Health body priming and food choice: an eye tracker study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Valerio Manippa, Laura N. van der Laan, Alfredo Brancucci, Paul A.M. Smeets
The “gaze bias theory” suggests that people tend to look longer at items that are eventually chosen. This was not entirely confirmed for food choice, a complex phenomenon influenced by many factors. Although it has been shown that health-related primes affect both consumer attention and choice, the effect of unhealthy body shape primes on these outcomes is largely unknown. Therefore, we here investigated how body primes, namely normal weight (NW), severely overweight (OW) and severely underweight (UW) body shapes, influenced attention and choice for low-calorie food (LcFd) and high-calorie food (HcFd). We hypothesized that OW and UW primes would activate opposing health goals (weight-loss vs. weight-gain respectively). Fifty normal weight sated females completed a primed food choice task in which choices between a LcFd and HcFd, matched for subjective liking, were presented after control or human body shapes (NW, UW or OW). In each trial participants had to identify the shape (i.e., non-human, human male or human female) and then choose the food they wanted to eat at that moment. Gaze was recorded by an eye tracker. Results showed that, although primes did not influence the choice, the total dwell time on chosen HcFd was higher when preceded by an OW prime compared with chosen LcFd and chosen HcFd preceded by an UW prime. Also, both total dwell time and the number of fixations were higher for chosen food compared with non-chosen food as well as for HcFd compared with LcFd without a corresponding higher proportion of HcFd choice. Overall, these data shed light on the interactions between attention, health body priming and food choice.
Using sensory and consumer science in drug delivery system optimization: mixed methods in women of color as a case study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Alyssa J. Bakke, Toral Zaveri, Gregory R. Ziegler, John E. Hayes
Although sensory and consumer science methods may have originated in the food and beverage industries, they have widespread application for many other products, including fast moving consumer goods, personal care, and more recently, pharmaceuticals. Here, we present the later as a case study, showing how sensory methods can be applied to preclinical optimization of drug delivery systems. Past clinical trials suggest vaginal microbicides may be an effective means for women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); critically, however, these microbicides will not work if they are not used due to poor acceptability. Multiple factors influence microbicide acceptability, including product features as well as cultural and social factors. In an iterative process, we developed soft-gel vaginal suppositories and have shown that properties like firmness, size, and shape all influence women’s willingness to try. However, our prior work was conducted among white women in a rural setting, so we revisited these questions in women of color using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Here, women of color evaluated suppositories of different fracturability, firmness, size, and shape. We assessed willingness to try and imagined ease of insertion, and used Just About Right (JAR) scales to measure appropriateness of firmness and size. To better understand reasons underlying these quantitative results, qualitative reactions to suppositories of different sizes, shapes, and firmness level were obtained via focus groups with women of color. This work illustrates a) how sensory and consumer science methods can be used to optimize acceptability of drug delivery systems, and b) how mixed methods provide more complete insights than purely quantitative approaches.
Consumers’ expectation and liking for cheese: can familiarity effects resulting from regional differences be highlighted within a country? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 M. Nacef, M. Lelièvre-Desmas, R. Symoneaux, L. Jombart, C. Flahaut, S. Chollet
Consumers’ food choices are affected by various factors whose study is of interest for food industry. This paper aims to investigate the influence of familiarity on the expectation and liking of Maroilles cheese among consumers familiar and unfamiliar with the product in France. It specifically focuses on two elements of the familiarity: consumption frequency and knowledge and studies their interactions. A hedonic test on Maroilles cheeses was carried out with 305 consumers from Lille city (familiar with Maroilles cheese) and from Angers city (unfamiliar). The test included three conditions: blind (tasting without any information), expected (no tasting, presentation of the photo of the packaging) and informed conditions (tasting + presentation of the photo of the packaging). A questionnaire was also administrated to assess their socio-demographic information, theoretical knowledge and consumption habits related to Maroilles cheeses. Results show that, as expected, Lille consumers eat more Maroilles and show higher liking scores for this cheese than Angers consumers do. Lille consumers outperform Angers consumers on their knowledge score and an interaction between the levels of knowledge and exposure is observed: Lille consumers with the higher level of knowledge have higher expectations of Maroilles cheese than Lille consumers with the lower level of knowledge. This effect is not observed with Angers consumers. Moreover, consumers familiar with Maroilles based their hedonic judgment mainly on intrinsic cues (tasting) whereas consumers unfamiliar with Maroilles are more influenced by extrinsic cues (packaging). Familiarity affects how consumers use available information to form product quality judgement.
Consumer expectations for vegetables with typical and atypical colors: The case of carrots Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 Hendrik N.J. Schifferstein, Theresa Wehrle, Claus-Christian Carbon
The variety of fruits and vegetables in today’s supermarkets is enormous. We investigated how color may lead consumers to anticipate differences in product properties. Forty volunteers rated the expected properties for carrots with different colors presented in pictures, together with their familiarity, purchase intention, and intended preparation method on 7-point scales. We found most positive expectations for the typical and most familiar kinds of orange carrots. Lower saturation of orange was associated with lower attractiveness and freshness, whereas higher orange saturation was evaluated as more artificial. Brown spots on carrots were associated with disease and such carrots were regarded less healthy. Carrots in atypical colors were rated as less familiar, attractive and healthy than orange ones. In comparison with the orange carrots, red carrots were expected to taste sourer and spicier, purple and yellow carrots were rated less nutritious and more artificial, with purple carrots expected to taste more bitter and yellow ones more sour. White and white-green carrots rated lower on sweet, and higher on sour, bitter, and spicy. These carrots were considered less ripe and less nutritious than orange ones. These results indicate that color hue and saturation have substantial impact on consumers’ expectations about sensory and functional properties, including freshness and nutritional value. Some of these expectations may be derived from associations to other vegetables, as reflected by high ratings for spiciness (red pepper) and taste intensity (turnip, radish). However, low attractiveness ratings also suggest that consumers may be reluctant to try unfamiliar variants, at least at first glance. Although atypical colors produce culinary opportunities, commercial success may be limited until consumers integrate them in their everyday habits.
Willingness to pay for insect-based food: the role of information and carrier Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-10-06 Alessia Lombardi, Riccardo Vecchio, Massimiliano Borrello, Francesco Caracciolo, Luigi Cembalo
There is increasing interest toward insects as an alternative protein source in Western countries even though, so far, most Western consumers react with disgust and rejection. The literature on consumer behavior has mainly investigated the willingness to consume insects with regard to human diet, revealing that providing information about the positive effects of edible insects and using familiar foods while ensuring that insects are not visible will increase the willingness to eat insects. What is still unclear are consumers preferences for specific insect-based products having different features in a non-hypothetical market. The current study analyzed 200 Italian consumers’ preferences for three insect-based products (carriers) such as pasta, cookies and chocolate bars through a non-hypothetical willingness to pay (WTP) elicitation mechanism, the Multiple Price List (MPL), in a mixed within/between experimental design. The influence of the different types of information on consumer choice and the main forces driving consumer preferences for insect-based food were tested. The findings reveal that different carriers generate different results in terms of WTP for conventional and insect-based versions of the products. Further, without being provided information, consumers deem insect-based products either equivalent (the same WTP for the two versions of pasta) or weakly inferior (lower WTP in the case of cookies and chocolate), while when information on the benefits of insect consumption is provided, consumers’ WTP increase for all the insect-based products analyzed. Finally, among the psychographic scales, Food Neophobia and Beliefs and Attitudes toward insects negatively affect the WTP for insect-based products.
Taste matters most: Effects of package design on the dynamics of implicit and explicit product evaluations over repeated in-home consumption Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-10-02 Irene O.J.M. Tijssen, Elizabeth H. Zandstra, Annick den Boer, Gerry Jager
Package design influences consumers’ expectations of a product’s sensory properties and expected healthiness and/or tastiness, and potentially also changes actual product perception during consumption. The robustness of these effects is far from clear, however. This study investigated the influence of package cues signalling either hedonic or healthy product properties on expectations and subsequent product evaluation over repeated consumption.In a between-subjects design, 92 participants evaluated product expectations and taste perceptions of a chocolate-sesame flavoured biscuit with a package emphasizing either its healthy (n=44) or hedonic (n=48) aspects, both at a central location (CLT) and during six home use tests (HUT), using both explicit (questionnaires) and implicit (IAT) measures.Package design significantly affected (p<0.05) consumers’ expectations of the product. They expected the biscuit to be tastier, less attractive and less healthy in the hedonic package condition, and less tasty, more attractive and healthier in the healthy package condition. However, these effects did not transfer to actual product evaluations upon tasting, either blind or tasting in combination with viewing the package during the HUTs. Implicit attitudes did change as a result of repeated exposures, depending on the package consumers were provided with, indicating product-package interactions over time (p<0.05).In conclusion, package design influences product expectations and associations with its healthiness and attractiveness, which is of relevance in product choice and purchase settings. However, at the stage of (repeated) consumption, intrinsic (sensory) properties become the dominant drivers of products’ sensory and hedonic evaluations, and the impact of package cues seems less potent.
Light colors and comfortable warmth: Crossmodal correspondences between thermal sensations and color lightness influence consumer behavior Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Kosuke Motoki, Toshiki Saito, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima, Motoaki Sugiura
Consumers are often surrounded by somatosensory (e.g., warmth) and visual (e.g., color) information. For example, consumers often see light-colored goods under warm conditions. Previous studies have shown that sensory interactions, such as those involving auditory and visual stimuli, influence consumer behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether somatosensory–visual information (e.g., warmth and color lightness) interactively guide consumer behaviors. Additionally, the conditions under which sensory interactions increase consumer preferences are also unclear. This study focused on how the effects of the novel correspondences between somatosensory and visual (warmth and color lightness) perceptions extend from the capture of visual attention to the formation of preferences, as well as on how attitudes toward sensory experiences (i.e., positive reactions to sensory experiences) play critical roles in preference formation. The results showed the existence of crossmodal correspondences between feeling warm and light colors (Study 1), and such crossmodal correspondences influenced consumers’ visual attention. Physical warmth increased the visual attention directed toward light-colored goods (Study 2). Although this correspondence did not directly influence consumer preferences (Study 3), it did increase consumer preferences for light-colored goods under conditions of comfortable (but not uncomfortable) warmth (Study 4). These results reveal novel crossmodal correspondences between thermal sensations and levels of color lightness and demonstrate how such correspondences have consumer-relevant consequences.
Comparing a standardized to a product-specific emoji list for evaluating food products by children Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Joachim J. Schouteten, Jan Verwaeren, Xavier Gellynck, Valérie L. Almli
There is a growing interest in the emotional associations of children to food products in order to better understand their preferences. Recently, emoji were suggested as a novel way to assess these emotional associations. In this study, 172 children aged 8-11 years evaluated the emotional profile of five biscuits in a check-all-that-apply task, where half of the subjects (n=87) evaluated the applicability of 38 emoji obtained from a standardized emoji list, while the other half (n=85) worked with 20 emoji from a product-specific emoji list. A similar average number of emoji were used by the participants for the emotional profiling of the samples in both approaches. Results showed that the product-specific emoji list was better able to discriminate between product samples compared to the standardized emoji list. Several emoji were even discriminating between similarly liked samples when using a product-specific emoji list, while only one emoji was able to discriminate between equally-liked samples when using a standardized emoji list. Both approaches produced similar emotional spaces and product configurations, although one needs to consider that the first dimension of the correspondence analysis for the product-specific emoji list explained over 90% of the total variance against 60% for the standardized list. While more research is recommended, this study indicates that a product-specific emoji list could facilitate the emotional product discrimination by children.
A Comparison of Dietarian Identity Profiles Between Vegetarians and Vegans Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Daniel L. Rosenfeld
Vegetarianism and veganism are often grouped together in nutritional and psychological investigations. Yet an emerging body of literature has highlighted that vegetarians and vegans differ along a number of neurological, attitudinal, and behavioral variables. In this research, I found that vegetarians and vegans exhibit different dietarian identity profiles. Compared to vegetarians, vegans saw their dietary patterns as more intertwined with their identity (higher centrality), had more positive feelings toward their dietary in-group (higher private regard), felt as if other people judge them more negatively for following their dietary patterns (lower public regard), evaluated out-group dieters more negatively (lower out-group regard), and had stronger motivations for following their dietary patterns (higher prosocial, personal, and moral motivations). By distinguishing between vegetarians and vegans more concretely, investigators can capture meaningful within-group heterogeneity in how people think, feel, and behave when it comes to eschewing animal products.
A New approach for the analysis of data and the clustering of subjects in a cata experiment Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Fabien Llobell, Véronique Cariou, Evelyne Vigneau, Amaury Labenne, El Mostafa Qannari
A new approach for the analysis of the data and the clustering of the subjects in a Check All That Apply (CATA) experiment is outlined. It encompasses indices to assess the agreements among the subjects. These indices are taken into account for the analysis of the CATA data and the segmentation of the subjects. The analysis of the CATA data bears some similarities to the STATIS method and the cluster analysis of the subjects follows the same pattern as a clustering approach, called CLV, for the cluster analysis of variables, and a clustering approach, called CLUSTATIS, for clustering datasets.
Testing SensoGraph, a geometric approach for fast sensory evaluation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 David Orden, Encarnación Fernández-Fernández, José M. Rodríguez-Nogales, Josefina Vila-Crespo
This paper introduces SensoGraph, a novel approach for fast sensory evaluation using two-dimensional geometric techniques. In the tasting sessions, the assessors follow their own criteria to place samples on a tablecloth, according to the similarity between samples. In order to analyse the data collected, first a geometric clustering is performed to each tablecloth, extracting connections between the samples. Then, these connections are used to construct a global similarity matrix. Finally, a graph drawing algorithm is used to obtain a 2D consensus graphic, which reflects the global opinion of the panel by (1) positioning closer those samples that have been globally perceived as similar and (2) showing the strength of the connections between samples. The proposal is validated by performing four tasting sessions, with three types of panels tasting different wines, and by developing a new software to implement the proposed techniques. The results obtained show that the graphics provide similar positionings of the samples as the consensus maps obtained by multiple factor analysis (MFA), further providing extra information about connections between samples, not present in any previous method. The main conclusion is that the use of geometric techniques provides information complementary to MFA, and of a different type. Finally, the method proposed is computationally able to manage a significantly larger number of assessors than MFA, which can be useful for the comparison of pictures by a huge number of consumers, via the Internet.
The impact of organic certification and country of origin on consumer food choice in developed and emerging economies Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 John Thøgersen, Susanne Pedersen, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel
The effects of organics and country of origin (COO) on consumers’ food choices have mostly been investigated separately. In order to investigate the joint effect of these two credence quality cues and when they influence choice, a choice-based conjoint (CBC) experiment was conducted in Germany, France, Denmark, China and Thailand. In each country, a sample of about 1000 consumers participated after being screened for responsibility for their household’s shopping, consumption of the case product, and knowledge of organic food. A full factorial design with four COOs, three different organic label conditions and three price levels gave 36 different choice options. They were bundled in 12 choice sets of three alternatives, which were presented in random order. The product was either drinking milk or pork chops (random assignment). The study revealed a general preference for organics over conventional and for domestic over imported products, with exceptions to the latter in emerging markets. Among imported foods, there is a tendency to prefer foods from economically developed over less developed countries, also in the two Asian countries. Adding consistent quality cues have a decreasing marginal effect, but a favourable cue can compensate for an unfavourable one. The extent to which consumer choice is influenced by organic labels and COO depends on environmental concern, trust in countries as producers of organic food, and ethnocentrism.
Powerful visualization of product-attribute associations for temporal data Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Derek Beaton, Michael Meyners
Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) extends classical Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) by adding a temporal dimension to the evaluation. Because TCATA extends CATA, an obvious visualization of product-attribute associations over time is to treat product x time combinations as individual observations and then use classical Correspondence Analysis (CA) to visualize the associations. Often the CA results and visualization emphasize the chronological features. However, this approach could lead to misinterpretations as time is not just a feature but also a confound. Because of time, all products might show convergence to, e.g., off flavor, which is produced only by a few observations that provide a relative but not an absolute peak in this attribute.Therefore, we suggest alternative CA approaches to analyze TCATA data that emphasize (Canonical CA, CanCA) or remove (Escofier’s Conditional CA, ConCA) temporal effects. Generally, CanCA was designed to analyze CA data in the presence of row and column covariates; it is related to canonical correlation analysis. When there is only one set of covariates (e.g., row), CanCA is more akin to redundancy analysis. Here, we use external row information – time and product – to emphasize the overall temporal profile applying to all products. CanCA nicely displays the main product differences within the attribute space. CanCA better emphasizes than CA the unique properties of each product over time. Escofier’s conditional CA (ConCA) removes confounding effects such as time. ConCA provides two features for TCATA: (1) effects adjusted for time and (2) more appropriate measures of strength of association that can be used with CA for better visualization.We exemplify the proposed methods by means of data from a study on orange squashes. The relevance of off flavor is (correctly) found to be largely de-emphasized compared to standard CA: CanCA shows off flavor as an average effect because of time and ConCA shows off flavor does not contribute to the overall effect. Together CanCA and ConCA facilitate a richer, more detailed, and potentially more accurate interpretation of the data. The approaches can be equally used for Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) data.
We will eat disgusting foods together – evidence of the normative basis of Western entomophagy-disgust from an insect tasting Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Niels Holm Jensen, Andreas Lieberoth
Insects are a highly sustainable and nutritious source of protein, and, thus, incorporating insects in to Western food culture is one way to address major global challenges like global warming and deforestation. Consumer studies show, however, that Westerners’ willingness to eat insect-containing food is low. One formidable barrier is the perception that insects are disgusting, and it is generally believed that this insect-disgust is driven by a fear of contamination and disease. Another barrier is the lack of social norms related to entomophagy in the West. In the present study, we tested effects of fear of contamination and perceived social eating norm with a survey and a tasting session administered to a Danish college sample (N = 189). Correlation analyses and multivariate regression analyses revealed that selfreported trait-level Pathogen Disgust and Perceived Infectability did not consistently predict insect eating disgust, willingness to eat insects, or actual insect tasting behavior in the tasting session. In contrast, perceived insect eating norm emerged as a significant predictor of insect tasting behavior. These findings suggest that perceived social norms play a substantial role in Westerners’ (un)willingness to eat insects. The result gives reason for optimism for aspirations of introducing insects in Western food diet and point to avenues for harnessing social norms in marketing efforts.
Reconsidering the classification of sweet taste liker phenotypes: a methodological review Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Vasiliki Iatridi, John E. Hayes, Martin R. Yeomans
Human ingestive behavior depends on myriad factors, including both sensory and non-sensory determinants. Of the sensory determinants, sweet taste is a powerful stimulus and liking for sweetness is widely accepted as an innate human trait. However, the universality of sweet-liking has been challenged. Sub-groups exhibiting strong liking (sweet likers) or having aversive responses to sweet taste (sweet dislikers) have been described, but the methods defining these phenotypes are varied and inconsistent across studies. Here, we explore the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches in identifying sweet taste liker phenotypes in a comprehensive review. Prior studies (N = 71) using aqueous sucrose solution-based taste tests and a definition of two or more distinct hedonic responses reported between 1970 and 2017 were summarized. Broadly speaking, four different phenotyping methods have been used: 1. Interpretation (visual or statistical) of the shape of hedonic response curves, 2. Highest preference using ratings, 3. Average liking above mid-point or Positive/Negative average liking method, and 4. Highest preference via paired comparisons. Key methodological weaknesses included the use of subjective or arbitrary criteria as well as adoption of protocols unsuitable for large-scale implementation. Overall, we did not identify a method distinctly superior to the others. Given the role of both hedonics and reward in food intake, a better understanding of individual variations in sweet taste perception could clarify how sweet-liking interplays with obesity or addictive behaviors such as alcohol misuse and abuse. The development of a universally used statistically robust and less time-consuming classification method is needed.
Learning to know what you like: a case study of repeated exposure to ethnic flavors Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-09-01 Ryu-Ri Song, Seo-Jin Chung, Sun ah Cho, Hye Won Shin, Eni Harmayani
This study investigated changes in the liking of seasoned food products with novel flavors among Indonesian consumers. Subjects were repeatedly exposed to kangkung (Indonesian-style stir-fried spinach) seasoned with four flavor variants of Korean fermented soybean paste: sweet, umami, hot and spicy, and fermented. Seventy-eight subjects completed the experiment, which consisted of three taste-test trials and four exposure conditioning sessions. Consumer taste tests were applied (1) at the beginning of the experiment, (2) immediately after the completion of four exposure conditioning sessions, and (3) 1 month after the second taste test. The liking ratings of the samples were evaluated as well as the reasons for liking and disliking them. General linear model analysis, general linear mixed model analysis for repeated measure, chi-square analysis, and correspondence analysis were applied to the data. Additionally, cluster analysis was performed to compare the acceptance levels and the drivers of liking in the two groups who had different overall liking baselines. The hedonic and perceptual discrimination abilities of the samples increased for the entire group as the repeated-exposure sessions progressed. Moreover, overall liking score increased with exposures for most of the samples. When consumers were clustered into two groups based on the similarity of their initial preferences for the samples, the initial heterogeneity of sample liking between the two groups decreased in the later stages of the taste-test trials. Stronger agreement between subjects was observed on the preferences for kangkung samples as a whole group after being repeatedly exposed to the samples.
Emotions elicited while drinking coffee: a cross-cultural comparison between Korean and Chinese consumers Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 Xiaojia Hu, Jeehyun Lee
Consumers assess products not only based on their physical aspects but also on their emotion-evoking components. Many methods, such as EsSense Profile®, GEOS, and ScentMove, have been developed for evaluating various kinds of products. Research has suggested the need for developing a specialized lexicon for specific food or beverage categories. The English emotion lexicon, the Coffee Drinking Experience1(CDE), was developed specifically for coffee. However, while emotions can be expressed by words, they can also be affected by culture and context. Thus, our objectives are 1) to develop coffee emotion lexicons in Korean and Chinese, 2) to compare the differences of emotions evoked while consuming different kinds of coffee, and 3) to compare the differences between Chinese and Korean consumers while consuming the same coffee samples. To address these aims, we conducted two studies. First, we conducted a consumer-led translation of 86 emotion terms from the CDE into Korean and Chinese. Second, consumers checked the intensity of emotion terms while drinking six commercial coffee samples. The order of the Chinese and Korean consumers’ overall preferences was the same: all-in-one coffee received higher scores than black coffee. Finally, using a logistic stepwise regression analysis, the Chinese and Korean lexicons were reduced to 53 and 29 terms, respectively.
“Sweet’n Low”? On the localization of tastes and tasty products in 2D space Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 Carlos Velasco, Carmen Adams, Olivia Petit, Charles Spence
People map different sensory stimuli, and words that describe/refer to those stimuli, onto spatial dimensions in a manner that is non-arbitrary. Here, we evaluate whether people also associate basic taste words and products with characteristic tastes with a distinctive location (e.g., upper right corner) or a more general direction (e.g., more right than left). Based on prior research on taste and location valence, we predicted that sweetness would be associated with higher vertical spatial positions than the other basic tastes. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 support the view that participants do indeed locate the word “sweet” higher in space than the word “bitter”. In Experiment 2, the participants also positioned products that are typically expected to be sweet (cupcake and honey) or bitter (beer and coffee) spatially. Overall, the sweet-tasting products were assigned to higher locations than were the bitter-tasting products. In order to test whether taste/location congruency would also affect product evaluations, a third experiment was conducted. The results of Experiment 3A (between participants) and 3B (within participants) failed to provide any evidence for the existence of consistent taste/location congruency effects. However, in Experiment 3B, the participants evaluated the sweet products as looking more appetizing when presented in upper relative to lower shelf locations. In none of the three studies was an association found between tastes and positions along the horizontal axis. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet and bitter tastes are differentially located in vertical, but not horizontal, space. The potential implications of these findings for both our understanding of the crossmodal correspondences, as well as for taste evaluation, and product placement are discussed.
Crossmodal Correspondence between Color, Shapes, and Wine Odors Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-27 Michelle Heatherly, Melissa Dein, P. John Munafo, R. Curtis Luckett
Crossmodal correspondence is of scientific and commercial interest in regard to the packaging of food and beverages. Research has shown that colors and shapes can be associated with certain aromas, but these interactions have been less extensively studied with authentic visual stimuli (i.e., packaging), or with complex food odors in a matrix. This study investigated odor-color-shape crossmodal interactions with complex odor stimuli (wine odors) and wine labels. The present research used projective mapping with 3D shapes and colors, along with a wine label matching study, to test whether chardonnay odors of different character (buttery, citrus, floral, smoky, and vegetable) were associated with certain colors and shapes. In the projective mapping experiment, most chardonnay odors were grouped similarly; however, the vegetable-forward wine was more associated with sharper shapes. In the label experiment, yellow labels tended to be better matched with all odors, except the vegetable-forward wine, which was matched equally to all colors. These findings indicate that, regardless of odor character, chardonnay is mostly associated with a yellow colored label. Interestingly, results also indicated that not all correspondences aligned with the most common color association of an odor character’s (i.e., vegetative was not strictly associated with green, nor smoky with brown, etc.). Significant correlations were found between stimuli liking and matching scores, speaking to the role of hedonics in correspondences. Overall, the present research demonstrates evidence for odor-color-shape correspondences in complex odors and realistic visual stimuli, but not as strongly as in controlled environments and simplistic stimuli.
EFFECT OF A HEALTH REMINDER ON CONSUMERS’ SELECTION OF ULTRA-PROCESSED FOODS IN A SUPERMARKET Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-24 Alyne M. Botelho, Anice M. de Camargo, Moira Dean, Giovanna M.R. Fiates
Consumers report difficulties when trying to make healthy food choices in supermarkets due to environmental cues that favour the acquisition of unhealthy food items. This study’s objective was to investigate food selection in a supermarket to prepare a last minute meal by consumers with different levels of health consciousness. In an experimental design, 50 high (HHC) and 50 low health conscious (LHC) participants (n=100) were told to choose all food items to prepare a meal for themselves plus a guest. For half the participants (25 HHC and 25 LHC), the expression ‘healthy meal’ was embedded in the instruction. To evaluate shopping healthfulness, foods selected by the participants were categorized according to level of industrial processing in Unprocessed/Minimally Processed (U/MP); Processed Culinary Ingredient (PCI); Processed (P), or Ultra-Processed (UP). The health reminder positively affected the choices of HHC and LHC individuals. Results indicate that placing reminders of healthy eating in shopping environments where P and UP foods sales are heavily promoted, such as supermarkets, can be a useful tool to promote healthy choices in accordance with what is recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population.
Promoting healthy drink choices at school by means of assortment changes and traffic light coding: a field study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-25 Angelos Stamos, Florian Lange, Siegfried Dewitte
Although there is widespread agreement about the need to reduce teenagers’ consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, banning these drinks from the school environment is not always feasible. In this paper, we tested whether increasing the assortment of healthier alternatives and clearly labelling them as healthy by means of traffic light coding qualifies as an alternative approach to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at school. In a field study, we tripled the assortment of healthy (‘green’) and relatively healthy (‘amber’) drinks and kept the assortment of sugar-sweetened (‘red’) drinks constant during five intervention weeks in two treatment Belgian schools. Compared to baseline and to an untreated control school, we found that the relative market share of red beverages dropped by more than 30 percentage points. In one school, this market share was taken by both green and amber drinks, while in the other school, only the consumption of amber drinks increased. We suggest that this easily applicable intervention circumvents some of the friction that accompanies banning sugar-sweetened drinks.
Mindfulness and Willingness to Try Insects as Food: The Role of Disgust Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-23 Eugene Y. Chan
Mindfulness, commonly associated with Buddhism, refers to the state of being aware, taking note of what is going on within oneself and outside of the world. In the current research, we examine the possible impact of mindfulness on willingness to try insect foods. We present the results of three studies—one correlational and two experimental—illustrating that mindfulness increases disgust and lowers willingness to try eating insects. On the one hand, this counters existing literature that mindfulness reduces emotional reactivity. On the other hand, it is in-line with mindfulness making one more aware and accepting of present and incoming information, which would conceivably include context-relevant emotions such as disgust in the case of eating insects that Western cultures see as disgusting. Our findings support the latter possibility. We situate our work within the literature on the various impacts of mindfulness on food choice. We also discuss implications for food sustainability practitioners.
What do you mean by hot? Assessing the associations raised by the visual depiction of an image of fire on food packaging Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-21 Ignacio Gil-Pérez, Rubén Rebollar, Iván Lidón, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman, Hans C.M. van Trijp
The images shown on food packaging play an important role in the processes of identification, categorisation and the generation of expectations, since the consumer uses the images to infer information about the product. However, a given image may convey different meanings (e.g. in a food package, “fire” may mean barbecued or spicy), so it is very important for producers and designers to understand the factors responsible for consumers inferring a specific meaning. This paper addresses this problem and shows experimentally that the consumer tends to infer the meaning from the image which is most congruent with the product it is displayed with. 65 participants carried out two speeded classification tasks which results show an interaction between the product (congruent vs. incongruent) and the image (with fire vs. without fire): products congruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more quickly when shown with fire than without it, while products incongruent with a meaning of fire were categorised more slowly when shown with fire than without it. In addition, the results show that stimuli were categorised more quickly when the interpretation of fire was literal (e.g. barbecue) than in those that were metaphorical (e.g. spiciness), indicating that the rhetorical style of the image (literal or metaphorical) influences the cognitive effort required to process it. These contributions improve our understanding of the effect of the images shown on packaging in the communication between packaging and consumers.
Does the product test really make a difference? Evidence from the launch of a new wine Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Alba García-Milon, María Pilar Martínez-Ruiz, Cristina Olarte-Pascual, Jorge Pelegrín-Borondo
Although both the concept and the product tests are considered important in predicting the acceptance of new food products into the market, there is scant research in the relevant literature comparing the predictive power of both tests, simultaneously, for the same product. To shed light on this line of research, this study compares the explanatory capacities of concept and product testing in the introduction of a new wine. To achieve this, a structural equation model, integrating sensory benefits, social norms and emotional dimensions with two consumer samples (one for the concept testing and another for the product testing) was proposed and tested. The results obtained showed that the modeĺs explanatory capacity did not increase significantly when the new wine was tested (product testing) in comparison to when only information about the wine was presented (concept testing). In both cases, the variables that explain purchase intention are the same. These results have important practical implications and open new research lines that can contribute to the theories that try to explain the acceptance of new foods.
How sweetness intensity and thickness of an oral nutritional supplement affects intake and satiety Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Annick den Boer, Sanne Boesveldt, J. Ben Lawlor
Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) can be used to improve nutritional status of malnourished patients, but their effectiveness depends on adequate intake. This is not always achieved due to the disliked flavour and satiating properties of ONS. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sweetness intensity and thickness on intake and sensory sequential profile of an ONS. It was hypothesized that lower sweetness intensity and thickness would decrease oro-sensory stimulation and satiety, improve the sensory profile, and thus, improve ONS intake. The effect of sweetness intensity and thickness on intake and satiety was investigated using a 2x2 design (low-/high-sweetness and thin/thick). Participants (n=36) consumed each ONS to satiation. Each ONS was identical in macronutrient and calorie content. Appetite and thirst were measured throughout the morning of the test. Additionally, an expert sensory panel (n=11), performed a sensory sequential profile of each ONS. No effect of sweetness intensity was found. Results showed that 33% more of the thin, compared to thick, ONS was consumed, without affecting satiety. Furthermore, mouth-drying first increased, up to a consumption volume of 300 ml, and then decreased, independent of sweetness intensity and thickness. In conclusion, this study showed that an ONS with lower thickness increased intake in healthy adults, without affecting satiety. This implies that, for ONS, attention should not be solely focused on nutritional content. Instead, a sensory-nutrition approach is recommended that balances nutritional content with oro-sensory cues. This proof of concept should be further investigated with malnourished older adults.
A dynamic method to measure the evolution of liking during food consumption in 8- to 10-year-old children Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-18 C. Lange, C. Chabanet, S. Nicklaus, M. Visalli, C. Schwartz
As a result of sensory specific satiation, liking of a food decreases with its consumption. However, food liking is most often assessed once for a small quantity of products. In adults, new techniques have been developed to record changes in liking during consumption of a full portion of food. However, these temporal techniques have never been applied in children so far. The first objective was to develop a new method for hedonic assessment in a dynamic manner with school-aged children in a naturalistic setting of consumption at school. The second objective was to compare the regular liking evaluation (static liking) with the dynamic one (6 successive assessments during consumption of a full portion), using a linear scale containing 7 labels. To do so, 48 8- to 10-year-old children (19 boys and 29 girls) were enrolled in the study. Children were invited to take part in four snacks (2 static liking assessments and 2 dynamic liking assessments, in alternation) involving tasting fruit purées. Before and after each snack, the children also evaluated how hungry they were on a new 5-point unstructured scale. The results showed that the temporal measure was sensitive enough to capture a decrease in liking during the consumption of a full portion. In addition, the average liking score assessed with the static method was similar to the average liking score of the 1st evaluation with the dynamic method. Moreover, the decrease in liking during consumption was significantly linked to the decrease in the level of hunger. In conclusion, this new method appears to be suitable for measuring dynamic liking with school-aged children.
Learned color taste associations in a repeated brief exposure paradigm Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Molly J. Higgins, John E. Hayes
Individuals can learn to associate tastes with odors through repeated exposure. We adapted this paradigm, testing whether individuals can learn to associate tastes with colors, and whether these learned color-taste associations generalize to unconditioned, but qualitatively similar stimuli. Experiment 1 tested if individuals could learn color-taste associations for prototypical tastes, while Experiment 2 tested if individuals could learn to discriminate specific bitter compounds using color-taste associations. Conditioned stimuli in Experiment 1 consisted of solutions representing four different prototypical taste qualities. Conditioned stimuli in Experiment 2 consisted of three different bitter stimuli and a sucrose control. Both experiments consisted of six laboratory visits. On day 1, participants rated intensities of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. On days 2-5 participants completed triangle tests, where a color was systematically paired with high/low intensity combinations of the conditioned stimuli. On day 6, participants matched colorless solutions containing the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli to one of four colors in a forced choice task. In Experiment 1, group performance was significantly above chance (25%) when matching the conditioned taste stimulus to the previously paired color. Also, learning generalized to unconditioned stimuli with a similar taste quality. In Experiment 2, group performance versus chance (25%) indicated participants learned associated sweetness with the previously paired color, both for sucrose (conditioned stimulus) and aspartame (unconditioned stimulus). However, matching performance did not exceed chance for the three different bitterants. These data suggest that particular color-taste associations can be learned with repeated exposure, even when the exposure period is relatively brief.
Investigating the conditions for the effectiveness of nudging: Cue-to-action nudging increases familiar vegetable choice Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 V.J.V. Broers, S. Van de Broucke, C. Taverne, O. Luminet
Inulin-type fructans (ITF), which are fibres found in vegetables such as salsify, artichoke and Jerusalem artichoke, are known for their prebiotic capacities and may contribute to preventing obesity. The current study aimed to assess the differential effects of type-2 and combined type-1 and -2 nudges to increase the choice for “prebiotic” vegetables at a hot vegetable buffet of a university restaurant, using a nonrandomized intervention study design involving two interventions during five consecutive weeks. An intervention was implemented in which customers were exposed to type-2 nudging in the form of short “cue-to-action” messages placed on their trays and above the hot vegetable buffet, and to an additional type-1 nudging intervention in the form of placing dishes with “prebiotic” vegetables in a more accessible place. On average, 28 servings of hot vegetables were registered on a total of 503 meals sold at the restaurant per day. The beta regression model showed that the “cue-to-action” intervention increased the proportion of customers who used the hot vegetable buffet ( p < . 001 , OR: 1.24), but that the proportion of “prebiotic” vegetables chosen decreased during the “cue-to-action” intervention weeks ( p < . 01 , OR: 0.73). The cue-to-action intervention increased familiar vegetable choice in general and decreased unfamiliar prebiotic vegetable choice. The additional intervention of increasing the accessibility did not change prebiotic vegetable choice. The effectiveness of nudging seems to depend on the specificity and/or the familiarity of the nudged products.
Heart rate, skin conductance, and explicit responses to juice samples with varying levels of expectation (dis)confirmation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Luz Verastegui-Tena, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman
Dutch consumers do not hesitate: Capturing implicit ‘no dominance’ durations using Hold-down Temporal Dominance methodologies for sensations (TDS) and emotions (TDE) Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Roelien van Bommel, Markus Stieger, Pascal Schlich, Gerry Jager
In the ‘classic’ Temporal Dominance (TD) method, panellists are instructed to select a dominant attribute, which remains dominant until another attribute is selected. This procedure does not allow recording ‘no dominance (ND)’. ND periods can occur because of indecisive selection behaviour due to hesitation or uncertainty about attribute selection and time needed to switch from one attribute to another. ND periods may create noise in TD data. ND can be recorded implicitly using a ‘Hold-down’ procedure, where panellists actively hold down the attribute button that is perceived dominant, but release it when no longer dominant. The ‘Hold-down’ procedure allows subjects to report indecisive behaviour simply by not holding down a button. This study compared the ‘classic’ and ‘Hold-down’ TD methodologies. One hundred and thirty-seven participants evaluated four dark chocolates in two sessions, one for sensory (TDS) and one for emotion (TDE) evaluations. Participants employed either classic (n=68) or Hold-down (n=69) TD following a between subjects design. Similar dominance rates and dynamic evolutions of attributes during consumption were observed for both methods. ND durations between attribute selections were shorter than 1s during sensory and emotion evaluations. Such short ND durations unlikely reflect periods of true hesitation, but rather reflect the time needed to switch between dominant attributes. No evidence is found for Hold-down TD outperforming classic TD in terms of sensitivity and discrimination ability. In conclusion, irrespective of the conceptual likelihood regarding the occurrence of ‘no dominance’ periods, the present study failed to demonstrate moments of hesitation using the ‘Hold-down’ procedure.
Does taste sensitivity matter? The effect of coffee sensory tasting information and taste sensitivity on consumer preferences Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Jie Li, Nadia A. Streletskaya, Miguel I. Gómez
Product sensory information, an external cue, could greatly influence consumer enjoyment of hedonic products like coffee. The question is what type of sensory information, subjective (e.g., aroma, flavor and body) or objective (e.g., origin, varieties and production practices), has a higher impact on consumer product experience accounting for heterogeneous taste sensitivity. We examine this question using a between-subject experiment where participants were either given subjective, objective or no sensory information of a specialty coffee. Participants were classified as either supertasters or other tasters using the 6−n-propylthiouracil (PROP) paper strip. The results indicate that, compared to objective sensory information and no information, subjective sensory information results in a higher taste rating and a higher preference level for the coffee. More importantly, subjective information positively influences PROP supertasters’ purchase likelihood for coffee, without necessarily affecting their bitterness perception of the coffee tasted.
The effect of extrinsic cues on consumer perception: a study using milk tea products Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Yoonkyung Choi, Jeehyun Lee
Consumers’ acceptability may be affected by extrinsic factors as well as intrinsic sensory characteristics. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of extrinsic cues on consumers’ acceptance and flavor perception, to examine the discrimination ability of the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method for consumer evaluation, and to investigate possibility of using CATA for complex flavor products and many terms using commercial milk tea products as samples. A total of 240 consumers evaluated eight ready-to-drink milk tea samples in both intrinsic and extrinsic conditions. Participants rated overall liking, and liking and intensities of three dominant characteristics: sweetness, milk flavor, and black tea flavor, and selected attributes that they perceived among 93 CATA terms provided to them. Although extrinsic information on packaging positively influenced acceptability of liked samples, it did not change the preference for tasted samples. However, change in acceptability in the extrinsic evaluation differed between consumers who had previously consumed the particular product and those who had not. Correspondence analysis indicated that the intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations resulted in similar sample and term configurations. Consumers were able to use a large number of terms and distinguished among complex flavor samples using CATA method and intensity differences were shown with varying level of frequency. Reduction of terms was also possible based on the frequency data obtained from consumer evaluation using CATA method. Thus CATA evaluation could be considered for various food categories that sensory terms have not been developed previously.
Variety in the diets of free-living, food-secure adults Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Lauren E. Wisdorf, Joseph P. Redden, Traci Mann, Zata M. Vickers
Nursing homes, school lunch programs, institutional cafeterias, and households often struggle with balancing the cost of adding more variety with what consumers need to be satisfied. But we were unaware of any studies examining what people consider satisfactory variety within and across meals, days, weeks, and months. Our objectives were first to determine the variety of foods consumed by free-living, food-secure individuals 25 years of age or older with Bachelor’s degrees and no food allergies or sensitivities, and second, to evaluate how the amount of variety consumed in their diets affected their satisfaction with variety. Participants (n = 102, 50% male) maintained a 28-day online food diary with seven eating occasions: breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, early evening snack, dinner, and late evening snack. After completing each week, participants rated their satisfaction with the variety in their diets that week. We measured dietary variety both as a count of unique foods, and as a proportion of unique foods. We evaluated how dietary variety differed by gender and by eating occasions. The total number of foods consumed each week, the count of unique foods, and the proportion of unique foods were compared with ratings of satisfaction with variety. Participants consumed an average of 110 unique foods over 28 days with higher counts of unique foods for dinner (46 items), followed by lunch (38 items), and then breakfast (21 items). The highest proportions of unique foods were consumed at dinner (0.60) and early evening snack (0.59). Females consumed higher counts of unique foods than did males over most eating occasions. None of our dietary variety measures predicted participants’ satisfaction with variety. Our food-secure, highly educated, and free-living participants provided themselves with the amount of variety they needed to feel generally satisfied.
Parents’ experiences of introducing toddlers to fruits and vegetables through repeated exposure, with and without prior visual familiarization to foods: Evidence from daily diaries Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Carmel Houston-Price, Laura H. Owen, Orla B. Kennedy, Claire Hill
While repeated exposure is an established method for inducing food acceptance in young children, little is known about parents’ experiences of repeatedly offering new or disliked foods at home. In this study, parents kept structured diary records during a 15-day period in which they offered their 2-year-old child daily tastes of one fruit and one vegetable. We explored how children’s acceptance of foods (measured in terms of willingness to taste, liking and intake) and the ease and enjoyment of the process for parents changed from the early (days 1-5) to middle (days 6-10) to later (days 11-15) phases of exposure. In addition, we explored whether prior visual familiarization to foods affected children’s behavior and/or parents’ experiences during exposure. Families were randomly assigned to look at a picture book about one to-be-exposed food for the two weeks prior to the exposure phase (‘fruit book’ and ‘vegetable book’ groups) or to a control group, who did not receive a book. Measures obtained from parents’ diary records revealed increases in willingness to taste and intake of vegetables and increased liking of both fruits and vegetables with greater exposure. Prior visual familiarization to vegetables further boosted children’s willingness to taste and liking of vegetables, and the ease and enjoyment of introducing these for parents. Children’s acceptance of foods and parents’ positivity during exposure predicted children’s liking and intake of foods 3 months later. Results confirm the potential for vegetable picture books to support parents in engaging with repeated exposure regimes and in successfully introducing vegetables into toddlers’ diets.
Sensory variety in shape and color influences fruit and vegetable intake, liking, and purchase intentions in some subsets of adults: a randomized pilot experiment Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Maya Vadiveloo, Ludovica Principato, Vicki Morwitz, Josiemer Mattei
Dietary variety increases food intake, but it is unclear if sensory differences elicit increases in eating-related behaviors. Using a 4x3 between-subject pilot experiment, we examined if increasing sensory variety (control, color, shape, both color and shape) and priming individuals to notice differences or similarities in the foods (positive, neutral, negative) influenced ad libitum proximal intake, liking, and willingness to purchase pears and peppers among 164 Greater Boston adults >18y/o. MANOVA was used to examine associations between sensory variety (independent variable) and six dependent measures. We tested for interactions between sensory variety condition and individual-level factors that may influence food intake. There was no main effect of sensory variety condition for any dependent measure. However, interactions between sensory variety condition and age, overweight status, and prime were detected. Adults with overweight (vs. adults of normal weight) ate more pear with color variety (7.2 vs. 4.4 oz, p=0.01). Pear intake was also higher among adults with overweight in the color variety (7.2 oz) vs. combination variety (4.4 oz) condition. Adults ≥36y/o ate more peppers (3.5 oz) in the color variety condition versus other conditions (2.1-2.2 oz, p=0.04). Participants primed to notice differences were more willing to purchase pears in the color variety (5.0 ± 0.5) versus control (3.7 ± 0.5) condition. Color variety may modestly increase proximal intake, liking, and purchase intentions for fruits and vegetables in some subsets of adults. Our preliminary findings encourage more research to determine if color variety can be used to improve diet quality of targeted populations.
Using Temporal Dominance of Emotions at home. Impact of coffee advertisements on consumers’ behavior and methodological perspectives Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 C. Peltier, M. Visalli, A. Thomas
During the last decade, Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) has been used successfully to describe food products dynamically in a large set of studies (Schlich, 2017). Recently, Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE; Jager et al., 2014) was proposed as an extension of TDS, replacing sensory attributes with emotions. Until now, TDE methodology has been applied only to evaluate food products with uncontrolled underlying stimuli and intrinsic complexity.The present paper reports a new application of TDE in which perceived emotions are evaluated during video advertisements. By working on such a controlled stimulus, the objective of this study is to provide insights about the way the subjects dynamically relate their emotions during the viewing using a TDE-like protocol. Indeed, the dominance curves can be directly related to the scenes from the video signal.Two hundred and eighty-two naïve French subjects watched 3 video advertisements for coffees at home. They had to indicate the emotion they felt (among 9) at each moment of the advertisement and then score their brand image improvement (BII) and purchase intent (PI) of the product.On average, 3 distinct emotions were selected for a given subject during one viewing, meaning that a sequential selection of emotional attributes was possible for untrained subjects. Based on their temporal emotional profiles, the 3 advertisements were discriminated and TDE curves highlighted specific profiles closely related to BII and PI. Different emotional profiles were observed between consumers and non-consumers for one of the advertisement. Emotional drivers of BII and PI were also identified. Finally, this innovative TDE application on a video signal suggests methodological perspectives for sensory scientists interested in TDS-like protocols.
Utilizing hedonic frame for projective mapping: a case study with Korean fermented soybean paste soup Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Mi-Ran Kim, Kwang-Pyo Kim, Seo-Jin Chung
Projective mapping (PM) based techniques are frequently used to develop consumer perception maps holistically for identifying and characterizing samples with similar characteristics. In the present study, the criteria for locating samples in projective mapping are narrowed from the original projective mapping methodology. This study proposes the use of a hedonic frame(i.e. reasons for liking similarity), H_PM, and comparing it using a sensory frame (i.e. sensory similarity), S_PM, with the aim of understanding how consumers perceive soups made with various Korean fermented soybean pastes. The participants comprised a total of 69 consumers. Fifteen fermented soybean paste products from different regions of Korea were selected. All consumers evaluated samples using both S_PM and H_PM, which were conducted in separate sessions. The order of the two mapping sessions was balanced between the subjects. In the S_PM method, subjects grouped samples with similar sensory characteristics. In the H_PM method, subjects grouped samples which had similar reasons for liking or disliking on a mapping sheet. Ultra flash profiling was conducted in both S_PM and H_PM after the mapping tasks. Multiple factor analysis was used for statistical analysis. S_PM and H_PM resulted in different product positions. Although some samples shared very similar sensory characteristics with each other in S_PM, distinct differences appeared in the reasons for (dis)liking in H_PM. Critical attributes that affected sample positioning differed when using different criteria for mapping the samples which resulted in discrete perceptual maps of S_PM and H_PM. H_PM can identify important hedonic drivers of samples that may not be caught by a sensory based approach.
Consumers wine preferences according to purchase occasion: Personal consumption and gift-giving Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Fabio Boncinelli, Andrea Dominici, Francesca Gerini, Enrico Marone
We tested the hypothesis that individuals may act differently when buying a bottle of wine for themselves than they do when buying wine as a gift. Using a between-subject design, we estimated the differences in consumer preference for these two occasions. We conducted a choice experiment on 618 Italian wine consumers and included the attributes of price, geographical indication (i.e. IGT, DOC, or DOCG), organic claim, and brand (i.e. famous producer or a non-famous producer). By applying an error component random parameters logit model, we detected relevant differences between the two scenarios in terms of the relative importance of the studied attributes. The gift-giving scenario was further investigated using a latent class model, which identified three segments of consumers; we profiled these according to personal attitudes and wine knowledge. Our results show a relevant heterogeneity among consumers’ preferences for the gift-giving scenario, with geographical indication having a low impact and brand and organic claim playing a pivotal role. This study provides relevant insights for winemakers and retailers regarding diversifying marketing strategies.
Wine-related aromas for different seasons and occasions: hedonic and emotional responses of wine consumers from Australia, UK and USA Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 R. Ristic, L. Danner, T.E. Johnson, H.L. Meiselman, A.C. Hoek, V. Jiranek, S.E.P. Bastian
It is still not fully clear how particular aromas in wine may affect consumers’ liking and emotional responses, and whether these change in different contexts and seasons. Therefore, a study was conducted with 3000 regular wine consumers from Australia, UK and USA using an online survey that assessed liking for 59 wine aromas, and from which 9 aromas, selected as representatives of groups of similar aromas, were profiled for elicited emotions by the ScentMove™ scale. The most liked wine aromas across all countries were ‘berry-like’, followed by ‘vanilla’, ‘chocolate’, ‘citrus-like’ and ‘honey’. Interestingly, aromas with the same liking rating displayed significantly different emotional profiles which seemed to drive differences in preferred consumption occasion and season. For example, highly liked ‘passionfruit’, associated with happy, relaxed and romantic emotions, were suitable for many occasions and seasons, ’lemon’ evoking energetic feelings was preferred in wines consumed at parties/BBQs in summer, while ‘chocolate’ would fit well in a restaurant. Hedonic and emotional responses towards selected wine aromas differed between various demographic groups. Gender, age and consumption frequency had greater effects than education or income, with similar patterns found in each country indicating similarity in wine cultures and the language used. The national influence was more reflected in the polarised rating of the USA consumers compared to UK and Australia. This information could be utilised to produce wines for specific occasions and seasons.
Heterogeneous preferences with respect to food preparation time: Foodies and quickies Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-21 Leonardo Casini, Fabio Boncinelli, Caterina Contini, Francesca Gerini, Gabriele Scozzafava, Frode Alfnes
Time scarcity is an important driver for food choices. Despite this, little research has been conducted on the preferences of consumers and their willingness to pay for reduced food preparation times. We have explored consumer preferences with respect to saving time in cooking, using a payment card technique with an online survey on a sample of German (486 in number) and Italian (494) consumers. Our findings differ from those of other studies on the same context of daily duties, such as commuting, which note a general willingness to pay for time-saving. Indeed, latent class analysis shows three segments: the ‘quickies’, who are willing to pay a premium for saving time; the ‘foodies’, who receive utility in cooking; and the ‘indifferent’, for whom the time needed to prepare meals is not a choice factor. Profiling within our sample indicates that Italians, young people, and large families show a higher willingness to pay for saving time in cooking. Consumer heterogeneity calls on convenience food producers for targeted marketing strategies to create value, from product development to communication and distribution.
Tender food, tender hearts: The metaphorical mapping of hard-soft orosensory signals to interpersonal trust and prosocial tendencies Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Bobby K. Cheon, Kah Min Tan, Li Ling Lee
Prior research has revealed that flavors (sweetness) may metaphorically influence social judgements and behaviors (interpersonal ‘sweetness’). Given the inherently social nature of eating, other food related sensory signals beyond flavor may be conceptually mapped to social cognition and behavior. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral processing of foods with soft (vs. hard) textures may metaphorically facilitate (vs. inhibit) social behaviors conceptually associated with ‘tenderness’ or ‘soft-heartedness’. Two studies examined the influence of imagined (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) oral processing of soft (vs. hard foods) on prosocial tendencies. Study 1 revealed that lower magnitude of soft sensory characteristics associated with imagined consumption of a soft food was predictive of decreased interpersonal trust. Using actual food consumption in an interpersonal context, Study 2 demonstrated increased interpersonal trust and charitable donation of time after oral processing of soft (vs. hard) food and suggested that this effect is a result of enhanced trust following consumption of soft food rather than suppression of trust following consumption of hard food. Although effects were modest, these findings provide initial suggestions that orosensory metaphors that shape social cognition are not limited to flavors (e.g., sweetness, spiciness), and that diverse properties of food may influence patterns of sociality.
The importance of liking of appearance, -odour, -taste and -texture in the evaluation of overall liking. A comparison with the evaluation of sensory satisfaction Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Barbara Vad Andersen, Per Bruun Brockhoff, Grethe Hyldig
The response variable of overall liking is often used to measure consumers’ overall hedonic response to food. However, little research is done to understand, if liking of all four sensory modalities; appearance, odour, taste and texture, are reflected in the evaluation of overall liking, or if a single sensory modality stands out and is of most importance. The term sensory satisfaction was recently introduced as an alternative to overall liking and should (at least in theory) be used by consumers as a more holistic response variable than overall liking.The aim of the analyses reported in the present paper were, to study the importance of the sensory modalities (liking of appearance, odour, taste and texture) in consumers’ evaluation of overall liking and compare the findings to the importance of the sensory modalities (liking of appearance, odour, taste and texture) in consumers’ evaluation of sensory satisfaction. The data came from a cross-over consumer case-study on apple-cherry fruit drinks (n = 67). The fruit drinks varied in: type of sweetener used, and addition of aroma and fibre. The modalities driving overall liking and sensory satisfaction were studied through slopes of a regression line relating overall liking and sensory satisfaction, respectively, to liking of the sensory modalities: liking of appearance, -odour, -taste and -texture. Results showed the steepest slope between overall liking and liking of taste, whereas the least steep slope was found for liking of odour. The same pattern between slopes was found for sensory satisfaction and overall liking. Therefore, it was concluded that consumers primarily paid attention to liking of taste (to be understood as flavour) and least attention to liking of odour, when evaluating overall liking and sensory satisfaction, respectively, and that consumers did not use sensory satisfaction as a more holistic response variable than overall liking.
Estimating the risk of dislike: an industry tool for setting sorting limits for boar taint compounds Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Rune H. Christensen, Dennis B. Nielsen, Margit D. Aaslyng
Producing entire male pigs entails a risk of boar taint in the meat due to increased levels of the compounds skatole and androstenone in the carcass. Allowing meat from entire male pigs to be marketed and sold together with meat from castrates and female pigs increases the risk of consumers being dissatisfied due to boar tainted samples. To reduce this risk, it is necessary to set sorting limits for androstenone and skatole preventing meat from the most boar-tainted entire males from reaching the market. This paper presents a model framework in which the risk of consumer expressions of dislike is modelled as a function of the concentrations of skatole and androstenone. A bivariate log-normal model of skatole and androstenone concentrations is estimated from a representative sample of entire male pigs, and, by combining these two models, the expected risk of dislike and the number of discarded carcasses is estimated as a function of sorting limits. If the risk of dislike of meat from entire male pigs equals the risk of dislike of meat from castrates, up to 80% of the carcasses should be discarded. However, there is a huge variation in consumer response. This new analytical approach allows the industry to set appropriate sorting limits by balancing the risk of dissatisfied consumers with the proportion of discarded entire male carcasses.
The Roles of Schema Incongruity and Expertise in Consumers’ Wine Judgment Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Even J. Lanseng, Hanne K. Sivertsen
Broadening the present understanding of how expertise moderates the schema-incongruity effect (i.e., the notion that a product moderately incongruent with the schema evoked for it in memory is associated with a comparatively positive product evaluation), this study argues that people with higher, not lower, degrees of expertise experience incongruity and prefer moderately incongruent products over congruent ones. Because people with low expertise in complex product categories lack a developed schema against which to assess encountered products, they will be insensitive to incongruity. People with high expertise, on the other hand, typically have developed schemata and can therefore perceive incongruity and respond accordingly. Consumers with different levels of wine expertise participated in a study in which they were given congruent or incongruent information, as well as different levels of information elaboration, about a wine prior to tasting and evaluating it. The results of this study support the above argument: Expertise moderates the incongruity effect such that it is prevalent only for experts, and schema-level processing moderates expertise’s moderating effect on the incongruity effect.
Might bigger portions of healthier snack food help? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Carolina O.C. Werle, Chris Dubelaar, Natalina Zlatevska, Stephen S. Holden
Three experiments investigate if consumption of healthy food can be enhanced using portion-size. Two experiments comparing healthy and unhealthy snacks showed an increase in consumption when portion size doubles for both healthy and unhealthy foods. A third field experiment focusing only on healthy snacks replicated this effect in a natural setting. High-school students received large or small portions of baby-carrots while in a movie theater. They watched either a movie related or unrelated to food. Portion-size effects were stronger when participants watched a movie unrelated to food. These findings show that increasing portion sizes for healthy snacks are a promising way to promote healthy food consumption.
Effect of sugar and acid composition, aroma release and assessment conditions on aroma enhancement by taste in model wines Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-02 Gaëlle Arvisenet, Jordi Ballester, Charfedinne Ayed, Etienne Sémon, Isabelle Andriot, Jean-Luc Le Quere, Elisabeth Guichard
Context When congruent taste and retronasal aroma are perceived simultaneously, aroma can be enhanced by taste. Different explanations have been proposed: (i) physico-chemical interactions between tastants and aroma compounds, inducing a change of the aroma stimulus before it reaches the receptors, (ii) a contextual bias during sensory tests (dumping), when at least one relevant attribute is not proposed to the panelists to assess a product, (iii) a misunderstanding of the conceptual difference between aroma and taste, or (iv) a perceptual incapability of panelists to distinguish between two congruent percepts. This study was undertaken to better understand aroma enhancement by taste in model wines containing different sugar and acid concentrations but the same volatile composition. Method We used a twofold approach: model wine retronasal aroma intensity was assessed twice by trained panelists. During the first session, panelists only assessed aroma intensity. During the second session, taste intensity was assessed before aroma intensity, to reduce dumping effects. in-mouth release of volatile compounds was measured by nosespace analysis with the same panelists. Results Acid concentration influenced aroma compounds release, but it did not impact perceived aroma intensity. Increasing sugar concentration delayed ethyl octanoate (EO) release after swallowing. When taste was not assessed, perceived aroma intensity was not explained by aroma compounds release, but it increased with sugar concentration, probably because of a dumping effect. When taste was assessed, aroma intensity also depended on sugar concentration, but it was significantly correlated to the time of release of EO. Our hypothesis is that when taste declined, late aroma was more easily individualized, and thus assessed with a higher intensity. This entails that panelists focused on aroma to individualize it from taste. We concluded that trained panelists understand the conceptual difference between taste and aroma, but are not completely able to distinguish congruent and simultaneous taste and aroma percepts.
Consumeŕs categorization of food ingredients: Do consumers perceive them as ‘clean label’ producers expect? An exploration with projective mapping Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Paula Varela, Anne Odile Peschel
Consumers are said to increasingly assess processed food in terms of whether or not they perceive it to be ‘clean label’ food. This term refers to what is seen as little processed and ‘natural’ or ‘free from’ negatively associated ingredients, or even organic food. However, it is difficult for food producers to predict how their product ingredients will be perceived, and how they should position new products. The present study aimed at exploring how consumers perceive and categorize food ingredients, and testing this under different communication frames. These frames are positioning the product in relation to different consumer choice motives. Potato protein as a replacement for negatively associated ingredients was used a case study. Ninety consumers participated in a projective mapping task in Denmark that consisted of placing and characterising ingredients on a bi-dimensional surface. In a between-subjects design, three groups of consumers had to map the ingredients of four products (dairy-free ice cream, vegetarian candy, plant-based sausage, and a protein drink). In each group products were presented as either sustainable, healthy, or plant-based. The results showed that consumers categorized ingredients in terms of firstly and secondly, objective type of ingredient or its function, and thirdly, subjective individual assessment of its value. Communicational framing had little impact, but ingredient-level differences emerged from the comparison of the frames. Despite product-related differences, a similar pattern emerged for the different food categories. Findings confirm that consumers perceive ingredients according to a ‘known-natural-good’ vs. the opposite category. Implications for food industry are discussed.
i“As Long as It Is Not Irradiated” – Influencing Factors of US Consumers’ Acceptance of Food Irradiation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Angela Bearth, Michael Siegrist
Innovative microbial decontamination strategies, such as food irradiation or treatment of foods with protective cultures, offer solutions for today’s food industry to produce safe food with appropriate shelf-life and quality. However, consumers frequently exhibit strong aversions towards highly processed foods and unfamiliar and artificially-sounding food technologies. This paper aimed at examining consumers’ quality perceptions of foods treated with different decontamination strategies and linking these findings to the theoretical assumptions of the affect heuristic in two online studies with US consumers (study 1: N = 184, study 2: N = 65). The main finding from study 1 was that the label “treated with food irradiation” had a detrimental effect on consumers’ quality perception of different foods, while “treated with food ionization” did to a lesser degree, despite being another term for the identical decontamination strategy. The suggestion that this detrimental effect origins in negative affect and associations raised by the term “food irradiation,” was substantiated in study 2. Consumers, who have negative feelings towards nuclear power, perceive irradiated foods as lower in quality, perceived less benefits and more risks associated with food irradiation and exhibit lower overall acceptance of this technology. The findings of the two studies are discussed in light of recommendations for the food industry and regulation. This study stresses the importance of consulting with social science ahead of the implementation of a new food technology.
Facing a Trend of Brand Logo Simplicity: The Impact of Brand Logo Design on Consumption Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Vera Bossel, Kelly Geyskens, Caroline Goukens
Research has shown that the experience of fluency influences buying intentions of food products, but no study has examined how brand logos transferring a feeling of fluency might impact actual food intake. In two experiments, we assess how exposure to simple versus complex brand logos impacts food consumption. Study 1 shows that individuals consume more from a product which features a simple, flat logo compared to a product that features a complex, non-flat logo. Study 2 depicts the nature of the product as an important moderator in this effect: while for non-prestigious products simple brand logos increase consumption, the opposite occurs for prestigious food products. Overall, while the tenet of the findings is consistent with earlier work on fluency effects within the food domain, this research provides evidence that brand logo design has the potential to impact actual food intake.
Do Labels that Convey Minimal, Redundant, or No Information Affect Consumer Perceptions and Willingness to Pay? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 John C. Bernard, Joshua M. Duke, Sara E. Albrecht
With more labels appearing on food products, it becomes questionable how many add relevant information to consumers. Some products have labels conveying no, redundant, or minimal information, while others have multiple labels that contain overlapping information. The expansion of these types of minimal-information labeling suggests a perception among marketers that labels improve consumers’ perceptions and increase willingness to pay (WTP). Using watermelons, field experiments with 328 participants were conducted to estimate WTP differences between (1) a product with a minimal-information label and no label; and (2) a product with a minimal-information label with and without an overlapping label. While the minimal-information label added nothing new about the origin of the watermelon (redundant information), added minimal information on taste, and provided no mention of food safety (no information), perceptions among participants of all these attributes positively and significantly increased in both label comparisons. The WTP for the product with a minimal-information label, also increased, demonstrating consumers will sacrifice real money for products with these labels. The evidence suggests that labels have capabilities to shape perceptions and influence WTP even beyond those attributes they make a claim regarding.
Social desirability and sustainable food research: a systematic literature review Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Jacopo Cerri, John Thøgersen, Francesco Testa
Social desirability bias could affect the results of research using self-reports, like questionnaires, which are the dominant approach to explore sustainable food consumption and its drivers. Despite various methodological and statistical approaches have been suggested to counteract social desirability, their use in research about sustainable food has not been systematically reviewed before. Therefore, a systematic literature review was carried out covering 388 peer-reviewed studies. The number of papers mentioning social desirability bias steadily increased since the 1990s. However, our results indicates that the overall proportion of relevant papers discussing it is low, with most of those doing so giving no clear indication about its causes and/or consequences for data quality. Moreover, few studies provide information about the data collection process, despite well-known situational factors influencing social desirability bias. A few papers implemented methodological remedies, like anonymity or proper scaling. Statistical remedies, like social desirability scales, were found in two studies only. Our findings suggest three major improvements in survey research about sustainable food. First, a better description of the data collection process is recommended, to better identify the limitations and strengths of a specific study. Second, procedural remedies against social desirability, which are now the gold standard in other survey-based disciplines, should be used more consistently. Finally, more research is needed adopting social desirability scales, which are relatively common in other fields of research using surveys (e.g. dietary studies), as well as specialized questioning techniques for sensitive answers.
The impact of tablecloth on consumers’ food perception in real-life eating situation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Jing Liu, Estelle Petit, Anne-Cecile Brit, Agnes Giboreau
It has been known that contextual factors, such as atmospherics, can influence consumers’ perception of food and the overall consumption experience. This study aimed to investigate the influence of table linen on food perception. A total of 247 participants were provided meals with different table linens, either fabric or paper linen, in a real restaurant setting. The results demonstrated a fabric table linen contributed to a significant higher preference of the appetiser, first course consumed upon arrival, and of the meal quality in general. The fabric linen had no significant impact on the liking of the main dish and dessert, which were preferred similarly to that of paper table linen. However, a better service, ambiance and overall experience at the restaurant were attributed to the fabric table linen. Regarding the meal environmental elements, three quarters of the participants considered the table linen as an important element when they were eating at the restaurant. These results therefore demonstrate the importance of the table linen on consumers’ perception of food.
Multisensory Experiential Wine Marketing Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Charles Spence
The pairing of wine with music goes back a long way, starting out with commentators at first merely just using musical metaphors in order to describe the wines they were writing about. In recent years, however, this area of interest has morphed into a growing range of multisensory tasting events in which wine and music are paired deliberately in order to assess, or increasingly to illustrate, the impact of the latter on people’s experience of the former. Initial isolated small-scale and often anecdotal reports of music supposedly changing the taste of wine have since evolved into large-scale experiential, experimental, events. The results of the latter typically demonstrate the robustness, not to say ubiquity, of such crossmodal effects. It is no exaggeration to suggest that the explosive growth of such events is, in some markets at least, starting to revolutionize the marketing of wine. In this article, I review this emerging field of research. I consider how the insights gained from such events are now starting to influence experiential marketing, not to mention in-home consumption, often via sensory apps. In order to stay relevant to today’s and, perhaps more importantly, tomorrow’s, wine consumers, the marketers of wine really need to ride the experiential multisensory wave that is currently sweeping through the (alcoholic) drinks industry.
Vegetarians’ and Omnivores’ Affective and Physiological Responses to Images of Food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Eric C. Anderson, Jolie Wormwood, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S. Quigley
Many vegetarians report that meat is unpleasant, but little else is known about their affective responses to meat and non-meat foods. Here we explored affective responses to food images in vegetarians and omnivores and tested the hypothesis that vegetarians have global differences in affective processing (e.g., increased disgust sensitivity). We presented pictures of different food items and recorded participants’ affective experience while we recorded peripheral physiology. We found that vegetarians' self-reported experience of meat meal images was less pleasant than omnivores’, but that other food images were equally pleasant across the two groups. Moreover, vegetarians and omnivores had strikingly similar physiological responses to all food images--including meat meals. We interpret these results from a psychological constructionist perspective, which posits that individuals conceptualize changes in their bodily states in ways that match their beliefs, such that increased sympathetic nervous system activity may be conceptualized as an experience of excitement about a delicious meat meal for omnivores but as an experience of displeasure for a vegetarian who believes meat is cruel, wasteful, impure, or unhealthy. This interpretation is consistent with emerging neuroscience evidence that the brain constructs experience by predicting and making meaning of internal sensations based on past experience and knowledge.
Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Monica G. Aguayo-Mendoza, Eva C. Ketel, Erik van der Linden, Ciarán G. Forde, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman, Markus Stieger
Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product, liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.
Duckweed as human food. The influence of meal context and information on duckweed acceptability of Dutch consumers. Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 Myrthe F.A. de Beukelaar, Gertrude G. Zeinstra, Jurriaan J. Mes, Arnout R.H. Fischer
Duckweed is considered a promising source of protein for human food products due to its high protein content and environmentally friendly production properties. In order to achieve successful inclusion in the diet, duckweed should be presented to consumers in an acceptable way. This paper explores Western consumers’ perceptions towards duckweed as human food and investigates in what contexts duckweed could be acceptable to consumers who are not used to eating it. In a first interview study (N=10), consumers generally responded positively towards duckweed as human food, although associations with turbid ponds also did come up. According to the respondents, duckweed belonged to the food category vegetables. So, duckweed was considered to fit best in meals where vegetables and greens are expected. In a larger online survey (N=669), it was confirmed that consumers had a more positive deliberate evaluation of duckweed and were more likely to accept a meal with duckweed if duckweed was applied in a fitting meal. It was also shown that providing information about nutritional and sustainability benefits increased deliberate evaluation and acceptability for fitting meals, but decreased it for non-fitting meals. Automatic evaluations positively influenced deliberate evaluation and acceptability, supporting the ‘yuck’ effect, but they did not differ between the meal applications. The current paper shows that if applied in a meal context that fits with consumer expectations, under the assumption that sensory properties like taste are satisfactory, there appear no major objections from consumers against the introduction of duckweed as human food at a larger scale.
Healthy food is nutritious, but organic food is healthy because it is pure: The negotiation of healthy food choices by Danish consumers of organic food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Kia Ditlevsen, Peter Sandøe, Jesper Lassen
There is increasing demand for organic food products throughout the Western world. Health concerns have frequently been found to be the main motivation of consumers purchasing organic products, but the literature on consumer preferences and behavior is less clear about what ‘health’ means to consumers of these products, and because of this it remains unclear what exactly drives consumers to choose organic products. This article investigates health from the perspective of consumers, and analyzes negotiations of, and justifications behind, their consumption preferences. The analysis is based on a focus group study conducted in Denmark in 2016. Three different understandings of health can be found when consumers explain their preferences for organic products: Health as purity; Health as pleasure, and a Holistic perspective on health. The first two are familiar from the literature on food. The third, which reflects principles behind organic agriculture, is less documented in the context of consumption. Health as purity was the dominant understanding of health used by the participants when explaining why they purchased organic food products. When participants discussed healthy eating in general, detached from a specific context, most employed a purely nutritional perspective as a definitive argument in supporting claims about healthy eating. The paper’s findings have implications for future research on organic consumption. They also have practical implications for organic food producers and manufacturers.
Sensory complexity and its influence on hedonic responses: a systematic review of applications in food and beverages Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-09 Julie Palczak, David Blumenthal, Michel Rogeaux, Julien Delarue
Understanding the determinants of consumers’ preferences is crucial for successful product development. Although it is rarely considered, perceived complexity is believed to be one important intrinsic product factor that may influence preference development (Lévy, MacRae, & Köster, 2006). Studies on perceived complexity are mostly based on the Theory of Arousal (Berlyne, 1971) that asserts that the influence of complexity on consumers’ preferences can be represented as an inverted U-curve. This article reviews the scientific literature on complexity in the field of food and beverages. A literature search was carried out on online catalogues using the search terms ‘complexity’ and ‘preference’ or ‘hedonic’ or ’liking’. Fifty five relevant articles have been selected and analysed for the ways authors define, manage and measure complexity. Fourteen of these articles addressed the link between complexity and hedonic response. One major result is that there is no consensus regarding the definition of complexity. In addition to physical complexity of products, definitions of perceived complexity can be divided into three categories: sensory, cognitive and emotional. A direct consequence of the diversity of the definitions is that there are many different ways to measure complexity, including sensory or instrumental methods. In order to generate different levels of complexity, authors play with the number of food components (ingredients, chunks, flavour notes). Besides, complexity is always studied for one sensory modality only (e.g. either aspect or texture or smell or taste). Overall, very little attention is paid to the temporal dimension of sensory complexity. Eventually, only one paper out of 14 found an inverted U-curve relationship between complexity and hedonic response as suggested by Berlyne’s theory.
Analysis and clustering of multiblock datasets by means of the statis and clustatis methods. application to sensometrics Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Fabien Llobell, Véronique Cariou, Evelyne Vigneau, Amaury Labenne, El Mostafa Qannari
The STATIS method has been successfully applied to the analysis of sensory profiling data and other kinds data in sensometrics. We discuss its use and benefits and compare its outcomes to alternative methods for the analysis of multiblock data arising in situations such as projective mapping and free sorting experiments. More importantly, a method of clustering a collection of datasets measured on the same individuals, called CLUSTATIS, is introduced. It is based on the optimization of a criterion and consists in a hierarchical cluster analysis and a partitioning algorithm akin to the K-means algorithm. The procedure of analysis can be seen as an extension of the cluster analysis of variables around latent components (CLV, Vigneau and Qannari, 2003) to the case of blocks of variables. Alongside the determination of the clusters, a latent configuration is determined by the STATIS method. The interest of CLUSTATIS in sensometrics is discussed and illustrated on the basis of two case studies pertaining to the projective mapping also called Napping and the free sorting tasks, respectively.
The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2016-12-20 Samuel Piha, Terhi Pohjanheimo, Anu Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Zuzana Křečková, Tobias Otterbring
This exploratory study investigates how consumer knowledge influences willingness to buy (WTB) insect food products. A comparative approach between Northern and Central Europe is adopted to explore whether consumer knowledge has different effects on WTB across cultural areas in Europe. The study analyses consumer survey data collected in Finland, Sweden, Germany, and the Czech Republic (N = 887) with structural equation modelling and multi-group models. The results suggest that the effects of distinct types of knowledge and food neophobia on WTB are mainly indirect and mediated by general attitudes, with these effects differing significantly between Northern and Central Europe. In Northern Europe, the consumers’ objective and subjective knowledge of insect food predict WTB as much as previous product-related experiences and food neophobia. In Central Europe, product-related experiences and food neophobia are superior predictors to subjective and objective knowledge. Moreover, consumers in Northern Europe generally have a more positive attitude towards insect food than consumers in Central Europe. Possible explanations for the regional differences are discussed, and implications are suggested on how the region-specific features should be regarded when developing consumer education and promotion strategies for insect food.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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