Effect of the concentration of circulating prolactin on dairy cows' responsiveness to domperidone injection J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 J.J. Tong, I.M. Thompson, X. Zhao, P. Lacasse
The objective of this study was to determine whether the responsiveness of the mammary gland to prolactin (PRL) is affected by the concentration of the hormone. After 1 pre-experimental week (d −7 to −1), 18 Holstein cows in mid to late lactation were injected intramuscularly twice daily with either 0.5 mg of quinagolide (QN) or 2 mL of water (control) for 2 wk (d 1 to 14; treatment period). After the treatment period, all cows received daily subcutaneous injections of 300 mg of domperidone (DOMP) for 3 wk (d 15 to 35; DOMP period). The cows were monitored for an additional 2 wk as a posttreatment period (d 36 to 49). Blood and milk samples were collected 3 times per week. Additionally, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d −4, 14, and 35. Milk production was not affected by QN during the treatment period but was increased during the DOMP and posttreatment periods in the QN cows. With respect to milk composition, the treatments affected only the protein content, which was greater in the QN cows during the treatment period. Blood PRL concentration declined during QN injections and was lower in the QN cows than in the control cows between d 5 and 14. The basal concentration of PRL was increased by DOMP injections during the DOMP and posttreatment periods but was not affected by previous QN injections. Prolactin concentration in milk was not affected by the QN treatments but was increased by DOMP injections during the DOMP and posttreatment periods. Milking-induced PRL release was decreased by QN on d 14. On d 35, milking did not induce a significant release of PRL above the baseline for both treatments. In conclusion, the results of this experiment support the contention that the mammary gland's responsiveness to PRL is modulated by the previous level of the hormone.
Symposium review: The influences of heat stress on bovine mammary gland function J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 S. Tao, R.M. Orellana, X. Weng, T.N. Marins, G.E. Dahl, J.K. Bernard
Heat stress reduces cow milk yield and results in a significant economic loss for the dairy industry. During lactation, heat stress lowers milk production by 25 to 40% with half of the decrease in milk synthesis resulting from the reduced feed intake. In vitro studies indicate that primary bovine mammary epithelial cells display greater rates of programmed cell death when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which may lead to a decrease in the total number of mammary epithelial cells in the mammary gland, partially explaining the lower milk production of lactating cows under heat stress. The function of mammary cells is also altered by heat stress. In response to heat stress, mammary cells display higher gene expression of heat shock proteins, indicating a need for cytoprotection from protein aggregation and degradation. Further, heat stress results in increased gene expression without altering protein expression of mammary epithelial cell junction proteins, and does not substantially influence the integrity of mammary epithelium. These data suggest that the mammary gland strives to maintain cell-to-cell junction integrity by synthesizing more proteins to compensate for protein losses induced by heat stress. During the dry period, heat stress negatively affects mammary gland development by reducing mammary cell proliferation before parturition, resulting in a dramatic decrease in milk production in the subsequent lactation. In addition to mammary growth, the mammary gland of the heat-stressed dry cow has reduced protein expression of autophagic proteins in the early dry period, suggesting heat stress influences mammary involution. Emerging evidence also indicates that heifers born to cows that experience late-gestation heat stress have lower milk yield during their first lactation, implying that the maternal environment may alter mammary gland development of the offspring. It is not clear if this is due to a direct epigenetic modification of prenatal mammary gland development by maternal heat stress. More research is needed to elucidate the effect of heat stress on mammary gland development and function.
Genetic background of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured with infrared sensors in automatic milking systems J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 S. van Engelen, H. Bovenhuis, P.P.J. van der Tol, M.H.P.W. Visker
International environmental agreements have led to the need to reduce methane emission by dairy cows. Reduction could be achieved through selective breeding. The aim of this study was to quantify the genetic variation of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured using infrared sensors installed in automatic milking systems (AMS). Measurements of CH4 and CO2 on 1508 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows located on 11 commercial dairy farms were available. Phenotypes per AMS visit were the mean of CH4, mean of CO2, mean of CH4 divided by mean of CO2, and their log10-transformations. The repeatabilities of the log10-transformated methane phenotypes were 0.27 for CH4, 0.31 for CO2, and 0.14 for the ratio. The log10-transformated heritabilities of these phenotypes were 0.11 for CH4, 0.12 for CO2, and 0.03 for the ratio. These results indicate that measurements taken using infrared sensors in AMS are repeatable and heritable and, thus, could be used for selection for lower CH4 emission. Furthermore, it is important to account for farm, AMS, day of measurement, time of day, and lactation stage when estimating genetic parameters for methane phenotypes. Selection based on log10-transformated CH4 instead of the ratio would be expected to give a greater reduction of CH4 emission by dairy cows.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) fed to dairy cows does not modify the cheese-making properties of milk but affects the color, texture, and flavor of ripened cheese J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics. Four dairy cows were fed a total mixed ration either alone (control) or supplemented with 100 or 400 g/d of garlic cloves or 2 g/d of diallyl sulfide in 4 consecutive experimental periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diallyl sulfide dose was established to provide approximately the same amount of allyl thiosulfinate compounds as 100 g of fresh garlic cloves. The total mixed ration was composed of 0.29 corn silage, 0.23 corn-barley mixture, 0.17 sunflower-soybean mixture, 0.12 alfalfa hay, 0.12 grass hay, 0.04 sugar beet pulp, and 0.02 other additives, and contained 0.253 starch, 0.130 crude protein, and 0.375 neutral detergent fiber, on a dry matter basis. Each experimental period consisted of 7 d of transition and 14 d of treatment. On d 18 and 21 of each period, milk samples (10 L) were collected from each cow for chemical analysis and cheese-making. The organoleptic properties of the milk and 63-d-ripened cheeses were assessed by a panel of 7 trained sensory evaluators. The experimental treatments had no effects on DMI, milk yield, feed efficiency (milk yield/DMI), milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, or cheese yield. Garlic-like aroma, taste, and flavor of milk and cheese were significantly influenced by the treatments, particularly the highest dose of garlic cloves, and we found close exponential relationships between milk and cheese for garlic-like aroma (R2 = 0.87) and garlic-like flavor (R2 = 0.79). Diallyl sulfide and 400 g/d of garlic cloves resulted in lower pH, shear force, and shear work of ripened cheeses compared with the other treatments. Garlic cloves and diallyl sulfide had opposite effects on cheese color indices. We conclude that adding 400 g/d of garlic to the feed of lactating dairy cows highly influences the sensory and rheological characteristics of cheese.
Discriminating aging and protein-to-fat ratio in Cheddar cheese using sensory analysis and a potentiometric electronic tongue J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Jackie B. Lipkowitz, Carolyn F. Ross, Charles Diako, Denise M. Smith
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the flavor and taste attributes of full-fat Cheddar cheeses with different protein-to-fat ratios (PFR) over aging time using a descriptive sensory analysis panel and a consumer panel, and to correlate these attributes with instrumental parameters obtained by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Three Cheddar cheese formulations (PFR of 0.74, 0.85, and 1.01) were produced in triplicate and composition was verified. Cheese was aged at 7.2°C and evaluated at 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 mo by a trained panel (n = 10) for 8 flavor and 5 taste attributes and using an electronic tongue for 7 nonvolatile taste attributes. Cheese aged for 12 mo was also evaluated by a consumer sensory panel for liking and intensity attributes. Principal component analysis was performed to discriminate cheese based on aging time and PFR, whereas correlation between sensory and instrumental attributes was assessed using partial least squares regression. Descriptive sensory analysis of flavor and taste attributes differentiated Cheddar cheeses over aging time, but not among PFR formulations. The electronic tongue distinguished changes among cheese samples due to PFR formulation and aging time. The electronic tongue proved successful in characterizing the nonvolatile flavor components in Cheddar cheese and correlated with taste perceptions measured by descriptive sensory analysis. Consumer evaluations showed distinctive attribute profiles for the 3 PFR Cheddar cheese formulations. Overall, higher fat content was associated with increased flavor intensities in Cheddar cheese and drove consumer acceptability and purchase intent ratings. The electronic tongue detected smaller changes in tastes (bitter, metallic, salty, sour, spicy, sweet, and umami) of the 3 PFR formulations over time when compared with the trained panelists, who detected no differences, suggesting that the electronic tongue may be more sensitive to tastants than humans and may have the capability for early detection or identification of problems in a batch of cheese during aging. Results suggest taste quality of cheese may be monitored using the electronic tongue with greater sensitivity than a trained panel, and may be more objective, rapid, and cost effective than human panelists.
Canadian National Dairy Study: Herd-level milk quality J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 C.A. Bauman, H.W. Barkema, J. Dubuc, G.P. Keefe, D.F. Kelton
The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data. In addition, a BTM sample was collected either during the farm visit or by the marketing board in November of 2015 and was tested for 4 major mastitis pathogens using the PathoProof Mastitis Major 4 PCR Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA). Apparent herd-level prevalence was 46% for S. aureus, 6% for Prototheca spp., 0% for M. bovis, and 0% for Strep. agalactiae. Due to the low prevalence of M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae and a lack of significant factors associated with farms testing positive for Prototheca spp., an association analysis could only be carried out for Staph. aureus-positive farms. Factors associated with Staph. aureus-positive farms were not fore-stripping cows before milking (odds ratio = 1.87), milking with a pipeline system (odds ratio = 2.21), and stall bases made of a rubberized surface (mats and mattresses), whereas protective factors were using blanket dry cow therapy (odds ratio = 0.49) and applying a tag or visible mark on cows known to have chronic mastitis infections (odds ratio = 0.45). The Canadian national production-weighted geometric mean somatic cell count was determined to be 208,000 cells/mL. This is the first national dairy study conducted in Canada. Participating farms had higher milk yield; were more likely to have a loose housing system, parlor, or automated milking system; and had lower weighted mean BTM somatic cell count than the national level. Sampling larger farms with better milk quality means the apparent prevalence of the 4 mastitis pathogens likely underestimates the true levels.
Genetic correlations between methane production and fertility, health, and body type traits in Danish Holstein cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 L. Zetouni, M. Kargo, E. Norberg, J. Lassen
Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH4 and several different traits were estimated. These traits were interval between calving and first insemination, interval between first and last insemination, number of inseminations, udder diseases, other diseases, height, body depth, chest width, dairy character, top line, and body condition score. Bivariate linear models were used to estimate the genetic parameters within and between CH4 and the other traits. In general, the genetic correlations between CH4 and the traits investigated were low. The heritability of CH4 was 0.25, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 for fertility and health traits, and from 0.17 to 0.74 for body conformation traits. Further research with a larger data set should be performed to more accurately establish how CH4 relates to fertility, health, and body conformation traits in dairy cattle. This will be useful in the design of future breeding goals that consider the production of CH4.
Influence of partially demineralized milk proteins on rheological properties and microstructure of acid gels J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 G.H. Meletharayil, H.A. Patel, L.E. Metzger, C. Marella, T. Huppertz
Innovative clean label processes employed in the manufacture of acid gels are targeted to modify the structure of proteins that contribute to rheological properties. In the present study, CO2-treated milk protein concentrate powder with 80% protein in dry matter (TMPC80) was mixed with nonfat dry milk (NDM) in different ratios for the manufacture of acid gels. Dispersions of NDM and TMPC80 that provided 100, 90, 70, and 40% of protein from NDM were reconstituted to 4.0% (wt/wt) protein and 12.0% (wt/wt) total solids. Dispersions were adjusted to pH 6.5, followed by heat treatment at 90°C for 10 min. Glucono-δ-lactone was added and samples were incubated at 30°C, reaching pH 4.5 ± 0.05 after 4 h of incubation. Glucono-δ-lactone levels were adjusted to compensate for the lower buffering capacity of samples with higher proportions of TMPC80, which is attributable to the depletion of buffering minerals from both the serum and micellar phase during preparation of TMPC80. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a higher amount of caseins in the supernatant of unheated suspensions with increasing proportions of CO2-treated TMPC80, attributable to the partial disruption of casein micelles in TMPC80. Heat treatment reduced the level of whey proteins in the supernatant due to the heat-induced association of whey proteins with casein micelles, the extent of which was larger in samples containing more micellar casein (i.e., samples with a lower proportion of TMPC80). Particle size analysis showed only small differences between nonheated and heated dispersions. Gelation pH increased from ~5.1 to ~5.3, and the storage modulus of the gels at pH 4.5 increased from ~300 to ~420 Pa when the proportion of protein contributed by TMPC80 increased from 0 to 60%. Water-holding capacity also increased and gel porosity decreased with increasing proportion of protein contributed by TMPC80. The observed gel properties were in line with microstructural observations by confocal microscopy, wherein sample gels containing increasing levels of TMPC80 exhibited smaller, well-connected aggregates with uniform, homogeneous pore sizes. We concluded that TMPC80 can be used to partially replace NDM as a protein source to improve rheological and water-holding properties in acid gels. The resultant gels also exhibited decreased buffering, which can improve the productive capacity of yogurt manufacturing plants. Overall, the process can be leveraged to reduce the amount of hydrocolloids added to improve yogurt consistency and water-holding capacity, thus providing a path to meet consumer expectations of clean label products.
Genome-wide association study for milk infrared wavenumbers J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Qiuyu Wang, Henk Bovenhuis
Individual wavenumbers of the infrared (IR) spectra of bovine milk have been shown to be moderately to highly heritable. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with individual milk IR wavenumbers. This is expected to provide information about the genetic background of milk composition and give insight in the relation between IR wavenumbers and milk components. For this purpose, a genome-wide association study was performed for a selected set of 50 individual IR wavenumbers measured on 1,748 Dutch Holstein cows. Significant associations were detected for 28 of the 50 wavenumbers. In total, 24 genomic regions distributed over 16 bovine chromosomes were identified. Major genomic regions associated with milk IR wavenumbers were identified on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 14, 19, and 20. Most of these regions also showed significant associations with fat, protein, or lactose percentage. However, we also identified some new regions that were not associated with any one of these routinely collected milk composition traits. On chromosome 1, we identified 2 new genomic regions and hypothesized that they are related to variation in milk phosphorus content and orotic acid, respectively. On chromosome 20, we identified a new genomic region that seems to be related to citric acid. Identification of genomic regions associated with milk phosphorus content, orotic acid, and citric acid suggest that the milk IR spectra contain direct information on these milk components. Consequently milk IR analyses probably can be used to predict these milk components, which have low concentrations in milk; this can lead to novel applications of milk IR spectroscopy for dairy cattle breeding and herd management.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta regulates lipid droplet formation and transport in goat mammary epithelial cells J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 H.B. Shi, C.H. Zhang, Z.A. Xu, G.G. Lou, J.X. Liu, J. Luo, J.J. Loor
Even though recent evidence in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) suggest a role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in regulating lipid homeostasis, its role is not fully understood. Our hypothesis was that PPARD regulates lipid transport processes in GMEC and, thus, plays a crucial role in regulating fat formation. The PPARD was overexpressed using an adenovirus system (Ad-PPARD) with recombinant green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) as the control. Results revealed that overexpression of PPARD markedly upregulated the mRNA abundance of PPARD. Compared with the control (Ad-GFP+dimethyl sulfoxide), overexpression of PPARD alone had no effect on mRNA expression of CD36, SCD1, FABP4, ACSL1, and ADRP. The cultures overexpressing PPARD with the PPARD ligand GW0742 (GW) upregulated the expression of CD36, FABP3, FABP4, ACSL1, and ADRP. Overexpression of PPARD in GMEC plus GW increased the concentration of 16:1 and 18:1-trans and was associated with upregulation of SCD1. Compared with the control (Ad-GFP+dimethyl sulfoxide), the decrease of triacylglycerol concentration coupled with upregulation of genes related to lipid droplet secretion (e.g., ADRP and ACSL1) induced by PPARD overexpression suggests a role in lipid droplet (LD) secretion. Luciferase assay revealed that GW increased the ADRP promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of PPARD impaired the increase of ADRP promoter activity induced by GW, whereas GW enhanced the activity of ADRP promoter in GMEC overexpressing PPARD. Data with the ADRP 5′-flanking truncated luciferase reporter suggest a core region (−1,444 to −990 bp) response element for the induction of GW. This core region contains a known PPARG response element (PPRE) at −1,003 to −990 bp. When the PPRE was mutated, the overexpression of PPARD had no effect on ADRP promoter activity. Collectively, these results reveal a novel role for PPARD in lipid homeostasis via promoting fatty acid transport and LD formation through a mechanism of direct binding to the promoter of key genes. Hence, PPARD activity may contribute to fatty acid transport and LD formation during lactation.
Symposium review: Novel strategies to genetically improve mastitis resistance in dairy cattle J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 P. Martin, H.W. Barkema, L.F. Brito, S.G. Narayana, F. Miglior
Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance to the dairy cattle sector because of the high incidence of clinical mastitis and prevalence of subclinical mastitis and, consequently, the costs associated with treatment, production losses, and reduced animal welfare. Disease-recording systems compiling data from a large number of farms are still not widely implemented around the world; thus, selection for mastitis resistance is often based on genetically correlated indicator traits such as somatic cell count (SCC), udder depth, and fore udder attachment. However, in the past years, several countries have initiated collection systems of clinical mastitis, based on producers recording data in most cases. The large data sets generated have enabled researchers to assess incidence of this disease and to investigate the genetic background of clinical mastitis itself, as well as its relationships with other traits of interest to the dairy industry. The genetic correlations between clinical mastitis and its previous proxies were estimated more accurately and confirmed the strong relationship of clinical mastitis with SCC and udder depth. New traits deriving from SCC were also studied, with the most relevant findings being associated with mean somatic cell score (SCS) in early lactation, standard deviation of SCS, and excessive test-day SCC pattern. Genetic correlations between clinical mastitis and other economically important traits indicated that selection for mastitis resistance would also improve resistance against other diseases and enhance both fertility and longevity. However, milk yield remains negatively correlated with clinical mastitis, emphasizing the importance of including health traits in the breeding objectives to achieve genetic progress for all important traits. These studies enabled the establishment of new genetic and genomic evaluation models, which are more efficient for selection to mastitis resistance. Further studies that are potential keys for future improvement of mastitis resistance are deep investigation of the bacteriology of mastitis, identification of novel indicator traits and tools for selection, and development of a larger female reference population to improve reliability of genomic evaluations. These cutting-edge studies will result in a better understanding of the genetic background of mastitis resistance and enable a more accurate phenotyping and genetic selection to improve mastitis resistance, and consequently, animal welfare and industry profitability.
Stabilizing vitamin D3 using the molten globule state of α-lactalbumin J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Jannik Nedergaard Pedersen, Henrik V. Sørensen, Daniel E. Otzen
α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) is the second most abundant bovine whey protein. It has been intensively studied because of its readiness to populate the molten globular (MG) state, a partially folded state with native levels of secondary structure but loss of tertiary structure. The MG state of α-LA exposes a significant number of hydrophobic patches that could be used to bind and stabilize small hydrophobic molecules such as vitamin D3 (vitD). Accordingly, we tested the ability of α-LA to stabilize vitD in a pH interval from 7.4 to 2; over this pH interval, α-LA transitions from the folded state to the MG state. The MG state stabilized vitD better than the folded state and was superior to the major bovine whey protein β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), which is known to stabilize vitD. At pH 7.4, β-LG and α-LA stabilized vitD to the same extent. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching measurements indicated that α-LA has one binding site at pH 7.4 but acquires an additional binding site when the pH is lowered to pH 2 to 4. Stability measurements of the vitD in the α-LA–vitD complex at different temperatures suggest that UHT processing would lead to little loss of vitD. This study demonstrates the potential of α-LA as a component in vitD fortification, particularly for low pH applications.
The effect of different precooling rates and cold storage on milk microbiological quality and composition J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Lizandra F. Paludetti, Alan L. Kelly, Bernadette O'Brien, Kieran Jordan, David Gleeson
The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different milk cooling rates, before entering the bulk tank, on the microbiological load and composition of the milk, as well as on energy usage. Three milk precooling treatments were applied before milk entered 3 identical bulk milk tanks: no plate cooler (NP), single-stage plate cooler (SP), and double-stage plate cooler (DP). These precooling treatments cooled the milk to 32.0 ± 1.4°C, 17.0 ± 2.8°C, and 6.0 ± 1.1°C, respectively. Milk was added to the bulk tank twice daily for 72 h, and the tank refrigeration temperature was set at 3°C. The blend temperature within each bulk tank was reduced after each milking event as the volume of milk at 3°C increased simultaneously. The bacterial counts of the milk volumes precooled at different rates did not differ significantly at 0 h of storage or at 24-h intervals thereafter. After 72 h of storage, the total bacterial count of the NP milk was 3.90 ± 0.09 log10 cfu/mL, whereas that of the precooled milk volumes were 3.77 ± 0.09 (SP) and 3.71 ± 0.09 (DP) log10 cfu/mL. The constant storage temperature (3°C) over 72 h helped to reduce bacterial growth rates in milk; consequently, milk composition was not affected and minimal, if any, proteolysis occurred. The DP treatment had the highest energy consumption (17.6 ± 0.5 Wh/L), followed by the NP (16.8 ± 2.7 Wh/L) and SP (10.6 ± 1.3 Wh/L) treatments. This study suggests that bacterial count and composition of milk are minimally affected when milk is stored at 3°C for 72 h, regardless of whether the milk is precooled; however, milk entering the tank should have good initial microbiological quality. Considering the numerical differences between bacterial counts, however, the use of the SP or DP precooling systems is recommended to maintain low levels of bacterial counts and reduce energy consumption.
Vocalization as an indicator of estrus climax in Holstein heifers during natural estrus and superovulation J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Volker Röttgen, Frank Becker, Armin Tuchscherer, Christine Wrenzycki, Sandra Düpjan, Peter C. Schön, Birger Puppe
The reliable detection of estrus is an important scientific and practical challenge in dairy cattle farming. Female vocalization may indicate reproductive status, and preliminary evidence suggests that this information can be used to detect estrus in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to associate the changes in the vocalization rate of dairy heifers with behavioral estrus indicators as well as test the influence of the type of estrus (natural estrus vs. superovulation-induced estrus). We analyzed 6 predefined estrus-related behavior patterns (standing to be mounted, head-side mounting, active mounting, chin resting, being mounted while not standing, and active sniffing in the anogenital region) and vocalization rates in the peri-estrus period (day of estrus ± 1 d) of 12 German Holstein heifers using audio-visual recordings. Each heifer was observed under natural estrus and a consecutive superovulation induced by FSH and cloprostenol. Estrus was determined by behavioral patterns and confirmed by clinical examination (vaginoscopy and ultrasound imaging of the ovaries) as well as by the concentration of peripheral progesterone. Estrus behavior and vocalization rates were analyzed in 3-h intervals (an average of 19 intervals for each heifer), and an estrus score was calculated based on the 6 behaviors. The interval with the highest estrus score (I0) was considered the estrus climax. We demonstrated similar time courses for the estrus score and vocalization rate independent of estrus type. However, in natural estrus, the maximum vocalization rate (±SE) occurred in the interval before estrus climax (I−1; 42.58 ± 21.89) and was significantly higher than that in any other interval except estrus climax (I0; 27.58 ± 9.76). During natural estrus, the vocalization rate was significantly higher within the interval before estrus climax (I−1; 42.58 ± 21.89 vs. 11.58 ± 5.51) than under superovulation. The results underscore the potential use of vocalization rate as a suitable indicator of estrus climax in automated estrus detection devices. Further studies and technical development are required to record and process individual vocalization rates.
High-grain diets supplemented with phytogenic compounds or autolyzed yeast modulate ruminal bacterial community and fermentation in dry cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 V. Neubauer, R. Petri, E. Humer, I. Kröger, E. Mann, N. Reisinger, M. Wagner, Q. Zebeli
The feeding of concentrate-rich diets may lead to microbial imbalances and dysfermentation in the rumen. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing phytogenic compounds (PHY) or autolyzed yeast (AY) on rumen fermentation and microbial abundance in cows intermittently fed concentrate-rich diets. The experiment was carried out as an incomplete 3 × 4 Latin square design, with 8 nonlactating rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows. The cows were randomly assigned to a concentrate diet that was either not supplemented (CON), or supplemented with PHY or AY. Each of the 4 consecutive experimental periods was composed of a 1-wk roughage-only diet (RD), 6-d gradual concentrate increase, followed by 1 wk of 65% concentrate (dry matter basis; Conc I), and 1 wk of RD and a final 2-wk 65% concentrate (dry matter basis; Conc II) phase. Digesta samples were collected from the rumen mat for bacterial 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq (Illumina, Balgach, Switzerland) sequencing, and samples of particle-associated rumen liquid were obtained for measuring short-chain fatty acids, lactate, ammonia, and pH during RD (d 6), Conc I (d 19), and Conc II (d 39). The concentrate feeding caused a decrease of overall bacterial diversity indices, especially during Conc I. The genera Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, and Coprococcus were decreased, whereas Prevotella, Megasphaera, Lachnospira, and Bacteroides were increased in abundance. Supplementation of both feed additives increased the abundance of gram-positive and decreased that of gram-negative bacteria. Supplementation of AY enhanced cellulolytic bacteria such as Ruminococcus spp., whereas PHY decreased starch and sugar fermenters including Bacteroides spp., Shuttleworthia spp., and Syntrophococcus spp. Moreover, PHY supplementation increased butyrate percentage in the rumen in both concentrate phases. In conclusion, intermittent high-concentrate feeding altered the digesta-associated rumen bacterial community and rumen fermentation with more significant alterations found in Conc I than in Conc II. The data also showed that both feed additives had the most significant modulatory effects on the bacterial community, and their subsequent fermentation, during periods of low pH.
Somatic cell count–based selection reduces susceptibility to energy shortage during early lactation in a sheep model J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 J. Bouvier-Muller, C. Allain, F. Enjalbert, Y. Farizon, D. Portes, G. Foucras, R. Rupp
During the transition from late gestation to early lactation ruminants experience a negative energy balance (NEB), which is considered to increase susceptibility to mammary infections. Our previous study in 2 divergent lines of sheep selected for high and low somatic cell score (SCS) suggested an association between the response to NEB and genetic susceptibility to mastitis. Forty-eight early-lactation primiparous dairy ewes from the 2 SCS genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups—an NEB group, which was energy restricted and received 60% of the energy requirements for 15 d, and a control-fed group—to obtain 4 balanced groups of 12 ewes: high-SCS positive energy balance, low-SCS positive energy balance, high-SCS NEB, and low-SCS NEB. High-SCS ewes showed greater weight loss and increased plasmatic concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids than low-SCS ewes when confronted with an induced NEB. The aim of this study was to further characterize this interaction by combining transcriptomic and phenotypic data with a generalized partial least squares discriminant analysis using mixOmics package framework. A preliminary analysis using 3 blocks of phenotypes (fatty acids, weight and production, blood metabolites) revealed a high correlation between fat-to-protein ratio, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations with milk long-chain fatty acid yields. These phenotypes allowed good discrimination of the energy-restricted high-SCS ewes and confirmed a high level of adipose tissue mobilization in this group. A second analysis, which included RNA-seq data, revealed high correlations between the long-chain fatty acid yields in milk and PDK4, CPT1A, SLC25A20, KLF10, and KLF11 expression, highlighting the relationship between mobilization of body reserves and enhanced fatty acids utilization for energy production in blood cells. Finally, analysis of milk composition measured in 1,025 ewes from the 2 genetic lines over 10 yr confirmed significant higher fat-to-protein ratio in high-SCS ewes in early lactation. Altogether, our results strongly confirmed a genetic link between susceptibility to mastitis and metabolic adaptation to energy shortage. Improving genetic resistance to mastitis using SCS should be accompanied by a favorable effect on the response to metabolic stress, especially in highly stressful early lactation. Moreover, this study suggests that the fat-to-protein ratio could be used as a low-cost tool for monitoring energy balance and ketosis during this critical phase of lactation.
Inhibition of Shigella sonnei-induced epithelial barrier disruption by surface-layer associated proteins of lactobacilli from Chinese fermented food J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Yingchun Zhang, Xiaolu Shi, Siqi Hao, Qianhui Lu, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han, Weihong Lu
Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L were examined to identify the functional basis for their protection within intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L remained active in a trypsin solution and retained a 45-kDa protein band, similar to that observed in controls. In contrast, under conditions of simulated gastric juice, the SLAP were partially degraded. Inhibitory effects of SLAP on adherence of Shigella sonnei to HT-29 cells were assessed with use of exclusion, competition, and replacement assays. In response to M5-L at 50 μg/mL SLAP, an inhibition ratio of 33% was obtained, while for Q8-L at 400 μg/mL SLAP, the inhibition ratio was 48%. Hoechst 33258 test results showed that cells infected with S. sonnei and co-incubated with SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L were only partially apoptotic, with apoptosis rates of 37.67 and 43.67%, respectively. These levels of apoptosis were substantially lower than that observed with cells infected with S. sonnei alone. In addition, the SLAP of Q8-L and M5-L reduced downstream caspase-1 activity and further modified apoptotic cell damage. Finally, SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L were also able to prevent S. sonnei-induced membrane damage by inhibiting delocalization of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and reducing the amount of occludin produced by S. sonnei.
Lactation response to soybean meal and rumen-protected methionine supplementation of corn silage-based diets J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 H. Nursoy, M. Gonzalez Ronquillo, A.P. Faciola, G.A. Broderick
Corn silage, an important forage fed to dairy cows in the United States, is energy rich but protein poor. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects on production of milk and milk components of feeding corn silage-based diets with 4 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) plus rumen-protected methionine (RPM). Thirty-six cows were blocked by days in milk into 9 squares and randomly assigned to 9 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 4-wk periods. All diets were formulated to contain, as a percent of dry matter (DM), 50% corn silage, 10% alfalfa silage, 4% soyhulls, 2.4% mineral-vitamin supplement, and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Supplemental RPM (Mepron, Evonik Corp., Kennesaw, GA) was added to all diets to maintain a Lys:Met ratio of 3.1 in digested AA. Ground high-moisture corn was reduced and soybean meal (SBM) plus RPM increased to give diets containing, on average, 11% CP (28% corn, 31% starch, 6% SBM, 4 g of RPM/d), 13% CP (23% corn, 29% starch, 10% SBM, 8 g of RPM/d), 15% CP (19% corn, 26% starch, 15% SBM, 10 g of RPM/d), and 17% CP (14% corn, 24% starch, 19% SBM, 12 g of RPM/d). Data from the last 14 d of each period were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). With the exception of milk fat and milk lactose content, we found no significant effects of diet on all production traits. We did note linear responses to dietary CP concentration for intake, production of milk and milk components, and MUN. Cows fed the 11% CP diet had reduced DM intake, lost weight, and yielded less milk and milk components. Mean separation indicated that only true protein yield was lower on 13% CP than on 17% dietary CP, but not different between 15 and 17% CP. This indicated no improvement in production of milk and milk components above 15% CP. Quadratic trends for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein suggested that a dietary CP concentration greater than 15% may be necessary to maximize production or, alternately, that a plateau was reached and no further CP was required. Although diet influenced apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, digestibility did not increase linearly with dietary CP. However, we observed linear and quadratic effects of dietary CP on acid detergent fiber digestibility. As expected, we found a linear effect of dietary CP on apparent N digestibility and on fecal and urinary N excretion, but no effect of diet on estimated true N digestibility. Ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total AA, peptides, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids also increased linearly with dietary CP. Quadratic responses indicated that 14.0 to 14.8% CP was necessary to optimize digestion and energy utilization. Overall results indicated that, when RPM was added to increase Lys:Met to 3.1, 15% CP was adequate for lactating dairy cows fed corn silage diets supplemented with SBM and secreting about 40 kg of milk/d; N excretion was lower than at 17% CP but with no reduction in yield of milk and milk components.
Genetic parameters of milk production traits in response to a short once-daily milking period in crossbred Holstein × Normande dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 C. Charton, J. Guinard-Flament, R. Lefebvre, S. Barbey, Y. Gallard, D. Boichard, H. Larroque
Despite its potential utility for predicting cows' milk yield responses to once-daily milking (ODM), the genetic basis of cow milk trait responses to ODM has been scarcely if ever described in the literature, especially for short ODM periods. This study set out to (1) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield and composition during a 3-wk ODM period, (2) estimate the genetic determinism of milk yield responses (i.e., milk yield loss upon switching cows to ODM and milk yield recovery upon switching them back to twice-daily milking; TDM), and (3) seek predictors of milk yield responses to ODM, in particular using the first day of ODM. Our trial used 430 crossbred Holstein × Normande cows and comprised 3 successive periods: 1 wk of TDM (control), 3 wk of ODM, and 2 wk of TDM. Implementing ODM for 3 wk reduced milk yield by 27.5% on average, and after resuming TDM cows recovered on average 57% of the milk lost. Heritability estimates in the TDM control period and 3-wk ODM period were, respectively, 0.41 and 0.35 for milk yield, 0.66 and 0.61 for milk fat content, 0.60 and 0.80 for milk protein content, 0.66 and 0.36 for milk lactose content, and 0.20 and 0.15 for milk somatic cell score content. Milk yield and composition during 3-wk ODM and TDM periods were genetically close (within-trait genetic correlations between experimental periods all exceeding 0.80) but were genetically closer within the same milking frequency. Heritabilities of milk yield loss observed upon switching cows to ODM (0.39 and 0.34 for milk yield loss in kg/d and %, respectively) were moderate and similar to milk yield heritabilities. Milk yield recovery (kg/d) upon resuming TDM was a trait of high heritability (0.63). Because they are easy to measure, TDM milk yield and composition and milk yield responses on the first day of ODM were investigated as predictors of milk yield responses to a 3-wk ODM to easily detect animals that are well adapted to ODM. Twice-daily milking milk yield and composition were found to be partly genetically correlated with milk yield responses but not closely enough for practical application. With genetic correlations of 0.98 and 0.96 with 3-wk ODM milk yield losses (in kg/d and %, respectively), milk yield losses on the first day of ODM proved to be more accurate in predicting milk yield responses on longer term ODM than TDM milk yield.
Changes in gene expression in the rumen and colon epithelia during the dry period through lactation of dairy cows and effects of live yeast supplementation J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 A. Bach, I. Guasch, G. Elcoso, F. Chaucheyras-Durand, M. Castex, F. Fàbregas, E. Garcia-Fruitos, A. Aris
The objectives of this study were (1) to use endoscopy to collect biopsies from the rumen and colon epithelia to describe changes in gene expression in these 2 tissues as cows move from a dry to a lactation ration and (2) to evaluate the potential influence that supplementation of live yeast could exert on these 2 epithelia. Twenty-one Holstein cows were split into 2 treatments and received either 300 g/d of corn containing 1 × 1010 cfu/d of live yeast (LY; n = 10) or 300 g/d of corn with no supplementation (control; n = 11) starting 21 ± 2.6 d (average ± SD) before until 21 d after calving. At 14 ± 2.6 d before the expected calving date, and exactly at 7 and 21 d after calving, rumen and colon biopsies were obtained from each cow using an endoscope. Total RNA was extracted from rumen and colon tissues, and the expression of IL10, TNFA, TLR4, IL1B, PCNA, MKI67, SGLT1, BAX, CASP3, OCLN, CLDN4, HSPA1A, HSPB1, DEFB1, and MCT1 (the latter only in rumen samples) was quantified by quantitative PCR. Overall, fluctuations in expression of the selected genes in the colon between the 2 stages of production and the 2 treatments were smaller than those found in the rumen. In the rumen epithelium, expression of TLR4 and DEFB1 was greatest before calving, with LY cows having a greater expression of TLR4 than control cows. Similarly, expression of IL10 was greatest in LY cows before calving. Expression of TNFA in the rumen epithelium of control cows was lowest at 21 DIM but in LY cows was kept steady among production stages. The expression of PCNA and MKI67 in the rumen epithelium was greatest at 7 DIM, indicating a high proliferation rate of this epithelium after calving. In the colon mucosa, expression of TLR4 and DEFB1 was greater than in the rumen, and DEFB1 expression was greater in LY cows than in control cows. The use of an endoscope allowed us to study the dynamics of rumen epithelium adaptation to increased supply of concentrate after calving, consisting of increased epithelia remodeling, reduction of the TLR4, and increased IL10 expression. Furthermore, the rumen epithelium of dry cows responded rapidly to live yeast, with changes in the expression of genes involved in the immune response becoming evident after 7 d of exposure to yeast. The expression of genes related to the immune response (mainly TLR4 and DEFB1) in the colon mucosa was greater than in the rumen, and the expression of DEFB1 was further stimulated by live yeast. It is concluded that the use of an endoscope allows the study of gene expression patterns in the rumen and hindgut epithelia. We report marked changes in the rumen wall and more modest changes in the colon when transitioning from a dry to a lactation ration. Furthermore, supplementation of live yeast fostered and increased expression of genes regulating inflammation and epithelial barrier in the rumen, and in the colon it increased the expression of DFEB1 coding for an antimicrobial peptide.
Genome-wide association study of conformation and milk yield in mixed-breed dairy goats J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Sebastian Mucha, Raphael Mrode, Mike Coffey, Mehmet Kizilaslan, Suzanne Desire, Joanne Conington
Identification of genetic markers that affect economically important traits is of high value from a biological point of view, enabling the targeting of candidate genes and providing practical benefits for the industry such as wide-scale genomic selection. This study is one of the first to investigate the genetic background of economically important traits in dairy goats using the caprine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. The aim of the project was to perform a genome-wide association study for milk yield and conformation of udder, teat, and feet and legs. A total of 137,235 milk yield records on 4,563 goats each scored for 10 conformation traits were available. Out of these, 2,381 goats were genotyped with the Illumina Caprine 50K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). A range of pseudo-phenotypes were used including deregressed breeding values and pseudo-estimated breeding values. Genome-wide association studies were performed using the multi-locus mixed model (MLMM) algorithm implemented in SNP & Variation Suite v7.7.8 (Golden Helix Inc., Bozeman, MT). A genome-wise significant [−log10(P-value) > 5.95] SNP for milk yield was identified on chromosome 19, with additional chromosome-wise significant (−log10(P-value) > 4.46] SNP on chromosomes 4, 8, 14, and 29. Three genome-wise significant SNP for conformation of udder attachment, udder depth, and front legs were identified on chromosome 19, and chromosome-wise SNP were found on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, and 27. The proportion of variance explained by the significant SNP was between 0.4 and 7.0% for milk yield and between 0.1 and 13.8% for conformation traits. This study is the first attempt to identify SNP associated with milk yield and conformation in dairy goats. Two genome-wise significant SNP for milk yield and 3 SNP for conformation of udder attachment, udder depth, and front legs were found. Our results suggest that conformation traits have a polygenic background because, for most of them, we did not identify any quantitative trait loci with major effect.
Short communication: Effects of dietary 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole supplementation on vitamin B12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 D.M. Wang, B.X. Zhang, J.K. Wang, H.Y. Liu, J.X. Liu
The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) supplementation to the feed during the transition period and early lactation on the vitamin B12 supply, lactation performance, and energy balance in postpartum cows. Twenty-four prepartum Holstein dairy cows were divided into 12 blocks based on their parity and milk yield at the last lactation and were then randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments: a basal diet without DMB (control) or a treatment diet that contained 1.5 g of DMB/d per cow. The study started at wk 3 before the expected calving day and ended at wk 8 postpartum. The feed intake and the lactation performance were measured weekly after calving. Blood parameters were measured on d −10, 0, 8, 15, 29, 43, and 57 relative to the calving day. Body weight was measured on the calving day and on d 57 after calving. The yields of milk, protein, and lactose in cows fed DMB were higher than in the control throughout the whole postpartum stage. On wk 8 postpartum, the vitamin B12 content in the milk and sera was greater in cows fed DMB than in the control. The overall body weight loss from wk 1 to 8 postpartum was less in cows fed DMB than in the control. The plasma content of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric acid was significantly lower in cows fed DMB than in the control throughout the whole experimental stage. In conclusion, dietary DMB fed during the transition period and early lactation improved the vitamin B12 supply, milk production, and energy balance of postpartum dairy cows.
Construction of an enzymatic route using a food-grade recombinant Bacillus subtilis for the production and purification of epilactose from lactose J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Qiuming Chen, Weiwei He, Xin Yan, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
Lactose is a main by-product in the cheese industry. Many attempts have been made to convert the lactose to high value-added products, including epilactose. Epilactose is a valuable prebiotic and can be epimerized from lactose with cellobiose 2-epimerase (CEase). The objective of the present work was to construct a food-grade recombinant Bacillus subtilis that produces CEase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. The CEase was expressed in B. subtilis without antibiotic resistance genes. After fermentation, the maximum volumetric activity of the fermented broth was more than 7 U/mL. The activity of the recombinant B. subtilis was increased by up to 3.7 fold after ethanol permeabilization. Then, 66.9 ± 0.7 g/L of epilactose was produced from 300 g/L of whey powder solution in 1 h with 13.3 U/mL of permeabilized biocatalyst. In addition, an enzymatic route including degradation of the lactose, yeast fermentation, and cation exchange chromatography was described to further purify the produced epilactose from lactose. Finally, epilactose with a purity >98% was produced from 300 g/L of lactose with a yield of 24.0%. In conclusion, neither antibiotics nor pathogenic bacteria were used throughout the epilactose production and purification procedure.
Herd-level prevalence of the ultrasonographic lung lesions associated with bovine respiratory disease and related environmental risk factors J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 S. Buczinski, M.E. Borris, J. Dubuc
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) is a major calf disease during the preweaning period. Thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has been recently described as a reliable tool for assessing BRD-associated lung lesions. The objectives of this study were to define the herd-level prevalence of lung consolidation assessed by TUS (CONSTUS). A total of 39 Québec dairy herds were randomly chosen to participate in this cross-sectional study. Between 6 and 12 preweaned calves were examined for signs of CONSTUS defined by any site with ≥3 cm consolidated lung tissue during 1 visit in summer and 1 visit in winter. Herd questionnaire focused on calf health and housing data [airborne bacteria (aerobic, coliform, yeasts and mold counts), air drafts, temperature, hygrometry, and ammonia levels] were also collected during these visits looking for potential association with CONSTUS prevalence. The median herd-level of CONSTUS prevalence (interquartile range) were 8% (0–22%) in summer and 15% (0–35%) in winter. Multivariable analyses showed that season was associated with an increased CONSTUS prevalence [10.0 vs. 19.3%; odds ratio (OR) = 2.16], as well as group housing during preweaned period (9.6 vs. 20.0%; OR = 2.37) and perceived BRD problem by the farmer (10.6 vs. 18.3%; OR = 1.89). Despite tremendous changes in calves' environment between winter and summer, none of the housing variables were associated with the CONSTUS prevalence in this study. Based on the observed CONSTUS prevalence ranges in the present study (herds in the lower prevalence quartile), an achievable goal of none of 12 calves with consolidation ≥3 cm can potentially be used to define a low-BRD risk herd.
Validation of consistency of Mendelian sampling variance J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 A.-M. Tyrisevä, W.F. Fikse, E.A. Mäntysaari, J. Jakobsen, G.P. Aamand, J. Dürr, M.H. Lidauer
Experiences from international sire evaluation indicate that the multiple-trait across-country evaluation method is sensitive to changes in genetic variance over time. Top bulls from birth year classes with inflated genetic variance will benefit, hampering reliable ranking of bulls. However, none of the methods available today enable countries to validate their national evaluation models for heterogeneity of genetic variance. We describe a new validation method to fill this gap comprising the following steps: estimating within-year genetic variances using Mendelian sampling and its prediction error variance, fitting a weighted linear regression between the estimates and the years under study, identifying possible outliers, and defining a 95% empirical confidence interval for a possible trend in the estimates. We tested the specificity and sensitivity of the proposed validation method with simulated data using a real data structure. Moderate (M) and small (S) size populations were simulated under 3 scenarios: a control with homogeneous variance and 2 scenarios with yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 and 10%, respectively. Results showed that the new method was able to estimate genetic variance accurately enough to detect bias in genetic variance. Under the control scenario, the trend in genetic variance was practically zero in setting M. Testing cows with an average birth year class size of more than 43,000 in setting M showed that tolerance values are needed for both the trend and the outlier tests to detect only cases with a practical effect in larger data sets. Regardless of the magnitude (yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 or 10%) of the generated trend, it deviated statistically significantly from zero in all data replicates for both cows and bulls in setting M. In setting S with a mean of 27 bulls in a year class, the sampling error and thus the probability of a false-positive result clearly increased. Still, overall estimated genetic variance was close to the parametric value. Only rather strong trends in genetic variance deviated statistically significantly from zero in setting S. Results also showed that the new method was sensitive to the quality of the approximated reliabilities of breeding values used in calculating the prediction error variance. Thus, we recommend that only animals with a reliability of Mendelian sampling higher than 0.1 be included in the test and that low heritability traits be analyzed using bull data sets only.
Milk from cows fed a diet with a high forage:concentrate ratio improves inflammatory state, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function in rats J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Gina Cavaliere, Giovanna Trinchese, Nadia Musco, Federico Infascelli, Chiara De Filippo, Vincenzo Mastellone, Valeria Maria Morittu, Pietro Lombardi, Raffaella Tudisco, Micaela Grossi, Vincenzo Monda, Monica I. Cutrignelli, Antonietta Messina, Serena Calabrò, Heleena B. Moni, Luigi Stradella, Giovanni Messina, Marcellino Monda, Marianna Crispino, Maria Pina Mollica
Excessive energy intake may evoke complex biochemical processes characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial function that represent the main factors underlying noncommunicable diseases. Because cow milk is widely used for human nutrition and in food industry processing, the nutritional quality of milk is of special interest with respect to human health. In our study, we analyzed milk produced by dairy cows fed a diet characterized by a high forage:concentrate ratio (high forage milk, HFM). In view of the low n-6:n-3 ratio and high content of conjugated linoleic acid of HFM, we studied the effects of this milk on lipid metabolism, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in a rat model. To this end, we supplemented for 4 wk the diet of male Wistar rats with HFM and with an isocaloric amount (82 kJ, 22 mL/d) of milk obtained from cows fed a diet with low forage:concentrate ratio, and analyzed the metabolic parameters of the animals. Our results indicate that HFM may positively affect lipid metabolism, leptin:adiponectin ratio, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress, providing the first evidence of the beneficial effects of HFM on rat metabolism.
Targeting antimicrobial defenses of the udder through an intrinsic cellular pathway J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Corwin D. Nelson, Kathryn E. Merriman, Michael B. Poindexter, Mercedes F. Kweh, Leslie P. Blakely
The bovine innate immune system has a strong repertoire of antimicrobial defenses to rapidly attack infectious pathogens that evade physical barriers of the udder. Exploration of the intracrine vitamin D pathway of bovine macrophages has improved understanding of the signals that initiate antimicrobial defenses that protect the udder. In the intracrine vitamin D pathway, pathogen recognition receptors upregulate CYP27B1 mRNA that encodes for the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] to the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. The 1,25(OH)2D3, in turn, is generally known to increase antimicrobial activity and decrease inflammatory responses of immune cells. In cattle specifically, 1,25(OH)2D3 increases nitric oxide and β-defensin antimicrobial responses of bovine monocytes. Immune activation of the intracrine vitamin D pathway, including induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and β-defensin gene expression by 1,25(OH)2D3, has been documented in the mammary glands of lactating dairy cows. Furthermore, intramammary 25(OH)D3 treatment decreased bacteria counts and indicators of mastitis severity in cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis. We propose that vitamin D signaling in the udder contributes to containment of bacterial pathogens and inflammatory responses of the udder. Verification of vitamin D-mediated defenses of the mammary gland potentially provides a path for development of alternative solutions (i.e., nutritional, genetic, therapeutic) to increase mastitis resistance of dairy cows. Continued exploration of the intrinsic cellular pathways that specifically promote antimicrobial defenses of the udder, such as the vitamin D pathway, is needed to support mastitis control efforts for dairy cows.
Does clinical mastitis in the first 100 days of lactation 1 predict increased mastitis occurrence and shorter herd life in dairy cows? J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 J.A. Hertl, Y.H. Schukken, L.W. Tauer, F.L. Welcome, Y.T. Gröhn
The objectives of this study were to estimate the direct effects of clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in early productive life (defined as the first 100 d of the first lactation) of Holstein dairy cows on the future rate of CM occurrence and on the length of total productive lifetime. Information on CM cases and other data occurring in 55,144 lactations in 24,831 cows in 5 New York State Holstein herds was collected from January 2004 until February 2014. For the first objective, a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution was used to study the effects of CM cases occurring in the first 100 d of a cow's first lactation, as well as farm indicator and number of days in the cow's lifetime, on the future lifetime rate of CM. Only cows that had completed their productive life [i.e., all had been culled (or sold) or had died; n = 14,440 cows] were included in this analysis. For the second objective, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the effects of CM cases occurring in the first 100 d of a cow's first lactation on the length of total productive lifetime. The model was stratified by farm. All 24,831 cows were included in this analysis with right censoring. Cows experienced between 0 and 4 CM cases in the first 100 d of lactation 1. Over their lifetime, cows experienced between 0 and 25 CM cases. During the study period, 10% of all cows died and nearly half of all cows were culled. The average length of productive life, including censored observations, was 2.0 yr after first calving. Compared with cows having no CM cases in the first 100 d of lactation 1, cows with 1 CM case in that time period had a 1.5 times higher rate of total number of CM cases over their lifetime. Cows with 2 (or 3 or more) CM cases in the first 100 d of lactation 1 had a 1.7 times (or 2.6 times) higher rate of total number of CM cases over their lifetime. For each additional CM case occurring in the first 100 d of lactation 1, the hazard rate of culling increased by 34%. Given economic conditions for preferentially culling mastitic cows, the study findings may help farmers make optimal decisions with regard to culling of such cows.
Is the profitability of Canadian tiestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment? J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 M. Villettaz Robichaud, J. Rushen, A.M. de Passillé, E. Vasseur, D.B. Haley, D. Pellerin
In order for dairy producers to comply with animal welfare recommendations, financial investments may be required. In Canada, a new dairy animal care assessment program is currently being implemented under the proAction Initiative to determine the extent to which certain aspects of the Code of Practice are being followed and to assess the care and well-being of dairy cattle on farm. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting the proAction animal-based and the electric trainer placement criteria and certain aspects of productivity and profitability on tiestall dairy farms. The results of a previous on-farm cow comfort assessment conducted on 100 Canadian tiestall farms were used to simulate the results of a part of the proAction Animal Care assessment on these farms. Each farm's productivity and profitability data were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement associations. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the associations between meeting these proAction criteria and the farms' average yearly: corrected milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval, number of breedings/cow, culling rate, prevalence of cows in third or higher lactation, and margins per cow and per kilogram of quota calculated over replacement costs. The association between milk production and the proAction lameness criterion was moderated through an interaction with the milk production genetic index which resulted in an increase in milk production per year with increasing genetic index that was steeper in farms that met the proAction lameness criterion compared with farms that did not. Meeting the proAction body condition score criterion was associated with reduced SCC and meeting the proAction electric trainer placement criterion was associated with SCC through an interaction with the farms' average SCC genetic index. The increase in SCC with increasing SCC genetic index was milder in farms that met this criterion compared with farms that did not. Farms that met the proAction electric trainer placement criterion had 4.6% more cows in their third or greater lactation. These results suggest that some associations exist between the productivity of Canadian tiestall farms and meeting several parameters of the proAction Animal Care assessment. Meeting these criteria is unlikely to impose any economic burden to the dairy industry as a whole.
Effects of heat stress and dietary zinc source on performance and mammary epithelial integrity of lactating dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 X. Weng, A.P.A. Monteiro, J. Guo, C. Li, R.M. Orellana, T.N. Marins, J.K. Bernard, D.J. Tomlinson, J.M. DeFrain, S.E. Wohlgemuth, S. Tao
Dietary Zn and heat stress alter gut integrity in monogastric animals. However, effects of Zn on mammary epithelial integrity in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows have not been studied. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 72) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study the effects of environment and Zn source on performance and mammary epithelial integrity. Treatments included 2 environments [cooled (CL) or not cooled (NC)] and 2 Zn sources [75 mg/kg of supplemental Zn as Zn hydroxychloride (IOZ) or 35 mg/kg of Zn hydroxychloride + 40 mg/kg of Zn-Met complex (ZMC)]. The experiment was divided into baseline and environmental challenge phases of 84 d each. All cows were cooled during the baseline phase (temperature-humidity index = 72.5), whereas NC cows were not cooled during environmental challenge (temperature-humidity index = 77.7). Mammary biopsies were collected on d 7 and 56 relative to the onset of environmental challenge to analyze gene expression of claudin 1, 4, and 8, zonula occludens 1, 2, and 3, occludin, and E-cadherin and protein expression of occludin and E-cadherin. Deprivation of cooling increased respiration rate (64.8 vs. 73.9 breaths/min) and vaginal temperature (39.03 vs. 39.94°C) and decreased dry matter intake (26.7 vs. 21.6 kg/d). Energy-corrected milk yield decreased for NC cows relative to CL cows (24.5 vs. 34.1 kg/d). An interaction between environment and Zn source occurred for milk fat content as CL cows fed ZMC had lower milk fat percentage than other groups. Relative to CL cows, NC cows had lower concentrations of lactose (4.69 vs. 4.56%) and solids-not-fat (8.46 vs. 8.32%) but a higher concentration of milk urea nitrogen (9.07 vs. 11.02 mg/mL). Compared with IOZ, cows fed ZMC had lower plasma lactose concentration during baseline and tended to have lower plasma lactose concentration during environmental challenge. Plasma lactose concentration tended to increase at 3, 5, and 41 d after the onset of environmental challenge in NC cows relative to CL cows. Treatment had no effect on milk BSA concentration. Cows fed ZMC tended to have higher gene expression of E-cadherin relative to IOZ. Compared with CL, NC cows had increased gene expression of occludin and E-cadherin and tended to have increased claudin 1 and zonula occludens 1 and 2 gene expression in the mammary gland. Protein expression of occludin and E-cadherin was unchanged. In conclusion, removing active cooling impairs lactation performance and affects gene expression of proteins involved in the mammary epithelial barrier, and feeding a portion of dietary zinc as ZMC improves the integrity of the mammary epithelium.
Major diseases, extensive misuse, and high antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli in large- and small-scale dairy cattle farms in Jordan J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Mohammad M. Obaidat, Alaa E. Bani Salman, Margaret A. Davis, Amira A. Roess
This study aimed to determine the major diseases, antimicrobial use, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in dairy cattle in Jordan. Forty-three (large, n = 21; small, n = 22) farms were surveyed. A validated questionnaire was administered to the herdsmen to elicit information about disease prevalence, antimicrobial knowledge, and antimicrobial use. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 5 lactating animals on each farm. A total of 520 E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. From the herdsmen's perspective, the diseases that require use of veterinary services in large and small production systems were mastitis (51.2%), metritis (51.2%), and enteritis (39.5%), and the most commonly used antimicrobials were oxytetracycline and streptomycin. Dairy herdsmen (83.7%) reported that it is easy to purchase antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription and 97.7% of them more frequently changed the antimicrobial drug rather than increasing the dose when presented with nonresponse to treatment. Escherichia coli isolates exhibited high resistance to streptomycin (47.5%), tetracycline (45.4%), and ampicillin (34.2%). Less than 10% of isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. Overall, 64.6 and 37.1% of the E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to ≥1 antimicrobial and multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes), respectively. The isolates exhibited 107 antimicrobial resistance profiles. This study indicates that antimicrobials are frequently misused in dairies in Jordan and that resistance among commensal E. coli toward antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance is high. Therefore, educational programs for herdsmen and enacting regulations and guidelines are necessary to promote the judicious use of antimicrobials in dairy animals in Jordan.
Effect of bovine lactoferrin and human lactoferrin on the proliferative activity of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 in vitro J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 J.L. Zhang, X. Han, Y.J. Shan, L.W. Zhang, M. Du, M. Liu, H.X. Yi, Y. Ma
We conducted a comparative in vitro study on the proliferative effects of natural human lactoferrin (nhLF) and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on osteoblasts. We investigated cell proliferation, cell survival, cell cycle, and mRNA and protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results indicated that treatment with 100 μg/mL of bLF or nhLF promoted the proliferation and sustenance of osteoblasts, and increased the length of the G2/M and S phases compared with the untreated osteoblasts. Results of real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot showed that mRNA and protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen by osteoblasts treated with bLF or nhLF were greater than those of the untreated control. At the same concentration, bLF demonstrated a greater effect on osteoblast proliferation than did nhLF. This study provides insights of significance in the utlization of bLF in healthy food formulas.
Associations between management practices and within-pen prevalence of calf diarrhea and respiratory disease on dairy farms using automated milk feeders J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Catalina Medrano-Galarza, Stephen J. LeBlanc, Andria Jones-Bitton, Trevor J. DeVries, Jeffrey Rushen, Anne Marie de Passillé, Marcia I. Endres, Derek B. Haley
Data on management practices used with automated milk feeders (AMF) are needed to identify factors associated with calf health in these systems. The objectives of this observational, longitudinal, cross-sectional study were to estimate the prevalence of calf diarrhea (CD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and to identify factors associated with prevalence of these diseases at the pen level on dairy farms feeding milk to group-housed calves with AMF. Seventeen dairy farms with AMF in Ontario, Canada, were visited 4 times, seasonally, over 1 yr. The clinical health of all calves (n = 1,488) in pens (n = 35) with AMF was scored to identify the number of calves with CD and BRD. Data on calf, feeder, and pen management practices were analyzed using generalized linear mixed regression models for each disease. Overall calf-level prevalence of CD and BRD were 23 and 17%, respectively. Median (interquartile range, IQR) within-pen prevalence of CD and BRD were 17% (7 to 37%) and 11% (0 to 28%), respectively. Median age (IQR) for diarrheic calves was 25 d (16 to 42 d), and for calves with BRD was 43 d (29 to 60 d). Factors associated with lower within-pen prevalence of CD were the administration of vitamin E and selenium at birth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 to 0.99], feeding of probiotics (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.93), and adding fresh bedding every 2 to 3 d (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.76) compared with every 7 or more days. In contrast, sharing air with older cattle (>9 mo old) was associated with increased within-pen prevalence of CD (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 1.88 to 10.52). Additionally, total bacteria counts ≥100,000 cfu/mL in milk samples taken from the AMF mixing jar were associated with increased within-pen prevalence of CD during the summer visit (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.31 to 8.54). Increased total solids in milk or milk replacer (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.85) and feeding whole milk versus milk replacer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.75) were associated with lower within-pen prevalence of BRD. Factors associated with greater within-pen prevalence of BRD were sharing air with weaned cattle up to 8 mo old (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.26 to 8.16), and greater depth of the wet bedding pack. The use of maternity pens for reasons other than just calving was associated with increased prevalence of both CD and BRD (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.33; OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.21 to 5.58, respectively). These results suggest that isolation from older animals and frequent cleaning of the feeder and pen may help to reduce disease prevalence in group-housed calves fed with an AMF.
Short communication: Two dominant paternal lineages for North American Jersey artificial insemination sires J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 C.D. Dechow, W.S. Liu, J.S. Idun, B. Maness
Jersey cattle are the second most prominent breed in the United States and represent a growing portion of the dairy cow population in the United States. The objectives of our study were to determine the male lineages of Jersey sires with official genetic evaluations and to determine whether there are differences in sire conception rate among lineages. Paternal lineages back to the 1950s were extracted from genetic evaluation files of the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB, Bowie, MD) for all sires with an official United States genetic evaluation and that were enrolled with the National Association of Animal Breeders (Madison, WI). Further tracing of male lineages was performed by accessing the pedigree database of Jersey Origins LLC (Stitzer, WI). Only paternal lineages were considered because we were interested in transmission of the Y chromosome. Sire conception rate evaluations were also retrieved from CDCB for 1,116 bulls. Nearly all North American bulls born in the decade beginning 2010 could be traced to Secret Signal Observer or Advancer Sleeping Jester, who together account for 98.9% of paternal lineages. Both bulls plus the 3 additional bulls that account for the remaining 1.1% of current descendants can be traced to a single bull (Champion Flying Fox) born on the island of Jersey in 1898. When considering sires imported into the United States, the majority (71%) trace their paternal lineage to Secret Signal Observer or Advancer Sleeping Jester, and 97% can be traced to Champion Flying Fox. Sire conception rates were higher by 0.30 percentage points in the Secret Signal Observer line than in the Advancer Sleeping Jester line, which was significant. The small number of paternal lineages for recently born artificial insemination Jersey sires indicates that there is limited genetic diversity for much of the Y chromosome, suggesting that autosomal variation may be a more important source for differences in male fertility than the Y chromosome.
Evaluation of agreement among digital dermatitis scoring methods in the milking parlor, pen, and hoof trimming chute J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 G. Cramer, T. Winders, L. Solano, D.H. Kleinschmit
Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most common infectious foot lesion affecting welfare and productivity of dairy cattle. The key to DD control programs is routine and frequent identification of DD lesions. The objective was to evaluate accuracy of detecting and scoring DD lesions in 3 milking parlor designs and in 3 alternative settings compared with scoring in the hoof trimming chute as reference. A total of 552 cows and 1,104 hind feet from 17 freestall farms were scored by 1 observer in the milking parlor and in 1 other setting: pen, headlocks, or management rail. After being scored in the milking parlor and at least 1 other setting, cows were examined in the hoof trimming chute, considered the gold standard. In every setting, all hind feet were inspected visually using a flashlight and without prior washing of feet. Agreement of the scoring settings was assessed using the 5 M-stage scoring system and a dichotomous absence (M0 or M0/M1) or presence (M1 to M4.1 or M2 to M4.1) system. At trimming chute inspection, 44% of feet had a DD lesion, with estimates of 11, 5, 2, 10, and 16% for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 lesions, respectively. Apparent DD foot-level prevalence at the milking parlor, pen, management rail, and headlocks was 28, 22, 16, and 22%, respectively. M-stages were less discernible in the pen, management rail, and headlocks (apparent prevalence of M1, M2, M3, and M4.1 was ≤1%) compared with the trimming chute and milking parlor. Agreement beyond chance between any scoring setting and trimming chute scoring ranged from 0.48 to 0.70 for the dichotomous scoring system (absence = M0/M1 vs. presence = M2 to M4.1). Diagnostic test performance varied greatly among DD scoring settings but, in general, it had low sensitivity (<70%) and high specificity (>93%) for detecting any DD lesion. Agreement and test characteristics were not affected by the type of milking parlor. Although the milking parlor and headlocks were the most reliable settings in which to detect DD, none of the settings were reliable enough to replace inspection of feet in the trimming chute. However, scoring the presence or absence of DD in the milking parlor, pen, management rail, and headlocks could be used to estimate within-herd DD prevalence, to improve DD surveillance through routine monitoring, and to evaluate effects of interventions at the farm level.
Predicting hyperketonemia by logistic and linear regression using test-day milk and performance variables in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 T.L. Chandler, R.S. Pralle, J.R.R. Dórea, S.E. Poock, G.R. Oetzel, R.H. Fourdraine, H.M. White
Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK. Given the data available, a secondary objective was to evaluate differences in test-day milk and performance variables (continuous measurements) between Holsteins and Jerseys and between cows with or without HYK within breed. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 658 Holstein and 468 Jersey cows between 5 and 20 d in milk (DIM). Diagnosis of HYK was at a serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. Concentrations of milk BHB and acetone were predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark). Thresholds of milk BHB and acetone were tested for diagnostic accuracy, and logistic models were built from continuous variables to predict HYK in primiparous and multiparous cows within breed. Linear models were constructed from continuous variables for primiparous and multiparous cows within breed that were 5 to 11 DIM or 12 to 20 DIM. Milk ketone body thresholds diagnosed HYK with 64.0 to 92.9% accuracy in Holsteins and 59.1 to 86.6% accuracy in Jerseys. Logistic models predicted HYK with 82.6 to 97.3% accuracy. Internally cross-validated multiple linear regression models diagnosed HYK of Holstein cows with 97.8% accuracy for primiparous and 83.3% accuracy for multiparous cows. Accuracy of Jersey models was 81.3% in primiparous and 83.4% in multiparous cows. These results suggest that predicting serum BHB from continuous test-day milk and performance variables could serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring HYK in Holstein and Jersey herds.
Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment? J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 M. Villettaz Robichaud, J. Rushen, A.M. de Passillé, E. Vasseur, D. Haley, K. Orsel, D. Pellerin
Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economical margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was associated with an increased profitability margin per cow over replacement cost by $236 compared with farms that did not. These results suggest that associations are present between meeting the lameness prevalence benchmark of the Animal Care proAction Initiative and freestall farms' productivity and profitability. Overall, meeting the animal-based criteria evaluated in this study was not detrimental to freestall farms' productivity and profitability.
Short communication: Lactose enhances bile tolerance of yogurt culture bacteria J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Behannis Mena, Kayanush Aryana
Lactose is an energy source for culture bacteria. Bile tolerance is an important probiotic property. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of lactose on bile tolerance of yogurt starter culture Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12 and Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M5. Bile tolerance of pure cultures was determined using 0.3% oxgall in MRS THIO broth (Difco, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) for L. bulgaricus and 0.3% oxgall in M17 broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) for Strep. thermophilus. Lactose was added to both broths at 0 (control), 1, 3, and 5% (wt/vol) broth. Dilutions were plated hourly for 12 h. Experiments were replicated 3 times. At 2, 4, and 12 h of incubation, lactose incorporated at all amounts, 1, 3, and 5% (wt/vol), showed higher counts of Strep. thermophilus ST-M5 in comparison to control. Lactose use at 5% (wt/vol) significantly enhanced bile tolerance of both L. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus compared with control.
Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Kaibo Deng, Wei Fang, Baodong Zheng, Song Miao, Guicheng Huo
Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system.
Technical note: A simple back-mounted harness for grazing dairy cows to facilitate the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Josef D.V. van Wyngaard, Robin Meeske, Lourens J. Erasmus
We describe here a cattle harness to attach a gas collection vessel to facilitate the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. The harness consists of 2 major components: (1) a lightweight, robust body fabricated from an equine surcingle or lunge roller with padded thoracic trapezius pressure points, a bespoke shaping shaft for spine support, and adjustable buckles on both sides; and (2) an elastic flank-strap to prevent the harness from dislodging. The spine support consists of stainless steel laminated with carbon fiber. This support minimizes the contact area with the animal's skin, relieves the spine area of pressure, and creates free flow of ambient air below the platform, reducing sweat accumulation and hence preventing skin lesions. The harness weighs approximately 1.2 kg, allows for attachment of 2 gas collection vessels (animal and background sample), and is cost effective.
Prevalence of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic Escherichia coli in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairy operations in the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Jakeitha L. Sonnier, Jeffrey S. Karns, Jason E. Lombard, Christine A. Kopral, Bradd J. Haley, Seon-Woo Kim, Jo Ann S. Van Kessel
The dairy farm environment is a well-documented reservoir for zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, and humans may be exposed to these pathogens via consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products. As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study, bulk tank milk (BTM, n = 234) and milk filters (n = 254) were collected from a total of 234 dairy operations in 17 major dairy states and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens. The invA gene was detected in samples from 18.5% of operations and Salmonella enterica was isolated from 18.0% of operations. Salmonella Dublin was detected in 0.7% of operations. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated, and the most common serotypes were Cerro, Montevideo, and Newport. Representative Salmonella isolates (n = 137) were tested against a panel of 14 antimicrobials. Most (85%) were pansusceptible; the remaining were resistant to 1 to 9 antimicrobials, and within the resistant strains the most common profile was resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.9% of operations, and L. monocytogenes was isolated from 3.0% of operations. Serogroups 1/2a and 1/2b were the most common, followed by 4b and 4a. One or more E. coli virulence genes were detected in the BTM from 30.5% of operations and in the filters from 75.3% of operations. A combination of stx2, eaeA, and γ-tir genes was detected in the BTM from 0.5% of operations and in the filters from 6.6% of operations. The results of this study indicate an appreciable prevalence of bacterial pathogens in BTM and filters, including serovars known to infect humans.
Control of Listeria monocytogenes in whole milk using antimicrobials applied individually and in combination J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Sarah M. Kozak, Stephanie R.B. Brown, Yustyna Bobak, Dennis J. D'Amico
Dairy product recalls and dairy-related illnesses are often the result of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes, which can occur throughout the dairy production and supply chains. The use of antimicrobial compounds is one practical approach for controlling pathogen survival and growth in foods. The goal of this study was to use fluid milk as a model system to identify listeristatic or listericidal treatments that show promise for application in fluid milk and for further evaluation in other dairy products (e.g., cheese). Caprylic acid (CA), ε-polylysine (EPL), hydrogen peroxide, lauric arginate (LAE), and sodium caprylate (SC) were added individually or in combination to whole milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ~4 log10 cfu/mL. Samples were stored at 7°C for 21 d, and L. monocytogenes counts were determined weekly. Inhibitory concentrations of LAE (800 mg/L) and EPL (100–400 mg/L), as well as SC and CA (3,200 mg/L each), were identified. The addition of EPL at 800 mg/L reduced L. monocytogenes counts by >3 log10 cfu/mL from initial inoculation levels after 21 d. Addition of hydrogen peroxide to milk reduced counts by >3 log10 cfu/mL from initial inoculation within 24 h (400 and 800 mg/L) or by d 7 (200 mg/L). Although the combinatory treatments of EPL + CA, EPL + LAE, and LAE + SC were characterized as indifferent, EPL + SC worked synergistically to reduce L. monocytogenes populations in milk over 21 d. Overall, these data identify potential antimicrobial treatments to control L. monocytogenes in milk and serve as a foundation for the continued development of antimicrobial controls for L. monocytogenes in dairy products.
Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and source of vitamin D in dairy cows: Lactation performance and energy metabolism J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 N. Martinez, R.M. Rodney, E. Block, L.L. Hernandez, C.D. Nelson, I.J. Lean, J.E.P. Santos
The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with 2 dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels and supplemented with either cholecalciferol (CH) or calcidiol (CA) during late gestation on lactation performance and energetic metabolism in dairy cows. The hypothesis was that combining a prepartum acidogenic diet with calcidiol supplementation would benefit peripartum Ca metabolism and, thus, improve energy metabolism and lactation performance compared with cows fed an alkalogenic diet or cholecalciferol. Holstein cows at 252 d of gestation were blocked by parity (28 nulliparous and 51 parous cows) and milk yield within parous cows, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial, with 2 levels of DCAD (positive, +130, and negative, −130 mEq/kg) and 2 sources of vitamin D, CH or CA, fed at 3 mg per 11 kg of diet dry matter (DM). The resulting treatment combinations were positive DCAD with CH (PCH), positive DCAD with CA (PCA), negative DCAD with CH (NCH), or negative DCAD with CA (NCA), which were fed for the last 21 d of gestation. After calving, cows were fed the same lactation diet. Body weight and body condition were evaluated prepartum and for the first 49 d postpartum. Blood was sampled thrice weekly prepartum, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and every 3 d thereafter until 30 d postpartum for quantification of hormones and metabolites. Lactation performance was evaluated for the first 49 d postpartum. Feeding a diet with negative DCAD reduced DM intake in parous cows by 2.1 kg/d, but no effect was observed in nulliparous cows. The negative DCAD reduced concentrations of glucose (positive = 4.05 vs. negative = 3.95 mM), insulin (positive = 0.57 vs. negative = 0.45 ng/mL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (positive = 110 vs. negative = 95 ng/mL) prepartum. Treatments did not affect DM intake postpartum, but CA-supplemented cows tended to produce more colostrum (PCH = 5.86, PCA = 7.68 NCH = 6.21, NCA = 7.96 ± 1.06 kg) and produced more fat-corrected milk (PCH = 37.0, PCA = 40.1 NCH = 37.5, NCA = 41.9 ± 1.8 kg) and milk components compared with CH-supplemented cows. Feeding the negative DCAD numerically increased yield of fat-corrected milk by 1.0 kg/d in both nulliparous and 1.4 kg/d in parous cows. Minor differences were observed in postpartum concentrations of hormones and metabolites linked to energy metabolism among treatments. Results from this experiment indicate that replacing CH with CA supplemented at 3 mg/d during the prepartum period improved postpartum lactation performance in dairy cows.
Prevalence of lameness and leg lesions of lactating dairy cows housed in southern Brazil: Effects of housing systems J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Joao H.C. Costa, Tracy A. Burnett, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk, Maria J. Hötzel
Within the last few decades, the North American and European dairy industries have been collecting information about lameness and leg injury prevalence on dairy farms and have tried to develop solutions to mitigate these ailments. Few published articles report the prevalence of lameness and leg lesions in areas outside of those 2 regions, or how alternative housing systems, such as compost-bedded packs, affect the prevalence of these maladies. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of lameness and leg lesions on confined dairies that used freestall, compost-bedded packs, or a combination of these 2 systems in Brazil. Data were collected in the autumn and winter of 2016 from 50 dairy farms located in Paraná state, including 12 compost-bedded pack dairies (CB), 23 freestall dairies (FS), and 15 freestall dairies that used compost-bedded packs for vulnerable cows (FS+C). A visit to the farm consisted of a management questionnaire, an inspection of the housing areas as well as the milking parlor, and an evaluation of all lactating cows as they exited the parlor for lameness (score 1–5), hygiene (score 0–2), body condition score (score 1–5), and hock and knee lesions (score 0–1). Median 1-way chi-squared test was used to compare production systems. We found no difference between farm types in management practices related to hoof health management or average daily milk production per cow [31 (29–33.9) kg/d; median (quartile 1–3)], percentage of Holstein cattle in the herd [100% (90–100%)], conception rate [35.8% (30.2–38%)], or pregnancy rate [15% (13.7–18%)]. The CB farms were smaller [85 (49.5–146.5) milking cows] than both the FS [270 (178–327.5) milking cows] and FS+C farms [360 (150–541.5) milking cows). The overall prevalence of severe lameness (score 4 and 5) across all farms was 21.2% (15.2–28.5%) but was lower on the CB farms [14.2% (8.45–15.5%)] in comparison to the FS [22.2% (16.8–26.7%)] and the FS+C farms [22.2% (17.4–32.8%)]. Less than 1% of all cows scored on CB farms were observed with swollen or wounded knees (or both), which was lower than either the FS or FS+C farms [7.4% (3.6–11.9%) and 6.4% (2.6–11.8%) of all cows scored, respectively]. The same pattern was found for hock lesions, where the farm-level prevalence within the 3 different housing types was 0.5% (0–0.9%), 9.9% (0.8–15.3%), and 5.7% (2.6–10.9%) for CB, FS, and FS+C farms, respectively. No differences between farm systems were observed for hygiene or body condition score. On average, 2.7% (0.8–10.9%) of lactating cows had a soiled side, 15.4% (2.1–37.4%) had dirty legs and 1.7% (0–9.3%) had dirty udders. The average herd-level body condition score across farms was 2.9 (2.9–3), with 0.86% of the all cows scored having a body condition score <2.5. These results indicate that lameness prevalence on confined dairies in Brazil is high and highlight the need for remedial changes in environmental design and management practices. We found that CB farms in this region had reduced lameness and lesions in relation to FS or FS+C dairies.
Genetic parameters for body weight from birth to calving and associations between weights with test-day, health, and female fertility traits J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 T. Yin, S. König
A data set including 57,868 records for calf birth weight (CABW) and 9,462 records for weight at first insemination (IBW) were used for the estimation of direct and maternal genetic effects in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Furthermore, CABW and IBW were correlated with test-day production records and health traits in first-lactation cows, and with nonreturn rates in heifers. Health traits considered overall disease categories from the International Committee for Animal Recording diagnosis key, including the general disease status, diarrhea, respiratory diseases, mastitis, claw disorders, female fertility disorders, and metabolic disorders. For single trait measurements of CABW and IBW, animal models with maternal genetic effects were applied. The direct heritability was 0.47 for CABW and 0.20 for IBW, and the direct genetic correlation between CABW and IBW was 0.31. A moderate maternal heritability (0.19) was identified for CABW, but the maternal genetic effect was close to zero for IBW. The correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects was antagonistic for CABW (−0.39) and for IBW (−0.24). In bivariate animal models, only weak genetic and phenotypic correlations were identified between CABW and IBW with either test-day production or health traits in early lactation. Apart from metabolic disorders, there was a general tendency for increasing disease susceptibilities with increasing CABW. The genetic correlation between IBW and nonreturn rates in heifers after 56 d and after 90 d was slightly positive (0.18), but close to zero when correlating nonreturn rates with CABW. For the longitudinal BW structure from birth to the age of 24 mo, random regression models with the time-dependent covariate “age in months” were applied. Evaluation criteria (Bayesian information criterion and residual variances) suggested Legendre polynomials of order 3 to modeling the longitudinal body weight (BW) structure. Direct heritabilities around birth and insemination dates were slightly larger than estimates for CABW and IBW from the single trait models, but maternal heritabilities were exactly the same from both models. Genetic correlations between BW were close to 1 for neighboring age classes, but decreased with increasing time spans. The genetic correlation between BW at d 0 (birth date) and at 24 mo was even negative (−0.20). Random regression model estimates confirmed the antagonistic relationship between direct and maternal genetic effects, especially during calfhood. This study based on a large data set in dairy cattle confirmed genetic parameters and (co)variance components for BW as identified in beef cattle populations. However, BW records from an early stage of life were inappropriate early predictors for dairy cow health and productivity.
Bacterial diversity and composition of alfalfa silage as analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing: Effects of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and silage additives J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 I.M. Ogunade, Y. Jiang, A.A. Pech Cervantes, D.H. Kim, A.S. Oliveira, D. Vyas, Z.G. Weinberg, K.C. Jeong, A.T. Adesogan
The first objective of this study was to examine effects of adding Escherichia coli O157:H7 with or without chemical or microbial additives on the bacterial diversity and composition of alfalfa silage. The second objective was to examine associations between the relative abundance of known and unknown bacterial species and indices of silage fermentation quality. Alfalfa forage was harvested at 54% dry matter, chopped to a theoretical length of cut of 19 mm, and ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 100 d after the following treatments were applied: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1 × 105 cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1 × 106 cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1 × 106 cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 0.22% propionic acid (EC+PA). After 100 d of ensiling, the silage samples were analyzed for bacterial diversity and composition via the Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and chemically characterized. Overall, Firmicutes (74.1 ± 4.86%) was the most predominant phylum followed by Proteobacteria (20.4 ± 3.80%). Relative to the control, adding E. coli O157:H7 alone at ensiling did not affect bacterial diversity or composition but adding EC+LP or EC+LB reduced the Shannon index, a measure of diversity (3.21 vs. 2.63 or 2.80, respectively). The relative abundance of Firmicutes (69.2 and 68.8%) was reduced, whereas that of Proteobacteria (24.0 and 24.9%) was increased by EC+LP and EC+PA treatments, relative to those of the control (79.5 and 16.5%) and EC+LB (77.4 and 18.5%) silages, respectively. Compared with the control, treatment with EC+LP increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Sphingomonas, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Erwinia by 426, 157, 200, 194, and 163%, respectively, but reduced those of Pediococcus, Weissella, and Methylobacterium by 5,436, 763, and 250%, respectively. Relative abundance of Weissella (9.19%) and Methylobacterium (0.94%) were also reduced in the EC+LB silage compared with the control (29.7 and 1.50%, respectively). Application of propionic acid did not affect the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Weissella, or Pediococcus. Lactate concentration correlated positively (r = 0.56) with relative abundance of Lactobacillus and negatively (r = −0.41) with relative abundance of Pediococcus. Negative correlations were detected between ammonia-N concentration and relative abundance of Sphingomonas (r = −0.51), Pantoea (r = −0.46), Pseudomonas (r = −0.45), and Stenotrophomonas (r = −0.38). Silage pH was negatively correlated with relative abundance of Lactobacillus (r = −0.59), Sphingomonas (r = −0.66), Pantoea (r = −0.69), Pseudomonas (r = −0.69), and Stenotrophomonas (r = −0.50). Future studies should aim to speciate, culture, and determine the functions of the unknown bacteria detected in this study to elucidate their roles in silage fermentation.
Milk basic protein supplementation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in a food-allergic enteropathy model mouse J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Aiko Ono-Ohmachi, Haruyo Nakajima-Adachi, Yoshikazu Morita, Ken Kato, Satoshi Hachimura
To examine novel functions of milk basic protein (MBP) in T-cell-related inflammatory diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and allergies, we evaluated the effects of MBP on the causative responses of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells in a food-allergic enteropathy model, OVA23–3 mice, which express an OVA-specific T-cell receptor gene. The OVA-specific CD4+ T cells of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) from OVA23–3 mice were cultured with CD11c+ dendritic cells of MLN from BALB/cA mice in the absence or presence of MBP following stimulation with OVA; then the levels of CD69 expression and the levels of cytokine production by CD4+ T cells were measured to evaluate activation. The effects of MBP supplementation of OVA 23–3 mice were assessed by feeding a diet containing OVA (OVA diet) with or without MBP for 28 d. Intestinal inflammation, together with activation and cytokine production of CD4+ T cells by MLN, as well as femoral bone mineral density, were measured. In in vitro culture, MBP inhibited excess activation and IL-4 production by CD4+ T cells. The supplementation of MBP to the OVA diet attenuated OVA-specific IgE production in OVA-diet-fed OVA23–3 mice and slightly resolved developing enteropathy caused by excess IL-4 production by CD4+ T cells. Feeding OVA diet to OVA23–3 mice exhibited bone loss accompanied with enteropathy, whereas MBP supplementation prevented bone loss and increased osteoprotegerin, an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, in the mice. The inhibition of T-cell-activation in both MLN and bone marrow by MBP supplementation may help prevent increased IgE levels caused by excessive IL-4 production and bone loss accompanied by enteropathy. Our findings show that MBP may help attenuate both T-cell-related inflammation and bone loss.
Replacing ground corn with incremental amounts of liquid molasses does not change milk enterolactone but decreases production in dairy cows fed flaxseed meal J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 C.P. Ghedini, D.C. Moura, R.A.V. Santana, A.S. Oliveira, A.F. Brito
We investigated the effects of replacing ground corn (GRC) with incremental amounts of liquid molasses (LM) on milk enterolactone concentration, antioxidant enzymes activity in plasma, production, milk fatty acid (FA) profile, and nutrient utilization in Jersey cows fed flaxseed meal and low-starch diets. Sixteen multiparous organically certified Jersey cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 101 ± 45 d in milk, 462 ± 38 kg of body weight, and 19.8 ± 3.90 kg/d of milk in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed rations consisting (dry matter basis) of 52% grass-legume baleage, 8% grass hay, 8.5% soyhulls, 2.5% roasted soybean, 15% flaxseed meal, and 2% minerals-vitamins premix. The GRC-to-LM dietary ratios (dry matter basis) were 12:0, 8:4, 4:8, and 0:12. Orthogonal polynomials were used to test linear, quadratic, and cubic effects using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The milk concentration of enterolactone tended to respond cubically, thus suggesting that replacing GRC with LM did not affect this lignan in milk. The plasma activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not differ, but superoxide dismutase activity tended to respond cubically with feeding increasing amounts of LM. Dry matter intake and yields of milk and milk fat, true protein, and lactose decreased linearly with substituting GRC for LM. Whereas the concentrations of milk fat and milk true protein did not differ across treatments, milk lactose content decreased linearly. Feeding incremental levels of LM reduced linearly the milk concentration of urea N and the amount of N excreted in urine, and tended to decrease linearly the concentration of plasma urea N. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral and acid detergent fiber did not differ across treatments, whereas digestibility of crude protein decreased linearly. Digestibility of starch responded linearly and quadratically, but the actual differences between treatments were too small to be biologically significant. Milk FA profile was substantially changed most notably by linear increases in cis-9,trans-11 18:2, cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3, Σ odd-chain FA, and the trans-11-to-trans-10 ratio, and linear decreases in cis-9 18:1 and cis-9,cis-12 18:2 when replacing GRC by incremental amounts of LM.
Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to decrease stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in the liver of dairy cows after prolonged feeding of high-concentrate diet J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 T.L. Xu, H.M. Seyfert, X.Z. Shen
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) of dairy cattle is a widely occurring but not very overt metabolic disorder thought to impair milk composition. The enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is rate-limiting for the formation of Δ-9 unsaturated fatty acids and thus crucially involved in controlling lipid metabolism in the liver. It is known that SCD1 expression is downregulated during SARA, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To study these mechanisms, we enrolled 12 healthy multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows into a diet-induced SARA experiment. Six cows were fed a high-concentrate diet for 18 weeks (60% content of high-concentrate to 40% forage; HC group), whereas the others received a low-concentrate diet ad libitum (40% high-concentrate content to 60% forage; LC group). Sustained low ruminal pH values (pH 5.6 maintained for 4 h/d) and reduced milk yield performance (2.07 kg/d less than LC cows) verified that SARA had been induced in the HC group. Results showed a significantly decreased concentrations of cis-9 monounsaturated long-chain fatty acids in plasma collected from hepatic but not portal veins. This was matched by reduced SCD1 mRNA and protein concentrations in HC livers. The expression levels of genes related to lipid formation (DGAT1 and PLIN2) were downregulated during SARA, whereas those of catabolic genes (CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1) and some inflammatory genes were upregulated. Expression of SCD1 was downregulated through reduced transcription and abundance of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1c). This effect was augmented by local chromatin tightening and DNA methylation at and around the SREBP1c binding site in the SCD1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that SARA reduced SREBP1c binding at the SCD1 promoter; hence, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in regulating the expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid modification, partially through downregulation of both SCD1 and SREBP1c in the liver. Our results suggest that in addition to inflammatory genes, SCD1 is also involved in SARA-induced epigenetic regulation and its associated metabolic changes. This knowledge might help to provide a target for intervening against the detrimental metabolic effects of SARA.
Technical note: Changes in rumen mucosa thickness measured by transabdominal ultrasound as a noninvasive method to diagnose subacute rumen acidosis in dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 V. Neubauer, E. Humer, I. Kröger, A. Meißl, N. Reisinger, Q. Zebeli
Feeding high-grain diets leads to the release and accumulation of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen. The subsequent prolonged decline in ruminal pH can lead to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Accumulation of short-chain fatty acids can cause proliferation of rumen papillae to increase absorption surface, subsequently leading to a thickening of the rumen mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of continuous measurements of the rumen mucosa thickness (RMT) as a diagnostic tool for SARA in dairy cows compared with continuous measurements of ruminal pH. The study used 6 lactating Simmental cows switched from a moderate-grain (MG) diet with 40% concentrate (dry matter basis) for 1 wk to a high-grain (HG) diet with 60% concentrate (dry matter basis) for 4 wk. Reticuloruminal pH was recorded with indwelling sensors throughout the trial. Rumen mucosa thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound at 4 d during the MG diet and 23 d during the HG diet. Mean RMT increased from 4.7 ± 0.19 mm in the MG diet to 5.3 ± 0.17 mm in the HG diet, whereas daily mean reticular pH decreased from 6.8 ± 0.01 in the MG diet to 6.5 ± 0.01 in the HG diet. Older cows (>3 lactations) had increased RMT, associated with higher reticular pH throughout the experiment. The higher RMT and pH level in older cows underlines their lesser susceptibility to SARA during high-grain feeding. In conclusion, RMT can successfully be measured using linear ultrasound probes, commonly used by veterinary practitioners as rectal probes. By combining noninvasive RMT measurements with the lactation number of the individual cows in a herd, this study suggests that RMT is a viable option for diagnosing SARA. Further research, using a larger number of cows with different lactations numbers, is needed to establish a cut-off RMT indicating the risk of SARA.
Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and source of vitamin D in dairy cows: Vitamin D, mineral, and bone metabolism J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 R.M. Rodney, N. Martinez, E. Block, L.L. Hernandez, P. Celi, C.D. Nelson, J.E.P. Santos, I.J. Lean
Pregnant Holstein cows, 28 nulliparous and 51 parous, were blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to receive diets that differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), +130 or −130 mEq/kg, and supplemented with either calcidiol or cholecalciferol at 3 mg/11 kg of dry matter from 255 d of gestation until parturition. Blood was sampled thrice weekly prepartum, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 postpartum to evaluate effects of the diets on vitamin D, mineral and bone metabolism, and acid-base status. Blood pH and concentrations of minerals, vitamin D metabolites, and bone-related hormones were determined, as were mineral concentrations and losses in urine and colostrum. Supplementing with calcidiol increased plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 3-epi 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 compared with supplementing with cholecalciferol. Cows fed the diet with negative DCAD had lesser concentrations of vitamin D metabolites before and after calving than cows fed the diet with positive DCAD, except for 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. Feeding the diet with negative DCAD induced a compensated metabolic acidosis that attenuated the decline in blood ionized Ca (iCa) and serum total Ca (tCa) around calving, particularly in parous cows, whereas cows fed the diet with positive DCAD and supplemented with calcidiol had the greatest 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and the lowest iCa and tCa concentrations on d 1 and 2 postpartum. The acidogenic diet or calcidiol markedly increased urinary losses of tCa and tMg, and feeding calcidiol tended to increase colostrum yield and increased losses of tCa and tMg in colostrum. Cows fed the diet with negative DCAD had increased concentrations of serotonin and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen prepartum compared with cows fed the diet with positive DCAD. Concentrations of undercarboxylated and carboxylated osteocalcin and those of adiponectin did not differ with treatment. These results provide evidence that dietary manipulations can induce metabolic adaptations that improve mineral homeostasis with the onset of lactation that might explain some of the improvements observed in health and production when cows are fed diets with negative DCAD or supplemented with calcidiol.
Effect of 17β-estradiol on milk production, hormone secretion, and mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 J.J. Tong, I.M. Thompson, X. Zhao, P. Lacasse
Estradiol inhibits milk production in dairy cows. The present study evaluated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) injections on prolactin (PRL) secretion and the mammary gland response to this hormone. Eight mid-lactation cows were used in a crossover design. During each experimental period, the cows were injected daily with either E2 (2.5 mg) or soy oil (2.5 mL; control) for 7 d. For each period, blood and milk samples were collected from d −4 to 14 (relative to the first injection) to measure PRL, insulin-like growth factor-1, and cortisol concentrations. In addition, blood samples were collected during morning milking on d −4, 2, and 7 to determine the milking-induced PRL release. Mammary gland biopsies were collected on the last day of injections. Milk fat samples were collected from d 1 to 7 and on d 14. The mRNA levels of genes encoding proteins related to mammary activity (α-lactalbumin, β-casein, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase), apoptosis (Bax, Bcl2, and caspase-3), PRL receptors (PRLR; long and short forms), signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5A and STAT5B), and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS2 and SOCS3) were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription PCR using RNA extracted from milk fat and mammary biopsies. Milk production was decreased moderately (about 9%) by E2 injections during the treatment period. Estradiol injections increased basal PRL levels in serum and milk but did not affect milking-induced PRL release. Estradiol injections increased the plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 but did not affect cortisol concentration during the treatment period. In mammary tissue, the expression of Bcl2 was downregulated, whereas that of STAT5A and B and the Bax:Bcl2 mRNA ratio was higher during E2 injections. The total STAT5 protein content in mammary tissue was elevated by E2 injections. We found no significant difference observed for the other genes in mammary tissue or milk fat. The present data do not support the contention that E2 injections inhibit milk production by interfering with PRL signaling, but enhanced basal PRL concentration and STAT5 gene expression in mammary tissue.
Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 A.N. Brown, G. Ferreira, C.L. Teets, W.E. Thomason, C.D. Teutsch
In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses (barley [BA], ryegrass [RG], rye [RY], triticale [TR], and wheat [WT]) in monoculture (i.e., no legumes [NO]) or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes (crimson clover [CC] and hairy vetch [HV]). After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be attributed to low concentrations of sugars of mixtures with HV (10.5%). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes reduced the fiber digestibility of both winter crops (75.7% to 72.8% NDF). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes did not affect estimated DM yield, nutritional composition, or digestibility of the succeeding summer crops. In conclusion, growing grasses in mixtures with legumes as winter forage crops can increase forage estimated DM yields and its nutritional quality in dairy farming sytems.
Technical note: Development and validation of a new method for the quantification of soluble and micellar calcium, magnesium, and potassium in milk J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 M. Franzoi, G. Niero, M. Penasa, M. Cassandro, M. De Marchi
Milk mineral content is a key trait for its role in dairy processes such as cheese-making, its use as source of minerals for newborns, and for all traits involving salt-protein interactions. This study investigated a new method for measuring mineral partition between soluble and micellar fractions in bovine milk after rennet coagulation. A new whey dilution step was added to correct the quantification bias due to whey trapped in curd and excluded volume. Moreover, the proposed method allowed the quantification of the diffusible volume after milk coagulation. Milk mineral content and concentration in whey, and diluted whey were quantified by acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The repeatability of the method for micellar Ca, Mg, and K was between 2.07 and 8.96%, whereas reproducibility ranged from 4.01 to 9.44%. Recovery of total milk minerals over 3 spiking levels ranged from 92 to 97%. The proposed method provided an accurate estimation of micellar and soluble minerals in milk, and curd diffusible volume.
Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and source of vitamin D in dairy cows: Health and reproductive responses J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 N. Martinez, R.M. Rodney, E. Block, L.L. Hernandez, C.D. Nelson, I.J. Lean, J.E.P. Santos
The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with distinct dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels and supplemented with 2 sources of vitamin D during the prepartum transition period on postpartum health and reproduction in dairy cows. The hypotheses were that feeding acidogenic diets prepartum would reduce the risk of hypocalcemia and other diseases, and the benefits of a negative DCAD treatment on health would be potentiated by supplementing calcidiol compared with cholecalciferol. Cows at 252 d of gestation were blocked by parity (28 nulliparous and 52 parous cows) and milk yield within parous cows, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial, with 2 levels of DCAD, positive (+130 mEq/kg) or negative (−130 mEq/kg), and 2 sources of vitamin D, cholecalciferol or calcidiol, fed at 3 mg for each 11 kg of diet dry matter. The resulting treatment combinations were positive DCAD with cholecalciferol (PCH), positive DCAD with calcidiol (PCA), negative DCAD with cholecalciferol (NCH), and negative DCAD with calcidiol (NCA), which were fed from 252 d of gestation to calving. After calving, cows were fed the same lactation diet supplemented with cholecalciferol at 0.70 mg for every 20 kg of dry matter. Blood was sampled 7 d before parturition, and at 2 and 7 d postpartum to evaluate cell counts and measures of neutrophil function. Postpartum clinical and subclinical diseases and reproductive responses were evaluated. Feeding a diet with negative DCAD eliminated clinical hypocalcemia (23.1 vs. 0%) and drastically reduced the incidence and daily risk of subclinical hypocalcemia, and these effects were observed in the first 48 to 72 h after calving. The diet with negative DCAD tended to improve the intensity of oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in all cows prepartum and increased the intensity of phagocytosis in parous cows prepartum and the proportion of neutrophils with killing activity in parous cows postpartum (58.5 vs. 67.6%). Feeding calcidiol improved the proportion of neutrophils with oxidative burst activity (60.0 vs. 68.7%), reduced the incidences of retained placenta (30.8 vs. 2.5%) and metritis (46.2 vs. 23.1%), and reduced the proportion of cows with multiple diseases in early lactation. Combining the negative DCAD diet with calcidiol reduced morbidity by at least 60% compared with any of the other treatments. Cows with morbidity had lower blood ionized Ca and serum total Ca concentrations than healthy cows. Treatments did not affect the daily risk of hyperketonemia in the first 30 d of lactation. Despite the changes in cow health, manipulating the prepartum DCAD did not influence reproduction, but feeding calcidiol tended to increase the rate of pregnancy by 55%, which reduced the median days open by 19. In conclusion, feeding prepartum cows with a diet containing a negative DCAD combined with 3 mg of calcidiol benefited health in early lactation.
Lactobacillus demonstrate thiol-independent metabolism of methylglyoxal: Implications toward browning prevention in Parmesan cheese J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 N.N. Gandhi, P.F. Cobra, J.L. Steele, J.L. Markley, S.A. Rankin
Endogenous production of α-dicarbonyls by lactic acid bacteria can influence the quality and consistency of fermented foods and beverages. Methylglyoxal (MG) in Parmesan cheese can contribute toward undesired browning during low temperature ripening and storage conditions, leading to the economic depreciation of affected cheeses. We demonstrate the effects of exogenously added MG on browning and volatile formation using a Parmesan cheese extract (PCE). To determine the influence of Lactobacillus on α-dicarbonyls, strains were screened for their ability to modulate concentrations of MG, glyoxal, and diacetyl in PCE. It was found that a major metabolic pathway of MG in Lactobacillus is a thiol-independent reduction, whereby MG is partially or fully reduced to acetol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. The majority of lactobacilli grown in PCE accumulated the intermediate acetol, whereas Lactobacillus brevis 367 formed exclusively 1,2-propanediol and Lactobacillus fermentum 14931 formed both metabolites. In addition, we determined the inherent tolerance to bacteriostatic concentrations of MG among lactobacilli grown in rich media. It was found that L. brevis 367 reduces MG exclusively to 1,2-propanediol, which correlates to both its ability to significantly decrease MG concentrations in PCE, as well as its significantly higher tolerance to MG, in comparison to other lactobacilli screened. These findings have broader implications toward lactobacilli as a viable solution for reducing MG-mediated browning of Parmesan cheese.
Fetuin-A: A negative acute-phase protein linked to adipose tissue function in periparturient dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jonas de Souza, William Raphael, Adam L. Lock, G. Andres Contreras
Fetuin-A (FetA) is a free fatty acid transporter and an acute-phase protein that enhances cellular lipid uptake and lipogenesis. In nonruminants, FetA is involved in lipid-induced inflammation. Despite FetA importance in lipid metabolism and inflammation, its expression and dynamics in adipose tissue (AT) of dairy cows are unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine serum and AT FetA dynamics over the periparturient period and in mid-lactation cows in negative energy balance (NEB) after a feed restriction protocol and (2) characterize how an inflammatory challenge affects adipocyte FetA expression. Blood and subcutaneous AT were collected from 16 cows with high (≥3.75, n = 8) or moderate (≤3.5, n = 8) body condition score (BCS) at −26 ± 7 d (far off) and −8 ± 5 d (close up) before calving and at 10 ± 2 d after parturition (early lactation) and from 14 nonpregnant mid-lactation cows (>220 d in milk) after a feed restriction protocol. Serum FetA concentrations were 0.89 ± 0.13 mg/mL at far off, 0.96 ± 0.13 mg/mL at close up, and 0.77 ± 0.13 mg/mL at early lactation and were 1.09 ± 0.09 and 1.17 ± 0.09 mg/mL in feed-restricted and control cows, respectively. Serum and AT FetA contents decreased at the onset of lactation when lipolysis was higher. No changes in AT and serum FetA were observed after feed restriction induced NEB in mid-lactation cows. Prepartum BCS had no effect on serum FetA, but AT expression of AHSG, the gene encoding FetA, was reduced in periparturient cows with high BCS at dry-off throughout all time points. Circulating FetA was positively associated with serum albumin and calcium and with BCS variation over the periparturient period. The dynamics of AHSG expression were analogous to the patterns of lipogenic markers ABDH5, ELOVL6, FABP4, FASN, PPARγ, and SCD1. Expression of AHSG and FetA protein in AT was inversely correlated with AT proinflammatory markers CD68, CD44, SPP1, and CCL2. In vitro, bovine adipocytes challenged with lipopolysaccharide downregulated FetA protein expression. Adipocytes treated with FetA had lower CCL2 expression compared with those exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Overall, FetA is a systemic and local AT negative acute-phase protein linked to AT function in periparturient cows. Furthermore, FetA may support physiological adaptations to NEB in periparturient cows.
Relative bioavailability of carnitine delivered by ruminal or abomasal infusion or by encapsulation in dairy cattle J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 K.E. Olagaray, J.E. Shaffer, C.K. Armendariz, A. Bellamine, S. Jacobs, E.C. Titgemeyer, B.J. Bradford
Two studies were designed to evaluate the relative bioavailability of l-carnitine delivered by different methods in dairy cattle. In experiment 1, 4 Holstein heifers were used in a split-plot design to compare ruminally or abomasally infused l-carnitine. The study included 2 main-plot periods, with infusion routes allocated in a crossover design. Within main-plot periods, each of 3 subplot periods consisted of 4-d infusions separated with 4-d rest periods. Subplot treatments were infusion of 1, 3, and 6 g of l-carnitine/d in conjunction with 6 g/d of arabinogalactan given in consideration of eventual product manufacturing. Doses increased within a period to minimize carryover risk. Treatments were solubilized in 4 L of water and delivered in two 10-h infusions daily. Blood was collected before the start of infusion period and on d 4 of each infusion period to obtain baseline and treatment l-carnitine concentrations. There was a dose × route interaction and route effect for increases in plasma carnitine above baseline, with increases above baseline being greater across all dose levels when infused abomasally compared with ruminally. Results demonstrated superior relative bioavailability of l-carnitine when ruminal exposure was physically bypassed. In experiment 2, 56 lactating Holstein cows (143 ± 72 d in milk) were used in 2 cohorts in randomized complete block designs (blocked by parity and milk production) to evaluate 2 rumen-protected products compared with crystalline l-carnitine. Treatments were (1) control, (2) 3 g/d of crystalline l-carnitine (crystalline), (3) 6 g/d of crystalline, (4) 5 g/d of 40COAT (40% coating, 60% l-carnitine), (5) 10 g/d of 40COAT, (6) 7.5 g/d of 60COAT (60% coating, 40% l-carnitine), and (7) 15 g/d of 60COAT. Treatments were top-dressed to diets twice daily. Each cohort used 14-d and included a 6-d baseline measurement period with the final 2 d used for data and sample collection, and an 8-d treatment period with the final 2 d used for data and sample collection. Plasma, urine, and milk samples were analyzed for l-carnitine. Crystalline and 40COAT linearly increased plasma l-carnitine, and 60COAT tended to linearly increase plasma l-carnitine. Total excretion (milk + urine) of l-carnitine averaged 1.52 ± 0.04 g/d in controls, increased linearly with crystalline and 40COAT, and increased quadratically with 60COAT. Crystalline increased plasma l-carnitine and l-carnitine excretion more than 40COAT and 60COAT. In conclusion, preventing ruminal degradation of l-carnitine increased delivery of bioavailable carnitine to cattle, but effective ruminal protection and postruminal bioavailability is challenging.
Effects of magnesium source and monensin on nutrient digestibility and mineral balance in lactating dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 A.W. Tebbe, D.J. Wyatt, W.P. Weiss
The interaction of monensin and 2 supplemental Mg sources (MgO and MgSO4) on total-tract digestion of minerals and organic nutrients and milk production was evaluated in lactating dairy cattle. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows (139 ± 35 DIM) were used in a split-plot experiment with 0 or 14 mg/kg diet DM of monensin as the whole-plot treatments and Mg source as split-plot treatments. During the entire experiment (42 d), cows remained on the same monensin treatment but received a different Mg source in each period (21 d) of the Latin square. Diets were formulated to contain 0.35% Mg with about 40% of that provided by MgO or MgSO4. Diets were formulated to have similar concentrations of major nutrients and K concentrations were elevated (2.1% of DM) with K2CO3 to create antagonism to Mg absorption. Apparent digestibility was measured by total collection of urine and feces. Supplemental MgSO4 decreased DMI (26.9 vs. 25.7 kg/d) and tended to decrease milk yield (40.2 vs. 39.3 kg/d), but increased the digestibility of OM (68.3 vs. 69.2%) and starch (91.9 vs. 94.4%) compared with MgO. Feeding MgSO4 with monensin decreased NDF digestibility compared with other treatments (46.7 vs. 50.2%). That diet also had decreased apparent absorption of Mg compared with diets without monensin (15.6 vs. 19.2%), whereas MgO with monensin had greater apparent absorption of Mg (23.0%) than other treatments. Cows consuming MgSO4 had increased apparent Ca absorption (32.2 vs. 28.1%) and balance. A diet with MgSO4 without monensin increased the concentration of long-chain fatty acids in milk, suggesting increased mobilization of body fat or decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland. Overall, when dietary Mg was similar, MgO was the superior Mg source for lactating dairy cattle, but inclusion of monensin in diets should be considered when evaluating Mg sources.
Technical note: Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict fecal indigestible neutral detergent fiber for dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.474) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 N. Brogna, A. Palmonari, G. Canestrari, L. Mammi, A. Dal Prà, A. Formigoni
In vitro and in situ procedures performed to estimate indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) in forage or fecal samples are time consuming, costly, and limited by intrinsic factors. In contrast, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become widely recognized as a valuable tool for accurately determining chemical composition and digestibility parameters of forages. The aim of this study was to build NIRS calibrations and equations for fecal iNDF. In total, 1,281 fecal samples were collected to build a calibration data set, but only 301 were used to develop equations. Once dried, samples were ground and chemically analyzed for crude protein, ash, amylase and sodium sulfite–treated NDF corrected for ash residue (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and in vitro digestion at 240 h to estimate iNDF (uNDF240). Each fecal sample was scanned using a NIRSystem 6500 instrument (Perstorp Analytical Inc., Silver Spring, MD). Spectra selection was performed, resulting in 301 sample spectra used to develop regression equations with good accuracy and low standard error of prediction. The standard error of calibration (SEC), cross validation (SECV), and coefficients of determination for calibration (R2) and for cross validation (1 − VR, where VR = variance ratio) were used to evaluate calibration and validation results. Moreover, the ratio performance deviation (RPD) and ratio of the range of the original data to SECV (range/SECV; range error ratio, RER) were also used to evaluate calibration and equation performance. Calibration data obtained on fiber fractions aNDFom (R2 = 0.92, 1 − VR = 0.87, SEC = 1.48, SECV = 1.89, RPD = 2.80, and RER = 20.19), uNDF240 (R2 = 0.92, 1 − VR = 0.86, SEC = 1.65, SECV = 2.24, RPD = 2.57, and RER = 14.30), and in vitro rumen aNDFom digestibility at 240 h (R2 = 0.90, 1 − VR = 0.85, SEC = 2.68, SECV = 3.43, RPD = 2.53, and RER = 14.0) indicated the predictive equations had good predictive value.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Acc. Chem. Res.
- ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
- ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.
- ACS Catal.
- ACS Cent. Sci.
- ACS Chem. Biol.
- ACS Chem. Neurosci.
- ACS Comb. Sci.
- ACS Earth Space Chem.
- ACS Energy Lett.
- ACS Infect. Dis.
- ACS Macro Lett.
- ACS Med. Chem. Lett.
- ACS Nano
- ACS Omega
- ACS Photonics
- ACS Sens.
- ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
- ACS Synth. Biol.
- Acta Biomater.
- Acta Mater.
- Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Adv. Electron. Mater.
- Adv. Energy Mater.
- Adv. Funct. Mater.
- Adv. Healthcare Mater.
- Adv. Mater.
- Adv. Mater. Interfaces
- Adv. Opt. Mater.
- Adv. Sci.
- Adv. Synth. Catal.
- AlChE J.
- Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
- Anal. Chem.
- Anal. Chim. Acta
- Anal. Methods
- Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
- Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.
- Annu. Rev. Biochem.
- Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol.
- Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.
- Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
- Appl. Catal. A Gen.
- Appl. Catal. B Environ.
- Appl. Clay. Sci.
- Appl. Energy
- Aquat. Toxicol.
- Arab. J. Chem.
- Asian J. Org. Chem.
- Atmos. Environ.
- Carbohydr. Polym.
- Catal. Commun.
- Catal. Sci. Technol.
- Catal. Today
- Cell Chem. Bio.
- Cem. Concr. Res.
- Ceram. Int.
- Chem. Asian J.
- Chem. Bio. Drug Des.
- Chem. Biol. Interact.
- Chem. Commun.
- Chem. Educ. Res. Pract.
- Chem. Eng. J.
- Chem. Eng. Sci.
- Chem. Eur. J.
- Chem. Mater.
- Chem. Phys.
- Chem. Phys. Lett.
- Chem. Phys. Lipids
- Chem. Rev.
- Chem. Sci.
- Chem. Soc. Rev.
- Combust. Flame
- Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf.
- Compos. Sci. Technol.
- Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf.
- Comput. Chem. Eng.
- Constr. Build. Mater.
- Coordin. Chem. Rev.
- Corros. Sci.
- Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.
- Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Cryst. Growth Des.
- Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng.
- Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain
- Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Ecotox. Environ. Safe.
- Electrochem. Commun.
- Electrochim. Acta
- Energy Environ. Sci.
- Energy Fuels
- Environ. Impact Assess. Rev.
- Environ. Int.
- Environ. Model. Softw.
- Environ. Pollut.
- Environ. Res.
- Environ. Sci. Policy
- Environ. Sci. Technol.
- Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett.
- Environ. Sci.: Nano
- Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts
- Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol.
- Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.
- Eur. J. Med. Chem.
- Eur. J. Org. Chem.
- Eur. Polym. J.
- J. Acad. Nutr. Diet.
- J. Agric. Food Chem.
- J. Alloys Compd.
- J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Am. Chem. Soc.
- J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
- J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol.
- J. Anal. At. Spectrom.
- J. Antibiot.
- J. Catal.
- J. Chem. Educ.
- J. Chem. Eng. Data
- J. Chem. Inf. Model.
- J. Chem. Phys.
- J. Chem. Theory Comput.
- J. Chromatogr. A
- J. Chromatogr. B
- J. Clean. Prod.
- J. CO2 UTIL.
- J. Colloid Interface Sci.
- J. Comput. Chem.
- J. Cryst. Growth
- J. Dairy Sci.
- J. Electroanal. Chem.
- J. Electrochem. Soc.
- J. Environ. Manage.
- J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Fluorine Chem.
- J. Food Drug Anal.
- J. Food Eng.
- J. Food Sci.
- J. Funct. Foods
- J. Hazard. Mater.
- J. Hydrol.
- J. Ind. Eng. Chem.
- J. Inorg. Biochem.
- J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
- J. Mater. Chem. A
- J. Mater. Chem. B
- J. Mater. Chem. C
- J. Mater. Process. Tech.
- J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
- J. Med. Chem.
- J. Membr. Sci.
- J. Mol. Catal. A Chem.
- J. Mol. Liq.
- J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
- J. Nat. Prod.
- J. Nucl. Mater.
- J. Org. Chem.
- J. Photochem. Photobiol. C Photochem. Rev.
- J. Phys. Chem. A
- J. Phys. Chem. B
- J. Phys. Chem. C
- J. Phys. Chem. Lett.
- J. Porphyr. Phthalocyanines
- J. Power Sources
- J. Solid State Chem.
- J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E.
- Macromol. Rapid Commun.
- Mass Spectrom. Rev.
- Mater. Chem. Front.
- Mater. Des.
- Mater. Horiz.
- Mater. Lett.
- Mater. Sci. Eng. A
- Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep.
- Mater. Today
- Meat Sci.
- Med. Chem. Commun.
- Microchem. J.
- Microchim. Acta
- Micropor. Mesopor. Mater.
- Mol. Biosyst.
- Mol. Cancer Ther.
- Mol. Catal.
- Mol. Nutr. Food Res.
- Mol. Pharmaceutics
- Mol. Syst. Des. Eng.
- Nano Energy
- Nano Lett.
- Nano Res.
- Nano Today
- Nano-Micro Lett.
- Nanoscale Horiz.
- Nat. Catal.
- Nat. Chem.
- Nat. Chem. Biol.
- Nat. Commun.
- Nat. Energy
- Nat. Mater.
- Nat. Med.
- Nat. Methods
- Nat. Nanotech.
- Nat. Photon.
- Nat. Prod. Rep.
- Nat. Protoc.
- Nat. Rev. Chem.
- Nat. Rev. Drug. Disc.
- Nat. Rev. Mater.
- Neurochem. Int.
- New J. Chem.
- NPG Asia Mater.
- npj 2D Mater. Appl.
- npj Comput. Mater.
- npj Flex. Electron.
- npj Mater. Degrad.
- npj Sci. Food
- Pharmacol. Rev.
- Pharmacol. Therapeut.
- Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
- Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
- Phys. Life Rev.
- PLOS ONE
- Polym. Chem.
- Polym. Degrad. Stabil.
- Polym. J.
- Polym. Rev.
- Powder Technol.
- Proc. Combust. Inst.
- Prog. Cryst. Growth Ch. Mater.
- Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
- Prog. Mater. Sci.
- Prog. Photovoltaics
- Prog. Polym. Sci.
- Prog. Solid State Chem.