) than previously reported. Microwave radiation was shown to significantly decrease the free fatty acid content and the peroxide value, while increasing the oxidative stability index. Thermal behaviors of the oils were significantly different to each other with the exception a few parameters (P < 0.05).
Antioxidant Stability Study of Oregano Essential Oil Microcapsules Prepared by Spray-Drying J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Claudia M. Asensio, Alejandro J. Paredes, Maria P. Martin, Daniel A. Allemandi, Valeria Nepote, Nelson R. Grosso
Release kinetics of the volatile compounds of oregano EO microcapsules and the relation with the antioxidant activity were studied. Different wall material (WM) to core (C) ratios (1:1 and 2:1; WM:C), addition of colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD); and different storage conditions: 23 °C (room temperature; R) and 4 °C (fridge temperature; F) were evaluated for 90 d. Volatile compounds, total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were measured. The formulas 2:1 (WM:C) (R and F) without CSD behaved differently from the rest, exhibited a higher antioxidant activity, and released less amount of volatile compounds after 90 d. These treatments grouped together in the cluster analysis, showing the highest TPC (81.54 mg gallic ac/g), FRSA (8.66%), and TEAC (12.35 μg Trolox/g). The addition of CSD facilitated the released of volatile compounds through storage time and promoted losses in the antioxidant activity. The temperature had a significant effect in most of the evaluated variables. However, this effect was more noticeable in F2 (1:1, CSD). Oregano essential oil has antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory preserving properties. However, it is susceptible to volatilization and is degraded by external factors. Its addition into food matrices is restricted due to low solubility and hydrophobicity. The antioxidant activity of oregano EO is preserved after the process of microencapsulation by spray-drying that extends its stability during storage. Oregano EO microcapsules are an alternative of delivery which protects and extends the shelf life of this essential oil, overcomes stability related limitations and preserves its desirable characteristics allowing these kind of microcapsules to be later incorporated into food products. These microcapsules could be used as a natural additive/flavouring with antioxidant properties.
Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Gülşah Çalışkan Koç, Safiye Nur Dirim
The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively.
Metabolite Profiling of Peppers of Various Colors Reveals Relationships Between Tocopherol, Carotenoid, and Phytosterol Content J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Tae Jin Kim, Jaehyuk Choi, Kil Won Kim, Soon Kil Ahn, Sun-Hwa Ha, Yongsoo Choi, Nam Il Park, Jae Kwang Kim
Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to determine the relationships among these metabolites in peppers. PCA results indicated no significant variances among the 3 sample replicates. The HCA showed correlations between the metabolites resulting from common or closely linked biosynthesis pathways. Our results showed that carotenoids correlated positively with tocopherols and negatively with phytosterols; our findings also indicated a close relationship between the methylerythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonic acid biosynthesis pathways, providing evidence in favor of an earlier hypothesis regarding crosstalk across the chloroplast membrane. We, thus, demonstrate that metabolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis is a useful tool for analyzing metabolic networks. A total of 71 metabolites were measured in 5 peppers of different colors. The metabolic profiling with multivariate analysis revealed that tocopherol content had a positive correlation with the carotenoid content and a negative correlation with the phytosterol content. The results of this study may help in breeding programs to produce new germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality.
Multifractal Approaches of the Ring Tensile Rupture Patterns of Dried Laver (Porphyra) as Affected by the Relative Humidity J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Hwabin Jung, Won Byong Yoon
The effect of water activity (aw) or the relative humidity (RH) on the tensile rupture properties of dried laver (DL) associated with structures formed with phycocolloids was investigated. The morphological characteristics of tensile ruptured DL samples at various relative humidities were evaluated by multifractal analysis. The RH of the microclimate was controlled from 10% to 90% at 25 °C using supersaturated salt solutions. The sorption isotherm of DL was experimentally obtained and quantitatively analyzed using mathematical models. The monolayer moisture contents from the Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) model was 5.92% (w.b.). An increase in the RH resulted in increasing ring tensile stress and maintaining constant ring tensile strain up to 58% to 75% RH, whereas the ring tensile stress and the ring tensile strain rapidly decreased and increased, respectively, when the RH was higher than 75%. The general fractal dimensions and the multifractal spectra f(α) manifested that the patterns of the lowest and the highest moisture content of dried laver showed high irregularity. The different multifractal parameters obtained from the DL at various RHs well-represented the transient moment of the structures from the monolayer moisture to texture changes associated with RH. Overall, the ring tensile test and the multifractal analysis were useful tools to analyze the change of crispness of DL from its structural characteristics. In addition, the results of this study revealed that the integration and disintegration properties of DL occurred through the networks of phycocolloids at various moisture contents. Texture properties are the most important quality attributes for commercial dried laver (DL) products. The relative humidity influences the texture properties of DL during production, storage, shipping, and consuming. This study well characterized the effect of the relative humidity on the texture properties of DL using the tensile tests under microclimate conditions. This information is very practical and can be immediately applied to control the relative humidity of the packaging and the storage room for DL.
Fabrication and Optimization of Self-Microemulsions to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Total Flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-10-23 Ruixue Guo, Xinbo Guo, Xiaodan Hu, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Lin Zhou, Tong Li, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
The purpose of this work was to improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble functional food ingredient, the total flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. (TFH). A self-microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed to overcome the problems of poor absorption of TFH in vivo. The optimal SMEDDS significantly enhanced the solubility of TFH up to 530 times compared to that in water. The mean droplet size was 61.76 nm with uniform distribution. And the loaded system was stable at 25 °C for 3 mo with transparent appearance. The in vitro release of TFH from SMEDDS was faster and more complete than that from suspension. After oral administration of TFH–SMEDDS in rats, the relative bioavailability of TFH was dramatically improved for 3.09 times compared with the unencapsulated form. The investigation indicated the potential application of SMEDDS as a vehicle to improve the oral bioavailability of TFH. The lipid-based nanotechnology, namely self-microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was used to improve the bioavailability and oral delivery of total flavones of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. (TFH). The relevant bioavailability of TFH could be remarkably 3-fold improved by the optimized SMEDDS. The SMEDDS produced via a simple one-step process for poorly soluble TFH to achieve a significant improvement in the bioavailability, may endorse the promising utilization of TFH in functional foods as well as pharmaceutical fields with an enhanced absorption in vivo.
Reverse Stability Kinetics of Meat Pigment Oxidation in Aqueous Extract from Fresh Beef J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 John C. Frelka, David M. Phinney, Macdonald P. Wick, Dennis R. Heldman
The use of kinetic models is an evolving approach to describing quality changes in foods during processes, including storage. Previous studies indicate that the oxidation rate of myoglobin is accelerated under frozen storage conditions, a phenomenon termed reverse stability. The goal of this study was to develop a model for meat pigment oxidation to incorporate the phenomenon of reverse stability. In this investigation, the model system was an aqueous extract from beef which was stored under a range of temperatures, both unfrozen and frozen. The kinetic analysis showed that in unfrozen solutions, the temperature dependence of oxidation rate followed Arrhenius kinetics. However, under in frozen solutions the rate of oxidation increased with decreasing temperature until reaching a local maximum around −20 °C. The addition of NaCl to the model system increased oxidation rates at all temperatures, even above the initial freezing temperature. This observation suggests that this reaction is dependent on the ionic strength of the solution as well as temperature. The mechanism of this deviant kinetic behavior is not fully understood, but this study shows that the interplay of temperature and composition on the rate of oxidation of meat pigments is complicated and may involve multiple mechanisms. A better understanding of the kinetics of quality loss in a meat system allows for a re-examination of the current recommendations for frozen storage. The deviant kinetic behavior observed in this study indicates that the relationship between quality loss and temperature in a frozen food is not as simple as once thought. Product-specific recommendations could be implemented in the future that would allow for a decrease in energy consumption without a significant loss of quality.
Enhancement of Moisture Protective Properties and Stability of Pectin through Formation of a Composite Film: Effects of Shellac and Plasticizer J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Manee Luangtana-anan, Sitthiphong Soradech, Suthep Saengsod, Jurairat Nunthanid, Sontaya Limmatvapirat
The aim of this investigation was to develop the high moisture protective ability and stable pectin through the design of composite films based on varying shellac concentrations. A film casting method was applied to prepare a free film. The moisture protective properties and mechanical properties were investigated. The findings was the composite films exhibited the reductions in the hydrophilicity, water vapor permeability, and the moisture content compared with pectin films. The single and composite films were then study for their stability at 40 °C and 75% RH for 90 d. Among the concentrations of shellac, 50% (w/w) could improve stability in terms of moisture protection after 90 d of storage, whereas lower concentrations of shellac (10% to 40%) could not achieve this. However, the higher shellac content also contributed to weaker mechanical properties. The mechanical improvement and stability of composite films with the incorporation of plasticizers were further investigated. Polyethylene glycol 400 and diethyl phthalate at a concentration of 10% were used. The results indicated that both plasticizers could enhance the mechanical characteristics and had a slight effect on moisture protection. The stability of pectin in terms of moisture protective properties could, therefore, be modified through the fabrication of composite films with hydrophobic polymers, that is, shellac and the addition of proper plasticizers to enhance mechanical properties, which could offer wide applications for edible film in food, agro, and pharmaceutical industries. The composite film with 50% shellac could improve moisture protective properties of pectin film. Adding a plasticizer could build up the higher mechanical characteristics of composite film. Stability of pectin could be modified by fabrication of composite films with proper content of shellac and plasticizer.
Effect of Sorbitol Plasticizer on the Structure and Properties of Melt Processed Polyvinyl Alcohol Films J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Huafeng Tian, Di Liu, Yuanyuan Yao, Songbai Ma, Xing Zhang, Aimin Xiang
Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) possesses wide applications as food packaging materials, but is difficult to melt process for its strong inter/intra hydrogen bonding. In this work, flexible PVA films with different content of sorbitol plasticizers were prepared by melt processing with the assistance of water. And the influence of sorbitol plasticizer content on the crystallinity, optical transparency, water-retaining capability, mechanical properties, thermal stability and oxygen and water permeability were investigated. The results indicated that sorbitol dramatically improved the melt processing ability of PVA. Sorbitol could interact with PVA to form strong hydrogen bonding interactions, which would decrease the original hydrogen bonding of the matrix, resulting in the decrease of crystallinity degrees. The glass transition, melting and crystallization peak temperatures decreased with the increase of sorbitol. All the films exhibited fine optical transparency. The water retaining capability were improved with the increase of sorbitol. Especially, an increase in elongation at break and decrease in Young's modulus and tensile strength were observed indicating good plasticizing effect of sorbitol on PVA films. In addition, the PVA films prepared in this work exhibited fine barrier properties against oxygen and water, suggesting wide application potential as packaging materials.
Radiofrequency Heating for Enhancing Microbial Safety of Shell Eggs Immersed in Deionized Water J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Soon Kiat Lau, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Jeyamkondan Subbiah
Radiofrequency (RF) heating was simulated for improving the microbial safety of a shell egg immersed in deionized water using a finite element model. A regression equation that relates the top electrode voltage to the gap between the electrodes and vertical position of the egg was also developed. The root mean squared errors between the simulation and validation results ranged from 0.76 to 2.86 °C. Concentrated heating occurred in the yolk in all the investigated configurations, with some configurations reaching close to 60 °C in the yolk after 20 min of RF heating. The cooling effect of the water along with lower electric field intensity in the egg caused the focused heating in the yolk. Extrapolation of the model revealed that a scaled-up RF heating process (10.5 kV at top electrode) followed by a hot water immersion process can achieve a minimum of 3 log reductions of Salmonella in the yolk within 37 min. Radiofrequency (RF) heating with the assistance of deionized water was shown to have the potential of improving the microbial safety of shell eggs. The validated model results revealed that this effect was due to a combination of focused heating and surface cooling.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction of Phloridzin from Malus Micromalus Makino with Ethanol/Ammonia Sulfate System J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Zhen Zhang, Fang Liu, Caian He, Yueli Yu, Min Wang
Application of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasonic technology for the extraction of phloridzin from Malus micromalus Makino was evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The ethanol/ammonium sulfate ATPS was selected for detailed investigation, including the phase diagram, effect of phase composition and extract conditions on the partition of phloridzin, and the recycling of ammonium sulfate. In addition, the evaluation of extraction efficiency and the identification of phloridzin were investigated. The optimal partition coefficient (6.55) and recovery (92.86%) of phloridzin were obtained in a system composed of 35% ethanol (w/w) and 16% (NH4)2SO4 (w/w), 51:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and extraction temperature of 36 °C. Comparing with the traditional solvent extraction with respective 35% and 80% ethanol, ultrasonic-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (UAATPE) strategy had significant advantages with lower ethanol consumption, less impurity of sugar and protein, and higher extracting efficiency of phloridzin. Our result indicated that UAATPE was a valuable method for the extraction and preliminary purification of phloridzin from the fruit of Malus micromalus Makino, which has great potential in the deep processing of Malus micromalus Makino industry to increase these fruits’ additional value and drive the local economic development.
Encapsulation of Lactobacillus casei into Calcium Pectinate-Chitosan Beads for Enteric Delivery J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Aigerim Bepeyeva, Joao M.S. Barros, Hanady Albadran, Aitbek K. Kakimov, Zhaynagul Kh. Kakimova, Dimitris Charalampopoulos, Vitaliy V. Khutoryanskiy
Gel beads were prepared by extrusion of various types of pectin into 0.15 M calcium chloride. Size, morphology, and textural properties of 3 types of beads were evaluated and it was established that the use of 3 w/v % amidated pectin provides the optimal characteristics suitable for encapsulation of live bacteria. Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN37) was encapsulated into calcium pectinate gel through the extrusion of a live bacteria dispersion in 3 w/v % pectin into a solution of calcium chloride. The capsules were then additionally coated with chitosan. The viability of bacteria within these capsules was studied under model gastrointestinal conditions in vitro (simulated gastric and intestinal juices). It was established that pectin-chitosan capsules can provide protection to L. casei from the gastric acid and result in high levels of viable bacteria released in the intestine. Encapsulation of Lactobacillus casei into calcium pectinate beads coated with chitosan provided capsules capable of delivering live probiotic bacteria into the intestine.
Antioxidant Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausage J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Yulong Zhang, Ping Hu, Lijiao Lou, Jianlong Zhan, Min Fan, Dan Li, Qianwei Liao
Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47.00 U/mL, and the catalase activity of the cell-free extracts was greater than 1.00 U/mL. In the sausage model, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became the dominant microflora and reduced the moisture content, water activity, nitrite, and pH. The bacteria significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the sausage extracts, which improved the sensory characteristics and safety of the sausages. These results illustrate that both strains have excellent antioxidant activities and can be used as antioxidant starters in fermented meat products. The study illustrated the antioxidant and antioxidase activities of Lactobacillus curvatus SR6 and Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1 and demonstrated the changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of fermented sausages. The findings provide valuable information for the meat industry on the application of functional starters in fermented meat products.
Phenolic Composition and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Free and Bound Phenolic Fractions from a Peruvian Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Accession J. Food Sci. (IF 1.815) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Lena Gálvez Ranilla, Ashish Christopher, Dipayan Sarkar, Kalidas Shetty, Rosana Chirinos, David Campos
Beneficial effects on overall gut health by phenolic bioactives-rich foods are potentially due to their modulation of probiotic gut bacteria and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Based on this rationale, the effect of the free and bound phenolic fractions from a Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 on probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum and the gastric cancer-related pathogen Helicobacter pylori was evaluated. The free and bound phenolic composition was also determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds (310.04 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, DW) in the free phenolic fraction along with hydroxycinnamic acids such as p-coumaric acid derivatives, followed by caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives. The bound phenolic form had only hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and a ferulic acid derivative with ferulic acid being the major phenolic compound (156.30 mg/100 g DW). These phenolic compounds were compatible with beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as L. helveticus and B. longum as these bacteria were not inhibited by the free and bound phenolic fractions at 10 to 50 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL of sample doses, respectively. However, the pathogenic H. pylori was also not inhibited by both purple corn phenolic forms at same above sample doses. This study provides the preliminary base for the characterization of phenolic compounds of Peruvian purple corn biodiversity and its potential health benefits relevant to improving human gut health. This study provides insights that Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 can be targeted as a potential source of health-relevant phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins along with hydroxycinnamic acids linked to its dietary fiber fraction. Additionally, these phenolic fractions did not affect the gut health associated beneficial bacteria nor the pathogenic H. pylori. Purple corn can be targeted for design of probiotic functional foods integrated with their anthocyanin linked-coloring properties.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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