Shopping for Products in a Virtual World: Why Haptics and Visuals are Equally Important in Shaping Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Rachelle de Vries, Gerry Jager, Irene Tijssen, Elizabeth H. Zandstra
Although touchscreens are quickly becoming the primary means of accessing content online, research into influences of touch interfaces on online consumer perceptions and behaviors is at present limited. This study investigated whether varying the degree of interface touch (i.e., ‘direct’ touchscreen vs. ‘indirect’ mouse) elicits differences in perceived psychological ownership and endowment of chosen products – taking into account potential moderating roles of object interactivity (i.e., static 2D vs. rotating 360° 3D product images) and autotelic “Need For Touch” [NFT], as well as additional effects on online shopping enjoyment. Findings from an online grocery shopping experiment confirm a meaningful interaction between touchscreen interfaces and high interactivity images in increasing ownership feelings and subsequent product valuations across food product types. Results showed no evidence for a main effect of interface touch nor moderating role of autotelic NFT on perceived psychological ownership. However, both interface touch and object interactivity predicted online shopping enjoyment independent of product category, with individuals – especially those high in autotelic NFT – experiencing greater enjoyment within the touchscreen and high interactivity conditions respectively.
Selection Attributes of Home Meal Replacement by Food-related Lifestyles of Single-person Households in South Korea Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Soyeong Kim, Kiwon Lee, Youngmi Lee
This study aims to characterize the food-related lifestyles of single-person households as home meal replacement (HMR) consumers and to investigate socio-economic dimensions and selection attribute characteristics for HMR according to consumers’ food-related lifestyles. We identified three groups by factor and cluster analysis: “utilitarians” (19.3%), “health-conscious utilitarians” (22.2%), and “variety seekers” (58.5%). Utilitarians are typically in their 20s, unmarried, and unemployed with relatively lower monthly incomes compared with the other groups. They put less attention on trend and quality, but consider convenience and economic value more important when purchasing HMR products. Health-conscious utilitarians are typically married and in their 40s and 50s. They still consider convenience and economic value of HMR products, but the quality of HMR products is the most important factor for them. Finally, variety seekers are relatively well educated, and proportionately more are employed compared with the other groups. They find the trendiness of HMR products more important, although quality, convenience, and economic value are still a consideration for them. Therefore, differentiated strategies are needed to develop and market HMR for single-person households.
Chinese consumers and shellfish: Associations between perception, quality, attitude and consumption Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Ou Wang, Simon Somogyi
This study explores the associations between Chinese consumers’ product attribute perceptions and their quality perceptions, attitudes and consumptions toward shellfish. It also presents information regarding their consumption, attitudes and segmentation for twelve shellfish species. Data was collected through an online survey with 643 consumers from three cities: Beijing, Guangzhou and Chongqing. Chinese consumers had low consumption but positive attitudes toward the twelve shellfish species and two consumer segments were recognized: frequent-eaters (42%) and less-frequent-eaters (58%). Significant differences were found in personal income, occupation and attitudes toward specific shellfish species between these two segments. The consumption of shellfish was positively linked to ‘familiarity’ and negatively linked with ‘purchase convenience’, ‘safety’ and ‘consumption place (home)’. The attitude toward shellfish was positively associated with ‘familiarity’, ‘sensory attributes’, ‘consumption accompany’ and ‘consumption (restaurant)’. The quality perception of shellfish was positively linked with ‘freshness’, ‘ethic’ and ‘mood’. There were differences in the product attribute perceptions associated with quality perceptions, attitudes and consumption toward shellfish between the two consumer segments.
Rapid sensory profiles with DISTATIS and Barycentric Text Projection: an example with amari, bitter herbal liqueurs Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Jacob Lahne, Hervé Abdi, Hildegarde Heymann
The sorting task is popular with sensory scientists because it provides rapid sensory profiles, even when product sets are complex or fatiguing. However, these sensory profiles generally cannot identify which sensory properties are driving subjects' perception of product similarities or differences—a critical task for the sensory analyst. This paper presents DISTATIS with Barycentric Text Projection as a solution that combines sorting-task and free-text data into a single-pass analysis to generate rapid, descriptive sensory profiles. This method is illustrated with a dataset generated by 25 subjects performing a replicated sorting and free-text description task in standard sensory-laboratory conditions on a set of 12 amari—bitter, herbal liqueurs that have not been previously analyzed in the sensory-science literature. DISTATIS with Barycentric Text Projection of the amari set produced sensory product maps that were readily interpretable. Using this analysis, the amari were grouped and described in ways that correspond to the available, popular literature descriptions of these products. The results of Barycentric Text Projection were compared to an independent Correspondence Analysis (CA) of the free-text data, and results were highly similar (RV=.93 R V = . 93 ). Future extensions of the method—such as analysis of descriptors in a check-all-that-apply (CATA) approach—are discussed. Overall, the successful, rapid, descriptive profiling of a set of 12 complex products using an untrained panel supports the potential of DISTATIS with Barycentric Text Projection as a sensory-evaluation tool.
When the choice of the temporal method does make a difference: TCATA, TDS and TDS by modality for characterizing semi-solid foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Quoc Cuong Nguyen, Tormod Næs, Paula Varela
For describing the evolution of sensory properties during eating, dynamic sensory methods are still being developed and optimised. Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Temporal Check All That Apply (TCATA) are currently the most used and discussed. The aim of this study was to compare TDS, TCATA and a variant of TDS, performed by modality (M-TDS) in the outcome of the dynamic sensory description. These methods were applied with the same trained panel (n = 10) for the evaluation of the dynamic properties of yoghurt samples, with identical composition, only varying in textural properties. Based on a design of experiment, the yoghurts varied in viscosity (thin/thick), size of cereal particle added (flour/flakes) and flavour intensity (low dose/optimised dose, by adding artificial sweetener and vanilla). The TDS curves revealed that the variation in viscosity and particle size led to differences in perception mainly at the beginning of the eating process (Thin/Thick and Gritty/Sandy). Additionally, all samples were also perceived as Bitter at the end of the eating process. TCATA and TDS by modality results were, generally, in agreement with TDS, but they unveiled more details of the samples’ dynamic profiles in all stages of the eating process, showing the effect of Vanilla and Sweet for the samples with optimised flavour, and the masked perception of Bitter. The duration of the eating process was standardized and split into three time intervals (T0-T40, T41-T80, T81-T100). Panelists’ responses were summarized as frequency values in each time interval. Principal Component Analysis was used to visualize sample trajectories over time in the sensory space, with the need to study up to the third dimension to better understand the trajectories. ANOVA models were used to find the attributes which were significantly differences among products. Panel performance was assessed based on MANOVA models for the three methods. The results indicated that TCATA was more discriminative and panelists were more in agreement. TCATA also described samples in more detail in terms of number of discriminating attributes as compared with TDS. The discussion also centers in the different aspects of perception that could respond to different research questions for the three compared methods.
The influence of front-of-package nutrition claims on food perceptions and purchase intentions among Nepali consumers1 Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-30 Andrew D. Menger-Ogle, Dan J. Graham
Obesity is increasing in countries undergoing nutrition transition (e.g., Nepal) largely due to changing food environments. Food choices are influenced by marketing and packaging, including front-of-pack nutrition claims (FOPNCs). Although FOPNCs can help consumers identify healthful foods, these claims can also lead consumers to unduly attribute healthfulness to unhealthful food products. This study investigated the effects of FOPNCs on consumers' purchase intentions and product perceptions of snack foods. Participants were 239 adult shoppers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Participants viewing product images rated purchase intentions and seven product perceptions (e.g., healthfulness, tastiness). Participants reported their two most important shopping priorities, and explained why they found a specific FOPNC to be useful/truthful or not. Path analyses of multiple mediation models showed that FOPNCs most often influenced the product perception of healthful for children, while product perceptions of tasty and adults like it were most predictive of purchase intention. Inductive thematic analysis of open-ended responses identified various reasons for trust and skepticism in FOPNCs. FOPNCs were largely described as useful, despite their inconsistent influence on perceptions. Thematic analysis of shopping priorities resulted in 10 themes; the three most prevalent were quality, familiarity, and taste. Only 12% of reported shopping priorities appeared to motivate the use of FOPNCs (i.e., health and nutrition and package labeling). Evidence that FOPNCs create health halos for snack foods did emerge. However, FOPNCs' inconsistent or absent impact on most product perceptions and purchase intentions suggest that FOPNCs are not a primary contributor to increasing obesity during Nepal’s nutrition transition.
Discard Intentions are Lower for Milk Presented in Containers without Date Labels Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-24 Brian E Roe, David M Phinney, Christopher T Simons, Aishwarya S Badiger, Kathryn E.Bender, Dennis R.Heldman
Eighty-eight regular milk drinkers were presented whole fat pasteurized cow’s milk stored at 4 degrees Celsius in plastic containers for 15, 25, 30 and 40 days after commercial bottling. Subjects opened and smelled individual half-gallon containers presented in two sets of four that were identical except one set featured a sell-by label with a date set to 18 days post-bottling, while the other set lacked label dates and related language. 48.9% of respondents indicated they would discard milk featuring a date label if it were in their home refrigerator while 38.1% indicated the same for milk lacking date labels, which equates to a 28% increase in discard intention attributable to the presence of a date label. Among containers with milk 25, 30 and 40 days post bottling, 64.0% of respondents intended to discard milk in containers with date labels while 45.8% intended to discard milk in containers without such labels, which is a 40% increase in discard intentions for milk that is putatively ‘past date’ among commercial bottlers. Multivariate analysis reveals that discard intentions are lower among participants with higher incomes and fewer household members, but revealed no other significant correlations with personal or household characteristics. Given that the date labeling on pasteurized milk is not designed to address safety concerns, and given the high level of consumer milk waste in many developed countries, these results suggest further innovation in milk labeling may support improved sustainability by reducing the discard rate of milk attributable to sell-by date labels.
Emotional response to wine: sensory properties, age and gender as drivers of consumers’ preferences Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 M. Mora, E. Urdaneta, C. Chaya
Previous research has shown the relevance of studying consumers’ emotional response to products for product development and as a marketing tool to attract the widest range of consumers. This study aims (1) to explain the relationship between emotional and sensory traits of wine products and (2) to understand the effect of gender and age in wine preferences and evoked emotions. Six different commercial wines with very different sensory properties were selected. Sensory analyses performed by a trained panel of 11 assessors were used to describe wines. Degree of liking and emotional response were rated by a consumer panel (n=208) drawn from different age segments using a modified version of EsSense25. The results showed that EsSense25 was able to measure emotional response in the set of studied wines. Also, sensory and emotional profiles of the same set of wines revealed a relationship between attributes like fruity and floral and positive emotions, and liquorice, clove and vanilla and neutral and negative emotions. Differences in emotional response by gender and age were found: in general, men reported higher scores on significant emotions than women for all the wines, but women, although they gave generally lower ratings than men, reported greater differences between the wines and were able to discriminate among the wines regarding emotions such as joyful. Also, regarding age segments, all of the wines evoked significantly higher scores in older adults than in middle-aged and young adults for most emotional terms. However, young adults showed higher discrimination between wines than the other age groups, in terms of emotional responses towards the set of wines tested in this study.
Does Food Disgust Sensitivity Influence Eating Behaviour? Experimental Validation of the Food Disgust Scale Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Jeanine Ammann, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist
Tools that specifically measure food disgust sensitivity are scarce. This gap has been successfully filled with the recently developed eight-item version of the Food Disgust Scale (FDS short). In the present study, we tested the validity of this measure with three behavioural tasks that we designed. Participants (N = 108) filled in questionnaires before they tried three products as part of a behavioural task covered as tasting experiment. We presented these products with written scenarios, which aimed to induce disgust. For all three tasks, we found a significant correlation between the amount participants consumed and their FDS short score. In the first task, we presented participants with a meat product (r = -.34, p < .001); in the second task, it was a banana juice (rs = -.26, p < .01); and in the final task, we presented participants with an insect product (rs = -.51, p < .001). A regression analysis confirmed that participants’ FDS short score acted as a significant predictor for eating behaviour in the meat (ß = -0.26, p < .05) and the chocolate task (odds ratio = 0.51), however, it did not reach statistical significance in the juice task (odds ratio = 0.66). In this paper, we present two important findings. First, we provide evidence for the influence of food disgust sensitivity on people’s eating behaviour as measured by the amount they consumed. Second, and more importantly, our data support the incremental validity of the FDS short as assessed through its correlation with three behavioural tasks and provide evidence for the suitability of self-report measures such as the FDS short.
Drinking Tea Improves the Performance of Divergent Creativity Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Yan Huang, Yera Choe, Soomin Lee, Enzhe Wang, Yuanzhi Wu, Lei Wang
Previous research has found that tea improves performance on convergent creativity tasks, such as the Remote Associates Test, by inducing a positive mood. However, there is no empirical evidence regarding the effect of tea drinking on performance in divergent creativity tasks. Using two experiments, the current research investigates the relationship between tea consumption and divergent creativity. In both experiments, participants were randomly assigned to two groups and implicitly manipulated to drink tea or water. In experiment 1 (N=50), we used a block-building task as a measure of divergent creativity in spatial cognition. The results showed that the participants who drank tea performed better in the spatial creativity task assigned in the 10 minutes immediately following tea consumption than did those who drank water. In experiment 2 (N=40), we adopted the restaurant naming task as a measure of divergent creativity in semantic cognition. The results showed that the participants who drank tea received higher scores in the semantic creativity task compared to those who drank water. The current research demonstrates that drinking tea can improve creative performance with divergent thinking. This work contributes to understanding the function of tea on creativity and offers a new way to investigate the relationship between food and beverage consumption and the improvement of human cognition.
Consumers' attitudes and change of attitude toward 3D-printed food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Thomas A. Brunner, Mathilde. Delley, Christoph. Denkel
3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, offers a wide range of new possibilities within the food industry. From the realisation of complex food designs to the automated preparation of personalised meals, 3D printers promise many innovations in the food manufacturing, retail and catering sectors. Because the successful launch of foods made using a novel technology needs to be accompanied by targeted communication, a careful assessment of consumers’ perception, needs and apprehensions is required. The present study aims to explore consumers’ attitude formation and evolution toward this technology and resulting food concepts. Data were collected through a postal survey sent out to a sample of 2047 German-speaking residents from Switzerland, yielding a final sample size of N = 260. Participants’ attitudes were assessed at the beginning and end of the survey. Three consecutive multiple regression analyses helped analyse the initial attitude, the final attitude and the attitude change determinants that were assessed. Participants’ self-assessment revealed a varied but overall relatively low initial knowledge level of 3D-printed food. Because the first impression has been proven to be decisive in attitude formation, this lack of knowledge allowed us to test the effect of targeted information, and we succeeded in overcoming food neophobia and convincing consumers that this technology can support them in the preparation of healthy and individualised meals while adding a playful dimension to food preparation. The information given, however, failed to overcome food technology neophobia. Avenues for the development and testing of adapted communication concepts are discussed.
Does information on equivalence of standards direct choice? Evidence for organic labels from different countries-of-origin Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Ching-Hua Yeh, Monika Hartmann, Stefan Hirsch
We examine whether an equality of organic standards (EqualOrganic) information treatment impacts Taiwanese consumers’ food preference and purchasing behavior. EqualOrganic implies that regardless of products’ country-of-origin (COO), organic certifications are based on the same production regulation and managerial processes. We apply discrete choice experiments combined with a propensity score matching approach that ensures structural sample balance between EqualOrganic-treated and non-treated consumers. The analysis is based on fresh sweet pepper purchase decisions of 800 Taiwanese consumers. Results indicate that participants’ product choice was sensitive to EqualOrganic information treatment, though different than expected. Information on the equality of organic standards significantly further increased the purchase likelihood for Taiwan-origin organic products, while the opposite effect is detected for Chinese organic products. In addition, we observe an increase in the utility of the opt-out option in the information treatment group. Provision of information thus failed to assure consumers about the equality of organic standards. Instead there is some indication that it eased accessibility of pre-existing doubts about the reliability and trustworthiness of products originating from China. We discuss these findings from a policy and marketing perspective.
Ignorant Experts and Erudite Novices: Exploring the Dunning-Kruger Effect in Wine Consumers Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Claudio Aqueveque
Research devoted to identify differences between expert and non-expert consumers in terms of wine quality perceptions, preferences, and information use and processing, have been prolific during the last decade. Many of these studies have used subjective or self-reported measures of knowledge to distinguish between expert and non-expert consumers. However, this approach can be problematic due to the existence of the Dunning-Kruger effect, a cognitive bias in which incompetent or unaware subjects tend to overestimate their knowledge or expertise, whereas high-ability individuals tend to underestimate it. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of this cognitive bias within the wine-knowledge domain. Using a sample of wine consumers (n = 193) and through different statistical analyses, the presence of the Dunning-Kruger effect was confirmed, raising important concerns regarding the use of subjective or self-reported measures of knowledge to classify consumers as experts or non-experts.
Emoji questionnaires can be used with a range of population segments: findings relating to age, gender and frequency of emoji/emoticon use Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Sara R. Jaeger, Yixun Xia, Pui-Yee Lee, Denise C. Hunter, Michelle K. Beresford, Gastón Ares
The assessment of emoji questionnaires as a method in food-related consumer research is furthered by this methodological study aimed at exploring the extent to which they can be used with a range of population segments. In the first part of the paper, a web-based survey was implemented to assess differences in the interpretation of 33 facial emoji using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question. Results showed that while emoji interpretation was not influenced by age and frequency of emoji/emoticon use in computer-mediated communications, age-related differences existed for a few emoji. In the second part of the paper, differences in the completion of emoji questionnaires used to measure product-elicited emotional associations were assessed across four studies involving the evaluation of written stimuli and tasted food samples. Gender and age did not influence consumer ability to describe and discriminate between stimuli, eliciting emoji profiles that were highly similar. Among more frequent users of emoji/emoticon, the average number of emoji used to characterise the stimuli was significant higher than among less frequent users, and there was a tendency toward greater discrimination, but the differences were small and of little concern regarding ability of the less frequent emoji/emoticon users’ ability to perform the research task. The findings of this research provide preliminary evidence about the suitability of emoji surveys to measure product-related emotional associations with different consumer populations.
Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Luz Verastegui-Tena, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman
It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion. Appraisals are components of emotion that are automatic and unconscious. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants’ expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
European Consumer Healthiness Evaluation of ‘Free-from’ Labelled Food Products Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Christina Hartmann, Sophie Hieke, Camille Taper, Michael Siegrist
This study aimed to find out how “free-from labelling” shapes consumers’ perception of food products and whether the absence of an ingredient is considered an indicator of improved nutritional value of the product. An online survey was conducted in four European countries: the United Kingdom, Sweden, Poland, and France (overall N = 1950). Four “free-from labels” (lactose-free, gluten-free, GMO-free, and palm oil-free) were tested using different product categories that these labels typically appear on. Healthiness perception was evaluated by comparing products with the free-from labels to identical products without the labels. Potential predictors for healthiness evaluation and intention to pay a price premium were assessed, including nutrition knowledge, information-seeking on food packages, preference for food naturalness, general health interest, trust in actors in the food domain, and affect regarding the absent ingredients. Products with a free-from label were considered healthier than products without such a label, with the strongest effects occurring for labels indicating that products were free of GMOs and free of palm oil. Some differences were observed among countries in the evaluation of the product-label combinations. Information-seeking, nutrition knowledge, and affect were significant predictors of healthiness evaluation. Furthermore, healthiness evaluation, information-seeking, nutrition knowledge, and preference for naturalness predicted intention to pay a price premium for products labelled free-from. When shaping consumers’ food shopping behaviour using certain food labels, it is important to know how consumers interpret those labels. A false interpretation of labels might lead to unintended changes in consumer behaviour.
Multidimensional measurement of individual differences in taste perception Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Sari Puputti, Heikki Aisala, Ulla Hoppu, Mari Sandell
Individual taste sensitivity has been claimed to affect food consumption and health. The methods used to assess taste sensitivity are various and thus, cause conflicting results. Thresholds, PROP intensity or fungiform papillae density only partly describe taste function. They may not relate to the actual taste perception in food because of compounds, concentration levels, or the measurement levels used. The objective of the study was to measure individual taste function extensively. With hierarchical clustering, we aimed to reveal taste sensitivity groups among people. Another aim was to investigate the associations between taste qualities. In addition, an overall taste sensitivity score was determined to analyze the generalized taste sensitivity. The sensory study was carried out with Finnish volunteers (N = 205, age 19-79, 80% females). Citric acid, caffeine, sucrose, NaCl, and MSG were used as the prototypic taste compounds. The subjects rated the intensity of five concentration levels of each tastant. Hierarchical clustering made it possible to analyze the complex data. The results of clustering were distinctive for taste modalities and the number of subjects in the clusters varied. In general, the clusters could be labeled as more sensitive, semi-sensitive, and less sensitive tasters. In bitter and umami tastes one cluster consisted of hyposensitive subjects.The membership in a taste cluster could be partly predicted by the sensitivity to other taste modalities. This study showed that a minority may be hyper- or hyposensitive to all taste modalities. On the other hand, the majority, the semi-sensitive tasters, can be a very heterogeneous group.
The role of aromatic similarity in food and beverage pairing Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 A. Eschevins, A. Giboreau, T. Allard, C. Dacremont
Aromatic similarity is often mentioned by culinary experts and Sommeliers as a basic principle for matching food and beverages. The aim of this study was to investigate how this pairing principle modulates consumers’ judgment of pairings. Two kinds of beverage-food pairing were considered: syrup based lemon soft drink paired with aromatized dairy product (experiment 1) and beer flavoured with either lemon or smoky aroma paired with savoury verrines (experiment 2). In each experiment the flavoured drinks were associated with food flavoured with either the same aroma or another one, leading to two contrasting levels of aromatic similarity. We hypothesized that aromatic similarity would increase the liking of the pairing by increasing perceived harmony and homogeneity and decreasing complexity. Pairings were assessed by a group of about 50 participants in a within experimental design. Experiment 1 confirmed our hypotheses. The pair that shared an aroma was preferred over the pair with different aromas. Aromatic similarity also increased the pairing’s perceived harmony and homogeneity and decreased the pairing’s complexity. Experiment 2 also supported our hypothesis but to a lesser extent. For lemon beer pairings, aromatic similarity induced an increase in harmony and homogeneity but did not affect complexity. In contrast, for smoky beer pairings, aromatic similarity did not affect harmony or homogeneity but induced a decrease in complexity. Moreover no effect or only a marginal effect was observed on liking. We suggest a model that could account for these results in which aromatic similarity would impact liking of the pair by modulating collative properties, specifically harmony and complexity, of the food-beverage pairing.
“Dior, J’adore”: The role of contextual information of luxury on emotional responses to perfumes Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-09 Tiffany Baer, Géraldine Coppin, Christelle Porcherot, Isabelle Cayeux, David Sander, Sylvain Delplanque
Luxury conveys values of quality and rarity and holds a particular emotional meaning. Yet, studies conducted on the impact of contextual information of luxury on emotional responses to products remain scarce. In this study, we tested whether contextual information, in particular evoking luxury, could influence emotional responses to perfumes, which are known to be powerful elicitors of emotion. More specifically, we measured the subjective, physiological, and expressive components of participants’ emotional responses. We conducted an experiment in which participants had to smell and assess perfumed pens as well as blank pens (i.e., without perfume) presented either in a luxurious context (i.e., name, brand and bottle), a non-luxurious one, or no information. Results indicated that participants tended to rate perfumes as more pleasant and rated them as more familiar when presented in a luxurious context than in a non-luxurious one or without context, and the blank pen as more irritating in a non-luxurious context than in a luxurious one. However, we did not find evidence of a significant contextual information effect on expressive or physiological indicators. Our findings suggest that contextual information of luxury can moderately influence the subjective component of participants’ emotional responses, while no evidence for such effect was found with respect to the physiological and expressive components.
Replicates in sensory profiling: Quantification of the impact of moving from two to one assessments Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Mireille Moser, Mélissa Lepage, Nicolas Pineau, Laurence Fillion, Andreas Rytz
Sensory descriptive profiling is a sensory method commonly used in the food industry to describe products’ sensory characteristics. The usual recommendation is to use a panel of trained panelists, generally around twelve, and to assess the products at least in duplicate (ISO 13299:2016) to get robust average estimates. In practice, in order to optimize the use of the panels, the necessity of duplicates was challenged. This work presents a comparison of results obtained with one vs. two assessments, based on 15 studies featuring at least 8 products each, representing diverse product categories, diverse panels, a total of 309 attributes and 2836 comparisons of product pairs. It is shown that average estimates are very similar for one vs. two assessments: correlations are very high for all attributes that discriminate products. It is also shown that 89.4% of pairwise comparisons lead to the same conclusions for one and two assessments. The remaining 10.6% are misbalanced showing more significant comparisons with 2 assessments than with 1 (8.0%) more often than the reverse (2.6%). As a conclusion, one assessment is considered sufficient in most cases, provided that the sensory panel has been sufficiently well-trained.
Nutritional warnings and product substitution or abandonment: Policy implications derived from a repeated purchase simulation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Gastón Ares, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, María Rosa Curutchet, Lucía Antúnez, Leandro Machín, Leticia Vidal, Joseline Martínez, Ana Giménez
Nutritional warnings have been recently proposed as an interpretative front-of-package nutrition labelling scheme to highlight unhealthful products. This scheme is particularly relevant in food markets characterized by a high availability of processed products with unfavourable nutrient profile. However, it remains unclear to what extent, how and under which circumstances warnings on food packages can change consumers’ food choices. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of nutritional warnings on consumers’ purchase decisions by exploring within-category product substitution or abandonment of the category, as well as to identify consumer groups that differ in reaction to the warnings. A repeated purchase simulation was conducted with 395 Uruguayan consumers. Participants were asked to complete two successive choice-tasks with eight product-categories. Results showed that warnings modified the choices of approximately half of the participants. Within-category product substitution was the most common change in participants’ choices. However, abandonment was the dominant effect in categories for which all products included at least one warning. Consumers reacting more strongly to the warnings were characterized by greater health motivation. These results confirm the potential of nutritional warnings to encourage consumers to make more healthful choices, point to the market potential of reformulated products, and stress the need for policy makers to increase consumer’s health motivation.
Training of a Dutch and Malaysian sensory panel to assess intensities of basic tastes and fat sensation of commonly consumed foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-05 Pey Sze Teo, Astrid W.B. van Langeveld, Korrie Pol, Els Siebelink, Cees de Graaf, Christophe Martin, Sylvie Issanchou, See Wan Yan, Monica Mars
Taste has a nutrient sensing function and guides food choices. Therefore, investigating taste profiles of dietary patterns – within and across cultures – is highly relevant for nutritional research. However, this demands for accurately described food-taste databases, which are supported with data on the reliability and performance of the sensory panel that determined the taste values. This study aimed to assess the performance of a trained Dutch and Malaysian sensory panel. More importantly, we assessed whether the standardized training procedure in the two countries yielded similar taste profiles with respect to 15 basic taste solutions, and 19 foods differing in tastes. A Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) were trained for 56–63 h, using basic taste solutions and reference foods on 6 scales, i.e. sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation. Performance of both panels was described by discrimination, repeatability (RMSE), and agreement. Nineteen products with different sensory characteristics were profiled in the Netherlands and Malaysia; subsequently the obtained taste profiles were compared. Both panels were able to discriminate between solutions and products (all p < .001). A vast majority of the taste values could be reproduced; the RMSEs of the different taste values varied between 2.3 and 13.3%. Panel agreement was achieved after the training with solutions; however not for all attributes of the reference foods. Some taste values of the 19 foods were significantly different, however most of these differences were small (<10 points). Our descriptive training procedure yielded two panels from different cultures that were similar in panel performance. More importantly, they obtained similar taste profiles for 19 different foods. This implies that food-taste databases obtained with valid and standardized training procedures may be used to quantify the sensory profiles of dietary patterns of populations.
Images and chocolate stimuli affect physiological and affective responses of consumers: A cross-cultural study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-29 Damir Dennis Torrico, Sigfredo Fuentes, Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Hollis Ashman, Nadeesha M. Gunaratne, Thejani M. Gunaratne, Frank R. Dunshea
Sensory evaluation relies on explicit responses from consumers. Unconscious responses may complement the information regarding the emotional states of consumers. In this study, physiological, facial expression and sensory/emotional responses to different visual (images) and chocolate stimuli were evaluated using two groups (participants with Asian and Western backgrounds). Panellists (N=60; 60% Asian-background and 40% Western-background) evaluated 15 images (5-positive/5-neutral/5-negative) and 4 chocolate samples (milk/60%-cocoa/70%-cocoa/candy-inclusions). Consumers assessed their emotions (3-point scale) and liking (9-point scale). Non-invasive peripheral skin temperature (ST), heart rate (BPM), and facial expressions using FaceReaderTM (FR) were assessed. Western-background participants showed similar heart rate (55-59 vs. 54-59) and temperature (0.6-1.5 °C difference) compared to Asian-background participants for images and chocolate samples. BPM (54-59) was not different among stimuli. Consumer emotions (images=-0.87 to 1.00 and chocolate=0.27 to 0.60) and liking (chocolate=5.20 to 6.33) were evaluated for both groups. For Asian-background participants, ST was positively correlated to FR-happy (r=0.45) and negatively correlated to FR-angry (r=-0.23) and FR-sad (r=-0.20). For Western-background participants, ST was positively correlated to FR-sad (r=0.23) and negatively correlated to FR-angry (r=-0.35). Cultural differences were found when assessing images based on sensory responses. These findings will be useful to better understand acceptability based on unconscious and emotional responses.
Correlation of consumer perception of stickiness and contributing texture attributes to trained panelist temporal evaluations in a caramel system Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-26 Emily J. Mayhew, Shelly J. Schmidt, Pascal Schlich, Soo-Yeun Lee
Stickiness is a critical, but complex attribute with relevance to many food systems. Consumer perception of stickiness is subjective and variable; however, stickiness ratings and texture insights from trained panels are often used to make decisions about consumer products. Our objectives were to correlate trained panel evaluations to consumer perception of stickiness and to identify texture attributes that contribute to stickiness. Nine diverse caramel samples were assessed by two panels. First, trained panelists participated in texture term generation, Temporal Dominance of Sensation (TDS), and tactile and oral stickiness intensity rating. Next, 75 consumers participated in a two-part test: first, they completed a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) exercise with the TDS panel-generated terms; second, they rated each sample for overall tactile and oral stickiness intensity. Trained panelist and consumer stickiness ratings were then correlated to each other and to TDS parameters for each attribute. Consumers and trained panelists showed good agreement in tactile (r = 0.85, p < .01) and oral (r = 0.94, p < .001) stickiness ratings. Samples presenting high levels of tacky, stringy, and enveloping attributes were rated the stickiest. A subset of attributes, including toothpacking and deformable, correlated positively with stickiness when multiple selections were permitted (CATA) and negatively when only one selection was permitted (TDS). This contradiction suggests two tiers of stickiness-contributing attributes; tier-two attributes (toothpacking, deformable, cohesive) increased stickiness perception, but less so than tier-one attributes (tacky, stringy, enveloping). Identification of texture factors that most strongly relate to consumer perception of stickiness will enable informed testing of stickiness properties and formulation of sticky products.
The role of packaging format, alcohol level and brand in consumer’s choice of beer: A best-worst scaling multi-profile approach Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-24 Nguyen Tien Thong, Bui Quang Thanh, Hans Stubbe Solgaard, Yingkui Yang
Although beer is widely consumed around the world and has the largest market share among alcoholic beverages, there is a paucity of studies on consumers’ preferences for beer compared to wine. In this study, consumers were asked to select the best and worst favorable beer from choice sets of a labeled choice experiment, in which choice options were labeled by brand names. Data collected from face-to-face interviews with Vietnamese beer-drinkers were used to estimate latent-class ranking logit models with alternative specific-effects, i.e. consumers’ preferences for beer attributes are allowed to vary between beer brands and across four segments. In general, consumers prefer international brands to local ones, possibly due to sales promotion effects, experience, brand image or reflecting the mental representation. Consumers’ favors for packaging format (canned vs. bottled beer) are subject to brands and are heterogeneous across segments. Surprisingly, alcohol percent has the least significant effects on the choice. The paper also discusses the implication of the findings for policy making and business strategy development.
The Pepsi Paradox: A review Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 George Van Doorn, Beyon Miloyan
The Pepsi Paradox refers to the observation that Pepsi is preferred to Coke in blind taste tests, despite Coke being regarded as the more successful brand. We begin by describing the origins of the Pepsi Paradox. We then outline a neural hypothesis for why it occurs. Next, we carefully assess the published behavioural studies related to the Pepsi Paradox, and on people’s ability to distinguish colas by taste. We conclude that the existing research has failed to provide sufficient evidence for the existence of the Pepsi Paradox. In fact, there does not even seem to be a consistent taste preference for either beverage in the reviewed studies.
Assessment of liking for saltiness, sweetness and fattiness sensations in children: Validation of a questionnaire Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Christine Lange, Wen Lun Yuan, Rachel Schoumacker, Amélie Deglaire, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Claire Chabanet, Sophie Nicklaus
The objective of this study was to perform an internal validation of a questionnaire assessing 7–12 years old children’s liking for saltiness, sweetness and fattiness in foods. An 83-item questionnaire validated in adults was adapted for children via vocabulary adaptation, picture addition and removal of little known or consumed items. It was launched online, and a paper version was also available. The construct validity was evaluated in 500 French children aged 7–12 y. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to identify the factor structure within each sensation. The adult liking factor structure was also tested on the children’s data to compare the factor structures between adults and children. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate the factor structure. Finally, a bootstrap analysis was performed to ensure the stability of the structure. Liking for saltiness, sweetness, fattiness-and-saltiness and fattiness-and-sweetness sensations showed meaningful factor structures. After the deletion of some items, a one-factor structure was identified for the liking for saltiness (9 items), and multiple-factor structures were identified for the liking for sweetness (16 items), fattiness-and-saltiness (22 items), and fattiness-and-sweetness (16 items). A fattiness model was estimated based on two subscales, the fattiness-and-saltiness and fattiness-and-sweetness subscales. This self-administered questionnaire, available on line or on paper, enables the creation of a factor structure for saltiness, sweetness, fattiness-and-saltiness, fattiness-and-sweetness, and fattiness liking in children. This questionnaire represents the first self-administered tool designed to assess children’s liking for sweetness, saltiness and fattiness sensations in large cohorts.
The spell of cuteness in food consumption? It depends on food type and consumption motivation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Hsiao-Ching Lee, Chun-Tuan Chang, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Yu-Shian Huang
Despite the popular use of cuteness in product designs, especially for foods, little is known about how cuteness influences consumption. This article contributes to the evolving stream of research on cuteness by designing two experiments based on the compatibility principle to examine the contextual factors that moderate the effect of cuteness on food consumption (i.e., food type and consumption motivation). We found that cute food induced more consumption when the food is perceived as vice or under hedonic motivation, whereas neutral food induced more consumption when the food is perceived as virtue or under utilitarian motivation.
Is fish worth more than meat? – How consumers’ beliefs about health and nutrition affect their willingness to pay more for fish than meat Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 L. Emilio Morales, Angie Higuchi
Scientific research has demonstrated that fish consumption has positive effects on human health. Consequently, governments have invested resources to promote fish consumption, but does this investment changed consumer preferences so they are willing to pay more for fish than meat? Consumer survey data collected in Modern Metropolitan Lima, Peru, were analyzed to assess the influence of selected variables on consumers’ willingness to pay extra for fish over beef, chicken and pork. The results demonstrate that females, older and more educated respondents are more likely to be unwilling to pay premiums for fish respect to meat. In addition, belief factors do not affect the odds of being unwilling to pay more for fish in preference to meat. Household income and years of education are statistically significant variables increasing the willingness to pay more for fish than meat. In contrast, household size reduces the amount consumers could pay extra for fish. A taste preference for fish has a positive effect on the propensity to pay higher prices for fish than meat. Finally, the beliefs that fish is healthy and nutritious for the family positively affect the willingness to pay more for fish than other meats studied. These findings support the use of campaigns to promote fish consumption and suggest that additional information about the health benefits for the family and nutrition derived from eating fish could affect consumers’ preferences, and ultimately their willingness to pay.
Application of an integrated framework to examine Chinese consumers’ purchase intention toward genetically modified food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Yingyu Zhang, Linlin Jing, Qingguo Bai, Wei Shao, Yan Feng, Shijiu Yin, Mengjia Zhang
The commercial application of transgenic technology in the food industry has become a crucial topic worldwide. This study aims to achieve the following objectives: (i) to examine consumers’ purchase intention toward genetically modified (GM) food by using benefit-risk analysis (BRA); (ii) to examine consumers’ purchase intention toward GM food based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB); and (iii) to determine which framework or theory significantly influences the interpretation of purchase intention toward GM food under an integrated framework incorporating the BRA and the TPB. An online survey was conducted among 408 qualified samples who were analysed through structural equation modeling. The result analysis leads to the following conclusions: (i) under the BRA framework, Chinese consumers rely on their positive attitude toward GM food to increase purchase intention and their perceived risks to decrease purchase intention. Moreover, consumers’ trust increases their perceived benefits offered by GM food and decrease their perceived risks; (ii) under the TPB framework, attitude toward GM technology is the most significant predictor of purchase intention toward GM food, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norms; and (iii) under the integrated framework, although most of the results in the single framework of the BRA or the TPB are supported, the BRA provides better interpretation than the TPB. In addition, several mediating effects are found in the context of purchase intention toward GM food.
Emotions before and after a meal in a natural eating situation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-07 Agnes Giboreau, Herbert L. Meiselman
This research measured emotions before and after a meal in a French dining environment known for high quality food. Results showed that negative emotions were very low before and after the meal. Positive emotions generally increased after the meal to moderate and even high levels. These results differ from earlier research in a student cafeteria where emotions generally declined following a meal. These differences are discussed in terms of the dining context, where dining in a higher quality context produces an increase in positive emotions following a (good) meal.
What does your wine label mean to consumers? A semiotic investigation of Bordeaux wine visual codes Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Franck Celhay, Hervé Remaud
A large body of research has shown that the graphic design of a package influences the perception of the corresponding product and brand. Marketing as well as semiotics literature have therefore acknowledged for a long time that the graphic design of a package is a critical tool for managers to use to communicate about their brands. Yet, the concern remains for managers to understand how the visual aspect of a package does indeed produce the desired meanings among consumers. More research is still needed to provide concrete guidelines on this topic, despite the several studies that have recently contributed to fill this gap. The research presented in this article contributes to the existing body of knowledge by applying a semiotics-based approach to the Bordeaux wine category. The authors conducted content and semiotic analyses of the visual codes for Bordeaux wines. They then tested four labels representative of the Bordeaux wine category with a sample of 932 French respondents through a free-word-association task. The results confirm that semiotic studies can anticipate most of the idea associations that a package’s graphic design is likely to produce in consumers' minds. The results also demonstrate that the associations of ideas generated by package designs are stable across gender, generation, and product expertise. More important, semiotics provides an understanding of which visual attributes are likely to produce which idea associations and why. Therefore, a semiotic approach appears to be a reliable tool for managers to use to help them define their package designs according to the brand's meanings they seek to communicate to their clients.
Influence of aroma intensity and nasal pungency on the ‘mood signature’ of common aroma compounds in a mixed ethnic population Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-28 Lumeng Jin, Jeannette Haviland-Jones, James E. Simon, Beverly J. Tepper
Aromas evoke moods that influence the acceptability of foods and other consumer products. This study examined the influence of nasal pungency and aroma intensity on liking of pure aroma compounds, and their impact on mood using the “mood signature” approach. We studied 95 healthy, young adults (65 female; 30 male) who orthonasally sampled cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate, citral, citronellol, geraniol, and phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) at low (range = 1–2.5 ppm) and mid-range concentrations (range = 4–100 ppm), in two separate sessions. For each sample, they rated aroma intensity, (pungency, for the mid-range concentrations only) and overall liking using 15-cm line scales. They also selected from a list of 9 terms, the descriptor that best matched the “mood” of each aroma. At both concentrations, methyl cinnamate was the least liked (p < .05–.003). At midrange concentrations, cinnamaldehyde, geraniol and methyl cinnamate were the most pungent, followed by citral, PEA, and citronellol (p < .001); this same pattern was observed for aroma intensity suggesting that pungency contributed to overall aroma intensity. Most aromas had positive mood signatures except for methyl cinnamate, which evoked a mix of positive and negative moods. The mood signatures of cinnamaldehyde, and geraniol shifted from ‘calm-relaxed’ at low concentrations to ‘excited-energized’ at mid-range concentrations (p < .01–.001) in concert with their pungencies. The less pungent compounds, citronellol and PEA evoked ‘calm-relaxed’ mood at both concentrations. We found that pungency altered the arousal properties of pleasant aromas. The mood signature approach may be useful for tracking shifts in mood with changes in pungency and aroma intensity.
How Australian consumers value intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of beef products Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-27 Ali Ardeshiri, John Matthew Rose
The purpose of this paper is to determine which information cues on beef labels actually attract consumer interest. We applied a discrete choice experiment to investigate 1002 Australian consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different beef products. Consumers were presented with a novel experiment in which they indicated “how many” they would purchase for mince, diced, roast, and four cuts of steaks (rump, porterhouse, scotch fillet and eye fillet). The results from an ordered logit model showed that cues related to healthy option purchases play a stronger influential role on Australian consumers decision making compared to other beef attributes. Australian consumers have a stronger preference for less marbled beef. Moreover, white fat colour is more desirable than yellow colour. Furthermore, in relation to labelling information, origin of the beef is a key indicator in consumer’s evaluation process. We observed a highly inflated WTP for origin of the beef. For example a WTP of $5.76 for Scotch fillet steak from “Tasmania” compared a WTP of −$14.22 for the same cut from “China”. This finding may be due to Australian consumers using origin as a cue for food safety or quality. We concluded that preferences for beef products are not similar across consumers from different nations and country-specific research is required to illustrate consumer’s preference. Finally, this study provides managerial and policy implication and recommendations to better understand the relative value to the Australian consumer of beef product appearance and labelling information.
Sweet liker status in children and adults: Consequences for beverage intake in adults Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Nicole L. Garneau, Tiffany M. Nuessle, Barbara J. Mendelsberg, Stephanie Shepard, Robin M. Tucker
Different patterns of sweet liking exist. For some, liking increases as concentration increases up to a point at which it typically plateaus. These individuals are referred to as sweet likers. How sweet likers’ beverage intake, especially sugar sweetened beverage intake, differs from sweet dislikers’ beverage intake is not well characterized. A total of 953 visitors (650 adults; 62.0% women; 303 children; 58.7% girls) to the Denver Museum of Nature & Science rated the taste intensity and liking of 5 sucrose solutions that spanned concentrations typically encountered in sugar-sweetened beverages (0.0–13.7% w/v) using visual analog scales. Beverage intake by adults was quantified using the validated BEVQ-15 questionnaire. Among adults, hierarchical cluster analysis identified three clusters of liking patterns (likers, dislikers, and neutrals). Among children, two clusters of liking patterns were identified (likers and dislikers). For both adults and children, BMI, percent body fat, age, and sex did not differ between clusters. Concentration by cluster interaction effects were observed for both adults and children. Adult sweet likers consumed more energy from all beverages, more sweetened juice and tea, and less water than those in other clusters. Sweet liker status may be a useful predictor of increased energy intake from beverages, but prospective trials are necessary to confirm this utility.
Oral comfort: A new concept to understand elderly people’s expectations in terms of food sensory characteristics Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Mathilde Vandenberghe-Descamps, Hélène Labouré, Chantal Septier, Gilles Feron, Claire Sulmont-Rossé
In the elderly population, ageing frequently impacts on the different aspects of oral physiology that play a key role in eating behavior. In the context of an aging population, it is crucial to develop a food supply tailored for the elderly people in order to prevent the onset of malnutrition. To meet this challenge, we looked for the concept of “oral comfort” when eating a food. The present study aimed at i) exploring the concept of oral comfort when eating according to elderly people in order to develop a questionnaire to evaluate the oral comfort when eating a food and ii) asking elderly people to evaluate various meat and cereal products using this questionnaire. Results of focus groups highlighted that oral comfort when eating a food is a multi-dimensional concept which includes dimensions related to food oral processing (ability to form and swallow food bolus), food sensory properties (texture and taste) and to a lesser extent pain sensations. Furthermore, the oral comfort questionnaire developed in the present study enabled a discrimination of products and highlighted the fact that some products supposed to fit with elderly people capacities and needs were not rated as the most comfortable foods by the elderly people. The concept of oral comfort when eating a food should be taken into account by those who are willing to design food products tailored to the elderly population. The questionnaire could be an interesting tool to assess oral comfort when eating a food in the elderly population.
Adaptation of the Q-methodology for the characterization of a complex concept through a set of products: From the collection of the data to their analysis Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-06-15 Margot Brard, Sébastien Lê
An adaptation of the Q-methodology used in psychology to study human subjectivity is introduced as a methodology for characterizing a complex concept through a set of products. Firstly, the data collection step consists in choosing a set of products as exhaustive as possible. This set of products is then given to participants who are asked to sort the products into predefined categories: “products assessed as non-representative of the concept” and “products assessed as representative of the concept”. At the end of the experiment, a product is characterized by two types of information: (1) the products it has been associated with by the participants, and (2) the number of times it has been associated with the concept by the participants. While the first type of information is similar to those provided by free sorting task data, the second type of information is specific to these data. Secondly, the product-oriented data analysis step consists in analyzing data by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) in order to understand the variability between the products in accordance with the way the data have been collected. MFA presents the ability to provide a representation of the products that takes into account the two types of information mentioned previously. Third and finally, the data visualization step consists in enhancing the representation of the products through a categorical version of the maps provided by external preference mapping. This methodology is illustrated through an experiment based on the concept of innovation through a set of perfumes.
Modeling Temporal Dominance of Sensations with semi-Markov chains Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-06-09 G. Lecuelle, M. Visalli, H. Cardot, P. Schlich
Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) data are usually represented by TDS curves of dominance rates and analyzed by linear models of dominance durations. Such approaches do not properly take into account the fact that the selection of a new dominant attribute likely depends on the current dominant attribute. Thus, modeling TDS data with a stochastic process seems natural, as recently proposed by Franczak et al. (2015) who used discrete time Markov chains. This approach gives the probabilities of transition from one dominant attribute to another. However Markov chains present some limitations when applied to TDS data. As an alternative, this paper considers semi-Markov chains (SMC), a generalization of Markov chains, which allow the duration of the dominant attribute to be distributed arbitrarily. Because probabilities of transition from one attribute to another one can also depend on time, SMC are applied on sequences split into time periods with specific durations, with one model per time period. Graphs built upon this stochastic pattern can be plotted to represent chronological main transitions between attributes. Contrarily to the TDS curves which summarize a mean panel overview, these graphs can be interpreted as individual’s most probable paths and contribute to a better understanding of consumer perception.
Hedonic and emotional responses after blind tasting are poor predictors of purchase behavior Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-05-25 Elina Kytö, Anni Järveläinen, Sari Mustonen
The association between amount of product information, hedonic ratings (pleasantness and purchase intention), emotion ratings and actual purchase behavior of spoonable fermented fresh dairy products (quarks) was examined. Two product information conditions were included: blind tasting and branded tasting. A CLT was carried out to measure hedonic and emotional responses towards three blueberry flavored protein quarks (n = 107). The samples were first tasted blinded (blind tasting) and then with brand and package picture on the screen (branded tasting). After the tasting session, respondents were sent a questionnaire asking about the products they had bought during the last two weeks. The questionnaire was sent twice, two and four weeks after the tasting session. Stronger association between hedonic responses and purchase behavior after branded compared to blind tasting was found. Purchase intention had the strongest association with purchase behavior, while pleasantness and emotion responses had only minor association with purchase behavior. Of the emotions, desire contributed the most to the prediction of purchase behavior. To conclude, prediction of purchase behavior with hedonic responses after blind tasting was poor. When taking into account purchase intention after branded tasting, purchase behavior was predicted the best.
Temporal drivers of liking for oral nutritional supplements for older adults throughout the day with monitoring of hunger and thirst status Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-05-05 A. Thomas, A.J. van der Stelt, P. Schlich, J. Ben Lawlor
Thomas, van der Stelt, Prokop, Lawlor, and Schlich (2016) recently introduced the Alternated Temporal Drivers of Liking (A-TDL) method in which consumers did both Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and dynamic liking evaluations on a full portion of two oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in the same session. This new study reports further development of this research in which TDS and dynamic liking were still paired at the lab, but were conducted twice a day (morning and afternoon sessions) for each product. In addition, hunger and thirst status were monitored at the lab along the successive sips and also before and after lunch and dinner at home. The objective was to reproduce the full daily experience of an ONS. A total of 62 French older adults tested the two products over two days, a week apart (a single product per day). Ten small glasses of the product were given to each participant in both morning and afternoon sessions; each one was consumed in a single sip. The protocol consisted of a TDS evaluation during each sip, followed by liking-thirst-hunger scales appearing successively. This protocol was repeated over the ten glasses. Before and after lunch and dinner, thirst and hunger status were recorded online at home. Participants seemed to be able to perform these rather sophisticated tasks quite well. Their use of the hunger scale was quite narrow and ONS consumed at the lab reduced hunger very moderately, at least compared to a regular meal being taken at home. Both products increased thirst by an average of 2 scale points along the ten sips, confirming that drinking an ONS increased thirst during tasting. Interestingly, no difference in liking was observed in the first sip, but one of the two products was slightly more appreciated on average over multiple sips. Temporal drivers of liking of this preferred product may be due to longer lasting praline and coffee-milk flavours and shorter metallic flavor and dry sensations.
Segmentation of a panel of consumers with missing data Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-04-27 Evelyne Vigneau
The Clustering around Latent Variables (CLV) method may be used to identify segments of consumers in sensory liking studies. To date, this method has been unable to deal with missing data. Thus, consumers with missing data had to be discarded or a data imputation technique had to be applied beforehand. The CLV algorithms have recently been updated in order to perform clustering and local imputations simultaneously. Firstly, a simulation study where missing data were generated randomly or according to a balanced incomplete block design was set up. It makes it possible to assess the ability of the CLV procedure to identify segments of consumers in a hedonic dataset with missing data, in comparison with those segments obtained on the basis of a complete data set. The method was also applied to the 13th Sensometrics Conference workshop data, associated with a preference experiment for which 62.5% of the liking scores was missing, according to a sensory informed incomplete block design. The results of the CLV procedure are discussed and compared to those of the Gaussian mixture model based approach previously proposed to solve this issue of simultaneous imputation and clustering. It turns out that both strategies led to two segments of consumers, somewhat different in terms of individual cluster membership but with fairly convergent averaged liking profiles regarding the most discriminant products.
Supermarket shopper movements versus sales and the effects of scent, light, and sound Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-03-24 René A. de Wijk, Anna M. Maaskant, Stefanie Kremer, Nancy T.E. Holthuysen, Daniella A.J.M. Stijnen
Common sense assumes that supermarket sales of specific products are driven by the number of visitors and by their behavior during their visit. In addition, certain shopping ambiances probably stimulate a certain shopper behavior, resulting in more sales. Surprisingly, these relationships have rarely been experimentally tested in real-life supermarkets. Number of shoppers, shopper movement patterns, and sales of selections of white wines, coffees, and fruits in a medium-size supermarket were monitored over an 18-week period. Wines were visited for longer (9.5 s) than coffees (4.4 s) and fruits (4.5 s), but visitors to wines were relatively stationary and visits resulted less often in a sale (1 sale per 41.2 visits) than visits to coffees (1 sale per 21.7 visits) and fruits (1 sale per 3.7 visits). Visit frequency correlated positively with higher sales for coffee (Beta = 0.64, p < 0.001) and for fruit (Beta = 0.33, p = 0.02) but not for wine. Wine, fruit, and coffee sales increased with the number of directional changes during a visit (p < 0.001). Sales correlated positively with visit duration only for wine (Beta = 0.74, p < 0.001). Local variations in scent, sound, and light conditions did not affect visit frequency or sales, but did affect speed during coffee (p = 0.04) and wine (p = 0.03) visits.
Sensory attributes shaping consumers’ willingness-to-pay for newly developed processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-03-02 Yung Hung, Wim Verbeke
While innovation to improve processed meat products (PMPs) is promising, sensory characteristics remain the key factor shaping consumers’ preference and purchase decisions. These two studies employed a non-hypothetical and novel analytical approach to study how sensory attributes influence consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for new PMPs with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. Vickrey’s second-price experimental auctions were organised with conventional and the new PMPs. Study 1 was in Belgium (n = 208) with cooked sausage; Study 2 was in the Netherlands (n = 107) with cooked ham. Elastic net (EN) regularised regression models and regression trees were used to assess determinants of WTP under data constraints. Overall, WTP was positively influenced by a higher overall liking, appearance familiarity and a better colour, and negatively influenced by a stronger experience of aftertaste and darker colour. The order effect of tasting and information provision was opposite in the two studies. The study with cooked sausage also showed a positive effect of a better texture and taste, and a negative effect of a too weak intensity of meat taste on WTP. The study with cooked ham indicated a positive effect of a better smell, stronger salty taste and less dry texture, and a negative effect of a too strong intensity of meat smell on WTP. Whereas Just-About-Right (JAR) scales are widely applied in consumer research to identify optimal sensory attribute levels, both studies revealed that JAR ratings do not necessarily translate into a higher WTP. These studies yield recommendations for consumer-driven food product research and development.
Healthy or wealthy? Attractive individuals induce sex-specific food preferences Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-02-28 Tobias Otterbring
Research shows that the mere presence of others and their physical appearance can influence people’s meal choices and food intake. Studies also suggest that such effects are sex-specific and depend on whether the eating occasion includes same-sex or opposite-sex individuals. In five experiments (N = 530; 49% female), the author investigates whether mate attraction, induced by exposure to attractive opposite-sex individuals, has a differential effect on the foods and beverages that men and women prefer to consume. The results revealed that prior exposure to attractive (versus less attractive) men decreased women’s willingness to spend money on unhealthy foods, and increased their inclination to spend money on healthy foods. Restrained eating moderated this effect, which means that women who scored high (versus low) on restrained eating were particularly motivated to spend money on healthy foods after exposure to an attractive male individual. On the contrary, exposure to attractive (versus less attractive) women did not influence men’s consumption preferences for healthy or unhealthy foods. However, men were more motivated to spend money on expensive drinking and dining options after exposure to an attractive female individual, and their desire to display status mediated this effect. Importantly, none of these effects occurred after exposure to attractive same-sex individuals, which provides converging evidence that mate attraction is the fundamental motive underlying these findings. Taken together, this research reveals how, why, and when appearance-induced mate attraction leads to sex-specific consumption preferences for various foods and beverages.
ComDim: From multiblock data analysis to path modeling Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-02-27 Véronique Cariou, El Mostafa Qannari, Douglas N. Rutledge, Evelyne Vigneau
ComDim (Common Dimensions) analysis was initially introduced within the context of sensometrics to analyze conventional and free choice sensory profiling data, and more generally multiblock datasets. Thereafter, it has gained some popularity in chemometrics and has been extended in different ways to meet specific needs. Recently, this strategy of analysis has been adapted to the supervised case, under the name of P-ComDim. Going further, we propose herein to extend ComDim to Path-ComDim where the datasets at hand are assumed to have a specific pattern of directed relations among them reflecting, for instance, a chain of influence. The aim of Path-ComDim is to analyze these datasets taking into account the structural connections among them. After a brief review of alternative path modeling approaches, Path-ComDim is detailed encompassing both methodological and algorithmic aspects. In the particular case of a single block to be predicted, it is shown that Path-ComDim is equivalent to P-ComDim analysis. Path-ComDim analysis is illustrated on the basis of a case study involving instrumental, sensory and preference data. Finally, the outcomes are compared to those obtained from alternative path modeling methods.
The analysis of temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA) data Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-02-07 Michael Meyners, John C. Castura
Temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA) extends classical check-all-that-apply (CATA) by adding a temporal dimension to the evaluation. From a data analysis point of view, TCATA data are similar to Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) data but differ in that more than one attribute can be selected at any time point. Procedures for analyzing TCATA data can hence be generalized from methods for CATA as well as for TDS. TCATA data can be organized in a matrix format with 0s and 1s similar to what has been described before for TDS, but with the relaxation that the column sums can exceed 1. Consequently, the same randomization tests as suggested for TDS are suitable for TCATA data. For TDS data, ad-hoc chance and significance limits are frequently used, a practice that we review critically. We also show that these do not generalize easily to TCATA data. Instead, we suggest comparing individual products to aggregate data across all other products in the test, with that aggregation being assumed to provide an estimate of what is to be expected in the respective product category. This approach does not rely on the number of attributes considered and is also recommended for TDS data. We further suggest a new way to visualize the respective results. The results are compared to the naïve approach of applying standard CATA analyses to the data by time point. Results are reasonably close to warrant very similar interpretation, such that applying CATA analyses by time point to TCATA data seems a potential ad-hoc alternative in practice for preliminary data evaluation. Additionally, panel agreement for TCATA data is obtained over time using Gwet’s AC1 coefficient and its 95% confidence bands, along with raw agreement and mean citation rate. Results provide insight into the level of panel agreement across the various time segments. We exemplify the suggested methods by means of data from a study on Syrah wine finish.
Blockwise simple component analysis via rotation, constraints or penalties, with an application to product × attribute × panelist data Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-02-02 Henk A.L. Kiers, Marieke E. Timmerman, Eva Ceulemans
Sensory profiling data consisting of judgements on a number of products with respect to a number of attributes by a number of panelists can be summarized in various ways. Besides finding components describing the main product features, there is an interest in individual panelist behavior. Earlier methods identify this by means of separate PCAs, Procrustes analyses, or three-way component methods, but these give only global comparisons of panelists. In the present paper, methods that can distinguish panelist behavior related to separate attributes, are described. These methods model the data in such a way that blocks of loadings pertaining to the attributes are either small or large. At the same time, one can zoom in on the loadings for panelists within each block of loadings associated with an attribute to inspect differences in panelist behavior. Two types of methods have been proposed for this earlier (rotation to simple blocks and penalizing blocks of loadings), and a third one is proposed in the present paper (constraining blocks of loadings to zero). The new approach is compared here to the other two methods. It is found that the rotation and constraints approaches work about equally well and better than the penalty approach. However, the rotation approach offers richer panelist behavior information, as is illustrated by the analysis of empirical data. It is also shown how, in this example, the reliability of idiosyncratic panelist behavior indicators can be evaluated.
Consumer segmentation in multi-attribute product evaluation by means of non-negatively constrained CLV3W Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-01-20 Véronique Cariou, Tom F. Wilderjans
In consumer studies, segmentation has been widely applied to identify consumer subsets on the basis of their preference for a set of products. From the last decade onwards, a more comprehensive evaluation of product performance has led to take into account various information such as consumer emotion assessment or hedonic measures on several aspects, like taste, visual and flavor. This multi-attribute evaluation of products naturally yields a three-way (products by consumers by attributes) data structure. In order to identify segments of consumers on the basis of such three-way data, the Three-Way Cluster analysis around Latent Variables (CLV3W) approach (Wilderjans & Cariou, 2016) is considered. This method groups the consumers into clusters and estimates for each cluster an associated latent product variable and attribute weights, along with a set of consumer loadings, which may be used for the purpose of cluster-specific product characterization. As consumers who rate the products along the attributes in an opposite way (i.e., raters’ disagreement) should not be in the same cluster, in this paper, we propose to add a non-negativity constraint on the consumer loadings and to integrate this constraint within the versatile CLV3W approach. This non-negatively constrained criterion implies that the latent variable for each cluster is determined such that consumers within each cluster are as much related – in terms of a positive covariance – as possible with this latent product component. This approach is applied to a consumer emotion ratings dataset related to coffee aromas.
Comparison of rate-all-that-apply (RATA) and check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions across seven consumer studies Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2016-12-21 Leticia Vidal, Gastón Ares, Duncan I. Hedderley, Michael Meyners, Sara R. Jaeger
Rate-all-that-apply (RATA) questions are a variation of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions in which consumers are asked to indicate whether terms from a list apply to describe a given product, and if they do so, to rate their intensity. RATA questions have been argued to provide more insights than CATA questions for sensory characterization with consumers. The present research is, to date, the most exhaustive comparison of CATA and RATA with regard to term usage, sample discrimination and sample configurations. A total of seven studies with 860 consumers were conducted with different product categories. A between-subjects design was used in all studies to compare the two methodologies. Confirming past studies, results from RATA and CATA were very similar. Minor differences between RATA and CATA were found, but were study and term specific and general superiority of one methodology over the other was not established, as opposed to what previous studies had suggested. Instead, results indicate that each method might have advantages over the other for certain product characteristics. A strong linear relationship was established between mean RATA scores and CATA term citation frequencies, demonstrating clearly that CATA questions differentiate among samples based on relative strength/weakness of sample characteristics. Collecting data as RATA but analysing them as CATA was inferior to the use of mean RATA scores, and is not recommended. The comparison of RATA data using mean scores and Dravnieks’ scores showed no advantage of the latter and it is recommended that simple mean scores are used. Overall, results from the present work show that RATA is not necessarily an improvement over CATA questions and that for consumer research the decision to add an attribute intensity rating step depends on the aim of the study and the specific characteristics of the sample set.
The effects of consumer knowledge on the willingness to buy insect food: An exploratory cross-regional study in Northern and Central Europe Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2016-12-20 Samuel Piha, Terhi Pohjanheimo, Anu Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Zuzana Křečková, Tobias Otterbring
This exploratory study investigates how consumer knowledge influences willingness to buy (WTB) insect food products. A comparative approach between Northern and Central Europe is adopted to explore whether consumer knowledge has different effects on WTB across cultural areas in Europe. The study analyses consumer survey data collected in Finland, Sweden, Germany, and the Czech Republic (N = 887) with structural equation modelling and multi-group models. The results suggest that the effects of distinct types of knowledge and food neophobia on WTB are mainly indirect and mediated by general attitudes, with these effects differing significantly between Northern and Central Europe. In Northern Europe, the consumers’ objective and subjective knowledge of insect food predict WTB as much as previous product-related experiences and food neophobia. In Central Europe, product-related experiences and food neophobia are superior predictors to subjective and objective knowledge. Moreover, consumers in Northern Europe generally have a more positive attitude towards insect food than consumers in Central Europe. Possible explanations for the regional differences are discussed, and implications are suggested on how the region-specific features should be regarded when developing consumer education and promotion strategies for insect food.
How much sensory panel data do we need? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2016-12-18 Paul Talsma
An Microsoft Excel sample size and power calculator for sensory panels has been developed. The sample size tab calculates the amount of data to be collected when aiming to detect a predetermined difference between products (we recommend 10% of the scale) with 95% power. The statistical power tab calculates for a completed study the difference between products which can be detected with 95% power. Underlying methodology and the rationales for the choices made when constructing the calculator are discussed. It is argued that using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure (Benjamini & Hochberg, 1995) is a good way of dealing with the problem of multiple testing, since it provides adequate protection against this whilst preserving power of the individual product comparison tests. Regarding the latter, it compares very favorably with the well-known Bonferroni and Tukey methods. It is argued that the difference between products which can be detected (the delta value) should be corrected for multiple testing. It is explained how the procedure is implemented in sample size and power calculation. The methodology is extended to consumer studies and to incomplete designs. The percentage of effective pairs is introduced, allowing for a direct comparison with a full sequential monadic design. Two examples of sensory panel studies are provided.
Enhancing canonical variate analysis by taking the scaling effect into account Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-27 C. Peltier, M. Visalli, P. Schlich
Sensory profiling aims to describe the sensory characteristics of food products using a list of descriptors with a panel of trained assessors. During sensory evaluations (or any other scoring task), individual differences in the scale width effectively used by assessors (scaling effect) are regularly observed. This scaling effect was included in a statistical model, the Mixed Assessor Model (MAM). This scaling effect can be decomposed into a physiological (descriptor-specific scaling) component and a psychological (overall scaling) component. The present paper shows how to take into account both physiological and psychological scaling effects in the Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) framework. Agreement ellipses representing the pure disagreement of the subjects (scaling effect removed) are plotted around the product means. Thus, the differences between two products can be assessed by comparing their distances to the size of their agreement ellipses. Our so-called “overall CVA” and “MAM−CVA” method were compared to CVA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on 334 datasets. The sensory interpretations were similar for all maps but more differences between products were observed with MAM−CVA and overall CVA. An R package is offered to produce the maps presented in this paper.
Better-liked foods can produce more satiety Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 Mitchell Z. Mattes, Zata M. Vickers
Food liking influences hunger and fullness, however, the direction of this influence has remained unclear due to the difficulty in capturing the complexity of hunger and fullness feelings and the subjective nature of evaluating food liking. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of food liking on feelings of hunger and fullness utilizing the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire. Thirty participants attended two breakfast sessions one week apart in which they evaluated hunger and fullness feelings produced by two equal-caloric smoothies that differed only in that one contained a bittering agent to lower liking. Levels of the bittering agent were determined from a screening procedure and were panelist specific. Evaluations were made at 0 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min after consumption. Food intake from a snack offered three hours after breakfast was covertly recorded. The more palatable control smoothie provided significantly greater mental fullness factor sensations over the three-hour testing period than the bitter smoothie. Physical fullness factor ratings were initially higher for the bitter smoothie than the control smoothie, but dropped to a nearly equal level two hours after consumption. Mental and physical hunger factor sensations were nearly equal between the two smoothies over the three hour testing period. Subjects consumed on average 77 more calories from the snack following the bitter smoothie in comparison to the control. These findings suggest that if people eat a food they greatly enjoy, instead of eating a less-well-liked version, they will experience more pleasure, satisfaction, and satiety.
Evoking premiumness: How color-product congruency influences premium evaluations Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-13 Sarah Joy Lyons, Anders Hauge Wien
Green is commonly used in marketing to evoke utilitarian and environmental cues, whereas red is regularly found on food logos to induce arousal and excitement. This paper investigates how these colors may contribute to consumer evaluations of premiumness through congruence and incongruence between the marketing message and color on product packages. The literature suggests that, although congruence between product elements and the marketing message often is evaluated as more appropriate, a “moderate incongruence effect” may result in consumer preferences for a moderate incongruence between design elements. Two between-subject experiments suggest that the premise of congruity or incongruity applies to explaining how colors may evoke higher premium evaluations. Study 1 demonstrates that for a product of hedonic nature, consumers will evaluate the product as more premium when the color and product framing are congruent (e.g., red on a package framed as “tasting delicious” or green on a package sold as “healthy”). Study 2 demonstrates the opposite effect by suggesting that when a product is primarily utilitarian, it will be perceived as more premium when the framing of the product and the color are incongruent (e.g., green on the package marketed for its “delicious taste” or red on the package sold as “healthy”). The study adds a novel understanding of how the mechanism of congruence and incongruence between color and a hedonic versus utilitarian marketing message can lead to premium associations. It also has practical implications for marketing managers as to how one can enhance the premium evaluations through color and marketing message.
How do front of pack nutrition labels affect healthfulness perception of foods targeted at children? Insights from Brazilian children and parents Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Mayara Lima, Gastón Ares, Rosires Deliza
The inclusion of front of pack (FOP) nutrition labels is one of the strategies that has been proposed to encourage people to make healthful food choices, helping to cope with the increasing burden of overweight and obesity among adults and children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different FOP labels on Brazilian children and parents’ healthfulness perception. Children aged 6–12 years (n = 318) and parents (n = 278) with different socio-economic status rated their perceived healthfulness of eight food products targeted at children using a 7-point scale (1 = not healthful and 7 = very healthful). Participants were randomly allocated into one of the three groups of FOP nutrition labels: Daily Guideline Amounts (GDA), Traffic Light System (TLS) and warning system. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. For parents, products with the warning system were rated significantly less healthful than those containing the GDA, whereas the TLS did not significantly differ from the other two systems. Age and socio-economic status influenced the effect of FOP labels on children’s perceived healthfulness. Only 9–12 years old children from middle/high socio-economic status were influenced by FOP labels: the warning system and TLS reduced healthfulness perception of frosted corn flakes compared to the GDA system. These results suggest that directive and semi-directive FOP have the potential to modify healthfulness perception of products targeted at children and stress the need to study the modulating effect of individual variables such as age and socio-economic status on the perception of FOP labels.
Understanding Westerners’ disgust for the eating of insects: The role of food neophobia and implicit associations Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-05 Francesco La Barbera, Fabio Verneau, Mario Amato, Klaus Grunert
The interest for the potential introduction of insects in the human diet is progressively increasing and several benefits for both human health and the environment have been hypothesised. However, especially in Western Countries, this trend could be jeopardized by the aversion that people show for insects as food. In the present paper, we study the impact of food neo-phobia and disgust on the intention to eat insect based food, and we look at how disgust is related to implicit attitude towards insects. Results show that both food neo-phobia and disgust make independent contributions to the intention to eat insects, and the explanatory power of disgust is considerably higher. Moreover, a significant effect of implicit attitude on disgust and an indirect effect of implicit attitude on intention mediated by disgust have been found. Implications for attempts to encourage people to incorporate insect-based foods into their diet are discussed, with special reference to the role of implicit association in determining the disgust reaction.
Exploring the relative importance of “Reward” and “Reflection” in food orientations: Relevance for healthier and more sustainable diets Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-10-04 Joop de Boer, Hanna Schösler, Harry Aiking
This paper develops a new perspective on the relevance of different food orientations for healthier and more sustainable diets. Consumers’ food orientations vary in the relative importance of sensory- and reward-related factors (hereafter called Reward) or beliefs and values that are causes for reflection on broader themes (hereafter called Reflection). To examine competing and complementary relationships of Reward and Reflection, an existing data set from the Netherlands was used. The graphical and statistical analyses of different consumer segments indicated that giving a relatively low importance to both Reward and Reflection (“routine taste”) is not favorable for healthier and more sustainable diets, that giving importance to Reward but not Reflection (“hedonic taste”) is not any better, but that giving a relatively high importance to both Reward and Reflection (“reflective taste”) can be a favorable, complementary combination. The relative importance of Reward and Reflection was also related to reported sources of meal inspiration, which showed the prominence of habits and point-of-sale information, on the one hand, and recipe-based inspiration, requiring product knowledge, meal planning and cooking skills, on the other hand. These findings are highly relevant for the development of diet change strategies.
Preference and perception of fat in salty and sweet foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Dieuwerke P. Bolhuis, Andrew Costanzo, Russell S.J. Keast
Introduction Higher liking for fat is a risk factor for obesity. Fat in food is often combined with a sweet or salty taste. This study aims to investigate the role of fat on pleasantness and perception in both a salty and a sweet liquid food product. Methods In a complete factorial design, 47 participants (23 males) tasted creamy tomato soup and custard in four fat concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30%), combined with four salt concentrations (0.04, 0.35, 0.7, 1.5%) in soup, and four sugar concentrations (0.56, 4.5, 9, 18%) in custard. Participants rated pleasantness, saltiness intensity, sweetness intensity and fattiness intensity. The preferred fat concentrations were determined by hedonic ranking. Results Fat and salt separately affected pleasantness in soup (P < .01). Fat, sugar and their interaction affected pleasantness in custard (P < .001). Sugar and salt were a stronger influencer of pleasantness than fat. Preference for fat in soup was variable, whereas the highest concentration of 30% fat was preferred in custard (P < .001). Ratings of fattiness intensity were more responsive to fat concentrations in soup than in custard (P-interaction fat × food base < .001). Conclusion Salt and sugar are stronger influencers on food liking than fat. Across foods, there is no consistent effect of fat on perception or on liking, therefore the attractiveness of fat in foods cannot be generalised. The attraction to high fat levels in custard, while hardly perceiving differences in fat concentrations, remains unclear and needs further investigation.
Tastiness but not healthfulness captures automatic visual attention: Preliminary evidence from an eye-tracking study Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Kosuke Motoki, Toshiki Saito, Rui Nouchi, Ryuta Kawashima, Motoaki Sugiura
Visual attention can be automatically captured. From an evolutionary perspective, automatic attention can be useful for rapidly detecting salient stimuli, such as foods. Two attributes of foods (tastiness and healthfulness) are needed for survival. Moreover, these two attributes have different characteristics possibly associated with automatic visual attention. The more basic and hedonic attributes of tastiness are processed earlier than those of healthfulness during elaborative food choices. However, it remains unknown how the two attributes (tastiness and healthfulness) automatically capture visual attention. To this end, we investigated the extent to which taste- and health-related food information influences automatic visual attention using eye-tracking. Thirty-seven participants engaged in the target-distractor paradigm where four images were presented (top/bottom for houses as the target, left/right for foods as the distractor). Participants indicated whether the presented targets (houses) were the same or not. Visual attention toward foods would be automatic because the participants did not have to attend to them. Tastiness, but not healthfulness, captured automatic visual attention. In addition, preferred foods did not capture automatic visual attention. Even after including confounding factors associated with the stimuli (e.g., brightness, familiarity, complexity), automatic visual attention captured by tastiness remained significant. These preliminary findings indicate that humans detect hedonic food information such as tastiness, but not healthfulness or preferences.
The valuation and purchase of food products that combine local, regional and traditional features: The influence of consumer ethnocentrism Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-09-25 Pilar Fernández-Ferrín, Aitor Calvo-Turrientes, Belén Bande, Miren Artaraz-Miñón, M. Mercedes Galán-Ladero
Previous literature has addressed the concepts of local products, regional products and traditional products as if they were independent concepts. However, in practice, many food products combine all three concepts. The objectives of this paper are as follows: first, to explore the valuation of food products that have local, regional and traditional features through the analysis of specific product categories; second, to study the possible link between the level of consumer ethnocentrism and the valuation and effective purchase of local-regional-traditional food. The results show that consumers value these products highly and buy them in high proportions. In addition, levels of consumer ethnocentrism are sometimes, but not always, related to the actual purchase of these local-regional-traditional food products. This finding highlights the need to include a product’s category in analyses of the effects of consumer ethnocentrism. The majority of previous studies examine the consumer’s valuation and intention to buy local or traditional products at a general or abstract level, which does not allow respondents to evaluate a specific food product that they can find in the market and consume. An important contribution of this work is its level of analysis: we analyze specific food product categories in two different geographic environments in Spain.
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