Tender food, tender hearts: The metaphorical mapping of hard-soft orosensory signals to interpersonal trust and prosocial tendencies Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Bobby K. Cheon, Kah Min Tan, Li Ling Lee
Prior research has revealed that flavors (sweetness) may metaphorically influence social judgements and behaviors (interpersonal ‘sweetness’). Given the inherently social nature of eating, other food related sensory signals beyond flavor may be conceptually mapped to social cognition and behavior. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral processing of foods with soft (vs. hard) textures may metaphorically facilitate (vs. inhibit) social behaviors conceptually associated with ‘tenderness’ or ‘soft-heartedness’. Two studies examined the influence of imagined (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) oral processing of soft (vs. hard foods) on prosocial tendencies. Study 1 revealed that lower magnitude of soft sensory characteristics associated with imagined consumption of a soft food was predictive of decreased interpersonal trust. Using actual food consumption in an interpersonal context, Study 2 demonstrated increased interpersonal trust and charitable donation of time after oral processing of soft (vs. hard) food and suggested that this effect is a result of enhanced trust following consumption of soft food rather than suppression of trust following consumption of hard food. Although effects were modest, these findings provide initial suggestions that orosensory metaphors that shape social cognition are not limited to flavors (e.g., sweetness, spiciness), and that diverse properties of food may influence patterns of sociality.
The importance of liking of appearance, -odour, -taste and -texture in the evaluation of overall liking. A comparison with the evaluation of sensory satisfaction Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Barbara Vad Andersen, Per Bruun Brockhoff, Grethe Hyldig
The response variable of overall liking is often used to measure consumers’ overall hedonic response to food. However, little research is done to understand, if liking of all four sensory modalities; appearance, odour, taste and texture, are reflected in the evaluation of overall liking, or if a single sensory modality stands out and is of most importance. The term sensory satisfaction was recently introduced as an alternative to overall liking and should (at least in theory) be used by consumers as a more holistic response variable than overall liking.The aim of the analyses reported in the present paper were, to study the importance of the sensory modalities (liking of appearance, odour, taste and texture) in consumers’ evaluation of overall liking and compare the findings to the importance of the sensory modalities (liking of appearance, odour, taste and texture) in consumers’ evaluation of sensory satisfaction. The data came from a cross-over consumer case-study on apple-cherry fruit drinks (n = 67). The fruit drinks varied in: type of sweetener used, and addition of aroma and fibre. The modalities driving overall liking and sensory satisfaction were studied through slopes of a regression line relating overall liking and sensory satisfaction, respectively, to liking of the sensory modalities: liking of appearance, -odour, -taste and -texture. Results showed the steepest slope between overall liking and liking of taste, whereas the least steep slope was found for liking of odour. The same pattern between slopes was found for sensory satisfaction and overall liking. Therefore, it was concluded that consumers primarily paid attention to liking of taste (to be understood as flavour) and least attention to liking of odour, when evaluating overall liking and sensory satisfaction, respectively, and that consumers did not use sensory satisfaction as a more holistic response variable than overall liking.
Estimating the risk of dislike: an industry tool for setting sorting limits for boar taint compounds Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Rune H. Christensen, Dennis B. Nielsen, Margit D. Aaslyng
Producing entire male pigs entails a risk of boar taint in the meat due to increased levels of the compounds skatole and androstenone in the carcass. Allowing meat from entire male pigs to be marketed and sold together with meat from castrates and female pigs increases the risk of consumers being dissatisfied due to boar tainted samples. To reduce this risk, it is necessary to set sorting limits for androstenone and skatole preventing meat from the most boar-tainted entire males from reaching the market. This paper presents a model framework in which the risk of consumer expressions of dislike is modelled as a function of the concentrations of skatole and androstenone. A bivariate log-normal model of skatole and androstenone concentrations is estimated from a representative sample of entire male pigs, and, by combining these two models, the expected risk of dislike and the number of discarded carcasses is estimated as a function of sorting limits. If the risk of dislike of meat from entire male pigs equals the risk of dislike of meat from castrates, up to 80% of the carcasses should be discarded. However, there is a huge variation in consumer response. This new analytical approach allows the industry to set appropriate sorting limits by balancing the risk of dissatisfied consumers with the proportion of discarded entire male carcasses.
The Roles of Schema Incongruity and Expertise in Consumers’ Wine Judgment Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Even J. Lanseng, Hanne K. Sivertsen
Broadening the present understanding of how expertise moderates the schema-incongruity effect (i.e., the notion that a product moderately incongruent with the schema evoked for it in memory is associated with a comparatively positive product evaluation), this study argues that people with higher, not lower, degrees of expertise experience incongruity and prefer moderately incongruent products over congruent ones. Because people with low expertise in complex product categories lack a developed schema against which to assess encountered products, they will be insensitive to incongruity. People with high expertise, on the other hand, typically have developed schemata and can therefore perceive incongruity and respond accordingly. Consumers with different levels of wine expertise participated in a study in which they were given congruent or incongruent information, as well as different levels of information elaboration, about a wine prior to tasting and evaluating it. The results of this study support the above argument: Expertise moderates the incongruity effect such that it is prevalent only for experts, and schema-level processing moderates expertise’s moderating effect on the incongruity effect.
Might bigger portions of healthier snack food help? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Carolina O.C. Werle, Chris Dubelaar, Natalina Zlatevska, Stephen S. Holden
Three experiments investigate if consumption of healthy food can be enhanced using portion-size. Two experiments comparing healthy and unhealthy snacks showed an increase in consumption when portion size doubles for both healthy and unhealthy foods. A third field experiment focusing only on healthy snacks replicated this effect in a natural setting. High-school students received large or small portions of baby-carrots while in a movie theater. They watched either a movie related or unrelated to food. Portion-size effects were stronger when participants watched a movie unrelated to food. These findings show that increasing portion sizes for healthy snacks are a promising way to promote healthy food consumption.
Effect of sugar and acid composition, aroma release and assessment conditions on aroma enhancement by taste in model wines Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-07-02 Gaëlle Arvisenet, Jordi Ballester, Charfedinne Ayed, Etienne Sémon, Isabelle Andriot, Jean-Luc Le Quere, Elisabeth Guichard
Context When congruent taste and retronasal aroma are perceived simultaneously, aroma can be enhanced by taste. Different explanations have been proposed: (i) physico-chemical interactions between tastants and aroma compounds, inducing a change of the aroma stimulus before it reaches the receptors, (ii) a contextual bias during sensory tests (dumping), when at least one relevant attribute is not proposed to the panelists to assess a product, (iii) a misunderstanding of the conceptual difference between aroma and taste, or (iv) a perceptual incapability of panelists to distinguish between two congruent percepts. This study was undertaken to better understand aroma enhancement by taste in model wines containing different sugar and acid concentrations but the same volatile composition. Method We used a twofold approach: model wine retronasal aroma intensity was assessed twice by trained panelists. During the first session, panelists only assessed aroma intensity. During the second session, taste intensity was assessed before aroma intensity, to reduce dumping effects. in-mouth release of volatile compounds was measured by nosespace analysis with the same panelists. Results Acid concentration influenced aroma compounds release, but it did not impact perceived aroma intensity. Increasing sugar concentration delayed ethyl octanoate (EO) release after swallowing. When taste was not assessed, perceived aroma intensity was not explained by aroma compounds release, but it increased with sugar concentration, probably because of a dumping effect. When taste was assessed, aroma intensity also depended on sugar concentration, but it was significantly correlated to the time of release of EO. Our hypothesis is that when taste declined, late aroma was more easily individualized, and thus assessed with a higher intensity. This entails that panelists focused on aroma to individualize it from taste. We concluded that trained panelists understand the conceptual difference between taste and aroma, but are not completely able to distinguish congruent and simultaneous taste and aroma percepts.
Consumeŕs categorization of food ingredients: Do consumers perceive them as ‘clean label’ producers expect? An exploration with projective mapping Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Paula Varela, Anne Odile Peschel
Consumers are said to increasingly assess processed food in terms of whether or not they perceive it to be ‘clean label’ food. This term refers to what is seen as little processed and ‘natural’ or ‘free from’ negatively associated ingredients, or even organic food. However, it is difficult for food producers to predict how their product ingredients will be perceived, and how they should position new products. The present study aimed at exploring how consumers perceive and categorize food ingredients, and testing this under different communication frames. These frames are positioning the product in relation to different consumer choice motives. Potato protein as a replacement for negatively associated ingredients was used a case study. Ninety consumers participated in a projective mapping task in Denmark that consisted of placing and characterising ingredients on a bi-dimensional surface. In a between-subjects design, three groups of consumers had to map the ingredients of four products (dairy-free ice cream, vegetarian candy, plant-based sausage, and a protein drink). In each group products were presented as either sustainable, healthy, or plant-based. The results showed that consumers categorized ingredients in terms of firstly and secondly, objective type of ingredient or its function, and thirdly, subjective individual assessment of its value. Communicational framing had little impact, but ingredient-level differences emerged from the comparison of the frames. Despite product-related differences, a similar pattern emerged for the different food categories. Findings confirm that consumers perceive ingredients according to a ‘known-natural-good’ vs. the opposite category. Implications for food industry are discussed.
i“As Long as It Is Not Irradiated” – Influencing Factors of US Consumers’ Acceptance of Food Irradiation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Angela Bearth, Michael Siegrist
Innovative microbial decontamination strategies, such as food irradiation or treatment of foods with protective cultures, offer solutions for today’s food industry to produce safe food with appropriate shelf-life and quality. However, consumers frequently exhibit strong aversions towards highly processed foods and unfamiliar and artificially-sounding food technologies. This paper aimed at examining consumers’ quality perceptions of foods treated with different decontamination strategies and linking these findings to the theoretical assumptions of the affect heuristic in two online studies with US consumers (study 1: N = 184, study 2: N = 65). The main finding from study 1 was that the label “treated with food irradiation” had a detrimental effect on consumers’ quality perception of different foods, while “treated with food ionization” did to a lesser degree, despite being another term for the identical decontamination strategy. The suggestion that this detrimental effect origins in negative affect and associations raised by the term “food irradiation,” was substantiated in study 2. Consumers, who have negative feelings towards nuclear power, perceive irradiated foods as lower in quality, perceived less benefits and more risks associated with food irradiation and exhibit lower overall acceptance of this technology. The findings of the two studies are discussed in light of recommendations for the food industry and regulation. This study stresses the importance of consulting with social science ahead of the implementation of a new food technology.
Facing a Trend of Brand Logo Simplicity: The Impact of Brand Logo Design on Consumption Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Vera Bossel, Kelly Geyskens, Caroline Goukens
Research has shown that the experience of fluency influences buying intentions of food products, but no study has examined how brand logos transferring a feeling of fluency might impact actual food intake. In two experiments, we assess how exposure to simple versus complex brand logos impacts food consumption. Study 1 shows that individuals consume more from a product which features a simple, flat logo compared to a product that features a complex, non-flat logo. Study 2 depicts the nature of the product as an important moderator in this effect: while for non-prestigious products simple brand logos increase consumption, the opposite occurs for prestigious food products. Overall, while the tenet of the findings is consistent with earlier work on fluency effects within the food domain, this research provides evidence that brand logo design has the potential to impact actual food intake.
Do Labels that Convey Minimal, Redundant, or No Information Affect Consumer Perceptions and Willingness to Pay? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 John C. Bernard, Joshua M. Duke, Sara E. Albrecht
With more labels appearing on food products, it becomes questionable how many add relevant information to consumers. Some products have labels conveying no, redundant, or minimal information, while others have multiple labels that contain overlapping information. The expansion of these types of minimal-information labeling suggests a perception among marketers that labels improve consumers’ perceptions and increase willingness to pay (WTP). Using watermelons, field experiments with 328 participants were conducted to estimate WTP differences between (1) a product with a minimal-information label and no label; and (2) a product with a minimal-information label with and without an overlapping label. While the minimal-information label added nothing new about the origin of the watermelon (redundant information), added minimal information on taste, and provided no mention of food safety (no information), perceptions among participants of all these attributes positively and significantly increased in both label comparisons. The WTP for the product with a minimal-information label, also increased, demonstrating consumers will sacrifice real money for products with these labels. The evidence suggests that labels have capabilities to shape perceptions and influence WTP even beyond those attributes they make a claim regarding.
Social desirability and sustainable food research: a systematic literature review Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Jacopo Cerri, John Thøgersen, Francesco Testa
Social desirability bias could affect the results of research using self-reports, like questionnaires, which are the dominant approach to explore sustainable food consumption and its drivers. Despite various methodological and statistical approaches have been suggested to counteract social desirability, their use in research about sustainable food has not been systematically reviewed before. Therefore, a systematic literature review was carried out covering 388 peer-reviewed studies. The number of papers mentioning social desirability bias steadily increased since the 1990s. However, our results indicates that the overall proportion of relevant papers discussing it is low, with most of those doing so giving no clear indication about its causes and/or consequences for data quality. Moreover, few studies provide information about the data collection process, despite well-known situational factors influencing social desirability bias. A few papers implemented methodological remedies, like anonymity or proper scaling. Statistical remedies, like social desirability scales, were found in two studies only. Our findings suggest three major improvements in survey research about sustainable food. First, a better description of the data collection process is recommended, to better identify the limitations and strengths of a specific study. Second, procedural remedies against social desirability, which are now the gold standard in other survey-based disciplines, should be used more consistently. Finally, more research is needed adopting social desirability scales, which are relatively common in other fields of research using surveys (e.g. dietary studies), as well as specialized questioning techniques for sensitive answers.
The impact of tablecloth on consumers’ food perception in real-life eating situation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Jing Liu, Estelle Petit, Anne-Cecile Brit, Agnes Giboreau
It has been known that contextual factors, such as atmospherics, can influence consumers’ perception of food and the overall consumption experience. This study aimed to investigate the influence of table linen on food perception. A total of 247 participants were provided meals with different table linens, either fabric or paper linen, in a real restaurant setting. The results demonstrated a fabric table linen contributed to a significant higher preference of the appetiser, first course consumed upon arrival, and of the meal quality in general. The fabric linen had no significant impact on the liking of the main dish and dessert, which were preferred similarly to that of paper table linen. However, a better service, ambiance and overall experience at the restaurant were attributed to the fabric table linen. Regarding the meal environmental elements, three quarters of the participants considered the table linen as an important element when they were eating at the restaurant. These results therefore demonstrate the importance of the table linen on consumers’ perception of food.
Multisensory Experiential Wine Marketing Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Charles Spence
The pairing of wine with music goes back a long way, starting out with commentators at first merely just using musical metaphors in order to describe the wines they were writing about. In recent years, however, this area of interest has morphed into a growing range of multisensory tasting events in which wine and music are paired deliberately in order to assess, or increasingly to illustrate, the impact of the latter on people’s experience of the former. Initial isolated small-scale and often anecdotal reports of music supposedly changing the taste of wine have since evolved into large-scale experiential, experimental, events. The results of the latter typically demonstrate the robustness, not to say ubiquity, of such crossmodal effects. It is no exaggeration to suggest that the explosive growth of such events is, in some markets at least, starting to revolutionize the marketing of wine. In this article, I review this emerging field of research. I consider how the insights gained from such events are now starting to influence experiential marketing, not to mention in-home consumption, often via sensory apps. In order to stay relevant to today’s and, perhaps more importantly, tomorrow’s, wine consumers, the marketers of wine really need to ride the experiential multisensory wave that is currently sweeping through the (alcoholic) drinks industry.
Vegetarians’ and Omnivores’ Affective and Physiological Responses to Images of Food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Eric C. Anderson, Jolie Wormwood, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S. Quigley
Many vegetarians report that meat is unpleasant, but little else is known about their affective responses to meat and non-meat foods. Here we explored affective responses to food images in vegetarians and omnivores and tested the hypothesis that vegetarians have global differences in affective processing (e.g., increased disgust sensitivity). We presented pictures of different food items and recorded participants’ affective experience while we recorded peripheral physiology. We found that vegetarians' self-reported experience of meat meal images was less pleasant than omnivores’, but that other food images were equally pleasant across the two groups. Moreover, vegetarians and omnivores had strikingly similar physiological responses to all food images--including meat meals. We interpret these results from a psychological constructionist perspective, which posits that individuals conceptualize changes in their bodily states in ways that match their beliefs, such that increased sympathetic nervous system activity may be conceptualized as an experience of excitement about a delicious meat meal for omnivores but as an experience of displeasure for a vegetarian who believes meat is cruel, wasteful, impure, or unhealthy. This interpretation is consistent with emerging neuroscience evidence that the brain constructs experience by predicting and making meaning of internal sensations based on past experience and knowledge.
Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Monica G. Aguayo-Mendoza, Eva C. Ketel, Erik van der Linden, Ciarán G. Forde, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman, Markus Stieger
Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product, liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.
Duckweed as human food. The influence of meal context and information on duckweed acceptability of Dutch consumers. Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 Myrthe F.A. de Beukelaar, Gertrude G. Zeinstra, Jurriaan J. Mes, Arnout R.H. Fischer
Duckweed is considered a promising source of protein for human food products due to its high protein content and environmentally friendly production properties. In order to achieve successful inclusion in the diet, duckweed should be presented to consumers in an acceptable way. This paper explores Western consumers’ perceptions towards duckweed as human food and investigates in what contexts duckweed could be acceptable to consumers who are not used to eating it. In a first interview study (N=10), consumers generally responded positively towards duckweed as human food, although associations with turbid ponds also did come up. According to the respondents, duckweed belonged to the food category vegetables. So, duckweed was considered to fit best in meals where vegetables and greens are expected. In a larger online survey (N=669), it was confirmed that consumers had a more positive deliberate evaluation of duckweed and were more likely to accept a meal with duckweed if duckweed was applied in a fitting meal. It was also shown that providing information about nutritional and sustainability benefits increased deliberate evaluation and acceptability for fitting meals, but decreased it for non-fitting meals. Automatic evaluations positively influenced deliberate evaluation and acceptability, supporting the ‘yuck’ effect, but they did not differ between the meal applications. The current paper shows that if applied in a meal context that fits with consumer expectations, under the assumption that sensory properties like taste are satisfactory, there appear no major objections from consumers against the introduction of duckweed as human food at a larger scale.
Healthy food is nutritious, but organic food is healthy because it is pure: The negotiation of healthy food choices by Danish consumers of organic food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Kia Ditlevsen, Peter Sandøe, Jesper Lassen
There is increasing demand for organic food products throughout the Western world. Health concerns have frequently been found to be the main motivation of consumers purchasing organic products, but the literature on consumer preferences and behavior is less clear about what ‘health’ means to consumers of these products, and because of this it remains unclear what exactly drives consumers to choose organic products. This article investigates health from the perspective of consumers, and analyzes negotiations of, and justifications behind, their consumption preferences. The analysis is based on a focus group study conducted in Denmark in 2016. Three different understandings of health can be found when consumers explain their preferences for organic products: Health as purity; Health as pleasure, and a Holistic perspective on health. The first two are familiar from the literature on food. The third, which reflects principles behind organic agriculture, is less documented in the context of consumption. Health as purity was the dominant understanding of health used by the participants when explaining why they purchased organic food products. When participants discussed healthy eating in general, detached from a specific context, most employed a purely nutritional perspective as a definitive argument in supporting claims about healthy eating. The paper’s findings have implications for future research on organic consumption. They also have practical implications for organic food producers and manufacturers.
Sensory complexity and its influence on hedonic responses: a systematic review of applications in food and beverages Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-09 Julie Palczak, David Blumenthal, Michel Rogeaux, Julien Delarue
Understanding the determinants of consumers’ preferences is crucial for successful product development. Although it is rarely considered, perceived complexity is believed to be one important intrinsic product factor that may influence preference development (Lévy, MacRae, & Köster, 2006). Studies on perceived complexity are mostly based on the Theory of Arousal (Berlyne, 1971) that asserts that the influence of complexity on consumers’ preferences can be represented as an inverted U-curve. This article reviews the scientific literature on complexity in the field of food and beverages. A literature search was carried out on online catalogues using the search terms ‘complexity’ and ‘preference’ or ‘hedonic’ or ’liking’. Fifty five relevant articles have been selected and analysed for the ways authors define, manage and measure complexity. Fourteen of these articles addressed the link between complexity and hedonic response. One major result is that there is no consensus regarding the definition of complexity. In addition to physical complexity of products, definitions of perceived complexity can be divided into three categories: sensory, cognitive and emotional. A direct consequence of the diversity of the definitions is that there are many different ways to measure complexity, including sensory or instrumental methods. In order to generate different levels of complexity, authors play with the number of food components (ingredients, chunks, flavour notes). Besides, complexity is always studied for one sensory modality only (e.g. either aspect or texture or smell or taste). Overall, very little attention is paid to the temporal dimension of sensory complexity. Eventually, only one paper out of 14 found an inverted U-curve relationship between complexity and hedonic response as suggested by Berlyne’s theory.
Analysis and clustering of multiblock datasets by means of the statis and clustatis methods. application to sensometrics Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Fabien Llobell, Véronique Cariou, Evelyne Vigneau, Amaury Labenne, El Mostafa Qannari
The STATIS method has been successfully applied to the analysis of sensory profiling data and other kinds data in sensometrics. We discuss its use and benefits and compare its outcomes to alternative methods for the analysis of multiblock data arising in situations such as projective mapping and free sorting experiments. More importantly, a method of clustering a collection of datasets measured on the same individuals, called CLUSTATIS, is introduced. It is based on the optimization of a criterion and consists in a hierarchical cluster analysis and a partitioning algorithm akin to the K-means algorithm. The procedure of analysis can be seen as an extension of the cluster analysis of variables around latent components (CLV, Vigneau and Qannari, 2003) to the case of blocks of variables. Alongside the determination of the clusters, a latent configuration is determined by the STATIS method. The interest of CLUSTATIS in sensometrics is discussed and illustrated on the basis of two case studies pertaining to the projective mapping also called Napping and the free sorting tasks, respectively.
The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2016-12-20 Samuel Piha, Terhi Pohjanheimo, Anu Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Zuzana Křečková, Tobias Otterbring
This exploratory study investigates how consumer knowledge influences willingness to buy (WTB) insect food products. A comparative approach between Northern and Central Europe is adopted to explore whether consumer knowledge has different effects on WTB across cultural areas in Europe. The study analyses consumer survey data collected in Finland, Sweden, Germany, and the Czech Republic (N = 887) with structural equation modelling and multi-group models. The results suggest that the effects of distinct types of knowledge and food neophobia on WTB are mainly indirect and mediated by general attitudes, with these effects differing significantly between Northern and Central Europe. In Northern Europe, the consumers’ objective and subjective knowledge of insect food predict WTB as much as previous product-related experiences and food neophobia. In Central Europe, product-related experiences and food neophobia are superior predictors to subjective and objective knowledge. Moreover, consumers in Northern Europe generally have a more positive attitude towards insect food than consumers in Central Europe. Possible explanations for the regional differences are discussed, and implications are suggested on how the region-specific features should be regarded when developing consumer education and promotion strategies for insect food.
Healthy or wealthy? Attractive individuals induce sex-specific food preferences Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2017-02-28 Tobias Otterbring
Research shows that the mere presence of others and their physical appearance can influence people’s meal choices and food intake. Studies also suggest that such effects are sex-specific and depend on whether the eating occasion includes same-sex or opposite-sex individuals. In five experiments (N = 530; 49% female), the author investigates whether mate attraction, induced by exposure to attractive opposite-sex individuals, has a differential effect on the foods and beverages that men and women prefer to consume. The results revealed that prior exposure to attractive (versus less attractive) men decreased women’s willingness to spend money on unhealthy foods, and increased their inclination to spend money on healthy foods. Restrained eating moderated this effect, which means that women who scored high (versus low) on restrained eating were particularly motivated to spend money on healthy foods after exposure to an attractive male individual. On the contrary, exposure to attractive (versus less attractive) women did not influence men’s consumption preferences for healthy or unhealthy foods. However, men were more motivated to spend money on expensive drinking and dining options after exposure to an attractive female individual, and their desire to display status mediated this effect. Importantly, none of these effects occurred after exposure to attractive same-sex individuals, which provides converging evidence that mate attraction is the fundamental motive underlying these findings. Taken together, this research reveals how, why, and when appearance-induced mate attraction leads to sex-specific consumption preferences for various foods and beverages.
Sensory attributes shaping consumers’ willingness-to-pay for newly developed processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2017-03-02 Yung Hung, Wim Verbeke
While innovation to improve processed meat products (PMPs) is promising, sensory characteristics remain the key factor shaping consumers’ preference and purchase decisions. These two studies employed a non-hypothetical and novel analytical approach to study how sensory attributes influence consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for new PMPs with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. Vickrey’s second-price experimental auctions were organised with conventional and the new PMPs. Study 1 was in Belgium (n = 208) with cooked sausage; Study 2 was in the Netherlands (n = 107) with cooked ham. Elastic net (EN) regularised regression models and regression trees were used to assess determinants of WTP under data constraints. Overall, WTP was positively influenced by a higher overall liking, appearance familiarity and a better colour, and negatively influenced by a stronger experience of aftertaste and darker colour. The order effect of tasting and information provision was opposite in the two studies. The study with cooked sausage also showed a positive effect of a better texture and taste, and a negative effect of a too weak intensity of meat taste on WTP. The study with cooked ham indicated a positive effect of a better smell, stronger salty taste and less dry texture, and a negative effect of a too strong intensity of meat smell on WTP. Whereas Just-About-Right (JAR) scales are widely applied in consumer research to identify optimal sensory attribute levels, both studies revealed that JAR ratings do not necessarily translate into a higher WTP. These studies yield recommendations for consumer-driven food product research and development.
Supermarket shopper movements versus sales and the effects of scent, light, and sound Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2017-03-24 René A. de Wijk, Anna M. Maaskant, Stefanie Kremer, Nancy T.E. Holthuysen, Daniella A.J.M. Stijnen
Common sense assumes that supermarket sales of specific products are driven by the number of visitors and by their behavior during their visit. In addition, certain shopping ambiances probably stimulate a certain shopper behavior, resulting in more sales. Surprisingly, these relationships have rarely been experimentally tested in real-life supermarkets. Number of shoppers, shopper movement patterns, and sales of selections of white wines, coffees, and fruits in a medium-size supermarket were monitored over an 18-week period. Wines were visited for longer (9.5 s) than coffees (4.4 s) and fruits (4.5 s), but visitors to wines were relatively stationary and visits resulted less often in a sale (1 sale per 41.2 visits) than visits to coffees (1 sale per 21.7 visits) and fruits (1 sale per 3.7 visits). Visit frequency correlated positively with higher sales for coffee (Beta = 0.64, p < 0.001) and for fruit (Beta = 0.33, p = 0.02) but not for wine. Wine, fruit, and coffee sales increased with the number of directional changes during a visit (p < 0.001). Sales correlated positively with visit duration only for wine (Beta = 0.74, p < 0.001). Local variations in scent, sound, and light conditions did not affect visit frequency or sales, but did affect speed during coffee (p = 0.04) and wine (p = 0.03) visits.
Temporal drivers of liking for oral nutritional supplements for older adults throughout the day with monitoring of hunger and thirst status Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2017-05-05 A. Thomas, A.J. van der Stelt, P. Schlich, J. Ben Lawlor
Thomas, van der Stelt, Prokop, Lawlor, and Schlich (2016) recently introduced the Alternated Temporal Drivers of Liking (A-TDL) method in which consumers did both Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and dynamic liking evaluations on a full portion of two oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in the same session. This new study reports further development of this research in which TDS and dynamic liking were still paired at the lab, but were conducted twice a day (morning and afternoon sessions) for each product. In addition, hunger and thirst status were monitored at the lab along the successive sips and also before and after lunch and dinner at home. The objective was to reproduce the full daily experience of an ONS. A total of 62 French older adults tested the two products over two days, a week apart (a single product per day). Ten small glasses of the product were given to each participant in both morning and afternoon sessions; each one was consumed in a single sip. The protocol consisted of a TDS evaluation during each sip, followed by liking-thirst-hunger scales appearing successively. This protocol was repeated over the ten glasses. Before and after lunch and dinner, thirst and hunger status were recorded online at home. Participants seemed to be able to perform these rather sophisticated tasks quite well. Their use of the hunger scale was quite narrow and ONS consumed at the lab reduced hunger very moderately, at least compared to a regular meal being taken at home. Both products increased thirst by an average of 2 scale points along the ten sips, confirming that drinking an ONS increased thirst during tasting. Interestingly, no difference in liking was observed in the first sip, but one of the two products was slightly more appreciated on average over multiple sips. Temporal drivers of liking of this preferred product may be due to longer lasting praline and coffee-milk flavours and shorter metallic flavor and dry sensations.
Hedonic and emotional responses after blind tasting are poor predictors of purchase behavior Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2017-05-25 Elina Kytö, Anni Järveläinen, Sari Mustonen
The association between amount of product information, hedonic ratings (pleasantness and purchase intention), emotion ratings and actual purchase behavior of spoonable fermented fresh dairy products (quarks) was examined. Two product information conditions were included: blind tasting and branded tasting. A CLT was carried out to measure hedonic and emotional responses towards three blueberry flavored protein quarks (n = 107). The samples were first tasted blinded (blind tasting) and then with brand and package picture on the screen (branded tasting). After the tasting session, respondents were sent a questionnaire asking about the products they had bought during the last two weeks. The questionnaire was sent twice, two and four weeks after the tasting session. Stronger association between hedonic responses and purchase behavior after branded compared to blind tasting was found. Purchase intention had the strongest association with purchase behavior, while pleasantness and emotion responses had only minor association with purchase behavior. Of the emotions, desire contributed the most to the prediction of purchase behavior. To conclude, prediction of purchase behavior with hedonic responses after blind tasting was poor. When taking into account purchase intention after branded tasting, purchase behavior was predicted the best.
Oral comfort: A new concept to understand elderly people’s expectations in terms of food sensory characteristics Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Mathilde Vandenberghe-Descamps, Hélène Labouré, Chantal Septier, Gilles Feron, Claire Sulmont-Rossé
In the elderly population, ageing frequently impacts on the different aspects of oral physiology that play a key role in eating behavior. In the context of an aging population, it is crucial to develop a food supply tailored for the elderly people in order to prevent the onset of malnutrition. To meet this challenge, we looked for the concept of “oral comfort” when eating a food. The present study aimed at i) exploring the concept of oral comfort when eating according to elderly people in order to develop a questionnaire to evaluate the oral comfort when eating a food and ii) asking elderly people to evaluate various meat and cereal products using this questionnaire. Results of focus groups highlighted that oral comfort when eating a food is a multi-dimensional concept which includes dimensions related to food oral processing (ability to form and swallow food bolus), food sensory properties (texture and taste) and to a lesser extent pain sensations. Furthermore, the oral comfort questionnaire developed in the present study enabled a discrimination of products and highlighted the fact that some products supposed to fit with elderly people capacities and needs were not rated as the most comfortable foods by the elderly people. The concept of oral comfort when eating a food should be taken into account by those who are willing to design food products tailored to the elderly population. The questionnaire could be an interesting tool to assess oral comfort when eating a food in the elderly population.
Common roasting defects in coffee: Aroma composition, sensory characterization and consumer perception Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Davide Giacalone, Tina Kreuzfeldt Degn, Ni Yang, Chujiao Liu, Ian Fisk, Morten Münchow
The demand for high quality and specialty coffee is increasing worldwide. In order to meet these demands, a more uniform and standardized quality assessment of coffee is essential. The aim of this study was to make a sensory scientific and chemical characterization of common roasting defects in coffee, and to investigate their potential relevance for consumers’ acceptance of coffee. To this end, six time-temperature roasting profiles based on a single origin Arabica bean were developed: one ‘normal’, representing a reference coffee free of defects, and five common roast defects (‘dark’, ‘light’, ‘scorched’, ‘baked’ and ‘underdeveloped’. The coffee samples obtained from these beans were evaluated by means of (1) aroma analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), (2) sensory descriptive analysis (DA) by trained assessors, and (3) hedonic and sensory evaluation by consumers using a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questionnaire. Multivariate analyses of aroma, DA, and CATA data produced similar sample spaces, showing a clear opposition of the light roast to the dark and scorched roasts), with the normal roast having average values of key aroma compounds. The DA data confirmed this indications and showed the normal roast to have a balanced sensory profile compared to the other defects. Importantly, the normal roast was also significantly preferred in the consumer test ( N = 83 ), and significantly associated to positive CATA attributes ‘Harmonic’, ‘Pleasant’, and ‘Balanced’. Taken overall, the results provide a solid basis for understanding chemical and sensory markers associated with common roasting defects, which coffee professionals may use internally in both quality control and product development applications.
Longitudinal study on acceptance of food textures between 6 and 18 months Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-06-02 Lauriane Demonteil, Carole Tournier, Agnès Marduel, Marion Dusoulier, Hugo Weenen, Sophie Nicklaus
The timely complementary food introduction is important for the development of healthy eating. However, little evidence is available about when to introduce which texture during this period. This study aims to fill this gap by measuring the evolution of food texture acceptance and feeding behaviours between 6 and 18 months. Two groups of healthy children participated in the study: at 6, 8, and 10 months (n=24) and at 12, 15 and 18 months (n=25), respectively. They were offered foods with different textures (purees, double textures, cooked pieces, sticky and hard foods) at an age when few infants were already familiar with these textures. For each food texture, children’s acceptance (ability to process and swallow a food) and feeding behaviours (sucking and chewing) were assessed by the investigator; liking was assessed by parents. At 6 months, pureed and double textures were highly accepted (Acceptance Probability AP>0.8); when offered at 8 months, cooked pieces were highly accepted (AP>0.8). Up to 10 months, the acceptance of more complex textures (e.g. cheese, bread crust) increased strongly with age as did chewing behaviour. At 12 months, most food textures were accepted (AP>0.5), except raw vegetable pieces and pasta (AP<0.35), and chewing behaviour was predominant over sucking. Up to 18 months, raw vegetable pieces and pasta acceptance increased with age and was >0.5 at 18 months. In conclusion, children accepted most textures at an earlier age than their parents’ feeding practices; their feeding behaviours depended on age and food texture and acceptance of hard textures was related to the development of chewing.
Does attention to health labels predict a healthy food choice? An eye-tracking study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 Anna Fenko, Iris Nicolaas, Mirjam Galetzka
Visual attention to health labels can indicate a subsequent healthy food choice. This study looked into the relative effects of Choices logos and traffic light labels on consumers’ visual attention and food choice. A field experiment using mobile eye-tracking was conducted in a Dutch university canteen. Participants (N=48) walked to the shopping area wearing an eye-tracking device and chose one pack of yoghurt out of 12 from the refrigerated shelf. The packages varied in health label format (traffic light label, the Choices or no logo), fat content (low-fat, semi-fat and full fat), and brand. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: with or without time constraint. The results revealed that participants fixated longer and more often on the traffic light labels compared to the Choices logos. Participants in the time constraint condition demonstrated less visual attention to health labels compared to participants without time constraint. General Health Interest (GHI) moderated the effect of time constraints. The condition without time constraints increased attention to health labels for participants with high GHI, but not for participants with low GHI. However, visual attention to health labels was a poor predictor of the subsequent healthy choice. The results suggest that attention to health labels might indicate the interest towards an unfamiliar food label, but it does not necessarily indicate a healthier food choice.
2010-2015: How have conventional descriptive analysis methods really been used? A systematic review of publications Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-28 Pauline Lestringant, Julien Delarue, Hildegarde Heymann
Conventional descriptive analysis (DA) has been widely applied to describe the sensory characteristics of products. An analysis of the scientific literature was performed to better understand the context in which descriptive methods are utilized. When DA is used in methodological research, either to test the method itself, to compare to new methods, is that representative of its use in application studies aiming at obtaining sensory descriptions? Web of Science was queried using “sensory profile” and “descriptive analysis” as search terms from 2010 to 2015. For each generated result, the following metadata were extracted: number and type of products, number of panelists, training and evaluation methods, and data analysis. The data were analyzed according to the goals of the study (using or developing sensory methods) and type of journal publishing the article (sensory specific journal or other). Out of 360 selected entries using DA, 20 used DA in conjunction with rapid methods, and 5 with temporal methods. 93% of DA experiments were used to obtain information about products in non-sensory specific journals. Alcoholic beverages, produce, and dairy were the top 3 categories assessed. Some product categories, such as starches and condiments/oil were only represented in application studies. Some results thus suggest a discrepancy in context between experiments designed to test methodological aspects of DA or new methods, or to obtain sensory information. Context of use should be considered when testing new methods.
Oral processing behavior and dynamic sensory perception of composite foods: Toppings assist saliva in bolus formation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 Arianne van Eck, Niels Hardeman, Niki Karatza, Vincenzo Fogliano, Elke Scholten, Markus Stieger
Composite foods consist of combinations of single foods, such as bread with toppings. Single foods can differ considerably in their mechanical and sensory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of toppings on oral processing behavior and dynamic sensory perception of carrier foods when consumed as composite foods. Two carriers (bread, crackers) and three toppings (firm cheese, cheese spread, mayonnaise) were selected and six carrier-topping combinations were prepared. Mastication behavior, bolus properties (33, 66 and 100% of total mastication time) and dynamic sensory perception were determined for single carriers and all carrier-topping combinations. Both carriers with cheese spread and mayonnaise were chewed shorter and with fewer chews than single bread and crackers, although twice the mass of food was consumed. These toppings contributed to a faster bolus formation by providing moisture, so that less saliva was incorporated into the bolus during mastication. As a result of the moisture incorporation, carrier boli with toppings were softened and perceived less firm and less dry than carrier boli alone. The largest effects of toppings on oral processing behavior and perception were found for liquid-like mayonnaise, and these effects were more pronounced in dry crackers than in moist bread. We conclude that toppings assist saliva in bolus formation of carriers. Carriers drive oral processing behavior and texture perception whereas toppings drive overall flavor perception. This knowledge contributes to food design tailored for specific consumer segments and future personalized nutrition.
College-Aged Men View More Foods as Snacks Than Women Do Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 Devina Wadhera, Lynn M. Wilkie
The perception of food as a snack or a meal influences later caloric consumption (Capaldi, Owens, & Privitera, 2006). In the past 40 years, the intake of snacks increased and main meals decreased in American adults (Kant & Graubard, 2010), but gender differences in which foods are perceived as snacks vs. meals has not been directly investigated. Here, we asked a college-aged sample of men and women to categorize a list of foods as snacks or meals. Two follow-up studies were also conducted that offered a greater assortment of food and the addition of more complex answer choices. All surveys showed that men categorized more foods as snacks as compared to women, particularly sweet and energy-dense foods. These results suggest that snack and meal perceptions by men and women may be reflective of actual eating patterns.
High or Low: The Impact of Brand Logo Location on Consumers Product Perceptions Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Rui Dong, Mark R. Gleim
Understanding product packaging of consumer goods, especially the food and drink category, continues to be vitally important as more and more product options abound. Thus, the present research explores the role of brand logo location on consumers’ perceptions of a product. Utilizing conceptual metaphor theory, we seek to understand the impact of brand logo locations in two unique studies. Study 1 examines effects of brand logo location and positive and negative product descriptors on consumer reaction times via the Stroop task. The findings suggest that consumers evaluate positive words more quickly when they are positioned higher, however there is no significant difference for negative words. Study 2 seeks to increase the realism by introducing products in an online environment into the experiment and altering the variables under study. The results suggest that purchase intentions and willingness to recommend a product are influenced by the brand logo location, due to the indirect effect of perceived quality. Thus, brands that are able to position the brand logo higher on the packaging, regardless of brand familiarity, are likely to have more favorable perceptions.
Segmentation in Projective Mapping Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Ingunn Berget, Paula Varela, Tormod Næs
Projective mapping (PM) or napping® has attained much attention in recent literature as a method for fast sensory profiling and measurement of consumer perception. However, little work has been done to understand the consumer’s individual differences in these experiments. In this work, segmentation criteria based on the Procrustes distance are explored. The Procrustes distance can be applied with hierarchical clustering using the Proclustrees method, which consists of doing hierarchical clustering on the pairwise Procrustes distance between consumers. An alternative strategy called sequential clusterwise rotations (SCR) is proposed. SCR extracts clusters by a sequentially partitioning obtained by combining fuzzy clustering techniques and general Procrustes analysis. The methods were tested on simulated and real data and compared with clustering based on MFA results. The simulations show that the MFA approach was outperformed by the other methods when the underlying classes were of same size and there are noise configurations present in the data. For the real data, all methods provided at last one cluster similar to the consensus but differed with respect to the number of clusters identified as well as the interpretation of the clusters. Differences between the methodologies points out the need for external cluster validation in such experiments.
The Interaction between Country of Origin and Genetically Modified Orange Juice in Urban China Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Zhifeng Gao, Xiaohua Yu, Chenguang Li, Brandon R. McFadden
Although consumer preference for genetically modified (GM) food and country of origin (COO) labeling has been studied extensively, little research has examined the interaction effect between these two attributes. Previous research has demonstrated the importance of the interaction effect between food quality attributes. Moreover, production and international trade of GM crops are increasing simultaneously. As both mandatory GM and COO labeling can be used as non-tariff barriers, there is a need to better understand the interaction effect of GM and COO attributes on consumer preference. This study uses mall intercept surveys to investigate Chinese consumer preference for COO and GM foods, as well as the impact of COO on consumer preference for GM foods. A mixed logit model is estimated to incorporate the preference heterogeneity and correlation in the alternatives of a choice experiment (mixed logit + error component model). Results show consumers have a negative willingness to pay for GM orange juice from all countries, but the discounts associated with GM orange juice vary greatly; the discount for US GM juice is the lowest followed by that from Australia, China, Brazil, and Israel. Furthermore, consumer preference is more heterogeneous for GM juice than for conventional juice, implying more uncertainty regarding GM food quality from different countries.
The Development of a Single-Item Food Choice Questionnaire Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 M.C. Onwezen, M.J. Reinders, M.C.D. Verain, H.M. Snoek
Based on the multi-item Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) originally developed by Steptoe and colleagues (1995), the current study aimed to develop a single-item FCQ that provides an acceptable balance between practical needs and psychometric concerns. Studies 1 (N=1,851) and 2 (2a (N=3,290), 2b (N=4,723), 2c (N=270)) showed that the single-item FCQ scale has good convergent and discriminant validity. Generally, the results showed the highest correlations with the related multi-item dimensions (>.40). Study 2 refined the scale. Only the items for convenience (Study 2a), sensory appeal (Study 2b) and mood (Study 2c) needed to be revised (as Study 1 showed a correlation between the multi-item and the single-item below the threshold of .60). The results also showed comparable predictive validity. Both methods revealed similar association patterns between food motives and consumption behaviours (Fisher’s z tests revealed agreements of 86.2% for Study 1, 92.9% for Study 2a and 100% for Studies 2b and 2c). Study 3 (N=6,062) showed an example of the added value of a context-specific application for the single-item FCQ. Different motives were shown to be relevant across contexts, and the context-specific motives had additional explained variance beyond the general multi-item FCQ. Studies 2b and 3 also showed the performance of the single-item FCQ in an international context. In sum, the results indicate that the single-item FCQ can be used as a flexible and short substitute for the multi-item FCQ. The study also discusses the conditions that should be considered when using the single-item scale.
Product attributes and consumer attitudes affecting the preferences for infant milk formula in China – a latent class approach Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 N. El Benni, H. Stolz, R. Home, H. Kendall, S. Kuznesof, B. Clark, M. Dean, P. Brereton, L.J. Frewer, M-Y. Chan, Q. Zhong, M. Stolze
A series of food safety incidents has led to low levels of trust in the safety of domestically produced Chinese infant milk formula. Concerned parents in China increasingly source ‘foreign-produced’ brands and use a range of authenticity cues as assurance of the safety and authenticity of infant formula products. However, the effectiveness of authenticity cues in providing assurance to Chinese consumers has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to analyse the importance of various authenticity cues for infant milk product choices. Latent class models were used to analyse responses to an online choice experiment with 350 consumers of European infant formula in three Chinese cities: Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu. The model included respondents’ preferences for different labels, authenticity cues and price along with perceptions, attitudes, and socio-demographic characteristics. We identified two consumer segments, with one preferring lower priced infant formula and the second choosing higher priced products. All authenticity cues, including price, appear to serve as indicators of food quality and safety, and all were found to be highly important information sources for the respondents when making purchase decisions. In general, Chinese consumers are prepared to pay a premium for authenticity assurance. Chinese policy makers and the infant formula industry should continue to improve quality control systems to increase consumers’ trust in food value chains. These control systems should comprise the whole food supply chain, from production to marketing, and should focus on building trust and communicating credibility.
Buy, eat or discard? A case study with apples to explore fruit quality perception and food waste Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Sara R. Jaeger, Leandro Machín, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Lucía Antúnez, F. Roger Harker, Gastón Ares
Consumers’ perceptions of the quality of fresh produce at the point of purchase and point of consumption play an important role in decisions about what to buy, eat and discard. Apple images were used to assess the extent that defects (bruising, splitting, and crushing) attracted consumers’ visual attention as measured using eye tracking and related to choices to buy and to eat the apples. For an internal defect (internal browning and cavities) that is usually only evident after biting into the apples, images were used to determine whether consumers would discard a portion or all of the apple and to assess their perceived quality and sensory expectations using a RATA question. Eye-tracking demonstrated that damage to the exterior of apples and internal browning rapidly attracted consumers’ visual attention. Choice of apples with external defects at both point-of-purchase and point-of-consumption was low and ranging from 0% to 7% and 3.4 to 15.1%, respectively. Consumer decisions to discard apples with internal browning was nuanced in that (1) small amounts of browning did not lead to disposal, (2) when the relative area of browning reached 8.2% then 50% of consumers would throw away a portion of each apple, and (3) when browning was more severe (34.6% relative area) then 50% of the consumers indicated that they would throw away the whole apple. The presence of internal browning lowered consumers’ perceived quality and sensory expectations, as evidenced by the increase in RATA ratings of negative terms (e.g., disgusting, rotten, bruised, mealy) and the lowered RATA ratings for the terms natural and healthy. From a perspective of reducing food waste, the results stress that strategies are needed to increase value perception of defective fruits to increase likely purchase and consumption.
How Do Implicit/Explicit Attitudes and Emotional Reactions to Sustainable Logo Relate? A Neurophysiological Study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Giulia Songa, Hendrik Slabbinck, Iris Vermeir, Vincenzo Russo
Food package labels can be used to influence consumers’ evaluation and purchasing behaviour, fostering sustainable consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand consumers’ emotional reaction to food package labels that convey sustainable information. The aim of the present research is to get a better understanding of the relation between consumers’ attitudes and emotional reactions often used to measure the effectiveness of a communication. Particularly, we focused on recyclability, assessing participants’ prior explicit and implicit attitudes towards recyclability and their emotional reaction to food packages featuring logos of (non-)recyclability. The emotional reaction was measured both at an explicit and at an implicit level, using direct (self-reported) and indirect (eye movement, facial expressions and pupil dilation) techniques respectively. Results showed that explicit attitudes predicted self-reported emotions, while implicit attitudes predicted the spontaneous emotional reactions, highlighting the importance to assess both explicit and implicit attitudes. Moreover, results showed that the relation between the time that people looked at the logo and the spontaneous emotional reaction was contingent upon the participant’s implicit attitudes. Finally, a follow-up analysis revealed that people with positive implicit attitudes towards recyclability were faster in detecting the recyclable logo and spent more time on processing the logo which on its turn resulted in better emotional reactions. Thus, the results suggest that implicit attitudes influence both visual attention and emotional reactions. Overall, the research contributes to a better understanding of the relation between prior attitudes and emotional reactions to food packaging, and supports the use of an approach that comprises both direct and indirect measures of attitudes and emotions.
Brand Name Fluency Influences Perceptions of Water Purity and Taste Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Hyejeung Cho
Extending the logic of processing fluency into the domain of food and beverage perceptions, this study explores whether the fluency of brand names can influence consumer perceptions of bottled-water attributes such as purity, taste, and mineral contents. Forty-four participants, who were presented with twelve unknown foreign brand names of bottled water, indicated their perceptions of water based solely on the brand names. The results revealed that perceptions of water purity and taste changed depending on whether the brand name was easy or difficult to process. Bottled water was more frequently perceived to be very pure when the foreign brand name was short and easy to pronounce. Bottled water was also more frequently perceived to taste “better-than-average” when the brand name was more fluent. Perceptions of mineral contents in the water were not influenced by the brand name fluency. This study expands our knowledge about various extrinsic cue effects on product perceptions by demonstrating the significant role of brand name fluency in forming consumer perceptions of bottled-water attributes.
The paradox of warmth: Aembient warm temperature decreases preference for savory foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-04-25 Kosuke Motoki, Toshiki Saito, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima, Motoaki Sugiura
Grocery stores and restaurants can control ambient temperatures using air-conditioning. Although questions about how ambient temperature affects consumers’ evaluations of foods are relevant to many food-based businesses, they remain largely unanswered, and there are contradictory hypotheses regarding the influence of ambient temperature on food preferences. Embodiment theory suggests that ambient warm temperature increases food preferences, whereas thermoregulation theory suggests that ambient warm temperature may decrease food preferences to lower the body’s temperature by limiting food intake. However, neither of these explanations considers food category. Given that food varies according to whether it is usually eaten warm or cool, the thermoregulation theory leads to the hypothesis that people may try to regulate their body temperature by preferring foods that should be eaten cool and avoiding those that should be eaten warm. To resolve these contradictory hypotheses, this study investigated the effect of warm ambient temperature on preferences for different categories of food. In total, 52 participants in a room with either warm or cool ambient temperature reported preferences for four categories of food images: vegetables, fruits, sweets, and savory foods. The foods were grouped into warm foods (i.e., foods perceived as having a warm temperature: savory foods), cold foods (i.e., foods perceived as having a cool temperature: fruits), and control foods (vegetables and sweets). The results indicated that ambient warm temperatures decreased preferences for savory foods but did not affect preferences for the other foods. The decreased preference for savory foods in warm ambient temperature was based on perceived food temperature but not on tastiness or healthfulness. These findings are the first to establish the effect of food temperature on food preference in warm ambient conditions. Incorporation of food temperature into thermoregulation theory can advance understanding of the sensory influences on consumer behaviors.
Aroma effects on food choice task behavior and brain responses to bakery food product cues Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Rene A. de Wijk, Paul A.M. Smeets, Ilse A. Polet, Nancy T.E. Holthuysen, Jet Zoon, Monique H. Vingerhoeds
Bread, and especially whole grain bread is an important source of dietary fibers. It was tested with behavioral and fMRI measures whether bread becomes more attractive when it is presented with bread aroma. Twenty-eight healthy normal-weight women were exposed to images of bakery products (brown bread, white bread and cookies) without aroma or with a congruent (bread aroma) or non-congruent (“warm wood”) aroma. In general, product effects were larger than aroma effects. Images of brown bread were preferred over images of white bread as shown by direct comparisons, choice reaction times, as well as liking and wanting scores. Aroma had no effect on liking and wanting, but did affect food choice task behavior, where images of brown bread were preferred more often in the presence of warm wood aroma and images of cookies were preferred more often in the presence of bread aroma. The fMRI data suggest that bread aroma may increase the salience of bakery products compared to no aroma and a non-food aroma. Specifically, bread aroma induced greater activation for cookies in areas related to reward anticipation. The correlations between behavioral measures and brain responses suggest lower attention for and a habitual response to brown bread and higher attention and a more goal-directed response to white bread. In conclusion, aroma can affect choice task behavior for brown and white bread albeit in an incongruent manner. The more habitual response to brown compared with white bread suggested by the neural data underscores that nudging towards brown bread consumption with (bread) aroma will probably not be effective.
The shape of the cup influences aroma, taste, and hedonic judgements of specialty coffee Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Fabiana M. Carvalho, Charles Spence
The drinking experience depends on the multisensory integration of attributes of the drink itself as well as the characteristics of the drinking vessel, not to mention the environment in which the drink happens to be tasted. The receptacles from which we drink have been shown to affect the perception of the sensory and hedonic attributes of various different beverages (especially in the world of wine). The present study was designed to investigate whether the shape of the cup would also influence amateur and/or expert consumers’ perception of aroma, taste, and hedonic evaluation of specialty coffee. A large-sample experiment (involving 276 participants) was conducted in a specialty coffee event in Brazil. The participants were divided into three testing groups according to the shape of the cup in which the coffee was served (tulip, open, or split). Tasters evaluated their experience of the aroma, sweetness, acidity, and liking of the coffee. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted in order to assess the effect of cup shape on sensory and hedonic ratings, and whether expertise modulated these ratings. Both amateurs and experts judged: (1) the aroma to be significantly stronger in the tulip cup, and (2) the sweetness and acidity to be significantly more intense in the split cup. Interestingly, the split cup received the lowest liking scores from the amateurs, but not from the experts. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that the shape of the cup significantly affects the perception of the sensory attributes of specialty coffee, for both amateur and expert consumers. The implications of these results for the design of coffee cups that convey some functional and/or perceptual benefit as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
If It’s Healthy, It’s Tasty and Expensive: Effects of Nutritional Labels on Price and Taste Expectations Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Jisung Jo, Jayson L. Lusk
Studies on the impact of nutritional information and labeling rarely consider lay beliefs regarding a food’s healthiness, taste, and affordability. If lay beliefs such as “healthy food is expensive” and “unhealthy food is tasty” exist, then nutritional information may have unintended consequences. This study elicited health, taste, and price beliefs of 60 food items in three countries—the USA, China, and Korea—and we studied how these beliefs and purchase intentions change in response to exogenous health information. We found lay beliefs are not always true and identical across countries, and they depend on prior beliefs and information. When neutral or negative exogenous information about healthfulness was provided, USA and Korea consumers tend to consider healthier foods more expensive, but this was not the case with China consumers. Interestingly, despite the commonly asserted “tasty=unhealthy” lay belief, we tended to find positive relationships between perceived health and taste. We demonstrated the interconnectedness of beliefs by simulating the impacts of health information on purchase intentions under different assumptions about the relationship between taste, health, and affordability expectations.
CATA and RATA questions for product-focused emotion research: Five case studies using emoji questionnaires Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Sara R. Jaeger, Soh Min Lee, Kwang-Ok Kim, Sok L. Chheang, Christina M. Roigard, Gastón Ares
Questionnaires are popular in product-focused emotion research with consumers. Ease of implementation is paramount in this regard, as is versatility. In the presented studies, focus is directed to scaling variations as an element of methodological versatility, and a comparison is performed of CATA and RATA question formats (check-all-that-apply and rate-all-that-apply, respectively). Five studies, with a range of tasted products and food/beverage names were conducted, involving 908 consumers in New Zealand, China and Korea. Emoji questionnaires, recently established as a methodological variant in product-elicited emotion research, were used. The average percentage of emoji used for describing samples was similar for CATA and RATA questions when used in Central Location Tests with tasted samples, but higher for RATA than CATA questions in online surveys. Discriminative ability of CATA and RATA questions was linked to the characteristics of the focal samples. The recommendation for method choice is to use CATA emoji-questions when samples have distinct emotional associations, whereas RATA seems better able to discriminate between samples with more similar emotional profiles. Neither CATA nor RATA emoji-questions were regarded by consumers as difficult or tedious.
The influence of psychological traits, beliefs and taste responsiveness on implicit attitudes toward plant- and animal-based dishes among vegetarians, flexitarians and omnivores Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-31 Danny Cliceri, Sara Spinelli, Caterina Dinnella, John Prescott, Erminio Monteleone
A global dietary transition, associated with negative effects on health and environment and characterized by an increase of animal-based diets to the detriment of plant-based diets, has occurred in the last few decades. Many factors (biological, physiological, psychological and socio-cultural), are known to play a role in affecting food choices and should be considered in order to promote more healthier plant based-diets. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the associations among psychological and personality traits, attitudes, beliefs and taste responsiveness in affecting implicitly measured attitudes toward plant-based and animal based-dishes. These attitudes were measured through three independent Implicit Association Tests (IATs), using images of culinary preparations of plant-based, meat-based and dairy-based dishes and positive/negative emotions. 125 subjects (39 omnivores, 55 flexitarians and 31 vegetarians) participated in each IAT. Questionnaires measuring psychological and personality traits, attitudes toward foods and beliefs about food animals were employed. Moreover, taste responsiveness was measured through the bitter intensity assessment of PROP. A Partial Least Square model was then adopted to study the individual variability in the implicit attitudes toward the plant-based and animal-based dishes in relation to psychological and personality traits, general food attitudes, beliefs on food animals and taste responsiveness measures. Overall the implicit measures were found to be in line with declared eating habits, with Vegetarians and Flexitarians more inclined to implicitly associate positive emotions to meat-free dishes than Omnivores, and with Vegetarians showing a stronger association than Flexitarians. The results showed that positive attitudes toward plant-based dishes were positively related to the empathic sensitivity toward humans and animals, as well as to attitudes toward healthy and natural products, highlighting an important role of food consciousness in determining the eating habits. On the contrary, food involvement and attitude towards taste did not differ among the considered segments. Responsiveness to PROP and sensitivity to pathogen disgust were found to be lower in Vegetarians compared to Omnivores. The transition from plant-based diet to animal-based diet should therefore embrace multiple aspects, considering taste responsiveness, psychological traits and attitudes towards food.
Using a combined temporal approach to evaluate the influence of ethanol concentration on liking and sensory attributes of Lager beer Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Imogen Ramsey, Carolyn Ross, Rebecca Ford, Ian Fisk, Qian Yang, Javier Gomez-Lopez, Joanne Hort
A low alcohol beer evoking similar sensory enjoyment as its higher alcohol counterpart is potentially an attractive proposition to breweries for increased sales volumes, as well as consumers due to health and societal reasons. This study aimed to determine the influence of ethanol on the temporal sensory characteristics and liking of beer as perceived by beer consumers. A commercial 0% ethanol concentration lager was spiked with ethanol to different concentrations (0.5%, 2.8%, 5% ethanol). Consumers (n=101) indicated their liking using temporal liking (TL) methodology (rated throughout consumption) and overall liking (rated at the end of consumption). Consumers also denoted the sensory properties perceived using temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA). Overall, liking data divided consumers into 3 clusters with different patterns of liking. As ethanol concentration increased from 0 to 5%, the TL time that best predicted overall liking shifted from 60 sec to 10-20 sec indicating that liking of higher alcohol products was decided earlier on in consumption. Data suggested that in a lower ethanol beer, a liking judgement may not be stabilized until later in the evaluation, while in high ethanol beers, a liking judgement, either positive or negative, stabilised more rapidly. TCATA results revealed different temporal sensory profiles among the different ethanol concentrations. As ethanol concentration increased, the citation of sweetness, fullness/body and alcohol warming sensation increased. However, the relationship between TCATA citations and TL varied among the three clusters highlighting that, in relation to ethanol concentration, different negative and positive sensory drivers of preference exist for different segments of consumers.
Motivations for meal and snack times: Three approaches reveal similar constructs Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Uyen T.X. Phan, Edgar Chambers IV
Meals and snacks are conceptualized differently. Meals are structured while snacking often is not. Food choices for meals, thus, are expectedly different from food choices for snacks. By using three approaches incorporating two psychological perspectives, top-down and bottom-up, this research project investigated motivations influencing foods and beverage choices for different eating occasions at various times of the day. The first approach used a modified online Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) to examine motivations for individual food items within specific contexts of eating. The second approach employed the Food Choice Map technique to explore motivations for individual food choices for all eating within a typical week. The last approach again used a modified TEMS to investigate choices for eating occasions, without examining what foods were eaten specifically. Findings from all three approaches supported that food patterns for meal were different from those for snacks. Choosing foods and beverages for meals were the result of the interplay of more motivation factors than for snacks. Food decision was significantly influenced by the time of the day at which the eating occurred. Although liking was most important for all eating occasions, day-time eating was driven more by function-oriented factors and night-time eating was more because of psychological or emotion-oriented needs. Findings from this project advance and reinforce knowledge in the food choice domain and show that investigating food choice from different perspectives can provide similar information.
Survival analysis model to estimate sensory shelf life with temperature and illumination as accelerating factors Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Lorena Garitta, Klaus Langohr, Eliana Elizagoyen, Fernanda Gugole Ottaviano, Guadalupe Gómez, Guillermo Hough
The main objective of this study was to introduce a survival model to contemplate two simultaneous accelerating factors affecting a food product’s shelf life: temperature and illumination. A second objective was to consider the case where the same consumer tests different experimental conditions and thus his/her data are not independent. Sample data comprised 108 consumers who evaluated a lemon-flavored juice stored at 24°C, 37°C and 45°C; under conditions of no-illumination and with illumination; with seven different storage times for each of the six experimental conditions. Aiming to estimate the storage time at which a consumer rejects a sample a model including an Arrhenius term for the temperature, a binomial response for illumination (with and without) and the interaction of both was developed. The model also considered that the same consumer tested different experimental conditions.
Perceived naturalness of water: The effect of biological agents and beneficial human action Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Anita Etale, Michael Siegrist
Perceived naturalness is an increasingly important aspect of consumer choice. A number of factors, including the involvement of human action, are known to influence perceptions of naturalness in the food domain. However, the effect of biological agents remains unknown. The first study, therefore, compared the effect of biological and human action on the perceived naturalness of treated spring water. Four strategies for adjusting the mineral concentration of spring water were proposed in the study: mineral addition, using acids and bases to adjust pH thereby re-solubilising precipitated minerals, pH adjustment by microbes already present in the water or by microbes brought in from another spring. Results showed that of the four treatments, microbes inherent to the spring water had the least negative effect on perceived naturalness when compared to the other three treatments, all of which involved some form of human action. This implies that biological agents have a less negative effect on perceived naturalness than human agents. The second study examined, based on the link between perceived naturalness and healthiness, whether human action would have a less negative impact on perceived naturalness if it improved the healthiness of the final product. We hypothesised that action that improved the healthiness of water would not reduce perceived naturalness. Our hypothesis was, however, disproved. Water with elemental concentrations adjusted to recommended levels was seen as healthier but less natural, suggesting that healthiness and naturalness are judged separately so that even where healthiness is increased, human action still results in lower perceived naturalness.
The shapes associated with the concept of ‘sweet and sour’ foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Carlos Velasco, Eric J. Beh, Tiffany Le, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
Research on taste-shape correspondences has focused on one-to-one taste/shape matching tasks. However, foods and drinks tend to involve multiple shapes (or shape attributes) and tastes that co-occur at different moments of our eating experiences. In the present research, we assessed whether food concepts involving more than one taste (e.g., “sweet and sour”) would be associated with pairs of round and/or angular shapes. The participants matched shape pairs comprising angular and round shapes with “sweet and sour” food concepts more often than with other tastes and taste combination concepts, in a manner that is broadly consistent with studies involving one-to-one taste/shape matches. These results were observed both when the participants were presented with the shape pairs alone (Experiment 1) or along with a product’s packaging (Experiment 2). We conclude by presenting possible explanations for the results obtained, as well as directions for future research.
Wine Complexity: An Empirical Investigation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Qian Janice Wang, Charles Spence
Complexity is a term that is often invoked by people when writing appreciatively about the taste, aroma/bouquet, and/or flavour of wine. However, it is not clear what exactly wine complexity refers to. The present study was designed to uncover which attributes are most strongly linked to the social drinker’s perception of complexity in wine. Notably, unlike previous studies of wine complexity, we assessed the temporal component of complexity by acquiring information from participants at the various stages of smelling, tasting, and aftertaste. Furthermore, natural language processing techniques were used to analyse participants’ flavour descriptors in order to assess their semantic associations with complexity. Eight wines, chosen for their ability to showcase various aspects of complexity, were tasted in three flights, grouped by dry white, red, and sweet wines. Participants rated the perceived liking, quality, and complexity of each wine, as well as listing flavours of the wines perceived at different stages (aroma, in-mouth, post-swallowing). The results demonstrated that complexity was positively correlated with liking and with quality, but not with the price of the wines or the number of flavours detected. Furthermore, semantic analysis revealed that participants used more consistent vocabulary describe wines that they perceived to be more complex. We also observed similar consistency trends for wines that were liked more, as well as wines rated to be lower quality. In general, secondary and tertiary flavours (derived from fermentation or from ageing) were more often used to describe more complex wines. These results reveal intriguing patterns in how social drinkers assess perceive/infer wine complexity, as well as elucidating the relationship between complexity, quality, and liking.
Subjective socioeconomic status modulates perceptual discrimination between beverages with different energy densities Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 B.K. Cheon, E.X. Lim, K. McCrickerd, D. Zaihan, C.G. Forde
Prior research has revealed socioeconomic disparities in obesity and diabetes across developed nations, such that the burden of these disorders is disproportionately shouldered by socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. More recent research has demonstrated that independent of actual socioeconomic status (SES), the mere perception of scarcity, deprivation, or inferiority of socioeconomic resources is sufficient to stimulate increased preference for energy-dense foods and meals. This heightened motivation towards energy-dense foods when experiencing low subjective SES (SSES) may be accompanied by changes in perceptual discrimination between foods that differ in energy density, which may in turn shape later preference and selection for energy-dense foods. Conversely, the experience of high SSES and relative socioeconomic security may lead to de-prioritization of energy density during food selection, leading to suppressed detection of energy density. We tested these predictions by randomly assigning participants (n=93) to experimental inductions of low, high, or neutral (control) SSES. Next, participants tasted and rated four different versions of soy milk that varied on energy density (low or high) and texture (thin or thick). While participants in control and low SSES conditions could perceptually discriminate between low and high energy versions of the beverages, those in the high SSES condition exhibited no differences in assessments of energy density of the beverages. Consistent with the notion that perceived deprivation (or satisfaction) of important non-food socioeconomic resources may stimulate/suppress appetite, our findings indicate that SSES may modulate perceptual discrimination of energy in foods, which may contribute to socioeconomic differences in food preferences and obesity risk independent of actual financial and economic constraints.
On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the ‘food and beverage’ and ‘home and personal care’ categories Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Charles Spence, Carlos Velasco
Colour is perhaps the single most important element as far as the design of multisensory product packaging is concerned. It plays a key role in capturing the attention of the shopper in-store. A distinctive colour, or colour scheme, can also act as a valuable brand attribute (think here only of the signature colour schemes of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate). In many categories, though, colour is used to convey information to the consumer about a product’s sensory properties (e.g., taste or flavour, say), or else to prime other more abstract brand attributes (such as, for example, premium, natural, or healthy). However, packaging colour can also affects the customer’s product experience as well: Indeed, a growing body of empirical research now shows that packaging colour affects everything from the expected and perceived taste and flavour of food and beverage products through to the fragrance of home and personal care items. Packaging colour, then, plays a dominant role at several stages of the product experience.
Comparative performance of three interpretative front-of-pack nutrition labelling schemes: Insights for policy making Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Gastón Ares, Fiorella Varela, Leandro Machin, Lucía Antúnez, Ana Giménez, María Rosa Curutchet, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel
Different interpretative front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes have recently been implemented in several countries but it is still unclear which is the most effective. The present work compared three interpretative schemes (Nutri-score, health star rating and nutritional warnings) in terms of attentional capture, processing time, influence on perceived healthfulness and purchase intention of products with different nutritional profile. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, attention to and processing time for interpretation of FOP labels was evaluated using a visual search task with 112 participants. In the second study, an online survey with 892 participants was conducted to evaluate the influence of interpretive FOP labels on purchase intention and perceived healthfulness of a series of products. In both studies, a between-subjects design was implemented to compare a control condition (without front-of-pack nutrition information) and the three interpretive FOP schemes. The health star rating was found to perform worse than the other two schemes in terms of capturing attention and altering perceived healthfulness and purchase intention. The latter effect depended on the degree of healthfulness of the food products in question, but the effect on consumer behaviour towards unhealthful product categories was more pronounced for the warning label scheme. From a nutrition policy effectiveness point of view, results suggest that nutritional warnings may have advantages over Nutri-score and the health star rating in the context of the current food environment, characterized by the wide availability of products with high content of nutrients associated with non-communicable diseases.
Adolescent emotions toward sweet food cues as a function of obesity and risky dieting practices Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Laura Miccoli, Myriam Martínez-Fiesta, Rafael Delgado-Rodríguez, Sandra Díaz-Ferrer, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruiz, M.Carmen Fernández-Santaella
This study examined whether poor health habits – those associated with a higher risk of developing eating disorders or obesity – modified adolescents’ emotions toward sweet food cues. We aimed to answer the following questions: Is adolescent obesity accompanied by excessive enjoyment of sweets? Or is any risk habit, regardless its stronger association with obesity or disordered eating, associated with less food enjoyment? 552 Spanish adolescents (279 females) viewed pictures of sweets interspersed with emotional images as controls. Participants recorded their feelings of pleasure, activation, control, and food craving while looking at each picture; then answered questions on their general health, food intake, and physical activity; finally, their body mass index was estimated. We performed MANCOVAs on feelings during sweets, including individual risk habits as factors, and sex, age, and hunger as covariates. We performed the same analysis on emotional and neutral images. Results revealed that among risk habits, obesity and unhealthy dieting practices were accompanied by less enjoyment of sweets (mostly less pleasure and less food craving). On the contrary, risk habits had no effect on adolescents’ feelings during emotional stimuli, unrelated to food. Thus, the presence of habits linked to obesity and disordered eating was associated with reduced reward value of sweet food cues, supporting the need to approach both disorders from an integrative perspective. Consistent with recent prevention strategies, the results suggest the potential role of food enjoyment as a protective factor.
Emoji as a tool for measuring children’s emotions when tasting food ☆ Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Joachim J. Schouteten, Jan Verwaeren, Sofie Lagast, Xavier Gellynck, Hans De Steur
Consumers’ emotional evaluation of food products has gathered interest among sensory scientists and food companies as a means to gain additional insights beyond hedonic measurements. While recent work shows that emotional profiling can also be performed with children and teenagers, concerns have been raised about the validity of emotional profiling when using traditional questionnaires, especially with children. Emoji have recently been proposed as an alternative approach, but empirical studies with this target group are scarce. Using 5 different samples of a biscuit (‘speculoos’), this study evaluates the use of emoji for emotional profiling with 149 children (11–13 years old). Overall liking and emotional profiling (with 33 emoji) were assessed for each sample, using the check-all-that-apply approach. Children’s actual food choice was also recorded. Results showed that, on average, 10% of the emoji were selected for each sample. The emoji were able to discriminate between the products, while less discrimination was obtained between hedonically similar samples. Also, results indicated that some emoji responses were influenced by consumption frequency. Furthermore, this study found that adding emoji measurements improves food choice prediction compared to the sole inclusion of overall liking measurements. This study suggests that emoji can be used as an alternative means of emotional profiling with children and their inclusion helps to better predict actual food choice. More research is needed to examine the use of emoji in sensory research with children, especially regarding the selection and number of emoji.
The Emoji Scale: A Facial Scale for the 21st Century Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Marianne Swaney-Stueve, Tegan Jepsen, Grace Deubler
Emojis have grown in popularity as a method for digital communication. Recently, there has been interest in the connection between emojis and emotional response to consumer products. Research has been conducted linking emojis and the emotional response from food stimuli in adults via avenues such as Twitter, and in children. An online study was conducted to assess the application of an emoji-based pictorial facial scale with childFrren ages 8-11 (grades 3rd, 4th, and 5th). Two hundred and fourteen participants were asked to evaluate their liking and emotional response using the Peryam and Kroll (P&K) scale (super good/super bad) and pictorial emoji scale, respectively, for both food and non-food experiences. Scores from each grade level were not statistically different. The responses from both scales had similar mean scores and distribution patterns for all experiences with no incidence of bias toward any one emoji. These results support the suitability of the emoji scale for measuring emotional response using verbal stimuli names with children ages 8 to 11 in the United States and indicate it is a reasonable alternative to the P&K scale for this demographic.
How young people in Finland respond to information about the origin of food products: The role of value orientations and product type Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Tommi Kumpulainen, Annukka Vainio, Mari Sandell, Anu Hopia
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of personal values and product type in an experimental study / survey concerning food origins. Two studies were conducted among young consumers (N = 1491) using three different types of products (vegetables, bread, and meat) and an experimental design where information about the food origin varied (neutral, domestic, local). The origin of the food had a positive effect on the product experience and food choices. Value orientations had an effect on the product experience and the likelihood of choosing the product, and this effect was dependent on the product type. More specifically, a Self-Transcendence orientation was positively associated with the product experience in the context of vegetables and a Conservation orientation was positively associated with the product experience in the context of meat, however, the value orientations showed no effect in the context of bread. Individuals regarding Self-Transcendence as important, especially valued a local origin in the context of vegetables and meat. The findings regarding a Conservation orientation were less consistent. These findings indicate that knowing the origin adds some value to the product for young people. Even if the product is not necessarily in line with an individual’s values, the origin may in fact exceed the effect of the product type. The study provides further knowledge about the underlying factors explaining consumer choices on a personal level, especially when extrinsic information cues about food origin are available.
Degree of satisfaction-difference (DOSD) method for measuring consumer acceptance: Comparative and absolute measures of satisfaction based on signal detection theory Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.652) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Min-A Kim, Danielle Van Hout, Hye-Seong Lee
Recently, we have proposed the degree of satisfaction-difference (DOSD) method to measure changes in consumer product acceptance (Kim, van Hout, Dessirier, & Lee, 2018). The DOSD method utilizes A-Not A with reminder format to improve the stability and validity of the consumer evaluation by reminding consumers of the evaluative criteria with the reference sampling and by controlling the sequence effects on each sampling of the blind test product. Using the data obtained from DOSD method, in this paper, a way to compute a measure of the absolute degree of satisfaction for a product based on signal detection theory (SDT), referred to as d'SAT (d-prime satisfaction), is suggested. This new measure is compared to the comparative distance measure of d', the degree of satisfaction difference of a product from the reference product, which has been already described in the previous study. The absolute satisfaction degree is a value indicating each product’s degree of consumer satisfaction as in the hedonic score. However, the degree of satisfaction measure presented herein is superior to the hedonic score because it enables easy interpretation of whether a group of consumers are satisfied or not with a product. In practical situations, the two measures of the degree of satisfaction difference from the reference and the degree of satisfaction, which are computed using the data from DOSD method, can be used complementarily in order to reveal information about consumer perception and evaluation.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Acc. Chem. Res.
- ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
- ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.
- ACS Catal.
- ACS Cent. Sci.
- ACS Chem. Biol.
- ACS Chem. Neurosci.
- ACS Comb. Sci.
- ACS Earth Space Chem.
- ACS Energy Lett.
- ACS Infect. Dis.
- ACS Macro Lett.
- ACS Med. Chem. Lett.
- ACS Nano
- ACS Omega
- ACS Photonics
- ACS Sens.
- ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
- ACS Synth. Biol.
- Acta Biomater.
- Acta Crystallogr. A Found. Adv.
- Acta Mater.
- Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Adv. Electron. Mater.
- Adv. Energy Mater.
- Adv. Funct. Mater.
- Adv. Healthcare Mater.
- Adv. Mater.
- Adv. Mater. Interfaces
- Adv. Opt. Mater.
- Adv. Sci.
- Adv. Synth. Catal.
- AlChE J.
- Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
- Anal. Chem.
- Anal. Chim. Acta
- Anal. Methods
- Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
- Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.
- Annu. Rev. Biochem.
- Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour.
- Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol.
- Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.
- Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
- Appl. Catal. A Gen.
- Appl. Catal. B Environ.
- Appl. Clay. Sci.
- Appl. Energy
- Aquat. Toxicol.
- Arab. J. Chem.
- Asian J. Org. Chem.
- Atmos. Environ.
- Carbohydr. Polym.
- Catal. Commun.
- Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng.
- Catal. Sci. Technol.
- Catal. Today
- Cell Chem. Bio.
- Cem. Concr. Res.
- Ceram. Int.
- Chem. Asian J.
- Chem. Bio. Drug Des.
- Chem. Biol. Interact.
- Chem. Commun.
- Chem. Educ. Res. Pract.
- Chem. Eng. J.
- Chem. Eng. Sci.
- Chem. Eur. J.
- Chem. Mater.
- Chem. Phys.
- Chem. Phys. Lett.
- Chem. Phys. Lipids
- Chem. Rev.
- Chem. Sci.
- Chem. Soc. Rev.
- Chin. J. Chem.
- Combust. Flame
- Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf.
- Compos. Sci. Technol.
- Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf.
- Comput. Chem. Eng.
- Constr. Build. Mater.
- Coordin. Chem. Rev.
- Corros. Sci.
- Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.
- Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Cryst. Growth Des.
- Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng.
- Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain
- Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Ecotox. Environ. Safe.
- Electrochem. Commun.
- Electrochim. Acta
- Energy Environ. Sci.
- Energy Fuels
- Energy Storage Mater.
- Environ. Impact Assess. Rev.
- Environ. Int.
- Environ. Model. Softw.
- Environ. Pollut.
- Environ. Res.
- Environ. Sci. Policy
- Environ. Sci. Technol.
- Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett.
- Environ. Sci.: Nano
- Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts
- Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol.
- Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.
- Eur. J. Med. Chem.
- Eur. J. Org. Chem.
- Eur. Polym. J.
- J. Acad. Nutr. Diet.
- J. Agric. Food Chem.
- J. Alloys Compd.
- J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Am. Chem. Soc.
- J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
- J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol.
- J. Anal. At. Spectrom.
- J. Antibiot.
- J. Catal.
- J. Chem. Educ.
- J. Chem. Eng. Data
- J. Chem. Inf. Model.
- J. Chem. Phys.
- J. Chem. Theory Comput.
- J. Chromatogr. A
- J. Chromatogr. B
- J. Clean. Prod.
- J. CO2 UTIL.
- J. Colloid Interface Sci.
- J. Comput. Chem.
- J. Cryst. Growth
- J. Dairy Sci.
- J. Electroanal. Chem.
- J. Electrochem. Soc.
- J. Environ. Manage.
- J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Fluorine Chem.
- J. Food Drug Anal.
- J. Food Eng.
- J. Food Sci.
- J. Funct. Foods
- J. Hazard. Mater.
- J. Heterocycl. Chem.
- J. Hydrol.
- J. Ind. Eng. Chem.
- J. Inorg. Biochem.
- J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
- J. Mater. Chem. A
- J. Mater. Chem. B
- J. Mater. Chem. C
- J. Mater. Process. Tech.
- J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
- J. Med. Chem.
- J. Membr. Sci.
- J. Mol. Catal. A Chem.
- J. Mol. Liq.
- J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
- J. Nat. Prod.
- J. Nucl. Mater.
- J. Org. Chem.
- J. Photochem. Photobiol. C Photochem. Rev.
- J. Phys. Chem. A
- J. Phys. Chem. B
- J. Phys. Chem. C
- J. Phys. Chem. Lett.
- J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.
- J. Porphyr. Phthalocyanines
- J. Power Sources
- J. Solid State Chem.
- J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E.
- Macromol. Rapid Commun.
- Mass Spectrom. Rev.
- Mater. Chem. Front.
- Mater. Des.
- Mater. Horiz.
- Mater. Lett.
- Mater. Sci. Eng. A
- Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep.
- Mater. Today
- Meat Sci.
- Med. Chem. Commun.
- Microchem. J.
- Microchim. Acta
- Micropor. Mesopor. Mater.
- Mol. Biosyst.
- Mol. Cancer Ther.
- Mol. Catal.
- Mol. Nutr. Food Res.
- Mol. Pharmaceutics
- Mol. Syst. Des. Eng.
- Nano Energy
- Nano Lett.
- Nano Res.
- Nano Today
- Nano-Micro Lett.
- Nanomed. Nanotech. Biol. Med.
- Nanoscale Horiz.
- Nat. Catal.
- Nat. Chem.
- Nat. Chem. Biol.
- Nat. Commun.
- Nat. Energy
- Nat. Mater.
- Nat. Med.
- Nat. Methods
- Nat. Nanotech.
- Nat. Photon.
- Nat. Prod. Rep.
- Nat. Protoc.
- Nat. Rev. Chem.
- Nat. Rev. Drug. Disc.
- Nat. Rev. Mater.
- Natl. Sci. Rev.
- Neurochem. Int.
- New J. Chem.
- NPG Asia Mater.
- npj 2D Mater. Appl.
- npj Comput. Mater.
- npj Flex. Electron.
- npj Mater. Degrad.
- npj Sci. Food
- Pharmacol. Rev.
- Pharmacol. Therapeut.
- Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
- Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
- Phys. Life Rev.
- PLOS ONE
- Polym. Chem.
- Polym. Degrad. Stabil.
- Polym. J.
- Polym. Rev.
- Powder Technol.
- Proc. Combust. Inst.
- Prog. Cryst. Growth Ch. Mater.
- Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
- Prog. Mater. Sci.
- Prog. Photovoltaics
- Prog. Polym. Sci.
- Prog. Solid State Chem.