Aroma effects on food choice task behavior and brain responses to bakery food product cues Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 Rene A. de Wijk, Paul A.M. Smeets, Ilse A. Polet, Nancy T.E. Holthuysen, Jet Zoon, Monique H. Vingerhoeds
Bread, and especially whole grain bread is an important source of dietary fibers. It was tested with behavioral and fMRI measures whether bread becomes more attractive when it is presented with bread aroma. Twenty-eight healthy normal-weight women were exposed to images of bakery products (brown bread, white bread and cookies) without aroma or with a congruent (bread aroma) or non-congruent (“warm wood”) aroma. In general, product effects were larger than aroma effects. Images of brown bread were preferred over images of white bread as shown by direct comparisons, choice reaction times, as well as liking and wanting scores. Aroma had no effect on liking and wanting, but did affect food choice task behavior, where images of brown bread were preferred more often in the presence of warm wood aroma and images of cookies were preferred more often in the presence of bread aroma. The fMRI data suggest that bread aroma may increase the salience of bakery products compared to no aroma and a non-food aroma. Specifically, bread aroma induced greater activation for cookies in areas related to reward anticipation. The correlations between behavioral measures and brain responses suggest lower attention for and a habitual response to brown bread and higher attention and a more goal-directed response to white bread. In conclusion, aroma can affect choice task behavior for brown and white bread albeit in an incongruent manner. The more habitual response to brown compared with white bread suggested by the neural data underscores that nudging towards brown bread consumption with (bread) aroma will probably not be effective.
The shape of the cup influences aroma, taste, and hedonic judgements of specialty coffee Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Fabiana M. Carvalho, Charles Spence
The drinking experience depends on the multisensory integration of attributes of the drink itself as well as the characteristics of the drinking vessel, not to mention the environment in which the drink happens to be tasted. The receptacles from which we drink have been shown to affect the perception of the sensory and hedonic attributes of various different beverages (especially in the world of wine). The present study was designed to investigate whether the shape of the cup would also influence amateur and/or expert consumers’ perception of aroma, taste, and hedonic evaluation of specialty coffee. A large-sample experiment (involving 276 participants) was conducted in a specialty coffee event in Brazil. The participants were divided into three testing groups according to the shape of the cup in which the coffee was served (tulip, open, or split). Tasters evaluated their experience of the aroma, sweetness, acidity, and liking of the coffee. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted in order to assess the effect of cup shape on sensory and hedonic ratings, and whether expertise modulated these ratings. Both amateurs and experts judged: (1) the aroma to be significantly stronger in the tulip cup, and (2) the sweetness and acidity to be significantly more intense in the split cup. Interestingly, the split cup received the lowest liking scores from the amateurs, but not from the experts. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that the shape of the cup significantly affects the perception of the sensory attributes of specialty coffee, for both amateur and expert consumers. The implications of these results for the design of coffee cups that convey some functional and/or perceptual benefit as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
If It’s Healthy, It’s Tasty and Expensive: Effects of Nutritional Labels on Price and Taste Expectations Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Jisung Jo, Jayson L. Lusk
Studies on the impact of nutritional information and labeling rarely consider lay beliefs regarding a food’s healthiness, taste, and affordability. If lay beliefs such as “healthy food is expensive” and “unhealthy food is tasty” exist, then nutritional information may have unintended consequences. This study elicited health, taste, and price beliefs of 60 food items in three countries—the USA, China, and Korea—and we studied how these beliefs and purchase intentions change in response to exogenous health information. We found lay beliefs are not always true and identical across countries, and they depend on prior beliefs and information. When neutral or negative exogenous information about healthfulness was provided, USA and Korea consumers tend to consider healthier foods more expensive, but this was not the case with China consumers. Interestingly, despite the commonly asserted “tasty=unhealthy” lay belief, we tended to find positive relationships between perceived health and taste. We demonstrated the interconnectedness of beliefs by simulating the impacts of health information on purchase intentions under different assumptions about the relationship between taste, health, and affordability expectations.
CATA and RATA questions for product-focused emotion research: Five case studies using emoji questionnaires Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Sara R. Jaeger, Soh Min Lee, Kwang-Ok Kim, Sok L. Chheang, Christina M. Roigard, Gastón Ares
Questionnaires are popular in product-focused emotion research with consumers. Ease of implementation is paramount in this regard, as is versatility. In the presented studies, focus is directed to scaling variations as an element of methodological versatility, and a comparison is performed of CATA and RATA question formats (check-all-that-apply and rate-all-that-apply, respectively). Five studies, with a range of tasted products and food/beverage names were conducted, involving 908 consumers in New Zealand, China and Korea. Emoji questionnaires, recently established as a methodological variant in product-elicited emotion research, were used. The average percentage of emoji used for describing samples was similar for CATA and RATA questions when used in Central Location Tests with tasted samples, but higher for RATA than CATA questions in online surveys. Discriminative ability of CATA and RATA questions was linked to the characteristics of the focal samples. The recommendation for method choice is to use CATA emoji-questions when samples have distinct emotional associations, whereas RATA seems better able to discriminate between samples with more similar emotional profiles. Neither CATA nor RATA emoji-questions were regarded by consumers as difficult or tedious.
The influence of psychological traits, beliefs and taste responsiveness on implicit attitudes toward plant- and animal-based dishes among vegetarians, flexitarians and omnivores Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-31 Danny Cliceri, Sara Spinelli, Caterina Dinnella, John Prescott, Erminio Monteleone
A global dietary transition, associated with negative effects on health and environment and characterized by an increase of animal-based diets to the detriment of plant-based diets, has occurred in the last few decades. Many factors (biological, physiological, psychological and socio-cultural), are known to play a role in affecting food choices and should be considered in order to promote more healthier plant based-diets. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the associations among psychological and personality traits, attitudes, beliefs and taste responsiveness in affecting implicitly measured attitudes toward plant-based and animal based-dishes. These attitudes were measured through three independent Implicit Association Tests (IATs), using images of culinary preparations of plant-based, meat-based and dairy-based dishes and positive/negative emotions. 125 subjects (39 omnivores, 55 flexitarians and 31 vegetarians) participated in each IAT. Questionnaires measuring psychological and personality traits, attitudes toward foods and beliefs about food animals were employed. Moreover, taste responsiveness was measured through the bitter intensity assessment of PROP. A Partial Least Square model was then adopted to study the individual variability in the implicit attitudes toward the plant-based and animal-based dishes in relation to psychological and personality traits, general food attitudes, beliefs on food animals and taste responsiveness measures. Overall the implicit measures were found to be in line with declared eating habits, with Vegetarians and Flexitarians more inclined to implicitly associate positive emotions to meat-free dishes than Omnivores, and with Vegetarians showing a stronger association than Flexitarians. The results showed that positive attitudes toward plant-based dishes were positively related to the empathic sensitivity toward humans and animals, as well as to attitudes toward healthy and natural products, highlighting an important role of food consciousness in determining the eating habits. On the contrary, food involvement and attitude towards taste did not differ among the considered segments. Responsiveness to PROP and sensitivity to pathogen disgust were found to be lower in Vegetarians compared to Omnivores. The transition from plant-based diet to animal-based diet should therefore embrace multiple aspects, considering taste responsiveness, psychological traits and attitudes towards food.
Using a combined temporal approach to evaluate the influence of ethanol concentration on liking and sensory attributes of Lager beer Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Imogen Ramsey, Carolyn Ross, Rebecca Ford, Ian Fisk, Qian Yang, Javier Gomez-Lopez, Joanne Hort
A low alcohol beer evoking similar sensory enjoyment as its higher alcohol counterpart is potentially an attractive proposition to breweries for increased sales volumes, as well as consumers due to health and societal reasons. This study aimed to determine the influence of ethanol on the temporal sensory characteristics and liking of beer as perceived by beer consumers. A commercial 0% ethanol concentration lager was spiked with ethanol to different concentrations (0.5%, 2.8%, 5% ethanol). Consumers (n=101) indicated their liking using temporal liking (TL) methodology (rated throughout consumption) and overall liking (rated at the end of consumption). Consumers also denoted the sensory properties perceived using temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA). Overall, liking data divided consumers into 3 clusters with different patterns of liking. As ethanol concentration increased from 0 to 5%, the TL time that best predicted overall liking shifted from 60 sec to 10-20 sec indicating that liking of higher alcohol products was decided earlier on in consumption. Data suggested that in a lower ethanol beer, a liking judgement may not be stabilized until later in the evaluation, while in high ethanol beers, a liking judgement, either positive or negative, stabilised more rapidly. TCATA results revealed different temporal sensory profiles among the different ethanol concentrations. As ethanol concentration increased, the citation of sweetness, fullness/body and alcohol warming sensation increased. However, the relationship between TCATA citations and TL varied among the three clusters highlighting that, in relation to ethanol concentration, different negative and positive sensory drivers of preference exist for different segments of consumers.
Motivations for meal and snack times: Three approaches reveal similar constructs Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Uyen T.X. Phan, Edgar Chambers IV
Meals and snacks are conceptualized differently. Meals are structured while snacking often is not. Food choices for meals, thus, are expectedly different from food choices for snacks. By using three approaches incorporating two psychological perspectives, top-down and bottom-up, this research project investigated motivations influencing foods and beverage choices for different eating occasions at various times of the day. The first approach used a modified online Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) to examine motivations for individual food items within specific contexts of eating. The second approach employed the Food Choice Map technique to explore motivations for individual food choices for all eating within a typical week. The last approach again used a modified TEMS to investigate choices for eating occasions, without examining what foods were eaten specifically. Findings from all three approaches supported that food patterns for meal were different from those for snacks. Choosing foods and beverages for meals were the result of the interplay of more motivation factors than for snacks. Food decision was significantly influenced by the time of the day at which the eating occurred. Although liking was most important for all eating occasions, day-time eating was driven more by function-oriented factors and night-time eating was more because of psychological or emotion-oriented needs. Findings from this project advance and reinforce knowledge in the food choice domain and show that investigating food choice from different perspectives can provide similar information.
Survival analysis model to estimate sensory shelf life with temperature and illumination as accelerating factors Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Lorena Garitta, Klaus Langohr, Eliana Elizagoyen, Fernanda Gugole Ottaviano, Guadalupe Gómez, Guillermo Hough
The main objective of this study was to introduce a survival model to contemplate two simultaneous accelerating factors affecting a food product’s shelf life: temperature and illumination. A second objective was to consider the case where the same consumer tests different experimental conditions and thus his/her data are not independent. Sample data comprised 108 consumers who evaluated a lemon-flavored juice stored at 24°C, 37°C and 45°C; under conditions of no-illumination and with illumination; with seven different storage times for each of the six experimental conditions. Aiming to estimate the storage time at which a consumer rejects a sample a model including an Arrhenius term for the temperature, a binomial response for illumination (with and without) and the interaction of both was developed. The model also considered that the same consumer tested different experimental conditions.
Perceived naturalness of water: The effect of biological agents and beneficial human action Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Anita Etale, Michael Siegrist
Perceived naturalness is an increasingly important aspect of consumer choice. A number of factors, including the involvement of human action, are known to influence perceptions of naturalness in the food domain. However, the effect of biological agents remains unknown. The first study, therefore, compared the effect of biological and human action on the perceived naturalness of treated spring water. Four strategies for adjusting the mineral concentration of spring water were proposed in the study: mineral addition, using acids and bases to adjust pH thereby re-solubilising precipitated minerals, pH adjustment by microbes already present in the water or by microbes brought in from another spring. Results showed that of the four treatments, microbes inherent to the spring water had the least negative effect on perceived naturalness when compared to the other three treatments, all of which involved some form of human action. This implies that biological agents have a less negative effect on perceived naturalness than human agents. The second study examined, based on the link between perceived naturalness and healthiness, whether human action would have a less negative impact on perceived naturalness if it improved the healthiness of the final product. We hypothesised that action that improved the healthiness of water would not reduce perceived naturalness. Our hypothesis was, however, disproved. Water with elemental concentrations adjusted to recommended levels was seen as healthier but less natural, suggesting that healthiness and naturalness are judged separately so that even where healthiness is increased, human action still results in lower perceived naturalness.
The shapes associated with the concept of ‘sweet and sour’ foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Carlos Velasco, Eric J. Beh, Tiffany Le, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos
Research on taste-shape correspondences has focused on one-to-one taste/shape matching tasks. However, foods and drinks tend to involve multiple shapes (or shape attributes) and tastes that co-occur at different moments of our eating experiences. In the present research, we assessed whether food concepts involving more than one taste (e.g., “sweet and sour”) would be associated with pairs of round and/or angular shapes. The participants matched shape pairs comprising angular and round shapes with “sweet and sour” food concepts more often than with other tastes and taste combination concepts, in a manner that is broadly consistent with studies involving one-to-one taste/shape matches. These results were observed both when the participants were presented with the shape pairs alone (Experiment 1) or along with a product’s packaging (Experiment 2). We conclude by presenting possible explanations for the results obtained, as well as directions for future research.
Wine Complexity: An Empirical Investigation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Qian Janice Wang, Charles Spence
Complexity is a term that is often invoked by people when writing appreciatively about the taste, aroma/bouquet, and/or flavour of wine. However, it is not clear what exactly wine complexity refers to. The present study was designed to uncover which attributes are most strongly linked to the social drinker’s perception of complexity in wine. Notably, unlike previous studies of wine complexity, we assessed the temporal component of complexity by acquiring information from participants at the various stages of smelling, tasting, and aftertaste. Furthermore, natural language processing techniques were used to analyse participants’ flavour descriptors in order to assess their semantic associations with complexity. Eight wines, chosen for their ability to showcase various aspects of complexity, were tasted in three flights, grouped by dry white, red, and sweet wines. Participants rated the perceived liking, quality, and complexity of each wine, as well as listing flavours of the wines perceived at different stages (aroma, in-mouth, post-swallowing). The results demonstrated that complexity was positively correlated with liking and with quality, but not with the price of the wines or the number of flavours detected. Furthermore, semantic analysis revealed that participants used more consistent vocabulary describe wines that they perceived to be more complex. We also observed similar consistency trends for wines that were liked more, as well as wines rated to be lower quality. In general, secondary and tertiary flavours (derived from fermentation or from ageing) were more often used to describe more complex wines. These results reveal intriguing patterns in how social drinkers assess perceive/infer wine complexity, as well as elucidating the relationship between complexity, quality, and liking.
Subjective socioeconomic status modulates perceptual discrimination between beverages with different energy densities Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 B.K. Cheon, E.X. Lim, K. McCrickerd, D. Zaihan, C.G. Forde
Prior research has revealed socioeconomic disparities in obesity and diabetes across developed nations, such that the burden of these disorders is disproportionately shouldered by socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. More recent research has demonstrated that independent of actual socioeconomic status (SES), the mere perception of scarcity, deprivation, or inferiority of socioeconomic resources is sufficient to stimulate increased preference for energy-dense foods and meals. This heightened motivation towards energy-dense foods when experiencing low subjective SES (SSES) may be accompanied by changes in perceptual discrimination between foods that differ in energy density, which may in turn shape later preference and selection for energy-dense foods. Conversely, the experience of high SSES and relative socioeconomic security may lead to de-prioritization of energy density during food selection, leading to suppressed detection of energy density. We tested these predictions by randomly assigning participants (n=93) to experimental inductions of low, high, or neutral (control) SSES. Next, participants tasted and rated four different versions of soy milk that varied on energy density (low or high) and texture (thin or thick). While participants in control and low SSES conditions could perceptually discriminate between low and high energy versions of the beverages, those in the high SSES condition exhibited no differences in assessments of energy density of the beverages. Consistent with the notion that perceived deprivation (or satisfaction) of important non-food socioeconomic resources may stimulate/suppress appetite, our findings indicate that SSES may modulate perceptual discrimination of energy in foods, which may contribute to socioeconomic differences in food preferences and obesity risk independent of actual financial and economic constraints.
Common roasting defects in coffee: Aroma composition, sensory characterization and consumer perception Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Davide Giacalone, Tina Kreuzfeldt Degn, Ni Yang, Chujiao Liu, Ian Fisk, Morten Münchow
The demand for high quality and specialty coffee is increasing worldwide. In order to meet these demands, a more uniform and standardized quality assessment of coffee is essential. The aim of this study was to make a sensory scientific and chemical characterization of common roasting defects in coffee, and to investigate their potential relevance for consumers’ acceptance of coffee. To this end, six time-temperature roasting profiles based on a single origin Arabica bean were developed: one ’normal’, representing a reference coffee free of defects, and five common roast defects (’dark’, ’light’, ’scorched’, ’baked’ and ’underdeveloped’. The coffee samples obtained from these beans were evaluated by means of 1) aroma analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), 2) sensory descriptive analysis (DA) by trained assessors, and 3) hedonic and sensory evaluation by consumers using a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questionnaire. Multivariate analyses of aroma, DA, and CATA data produced similar sample spaces, showing a clear opposition of the light roast to the dark and scorched roasts), with the normal roast having average values of key aroma compounds. The DA data confirmed this indications and showed the normal roast to have a balanced sensory profile compared to the other defects. Importantly, the normal roast was also significantly preferred in the consumer test (N=83 N = 83 ), and significantly associated to positive CATA attributes ’Harmonic’, ’Pleasant’, and ’Balanced’. Taken overall, the results provide a solid basis for understanding chemical and sensory markers associated with common roasting defects, which the coffee professionals may use internally in both quality control and product development applications.
On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the ‘food and beverage’ and ‘home and personal care’ categories Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Charles Spence, Carlos Velasco
Colour is perhaps the single most important element as far as the design of multisensory product packaging is concerned. It plays a key role in capturing the attention of the shopper in-store. A distinctive colour, or colour scheme, can also act as a valuable brand attribute (think here only of the signature colour schemes of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate). In many categories, though, colour is used to convey information to the consumer about a product’s sensory properties (e.g., taste or flavour, say), or else to prime other more abstract brand attributes (such as, for example, premium, natural, or healthy). However, packaging colour can also affects the customer’s product experience as well: Indeed, a growing body of empirical research now shows that packaging colour affects everything from the expected and perceived taste and flavour of food and beverage products through to the fragrance of home and personal care items. Packaging colour, then, plays a dominant role at several stages of the product experience.
Comparative performance of three interpretative front-of-pack nutrition labelling schemes: Insights for policy making Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Gastón Ares, Fiorella Varela, Leandro Machin, Lucía Antúnez, Ana Giménez, María Rosa Curutchet, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel
Different interpretative front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes have recently been implemented in several countries but it is still unclear which is the most effective. The present work compared three interpretative schemes (Nutri-score, health star rating and nutritional warnings) in terms of attentional capture, processing time, influence on perceived healthfulness and purchase intention of products with different nutritional profile. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, attention to and processing time for interpretation of FOP labels was evaluated using a visual search task with 112 participants. In the second study, an online survey with 892 participants was conducted to evaluate the influence of interpretive FOP labels on purchase intention and perceived healthfulness of a series of products. In both studies, a between-subjects design was implemented to compare a control condition (without front-of-pack nutrition information) and the three interpretive FOP schemes. The health star rating was found to perform worse than the other two schemes in terms of capturing attention and altering perceived healthfulness and purchase intention. The latter effect depended on the degree of healthfulness of the food products in question, but the effect on consumer behaviour towards unhealthful product categories was more pronounced for the warning label scheme. From a nutrition policy effectiveness point of view, results suggest that nutritional warnings may have advantages over Nutri-score and the health star rating in the context of the current food environment, characterized by the wide availability of products with high content of nutrients associated with non-communicable diseases.
Adolescent emotions toward sweet food cues as a function of obesity and risky dieting practices Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Laura Miccoli, Myriam Martínez-Fiesta, Rafael Delgado-Rodríguez, Sandra Díaz-Ferrer, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruiz, M.Carmen Fernández-Santaella
This study examined whether poor health habits – those associated with a higher risk of developing eating disorders or obesity – modified adolescents’ emotions toward sweet food cues. We aimed to answer the following questions: Is adolescent obesity accompanied by excessive enjoyment of sweets? Or is any risk habit, regardless its stronger association with obesity or disordered eating, associated with less food enjoyment? 552 Spanish adolescents (279 females) viewed pictures of sweets interspersed with emotional images as controls. Participants recorded their feelings of pleasure, activation, control, and food craving while looking at each picture; then answered questions on their general health, food intake, and physical activity; finally, their body mass index was estimated. We performed MANCOVAs on feelings during sweets, including individual risk habits as factors, and sex, age, and hunger as covariates. We performed the same analysis on emotional and neutral images. Results revealed that among risk habits, obesity and unhealthy dieting practices were accompanied by less enjoyment of sweets (mostly less pleasure and less food craving). On the contrary, risk habits had no effect on adolescents’ feelings during emotional stimuli, unrelated to food. Thus, the presence of habits linked to obesity and disordered eating was associated with reduced reward value of sweet food cues, supporting the need to approach both disorders from an integrative perspective. Consistent with recent prevention strategies, the results suggest the potential role of food enjoyment as a protective factor.
Emoji as a tool for measuring children’s emotions when tasting food ☆ Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Joachim J. Schouteten, Jan Verwaeren, Sofie Lagast, Xavier Gellynck, Hans De Steur
Consumers’ emotional evaluation of food products has gathered interest among sensory scientists and food companies as a means to gain additional insights beyond hedonic measurements. While recent work shows that emotional profiling can also be performed with children and teenagers, concerns have been raised about the validity of emotional profiling when using traditional questionnaires, especially with children. Emoji have recently been proposed as an alternative approach, but empirical studies with this target group are scarce. Using 5 different samples of a biscuit (‘speculoos’), this study evaluates the use of emoji for emotional profiling with 149 children (11–13 years old). Overall liking and emotional profiling (with 33 emoji) were assessed for each sample, using the check-all-that-apply approach. Children’s actual food choice was also recorded. Results showed that, on average, 10% of the emoji were selected for each sample. The emoji were able to discriminate between the products, while less discrimination was obtained between hedonically similar samples. Also, results indicated that some emoji responses were influenced by consumption frequency. Furthermore, this study found that adding emoji measurements improves food choice prediction compared to the sole inclusion of overall liking measurements. This study suggests that emoji can be used as an alternative means of emotional profiling with children and their inclusion helps to better predict actual food choice. More research is needed to examine the use of emoji in sensory research with children, especially regarding the selection and number of emoji.
The Emoji Scale: A Facial Scale for the 21st Century Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Marianne Swaney-Stueve, Tegan Jepsen, Grace Deubler
Emojis have grown in popularity as a method for digital communication. Recently, there has been interest in the connection between emojis and emotional response to consumer products. Research has been conducted linking emojis and the emotional response from food stimuli in adults via avenues such as Twitter, and in children. An online study was conducted to assess the application of an emoji-based pictorial facial scale with childFrren ages 8-11 (grades 3rd, 4th, and 5th). Two hundred and fourteen participants were asked to evaluate their liking and emotional response using the Peryam and Kroll (P&K) scale (super good/super bad) and pictorial emoji scale, respectively, for both food and non-food experiences. Scores from each grade level were not statistically different. The responses from both scales had similar mean scores and distribution patterns for all experiences with no incidence of bias toward any one emoji. These results support the suitability of the emoji scale for measuring emotional response using verbal stimuli names with children ages 8 to 11 in the United States and indicate it is a reasonable alternative to the P&K scale for this demographic.
How young people in Finland respond to information about the origin of food products: The role of value orientations and product type Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Tommi Kumpulainen, Annukka Vainio, Mari Sandell, Anu Hopia
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of personal values and product type in an experimental study / survey concerning food origins. Two studies were conducted among young consumers (N = 1491) using three different types of products (vegetables, bread, and meat) and an experimental design where information about the food origin varied (neutral, domestic, local). The origin of the food had a positive effect on the product experience and food choices. Value orientations had an effect on the product experience and the likelihood of choosing the product, and this effect was dependent on the product type. More specifically, a Self-Transcendence orientation was positively associated with the product experience in the context of vegetables and a Conservation orientation was positively associated with the product experience in the context of meat, however, the value orientations showed no effect in the context of bread. Individuals regarding Self-Transcendence as important, especially valued a local origin in the context of vegetables and meat. The findings regarding a Conservation orientation were less consistent. These findings indicate that knowing the origin adds some value to the product for young people. Even if the product is not necessarily in line with an individual’s values, the origin may in fact exceed the effect of the product type. The study provides further knowledge about the underlying factors explaining consumer choices on a personal level, especially when extrinsic information cues about food origin are available.
Degree of satisfaction-difference (DOSD) method for measuring consumer acceptance: Comparative and absolute measures of satisfaction based on signal detection theory Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Min-A Kim, Danielle Van Hout, Hye-Seong Lee
Recently, we have proposed the degree of satisfaction-difference (DOSD) method to measure changes in consumer product acceptance (Kim, van Hout, Dessirier, & Lee, 2018). The DOSD method utilizes A-Not A with reminder format to improve the stability and validity of the consumer evaluation by reminding consumers of the evaluative criteria with the reference sampling and by controlling the sequence effects on each sampling of the blind test product. Using the data obtained from DOSD method, in this paper, a way to compute a measure of the absolute degree of satisfaction for a product based on signal detection theory (SDT), referred to as d'SAT (d-prime satisfaction), is suggested. This new measure is compared to the comparative distance measure of d', the degree of satisfaction difference of a product from the reference product, which has been already described in the previous study. The absolute satisfaction degree is a value indicating each product’s degree of consumer satisfaction as in the hedonic score. However, the degree of satisfaction measure presented herein is superior to the hedonic score because it enables easy interpretation of whether a group of consumers are satisfied or not with a product. In practical situations, the two measures of the degree of satisfaction difference from the reference and the degree of satisfaction, which are computed using the data from DOSD method, can be used complementarily in order to reveal information about consumer perception and evaluation.
The Sweetest Punch Effects of 3D-printed Surface Textures and Graphic Design on Ice-Cream Evaluation Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Thomas J.L. Van Rompay, Lisa-Marie Kramer, Daniel Saakes
Research shows that design factors of packaging and food containers can have a strong impact on taste experience and product evaluation. However, so far research has mainly focused on how visual appearances steer sensory impressions including smell and taste. Taking into account new (technological) developments in packaging design, this research investigates the impact of 3D-printed surfaces on taste evaluation of two ice cream variants. In addition, the interplay between surface textures and matching or non-matching shapes presented on a poster in the consumption environment (i.e., an ice-cream salon) was studied. To this end, 3D-printed cups with either a sharp or smooth surface were manufactured and used in a taste session conducted at an ice-cream salon, where either a poster with sharp or smooth shapes was hanging down the wall. Results testify to the potential of influencing taste evaluations by means of surface textures, with a smooth surface enhancing sweetness evaluation, and a sharp surface enhancing intensity evaluations. Furthermore, findings might imply that mismatches between surface textures and poster design may enhance product and taste liking.
The impact of PROP and thermal taster status on the emotional response to beer Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Qian Yang, Rocio Dorado, Carolina Chaya, Joanne Hort
With an increasingly competitive global market, understanding consumer emotional response to products can provide a different perspective to identify drivers of consumer food choice behaviour beyond traditional hedonic measurement. This study investigated how two taste phenotypes (Thermal taster status (TTS) and PROP taster status (PTS)) impacted liking and emotional response to beers varying in bitterness, carbonation and serving temperature. Volunteers (n = 60, balanced for TTS and PTS) were invited to express their liking and emotional response to 2 commercial beers of contrasting bitterness, presented at two different carbonation levels (commercial carbonation and low carbonation level) and served at two temperatures (cold and ambient). In general, when beers were served at their commercial carbonation level and at a cold temperature, they received higher liking scores and evoked more positive emotions and less negative emotions. Signficant temperature∗carbonation interactions were found for liking and some emotion categories. At commercial carbonation levels, cold beer was better liked and evoked more positive emotions than beer served at ambient temperature, but no such temperature effect was observed at the low carbonation level. Although the sample size is relatively small, significant effects for liking were observed for PTS but not TTS, suggesting PTS is a more influential factor regarding liking than TTS. However, thermal tasters (TT) rated 6 out of 10 emotion categories significantly higher for beer than thermal non-tasters (TnT), indicating emotional response may be more sensitive to capture the differences across taste phenotypes than liking, and that TT show increased negative emotions to beer in general. PROP supertasters (ST) rated some emotion categories significantly higher than non-tasters (NT) and, in contrast to TTS these were the more positive emotions, such as excited and content. This is the first study to report an impact of both TTS and PTS on emotional response. Furthermore, this study observed significant relative effects of TTS and PTS on emotional response, where the effect of PTS was more pronounced in TnT. This highlights the importance of investigating the combined effects of different phenotypes on consumer response representing the reality of different consumer segments.
An appetite for risk? Failure to replicate the effect of hunger cues on risk taking. Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Anouk Festjens, Sabrina Bruyneel, Siegfried Dewitte
Ditto et al. (1996) reported that consumers who are exposed to external hunger cues (i.e., scent of freshly baked cookies) are less sensitive to risk information. That is, consumers exposed to hunger cues are as likely to take risks in situations with a high versus low probability of losing. Yet, this result is often cited as evidence that hunger increases risk-taking. This may be due to the fact that Ditto et al. (1996) observed that hunger cues increased risk-taking in situations with a high chance of losing. We attempted to replicate this specific contrast in two studies. In the first study, the risk measure was in the food domain (like in Ditto et al., 1996) and in the second study it was in the financial domain. Yet, we failed to observe a main effect of exposure to external food cues on risk-taking. In addition, as it is an untested assumption in the literature that external (cookie scent) versus internal (not eating for several hours) hunger cues can be used interchangeably, we also checked for a potential moderation by type of hunger cue. We did not observe such a moderation when the risk task involved food outcomes, but we detect such an effect when it involved financial outcomes. These results suggest that the widely held assumptions that (1) hunger or exposure to hunger cues induce risk taking and that (2) internal and external hunger cues are exchangeable should be revisited.
Background colour & its impact on food perception & behaviour Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Charles Spence
Colour affects many aspects of our lives. One area of particular interest in recent years has been the role of colour cues in the perception of food and drink. While the majority of this research has tended to focus on the impact of changing the colour of the product itself, there is now a growing body of scientifically-credible research (building on earlier anecdotal claims) that the colour of the background against which food and drink is served affects both people’s perception of it, and also their serving and consumption behaviour as well. In this review, the empirical evidence on this topic is summarized and the various mechanisms that have been put forward to account for such results outlined. Gaining a better understanding of when, and why, background colour impacts our food preferences, perception, and ultimately our behaviour, is likely to be important to chefs, food bloggers, restaurateurs, packaging designers, and those working on encouraging various special needs populations to consume more (or less).
Herbs and spices increase liking and preference for vegetables among rural high school students Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Juliana R. Fritts, Clara Fort, Anne Quinn Corr, Qihan Liang, Laurie Alla, Terri Cravener, John E. Hayes, Barbara J. Rolls, Christopher D'Adamo, Kathleen L. Keller
Purpose Vegetable consumption in youth is below recommendations and strategies to increase intake at school are needed. We investigated barriers to vegetable intake at a rural public high school and evaluated whether new vegetable recipes using herbs and spices would increase liking and preference for vegetables served to adolescents at this school. Methods Before recipe development, herb and spice familiarity and barriers to vegetable intake were assessed through surveys with a sample of students, parents, and cafeteria staff at the high school. Recipes for vegetables were then developed using spice blends (including dill, cardamom, cumin, etc.) uniquely formulated for each vegetable. To evaluate recipe acceptance, we assessed liking (100 mm visual analog scales) and preference (forced choice) among students (N’s = 96-110; aged 14-18 y) for 8 plain (oil and salt) and 8 seasoned vegetables. Liking ratings between plain and seasoned vegetables were compared with paired T-tests. Preferences were compared by chi-square tests. Results Students reported higher liking for several seasoned recipes compared to plain: broccoli (P=0.02), vegetable dip (P<0.0001), black beans and corn (P<0.001), and cauliflower (P= 0.01). Students preferred the seasoned recipe to the plain for corn and peas (P=0.002), broccoli (P=0.02), dip (P<0.0001), black beans and corn (P<0.001), cauliflower (P<0.0001), and green beans (P=0.02). Conclusions Common herbs and spices improved liking and preference for several school lunch vegetables compared to plain varieties among rural high school students. Future research will test the impact of offering these vegetables in the school lunch program on student vegetable intake.
The effect of wrapper color on candy flavor expectations and perceptions. Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Debra Zellner, Nancy Greene, Monica Jimenez, Arturo Calderon, Yaritza Diaz, Mimi Sheraton
The color of a product’s metallic paper wrapper influences the expectations concerning the flavor of the product. These color-induced expectations are consistent with flavors associated with those colors (e.g., cherry-red) but vary somewhat with the product to be wrapped (e.g., a candy or beverage). Beverages wrapped in green were expected to have a lemon/lime flavor while candies wrapped in the same color were expected to have a mint flavor. Although flavor expectations were affected by the wrapper color there was no effect of the color of the wrapper on the identification of the flavor of a plain white spun sugar candy wrapped in the paper wrapper. The color of the wrapper also did not affect how much subjects liked the flavor of the candy or the rated intensity of the flavor or sweetness. There was also no difference among the colored wrappers in how appropriate they were judged to be for the candy. All colors were seen as, at best, “somewhat” appropriate. Subjects were more likely to report a candy as having a flavor consistent with the color of the candy than with the color of the paper it was wrapped in. This suggests that people’s judgments and evaluations of a food stimulus is most strongly influenced by those aspects of the stimulus they perceive as being an integral part of the food (i.e., the color of the food rather than the color of the packaging).
Impact of Cooking Competence on Satisfaction with Food-Related Life: Construction and Validation of Cumulative Experience & Knowledge Scales Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Tino Bech-Larsen, George Tsalis
Research into consumers’ cooking competences mostly focuses on the nutritional qualities of the resulting meals and relies on non-cumulative measures of cooking skills. In response, the current article reports on several studies designed to construct and validate a set of cumulative scales to measure consumers’ cooking knowledge and experience as well as the link to consumers’ food-related life satisfaction. Expert interviews, focus groups, and previous research establish the themes and potential scale items. Then two surveys with representative samples of Danish food consumers serve to identify the critical scale items and assess the reliability and validity of the scales. The results demonstrate that the constructed knowledge and experience scales are cumulative, have high levels of reliability, and indicate the positive effects of such knowledge and experience on consumers’ food-related life satisfaction.
Understanding product differentiation failures: The role of product knowledge and brand credence in olive oil markets Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Melania Salazar-Ordóñez, Macario Rodríguez-Entrena, Elena R. Cabrera, Jörg Henseler
This paper tries to shed light on a key question for different foodstuffs: why are product differentiation strategies far from successful in some agri-food markets? Undoubtedly, understanding consumer behaviour in situations where product differentiation failures occur is essential to resolving this issue. To that end, we built a theoretical model to analyse the roles played by both consumer information and inferences made from informational stimuli, given their potential relevance to the differentiation process. We thus examined consumer knowledge structures and brand credence related to attitudes toward a particular foodstuff and a product alternative, as well as the actual consumption of the foodstuff. The theoretical model was tested by an empirical application, using variance-based structural equation modelling (SEM) with the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Results showed that attitudes to both products explained the relative consumption of the foodstuff under study. In addition, product knowledge influenced consumers’ attitude towards the foodstuff and its consumption, but not the attitude towards the product alternative. On the contrary, the higher the brand equity of the product alternative, the better the attitude towards it. In addition, this factor was shown to have an impact on the attitude towards and consumption of the foodstuff. Therefore, those variables are key to explaining consumer behaviour in such agri-food markets, where increasing consumers’ knowledge and creating consumer-based brand equity seem to be appropriate strategies to improve the differentiation process.
Comparison of Triangle and Tetrad Discrimination Methodology in an Applied Manner Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Sara L. Burns, Marjorie P. Penfield, Arnold M. Saxton, Curtis R. Luckett
Choosing a discrimination test can involve numerous factors, one of which is statistical power. The tetrad test has been shown to possess statistical advantages over the more traditional triangle method. However, these statistical advantages may not be present when the effect size does not decrease by more than 1/3. The frequency of large decreases in effect size, as well as other measures of test performance has not been characterized. In this study, over thirty products were tested using both triangles and tetrads in order to compare the two methods. The products tested ranged from canned vegetables and fresh fruits to deli meats and baked goods. After testing, inconsistencies were found within and across product categories. Only 16% of the tests were found to end with a different conclusion regarding a statistical difference (p < 0.05). In six of the experiments, the triangle test showed a significantly higher effect size than the tetrad. In eight of the experiments, the reduction in effect size for the tetrad led to no power advantage of the tetrad test. Participants also noted that the product being tested affected their impression of test difficulty in multiple experiments. This study creates a functional comparison of tetrad and triangle testing and quantifies the frequency in which the tetrad method effect size decreases by more than 1/3, leading to decreased statistical power.
Associations between food neophobia and responsiveness to “warning” chemosensory sensations in food products in a large population sample Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 M. Laureati, S. Spinelli, E. Monteleone, C. Dinnella, J. Prescott, C. Cattaneo, C. Proserpio, A. De Toffoli, F. Gasperi, I. Endrizzi, L. Torri, M. Peparaio, E. Arena, F. Bonello, N. Condelli, R. Di Monaco, E. Gatti, E. Piasentier, F. Tesini, E. Pagliarini
The aim of the present study is to explore the association between food neophobia and chemosensory responsiveness and to determine whether this association translates into different food liking and preference patterns. Data were collected on 1225 respondents (61% females, age 20-60 years) as part of the Italian Taste project. Respondents completed the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) as well as a food preference and familiarity questionnaire for a number of foods and beverages categorized as mild or strong tasting. Moreover, they evaluated attribute intensity and liking of an actual food (dark chocolate pudding) varying in the level of sweetness, bitterness and astringency. Taste function was evaluated by measuring fungiform papillae density (FPD), responsiveness to PROP (6-n- propylthiouracil) and to water solutions representing various oro-sensory qualities. High, medium and low neophobic subjects did not differ for FPD and chemosensory responsiveness. Reported liking was significantly lower for high neophobics than low neophobics only for those vegetables and beverages characterized by high levels of warning stimuli (i.e. bitterness, sourness, astringency and alcohol), whereas almost no differences were found for the bland versions of food items. High and medium neophobics rated astringency and, to a lesser extent, bitterness of the dark chocolate pudding, as more intense than low neophobics and liked the most bitter and astringent variants significantly less than low neophobics. Differences in liking, however, do not seem to be mediated by food neophobics’ superior taste functioning but rather by higher levels of arousal when eating food and/or drinking beverages that are perceived as potentially unpleasant and dangerous. Finally, the effect of food neophobia was evident not only for potentially unusual items in the Italian food context, but even for items that might be considered highly familiar.
The Changing Role of the Senses in Food Choice and Food Intake across the Lifespan Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Sanne Boesveldt, Nuala Bobowski, Keri McCrickerd, Isabelle Maître, Claire Sulmont-Rossé, Ciarán G. Forde
Sensory perception begins before birth and enables us to interpret the biological relevance of stimuli in our near environment. In early life, the senses play a crucial role in informing acceptance and rejection of foods and beverages. Food preferences develop with experience based on associations formed between a foods flavour and the consequence of its consumption. In adulthood the role of the chemical senses is often simplified into simple 'likes' and 'dislikes', but recent evidence highlights a more functional role in guiding eating behaviours and nutrition. A food’s perceptual properties are important for the detection of its nutrient content and through this, guide not only food choice but also habitual energy selection and consumption behaviour. As we age and the prevalence of chronic disease increases, sensory acuity often declines for taste, smell and texture perception, and this can have an impact on food perception, preference and food intake. This creates an opportunity to apply an understanding of sensory influences on choice and intake to stimulate appetite during periods where nutrient intakes may become compromised. This paper summarises current knowledge of the changing role of the senses during infancy and early childhood, through to adulthood, older age and illness. The aim is to highlight opportunities to improve health and wellness through a better understanding of how sensory factors can influence eating behaviours and nutrition at key time points across the lifespan.
Signal detection-based satisfaction measure of the holistic product usage experience with and without the ‘double-faced applicability’ test Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 In-Ah Kim, Danielle Van Hout, Hye-Seong Lee
In the fast moving consumer goods industry, measuring consumer acceptance toward products is crucial for product development and marketing. Consumers are generally considered hedonists and, thus momentary hedonic scores are assumed to represent consumer acceptance. Yet for many product types, such as household care products, consumers might be considered utilitarian and their usage experience with the product might be equally important for consumer acceptance. To quantify consumer holistic product usage experience, a two-step signal detection rating-based satisfaction measure was used such that an independent signal detection theory index termed d'A (d-prime affect magnitude) could be computed for each product to represent consumer satisfaction with the usage experience and with the product itself. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous attribute evaluation using the ‘double-faced applicability’ (DFA) test on product discrimination of this satisfaction measure. The conventional 10-point hedonic ratings with and without the DFA test were used as control methods for comparison. Results showed that significant product discriminations were observed only in the group who performed the satisfaction measure with the DFA test. Also, significant discriminations in quality attributes of the DFA test questionnaire were more frequently observed in the group that performed the satisfaction test than in those who performed the hedonic test. These results indicate that compared to using hedonic scores, the satisfaction test with the DFA has the potential to improve research on the quality predictors of household products.
The Flexitarian Flip™ in University Dining Venues: Student and Adult Consumer Acceptance of Mixed Dishes in which Animal Protein has been Partially Replaced with Plant Protein Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Molly Spencer, Cesar Cienfuegos, Jean-Xavier Guinard
There is a growing interest in the shift from meat-centric diets towards plant-based diets due to the negative impacts of meat production and consumption on public health and the environment. This research tested the Flexitarian Flip™ in a university dining venue context, by partially replacing meat with legumes in current Dining Services recipes. A two-part Central Location Test was conducted with a college student population sample (n=118) in a University of California, Davis campus dining venue. This study was repeated at a later date with n=110 adults ages 18-88 years. Acceptability measures were collected for two recipes (an Indian dish and a Latin American dish), two meat levels (high meat/low legume (HM) and low meat/high legume (LM)), and two spiciness levels (Regular and Spicy). The student and adult consumer populations had similar results, and preference segments were found for both. Overall, in the Latin American recipe, the HM samples had higher acceptability than the LM samples, and in the Indian recipe, the HM and LM had similar acceptability. The LM Spicy sample had the same acceptability as both the Regular and Spicy HM samples or higher, depending on the preference segment. Additionally, the higher level of trigeminal heat increased perceived flavor complexity. To achieve the highest consumer acceptability of plant-forward mixed dishes, a mixture of legumes and vegetables, rather than vegetables or legumes alone, is recommended as a partial replacement for meat, along with a trigeminal boost in the recipe to maintain perceived flavor complexity.
Determinants of organic food purchases: Evidence from household panel data Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Meike Janssen
There is an ongoing trend towards the consumption of organic food in many industrialized countries. For food producers and marketers, it is interesting to know the determinants of organic food consumption. The great majority of previous research on this topic was based on consumer surveys or interviews with questions on past or future behaviour or attitudes towards organic food. However, there is a potential bias in these measures. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the drivers of actual organic food purchases and compare them with the drivers of attitudes towards organic food. The analysis was based on household panel data from Germany provided by the company GfK documenting all food purchases of N=9,470 households during the entire year of 2008. The data on actual purchases of organic food were linked with survey data from the same households on attitudes towards different food characteristics. The analysis confirmed the phenomenon of an attitude-behaviour gap in the market for organic food. Nevertheless, the structural equation models provided evidence that attitudes towards organic food and organic food purchases were both driven by the same determinants; however, the relative importance of the determinants differed. In both models, ‘naturalness and healthiness’ and ‘environmental protection’ were the two most influential drivers. Other significant determinants with a positive influence were the preference for ‘local and domestic food’ and the desire for ‘high quality food and enjoyment of eating’; ‘price consciousness’ and ‘convenience orientation’ both had a significant negative effect. The paper concludes with implications for future survey research on organic food and recommendations for producers and marketers of organic food.
Consumer in-store choice of suboptimal food to avoid food waste: the role of food category, communication and perception of quality dimensions Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
Food not purchased due to its perceived sub-optimality is often wasted in the store, which contributes to the problem of food waste. One way to avoid this factor causing disposal of edible food is to offer such foods at reduced prices in the store. However, it remains under researched under which circumstances consumers most likely choose such food. The current study aimed to analyse choice likelihood in dependence of food category and communication of the offer, and to explore dimensions of perceived food quality and ascriptions to the buyer of sub-optimal products. An online between-subjects experimental study (4x2) with 746 Uruguayan consumers was conducted, comparing price reduced suboptimal food of four categories and communicating either economic saving or food waste avoidance. The foods were also assessed on a range of quality characteristics, and ascriptions matching a person buying either the optimal or the suboptimal food chosen. Findings show that suboptimal foods offered at reduced price were well accepted. However, likelihood of choice of suboptimal food depended on food category and was higher in the presence of communication on food waste avoidance, with differences in gender and socioeconomic status. Perceived quality and ascriptions to the buyers varied between food categories. It is concluded that communicating food waste avoidance can heighten acceptance and improve perceived quality, in particular for fresh produce. The findings allow deriving recommendations for approaches to improve value perception of suboptimal food, targeted to food category and consumer group.
Brave, health-conscious, and environmentally friendly: Positive impressions of insect food product consumers Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Christina Hartmann, Matthew B. Ruby, Philomene Schmidt, Michael Siegrist
Prior results suggest that people who follow a vegetarian diet or consume meat alternatives, such as insects, might be perceived negatively. In two experimental studies, both the shopping list method and a vignette approach were used to assess underlying impressions of these consumer groups. The aim of the first study was to explore how someone with insect-based or vegetarian burgers on their shopping list is perceived compared to someone purchasing beef burgers. Study participants (N = 598) were randomly assigned to one of three shopping list conditions and evaluated the owner of the list on 16 bipolar attributes (e.g., disciplined, health-conscious, popular). In the second study, a new set of participants (N = 617) was randomly assigned to one of three conditions. They read a short description about a hypothetical person who either chose a lunch menu with insect schnitzel, vegetarian schnitzel or pork schnitzel to elicit an evaluation of this person. The same personality attributes as in Study 1 were assessed. The results of both studies showed that consumers of insect and vegetarian products were perceived as more health-conscious, environmentally friendly, imaginative, brave, interesting, and knowledgeable than meat consumers. Notably, the vegetarian and insect alternatives were evaluated as healthier than the meat option. Given the relatively positive image of people who consume alternatives to traditional meat proteins identified in the present study, the social influence of people who visibly consume such products may be high.
Application of Consumer Style Inventory (CSI) to predict young Indian consumer’s intention to purchase organic food products Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Gyan Prakash, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Rambalak Yadav
The present study attempts to investigate the consumer decision making styles (CDMS) in the organic food category. Sproles and Kendall’s Consumer Styles Inventory (CSI) instrument (1986) was modified and applied in the organic food-product context. Further, two additional constructs identified from the literature were included, namely; environmental consciousness and health consciousness. Responses were collected from 527 young consumers using convenience sampling approach and analyzed with the help of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. Out of eight CDMS, five styles, namely perfectionism (high quality consciousness); brand consciousness; recreational (hedonistic shopping consciousness); price consciousness and brand loyalty reported significant influences on consumers’ organic food purchase intention. Further, both the additional constructs (environmental consciousness and health consciousness) were also found significant. The finding of the study will help the organic food marketers in identifying the factors important for organic food purchases.
Strategies to increase preschoolers' vegetable liking and consumption: the role of reward sensitivity Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Vandeweghe Laura, Verbeken Sandra, Braet Caroline, Loeys Tom, De Henauw Stefaan, Moens Ellen
The present study investigated the effectiveness of different strategies to increase the willingness to taste, liking and consumption of a disliked vegetable in preschool children, and the moderating role of reward sensitivity. Kindergarten classes (n = 8; preschool children: n=154, 46,8% boys, age: M=5.08, SD=.61) were assigned to one of four different conditions (i.e. Repeated Neutral Exposure, Repeated Exposure+social reward, Repeated Exposure+token reward and control condition). The results demonstrated that children’s liking and consumption of the disliked vegetable significantly increased in the three active strategies (i.e. consumption and liking increases ranged from 10.1 to 20.6 g, and 34.1 to 51.8% respectively) compared to the control condition (i.e. consumption and liking increases ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 g, and 1.9 to 4.7% respectively). No significant differences were found between the three active strategies for all dependent variables. Little evidence was found for the moderating role of the individual characteristic reward sensitivity.
From Perception to Ingestion; the role of sensory properties in energy selection, eating behaviour and food intake Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Ciarán G. Forde
The sensory properties of foods and beverages play an important role in shaping our eating behaviours and the dietary patterns that influence health and well-being. Sensory evaluation has traditionally focused on quantifying sensations and relating these to food preferences. However, these perceptual signals are also influential in guiding energy intake beyond their role in preferences. Food odours, tastes and textures influence portion selection, oral-processing behaviours and the post-ingestive experience of satiety, and collectively inform the food intake patterns that underpin the diet. In addition to rating perceptual responses to foods, we are interested in exploring how eating behaviour and energy intake changes in response to the sensory properties experienced during the meal. Our studies have explored how a food’s texture can be used to moderate eating rate (g/min) and meal size, and in both children and adults, and we have shown associations between faster eating rates, energy intake and body composition in children (Fogel et al., 2017). By profiling the eating rates of a wide range of foods we have demonstrated how food texture can be used to slow food intake, and moderate energy consumption within a meal. Sensory cues can also be used to conceal underlying differences in energy density and our research has explored the impact of covert energy density manipulations in sensory and volume matched foods. Through this we have demonstrated that modifications to the energy density of the food have negligible impact on later energy intake when the sensory appeal is maintained. This creates an opportunity to use sensory properties to conceal energy density changes and use food textures to guide eating behaviours to support a satisfying product experience for fewer calories. Understanding how sensory properties influence both perception and ingestion can inform the development of successful behavioural and dietary strategies for better management of chronic conditions such as obesity and type-2 diabetes.
When and how do explicit measures of food craving predict implicit food evaluation? A moderated mediation model Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Anna Richard, Adrian Meule, Jens Blechert
Research findings about relationships between trait-like eating behaviors and implicit food evaluations have been inconsistent. This may be partially attributed to the state-dependent nature of implicit food evaluations. In the current studies, relationships between trait and state chocolate craving, current hunger, and implicit evaluation of chocolate were examined. In study 1 (n = 64; 70% females), neither trait nor state chocolate craving were directly associated with implicit evaluation of chocolate. However, higher state chocolate craving was associated with more positive implicit evaluation of chocolate when current hunger was high. A moderated mediation model revealed an indirect effect of trait chocolate craving on implicit evaluation of chocolate via state chocolate craving only in hungry participants. This moderated mediation model was replicated in a sample of female individuals (n = 66; study 2) and in a sample of children and adolescents (n = 146; 47% females; study 3). Results support previous reports in that implicit food evaluations are influenced by state-dependent variables such as current craving and hunger. Moreover, implicit food evaluations are influenced by trait-like eating behaviors as well, inasmuch as these give rise to states of high motivational needs.
Consumer Evaluation of Healthy, Unpleasant-Tasting Food and the Post-Taste Effect of Positive Information Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Satoko Suzuki, Jaewoo Park
Previous research on taste evaluations has often featured tasty foods. However, some foods taste unpleasant, particularly those that are good for our health. In two experiments, we showed that for unpleasant-tasting foods, the effect of positive information on taste experiences differs from the findings in the previous literature. When positive information about the food was given after tasting, participants evaluated the product experience more positively than when the same information was given before tasting. Here, we propose the mobilization-minimization hypothesis as a potential explanation for this post-tasting positive information effect. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of information order on product evaluation through emotional change. Taken together, learning positive information about unpleasant-tasting foods, particularly about their health benefits, may minimize the negative emotional impact of that experience, thereby positively influencing product evaluation. The theoretical and practical implications of this research are discussed.
Statistical treatment of free sorting data by means of correspondence and cluster analyses Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 V. Cariou, E.M. Qannari
Several statistical procedures have been proposed for the analysis of the data from a free sorting task. A straightforward strategy of analysis based on correspondence analysis and cluster analysis performed on the co-occurrence matrix is proposed herein. More specifically, two situations are considered depending on whether the aim is to depict the relationships among the stimuli or to investigate the agreement among the subjects. The approach of analysis is illustrated on the basis of free sorting data characterizing chocolate products.
The impact of whey protein supplementation in older adults on nutrient intakes and satiety over an 11-week exercise intervention Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Ashley Ridge, Amanda Devine, Philippa Lyons-wall, Jenny Conlon, Johnny Lo
Aim This study aimed to investigate nutritional factors which could counteract the benefits of whey protein (WP) supplementation in older adults whilst performing resistance training (RT). These included food group intakes, nutrient intakes and satiety ratings. This investigation was a sub-study of a larger trial investigating RT and WP supplementation among older adults. Methods Thirty-six older adults (mean ± SD: BMI 26.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2) consumed a WP beverage containing 30g WP and 200 mL water three days/week across 11 weeks, immediately following 1-hour of RT. A 3-day weighed food record was completed 4-weeks prior to the study, at baseline and at week 11, to examine overall food group and nutrient intakes. At weeks 1-3, 6-8 and 11, a visual analogue scale assessed satiety. Results At week 11 compared to baseline, consumption of fruit (p=0.039) decreased; milk and milk alternatives increased (p<0.001); protein (p=0.016) and percentage energy derived from protein (p=0.016) increased. Additionally, participants felt hungrier (p=0.033) and fullness increased (p=0.022) at week 11. Overall, satiety was significantly greater in females than males (p=0.014). Conclusions Increased milk consumption and dietary protein was an expected benefit of WP supplementation. However, a decline in fruit serves was noted. Future research should further examine longer-term effects of WP on nutritional status in the aging population.
Can food choice be influenced by priming with cucumber or bread odour? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 M.R. Mors, I.A. Polet, M.H. Vingerhoeds, F.J.A. Perez-Cueto, R.A. de Wijk
Recent research suggests that non-attentively perceived odours may significantly influence people’s food choices. This study’s aim was to examine the effects of different types of non-attentively perceived food odours, namely, bread odour and cucumber odour, on subsequent lunch choices in a real-life setting. The study was conducted using a within-participant design (n=37, age 21–55 years). Participants took part in three sessions: two priming conditions (bread and cucumber odour) and one control condition (no odour). During each session, participants started by answering a questionnaire for 20 minutes, in a room in which they were exposed to one of the odour conditions. The questionnaire functioned as a ‘lure’ task. Subsequently, participants were guided to the restaurant where they could choose lunch from a buffet. Besides lunch choice, sociodemographic factors, personality traits, and eating behaviour factors were assessed. Odour priming and control conditions did not affect lunch selections (χ2 (2, N=37) =28.1, p=0.46). Self-reported positive mood was significantly affected by odour condition (F (2, 72) =3.26, p=0.044). In conclusion, odour condition did affect mood but not lunch choice. It is therefore questionable whether an odour prime can be used as a nudge to contribute to healthy food choice behaviour.
Do healthy diets differ in their sensory characteristics? Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 David N Cox, Gilly A Hendrie, Haidee J Lease
The relationship between sensory characteristics of foods, diets and weight status is not well established. However, such knowledge could assist in better understanding food choices and inform strategies to improve diet quality. The objectives of this study were to examine the sensory characteristics of diets varying in healthiness and to explore differences by demographics, weight status and diet quality. Data were captured using the online CSIRO Healthy Diet Score survey, including 38 questions on the frequency and quantity of foods consumed, facilitating the calculation of an overall diet quality score out of 100. Data from 145,975 Australian adults are reported. Sensory characteristics of 105 foods and beverages representative of the survey’s food groups were described using a trained sensory panel in terms of basic tastes, fatty mouthfeel and flavour strength. Average sensory scores (weighted by frequency of consumption) were calculated for each food group question. Reported intake (in serves) was multiplied by the sensory scores for each food group consumed to estimate the total sensory value of the diet. Higher diet quality was associated with higher sweet and bitter scores, but a greater proportion of this sweetness was from healthy core foods rather than discretionary foods. Salty taste tended to be lower in diets of higher quality, and there were no differences in fatty mouthfeel by diet quality. Overall flavour intensity increased with diet quality. For the first time the sensory characteristics of foods pertaining to recommended healthy diets can be described. Consumers, industry and public health could utilise such knowledge to encourage the adoption of higher quality diets.
Serving science to the public: Deliberations by a sample of older adults upon exposure to a serving size recommendation for meat Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Rui Gaspar, Samuel Domingos, Patrícia Demétrio
To enable consumers to make informed decisions based on communications about food risks and particularly intake recommendations, it is essential that individuals understand the information presented to them. Thus, research into the way people make sense and understand newly received information is important from a public policy perspective. This is the case when dealing with scientific information destined for the general public, such as recommended food intake serving sizes provided in numerical format. Hence, this study analysed responses from exposure to information concerning red meat intake risks and a numerical serving size recommendation. The study analysed: 1) participants’ reported difficulties in understanding a recommended serving size of red meat (70grams/day); and 2) behavioural indicators of deliberation strategies used to manage uncertainty and make sense of the numerical information. A mixed qualitative-quantitative method collected data from an older adults’ sample through single in-person deliberative sessions. While quantitative measures indicated that the information was perceived as moderately easy to understand; a qualitative thematic content analysis with a closed coding procedure evidenced participants’ reported difficulties in understanding the quantity recommendation. “Commonplace” arguments (e.g. using general arguments and remarks applicable to any context/theme) emerged as the most commonly used deliberative strategy, along with various other individual strategies apparently intended to reduce uncertainty about quantities. This type of deliberative approach provides a step towards developing policies to reduce citizens’ uncertainty when exposed to scientific information in numerical formats. Such deliberative strategies may also promote increased citizen engagement in communication activities and health policy making.
Shopping for Products in a Virtual World: Why Haptics and Visuals are Equally Important in Shaping Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Rachelle de Vries, Gerry Jager, Irene Tijssen, Elizabeth H. Zandstra
Although touchscreens are quickly becoming the primary means of accessing content online, research into influences of touch interfaces on online consumer perceptions and behaviors is at present limited. This study investigated whether varying the degree of interface touch (i.e., ‘direct’ touchscreen vs. ‘indirect’ mouse) elicits differences in perceived psychological ownership and endowment of chosen products – taking into account potential moderating roles of object interactivity (i.e., static 2D vs. rotating 360° 3D product images) and autotelic “Need For Touch” [NFT], as well as additional effects on online shopping enjoyment. Findings from an online grocery shopping experiment confirm a meaningful interaction between touchscreen interfaces and high interactivity images in increasing ownership feelings and subsequent product valuations across food product types. Results showed no evidence for a main effect of interface touch nor moderating role of autotelic NFT on perceived psychological ownership. However, both interface touch and object interactivity predicted online shopping enjoyment independent of product category, with individuals – especially those high in autotelic NFT – experiencing greater enjoyment within the touchscreen and high interactivity conditions respectively.
Selection Attributes of Home Meal Replacement by Food-related Lifestyles of Single-person Households in South Korea Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Soyeong Kim, Kiwon Lee, Youngmi Lee
This study aims to characterize the food-related lifestyles of single-person households as home meal replacement (HMR) consumers and to investigate socio-economic dimensions and selection attribute characteristics for HMR according to consumers’ food-related lifestyles. We identified three groups by factor and cluster analysis: “utilitarians” (19.3%), “health-conscious utilitarians” (22.2%), and “variety seekers” (58.5%). Utilitarians are typically in their 20s, unmarried, and unemployed with relatively lower monthly incomes compared with the other groups. They put less attention on trend and quality, but consider convenience and economic value more important when purchasing HMR products. Health-conscious utilitarians are typically married and in their 40s and 50s. They still consider convenience and economic value of HMR products, but the quality of HMR products is the most important factor for them. Finally, variety seekers are relatively well educated, and proportionately more are employed compared with the other groups. They find the trendiness of HMR products more important, although quality, convenience, and economic value are still a consideration for them. Therefore, differentiated strategies are needed to develop and market HMR for single-person households.
Chinese consumers and shellfish: Associations between perception, quality, attitude and consumption Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Ou Wang, Simon Somogyi
This study explores the associations between Chinese consumers’ product attribute perceptions and their quality perceptions, attitudes and consumptions toward shellfish. It also presents information regarding their consumption, attitudes and segmentation for twelve shellfish species. Data was collected through an online survey with 643 consumers from three cities: Beijing, Guangzhou and Chongqing. Chinese consumers had low consumption but positive attitudes toward the twelve shellfish species and two consumer segments were recognized: frequent-eaters (42%) and less-frequent-eaters (58%). Significant differences were found in personal income, occupation and attitudes toward specific shellfish species between these two segments. The consumption of shellfish was positively linked to ‘familiarity’ and negatively linked with ‘purchase convenience’, ‘safety’ and ‘consumption place (home)’. The attitude toward shellfish was positively associated with ‘familiarity’, ‘sensory attributes’, ‘consumption accompany’ and ‘consumption (restaurant)’. The quality perception of shellfish was positively linked with ‘freshness’, ‘ethic’ and ‘mood’. There were differences in the product attribute perceptions associated with quality perceptions, attitudes and consumption toward shellfish between the two consumer segments.
Rapid sensory profiles with DISTATIS and Barycentric Text Projection: an example with amari, bitter herbal liqueurs Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Jacob Lahne, Hervé Abdi, Hildegarde Heymann
The sorting task is popular with sensory scientists because it provides rapid sensory profiles, even when product sets are complex or fatiguing. However, these sensory profiles generally cannot identify which sensory properties are driving subjects' perception of product similarities or differences—a critical task for the sensory analyst. This paper presents DISTATIS with Barycentric Text Projection as a solution that combines sorting-task and free-text data into a single-pass analysis to generate rapid, descriptive sensory profiles. This method is illustrated with a dataset generated by 25 subjects performing a replicated sorting and free-text description task in standard sensory-laboratory conditions on a set of 12 amari—bitter, herbal liqueurs that have not been previously analyzed in the sensory-science literature. DISTATIS with Barycentric Text Projection of the amari set produced sensory product maps that were readily interpretable. Using this analysis, the amari were grouped and described in ways that correspond to the available, popular literature descriptions of these products. The results of Barycentric Text Projection were compared to an independent Correspondence Analysis (CA) of the free-text data, and results were highly similar (RV=.93 R V = . 93 ). Future extensions of the method—such as analysis of descriptors in a check-all-that-apply (CATA) approach—are discussed. Overall, the successful, rapid, descriptive profiling of a set of 12 complex products using an untrained panel supports the potential of DISTATIS with Barycentric Text Projection as a sensory-evaluation tool.
When the choice of the temporal method does make a difference: TCATA, TDS and TDS by modality for characterizing semi-solid foods Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Quoc Cuong Nguyen, Tormod Næs, Paula Varela
For describing the evolution of sensory properties during eating, dynamic sensory methods are still being developed and optimised. Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Temporal Check All That Apply (TCATA) are currently the most used and discussed. The aim of this study was to compare TDS, TCATA and a variant of TDS, performed by modality (M-TDS) in the outcome of the dynamic sensory description. These methods were applied with the same trained panel (n = 10) for the evaluation of the dynamic properties of yoghurt samples, with identical composition, only varying in textural properties. Based on a design of experiment, the yoghurts varied in viscosity (thin/thick), size of cereal particle added (flour/flakes) and flavour intensity (low dose/optimised dose, by adding artificial sweetener and vanilla). The TDS curves revealed that the variation in viscosity and particle size led to differences in perception mainly at the beginning of the eating process (Thin/Thick and Gritty/Sandy). Additionally, all samples were also perceived as Bitter at the end of the eating process. TCATA and TDS by modality results were, generally, in agreement with TDS, but they unveiled more details of the samples’ dynamic profiles in all stages of the eating process, showing the effect of Vanilla and Sweet for the samples with optimised flavour, and the masked perception of Bitter. The duration of the eating process was standardized and split into three time intervals (T0-T40, T41-T80, T81-T100). Panelists’ responses were summarized as frequency values in each time interval. Principal Component Analysis was used to visualize sample trajectories over time in the sensory space, with the need to study up to the third dimension to better understand the trajectories. ANOVA models were used to find the attributes which were significantly differences among products. Panel performance was assessed based on MANOVA models for the three methods. The results indicated that TCATA was more discriminative and panelists were more in agreement. TCATA also described samples in more detail in terms of number of discriminating attributes as compared with TDS. The discussion also centers in the different aspects of perception that could respond to different research questions for the three compared methods.
The influence of front-of-package nutrition claims on food perceptions and purchase intentions among Nepali consumers1 Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-30 Andrew D. Menger-Ogle, Dan J. Graham
Obesity is increasing in countries undergoing nutrition transition (e.g., Nepal) largely due to changing food environments. Food choices are influenced by marketing and packaging, including front-of-pack nutrition claims (FOPNCs). Although FOPNCs can help consumers identify healthful foods, these claims can also lead consumers to unduly attribute healthfulness to unhealthful food products. This study investigated the effects of FOPNCs on consumers' purchase intentions and product perceptions of snack foods. Participants were 239 adult shoppers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Participants viewing product images rated purchase intentions and seven product perceptions (e.g., healthfulness, tastiness). Participants reported their two most important shopping priorities, and explained why they found a specific FOPNC to be useful/truthful or not. Path analyses of multiple mediation models showed that FOPNCs most often influenced the product perception of healthful for children, while product perceptions of tasty and adults like it were most predictive of purchase intention. Inductive thematic analysis of open-ended responses identified various reasons for trust and skepticism in FOPNCs. FOPNCs were largely described as useful, despite their inconsistent influence on perceptions. Thematic analysis of shopping priorities resulted in 10 themes; the three most prevalent were quality, familiarity, and taste. Only 12% of reported shopping priorities appeared to motivate the use of FOPNCs (i.e., health and nutrition and package labeling). Evidence that FOPNCs create health halos for snack foods did emerge. However, FOPNCs' inconsistent or absent impact on most product perceptions and purchase intentions suggest that FOPNCs are not a primary contributor to increasing obesity during Nepal’s nutrition transition.
Discard Intentions are Lower for Milk Presented in Containers without Date Labels Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-24 Brian E Roe, David M Phinney, Christopher T Simons, Aishwarya S Badiger, Kathryn E.Bender, Dennis R.Heldman
Eighty-eight regular milk drinkers were presented whole fat pasteurized cow’s milk stored at 4 degrees Celsius in plastic containers for 15, 25, 30 and 40 days after commercial bottling. Subjects opened and smelled individual half-gallon containers presented in two sets of four that were identical except one set featured a sell-by label with a date set to 18 days post-bottling, while the other set lacked label dates and related language. 48.9% of respondents indicated they would discard milk featuring a date label if it were in their home refrigerator while 38.1% indicated the same for milk lacking date labels, which equates to a 28% increase in discard intention attributable to the presence of a date label. Among containers with milk 25, 30 and 40 days post bottling, 64.0% of respondents intended to discard milk in containers with date labels while 45.8% intended to discard milk in containers without such labels, which is a 40% increase in discard intentions for milk that is putatively ‘past date’ among commercial bottlers. Multivariate analysis reveals that discard intentions are lower among participants with higher incomes and fewer household members, but revealed no other significant correlations with personal or household characteristics. Given that the date labeling on pasteurized milk is not designed to address safety concerns, and given the high level of consumer milk waste in many developed countries, these results suggest further innovation in milk labeling may support improved sustainability by reducing the discard rate of milk attributable to sell-by date labels.
Emotional response to wine: sensory properties, age and gender as drivers of consumers’ preferences Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 M. Mora, E. Urdaneta, C. Chaya
Previous research has shown the relevance of studying consumers’ emotional response to products for product development and as a marketing tool to attract the widest range of consumers. This study aims (1) to explain the relationship between emotional and sensory traits of wine products and (2) to understand the effect of gender and age in wine preferences and evoked emotions. Six different commercial wines with very different sensory properties were selected. Sensory analyses performed by a trained panel of 11 assessors were used to describe wines. Degree of liking and emotional response were rated by a consumer panel (n=208) drawn from different age segments using a modified version of EsSense25. The results showed that EsSense25 was able to measure emotional response in the set of studied wines. Also, sensory and emotional profiles of the same set of wines revealed a relationship between attributes like fruity and floral and positive emotions, and liquorice, clove and vanilla and neutral and negative emotions. Differences in emotional response by gender and age were found: in general, men reported higher scores on significant emotions than women for all the wines, but women, although they gave generally lower ratings than men, reported greater differences between the wines and were able to discriminate among the wines regarding emotions such as joyful. Also, regarding age segments, all of the wines evoked significantly higher scores in older adults than in middle-aged and young adults for most emotional terms. However, young adults showed higher discrimination between wines than the other age groups, in terms of emotional responses towards the set of wines tested in this study.
Does Food Disgust Sensitivity Influence Eating Behaviour? Experimental Validation of the Food Disgust Scale Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Jeanine Ammann, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist
Tools that specifically measure food disgust sensitivity are scarce. This gap has been successfully filled with the recently developed eight-item version of the Food Disgust Scale (FDS short). In the present study, we tested the validity of this measure with three behavioural tasks that we designed. Participants (N = 108) filled in questionnaires before they tried three products as part of a behavioural task covered as tasting experiment. We presented these products with written scenarios, which aimed to induce disgust. For all three tasks, we found a significant correlation between the amount participants consumed and their FDS short score. In the first task, we presented participants with a meat product (r = -.34, p < .001); in the second task, it was a banana juice (rs = -.26, p < .01); and in the final task, we presented participants with an insect product (rs = -.51, p < .001). A regression analysis confirmed that participants’ FDS short score acted as a significant predictor for eating behaviour in the meat (ß = -0.26, p < .05) and the chocolate task (odds ratio = 0.51), however, it did not reach statistical significance in the juice task (odds ratio = 0.66). In this paper, we present two important findings. First, we provide evidence for the influence of food disgust sensitivity on people’s eating behaviour as measured by the amount they consumed. Second, and more importantly, our data support the incremental validity of the FDS short as assessed through its correlation with three behavioural tasks and provide evidence for the suitability of self-report measures such as the FDS short.
Drinking Tea Improves the Performance of Divergent Creativity Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Yan Huang, Yera Choe, Soomin Lee, Enzhe Wang, Yuanzhi Wu, Lei Wang
Previous research has found that tea improves performance on convergent creativity tasks, such as the Remote Associates Test, by inducing a positive mood. However, there is no empirical evidence regarding the effect of tea drinking on performance in divergent creativity tasks. Using two experiments, the current research investigates the relationship between tea consumption and divergent creativity. In both experiments, participants were randomly assigned to two groups and implicitly manipulated to drink tea or water. In experiment 1 (N=50), we used a block-building task as a measure of divergent creativity in spatial cognition. The results showed that the participants who drank tea performed better in the spatial creativity task assigned in the 10 minutes immediately following tea consumption than did those who drank water. In experiment 2 (N=40), we adopted the restaurant naming task as a measure of divergent creativity in semantic cognition. The results showed that the participants who drank tea received higher scores in the semantic creativity task compared to those who drank water. The current research demonstrates that drinking tea can improve creative performance with divergent thinking. This work contributes to understanding the function of tea on creativity and offers a new way to investigate the relationship between food and beverage consumption and the improvement of human cognition.
Consumers' attitudes and change of attitude toward 3D-printed food Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Thomas A. Brunner, Mathilde. Delley, Christoph. Denkel
3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, offers a wide range of new possibilities within the food industry. From the realisation of complex food designs to the automated preparation of personalised meals, 3D printers promise many innovations in the food manufacturing, retail and catering sectors. Because the successful launch of foods made using a novel technology needs to be accompanied by targeted communication, a careful assessment of consumers’ perception, needs and apprehensions is required. The present study aims to explore consumers’ attitude formation and evolution toward this technology and resulting food concepts. Data were collected through a postal survey sent out to a sample of 2047 German-speaking residents from Switzerland, yielding a final sample size of N = 260. Participants’ attitudes were assessed at the beginning and end of the survey. Three consecutive multiple regression analyses helped analyse the initial attitude, the final attitude and the attitude change determinants that were assessed. Participants’ self-assessment revealed a varied but overall relatively low initial knowledge level of 3D-printed food. Because the first impression has been proven to be decisive in attitude formation, this lack of knowledge allowed us to test the effect of targeted information, and we succeeded in overcoming food neophobia and convincing consumers that this technology can support them in the preparation of healthy and individualised meals while adding a playful dimension to food preparation. The information given, however, failed to overcome food technology neophobia. Avenues for the development and testing of adapted communication concepts are discussed.
Does information on equivalence of standards direct choice? Evidence for organic labels from different countries-of-origin Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Ching-Hua Yeh, Monika Hartmann, Stefan Hirsch
We examine whether an equality of organic standards (EqualOrganic) information treatment impacts Taiwanese consumers’ food preference and purchasing behavior. EqualOrganic implies that regardless of products’ country-of-origin (COO), organic certifications are based on the same production regulation and managerial processes. We apply discrete choice experiments combined with a propensity score matching approach that ensures structural sample balance between EqualOrganic-treated and non-treated consumers. The analysis is based on fresh sweet pepper purchase decisions of 800 Taiwanese consumers. Results indicate that participants’ product choice was sensitive to EqualOrganic information treatment, though different than expected. Information on the equality of organic standards significantly further increased the purchase likelihood for Taiwan-origin organic products, while the opposite effect is detected for Chinese organic products. In addition, we observe an increase in the utility of the opt-out option in the information treatment group. Provision of information thus failed to assure consumers about the equality of organic standards. Instead there is some indication that it eased accessibility of pre-existing doubts about the reliability and trustworthiness of products originating from China. We discuss these findings from a policy and marketing perspective.
Ignorant Experts and Erudite Novices: Exploring the Dunning-Kruger Effect in Wine Consumers Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Claudio Aqueveque
Research devoted to identify differences between expert and non-expert consumers in terms of wine quality perceptions, preferences, and information use and processing, have been prolific during the last decade. Many of these studies have used subjective or self-reported measures of knowledge to distinguish between expert and non-expert consumers. However, this approach can be problematic due to the existence of the Dunning-Kruger effect, a cognitive bias in which incompetent or unaware subjects tend to overestimate their knowledge or expertise, whereas high-ability individuals tend to underestimate it. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of this cognitive bias within the wine-knowledge domain. Using a sample of wine consumers (n = 193) and through different statistical analyses, the presence of the Dunning-Kruger effect was confirmed, raising important concerns regarding the use of subjective or self-reported measures of knowledge to classify consumers as experts or non-experts.
Emoji questionnaires can be used with a range of population segments: findings relating to age, gender and frequency of emoji/emoticon use Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.199) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Sara R. Jaeger, Yixun Xia, Pui-Yee Lee, Denise C. Hunter, Michelle K. Beresford, Gastón Ares
The assessment of emoji questionnaires as a method in food-related consumer research is furthered by this methodological study aimed at exploring the extent to which they can be used with a range of population segments. In the first part of the paper, a web-based survey was implemented to assess differences in the interpretation of 33 facial emoji using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question. Results showed that while emoji interpretation was not influenced by age and frequency of emoji/emoticon use in computer-mediated communications, age-related differences existed for a few emoji. In the second part of the paper, differences in the completion of emoji questionnaires used to measure product-elicited emotional associations were assessed across four studies involving the evaluation of written stimuli and tasted food samples. Gender and age did not influence consumer ability to describe and discriminate between stimuli, eliciting emoji profiles that were highly similar. Among more frequent users of emoji/emoticon, the average number of emoji used to characterise the stimuli was significant higher than among less frequent users, and there was a tendency toward greater discrimination, but the differences were small and of little concern regarding ability of the less frequent emoji/emoticon users’ ability to perform the research task. The findings of this research provide preliminary evidence about the suitability of emoji surveys to measure product-related emotional associations with different consumer populations.
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