Metabolic effects in mice of cream processing: Direct ultra-high-temperature process lowers high-fat-induced adipose tissue inflammation J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 M. Milard, F. Laugerette, S. Bugeat, P. Plaisancié, M. Létisse, E. Meugnier, E. Loizon, A. Durand, C. Buisson, A. Géloën, S. Serieye, M-C. Michalski
Although UHT heat treatment is being optimized to improve the stability and functional properties of dairy products, its metabolic effects remain scarcely known. As such, we studied the effect of the type of UHT process on lipid metabolism, intestinal barrier, and inflammation in mice. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a diet composed of nonlipidic powder mixed with different UHT dairy creams (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk. All creams contained 0.02% of thickener (carrageenan) and were treated via either (1) classical indirect heating process (Th), (2) indirect process at higher temperature (Th+), or (3) direct process by steam injection (ThD). Plasma, epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), and intestine were analyzed. Multivariate principal component analyses were used to identify differential effects of processes. Th+ differed by a globally higher liver damage score compared with that of the other creams. After 4 wk, the duodenal expression of lipid absorption genes fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fatp4) and microsomal triglycerides transfer protein (Mttp) was lower in the Th+ versus Th group. Expression in the colon of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (Zo-1) and of some endoplasmic reticulum stress markers was lower in both Th+ and ThD versus the Th group. In EAT, ThD had lower gene expression of several inflammatory markers after 4 wk. Some differential effects may be related to heat-induced physicochemical changes of creams. The type of cream UHT process differentially affected metabolic parameters in mice after a 4-wk fat-rich diet, partly due to cream structure. Altogether, direct steam injection process induced the lowest early markers of high-fat-induced metabolic inflammation in EAT.
Silver nanoparticles: A novel antibacterial agent for control of Cronobacter sakazakii J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Hui Wang, Yujun Jiang, Yashuo Zhang, Ziwei Zhang, Xinyan Yang, Md. Aslam Ali, Edward M. Fox, Kari S. Gobius, Chaoxin Man
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been widely applied because of their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little research has been done to evaluate their effects on Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen usually infecting infants and having a high fatality rate. The aims of this work were to investigate the antibacterial property of novel, synthesized, positively charged silver nanoparticles against C. sakazakii and to discuss the potential antibacterial mechanisms involved. In this study, the spherical and face-centered cubic silver nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 31.2 nm and were synthesized by reducing Ag+ using citrate and dispersed by glycerol and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) under alkaline conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and inhibition zone tests showed that the AgNP exhibited strong antibacterial activity against 4 tested C. sakazakii strains with mean MIC of 62.5 to 125 mg/L and average inhibition zone diameters of 13.8 to 16.3 mm. Silver nanoparticles caused cell membrane injury accompanied by adsorption of AgNP onto the cell surface, as shown by changes in cell morphology, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and accelerated leakage of intracellular reducing sugars and proteins outward from the cytoplasm. In addition, dysfunction of the respiratory chain was induced after treatment with AgNP, which was supported by a decrease in intracellular ATP and inhibition of related dehydrogenases. This research indicates that AgNP could be a novel and efficient antibacterial agent to control C. sakazakii contamination in environments producing powdered infant formulas from milk.
Application of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring changes in milk protein concentrate powders during storage J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 K.S. Babu, J.K. Amamcharla
This study investigated the feasibility of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) to predict the solubility index and relative dissolution index (RDI) of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders during storage. Twenty MPC powders with varying protein contents from 4 different commercial manufacturers were used in this study. The MPC powders were stored at 2 temperatures (25 and 40°C) for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk. The front-face fluorescence spectra of tryptophan and Maillard products were recorded and analyzed with chemometrics to predict solubility of MPC powders. The similarity maps showed clear discrimination of the MPC samples stored at 25 and 40°C. Partial least squares regression models were developed using the fluorescence spectra of tryptophan and Maillard products to predict the solubility index and RDI measurements of MPC powders, and the prediction models were validated using an independent test set. Coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.76, 0.84, and 0.68 were obtained between fluorescence spectra (tryptophan emission, Maillard emission, and Maillard excitation, respectively) and solubility index. The R2 values for the RDI predictions were 0.58 and 0.60 for the data set of tryptophan emission and Maillard emission, respectively. The ratio of prediction error to standard deviation was >2 for Maillard emission fluorescence spectra and solubility index measurements, indicating good practical utility of the partial least squares regression prediction models. The results indicated that the solubility and dissolution behavior of MPC powders were related to their protein content and storage conditions that could be measured using FFFS. Hence, FFFS can be used as a rapid nondestructive analytical technique to predict the solubility and dissolution characteristics of MPC powders.
Simulating consequences of choosing a breeding goal for organic dairy production J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 M. Slagboom, A. Wallenbeck, L. Hjortø, A.C. Sørensen, L. Rydhmer, J.R. Thomasen, M. Kargo
In Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, the Nordic Total Merit index is used as the breeding selection tool for both organic and conventional dairy farmers based on common economic models for conventional dairy farming. Organic farming is based on the principles of organic agriculture (POA) defined by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. These principles are not set up with an economic point of view, and therefore it may be questionable to use a breeding goal (BG) for organic dairy production based on economic models. In addition to economics and the principles of organic agriculture, it is important to look at farmers' preferences for improving BG traits when setting up a BG for organic farming. The aim of this research was to set up, simulate, and compare long-term effects of different BG for organic and conventional dairy production systems based on economic models, farmers' preferences, and POA, with particular emphasis on disease resistance or on roughage consumption and feed efficiency. The BG based on economic models and on farmers' preferences were taken from previous studies. The other BG were desired gains indices, set up by means of a questionnaire about relatedness between the POA and BG traits. Each BG was simulated in the stochastic simulation program ADAM. The BG based on POA, with particular emphasis on disease resistance or on roughage consumption and feed efficiency, caused favorable genetic gain in all 12 traits included in this study compared with 6 traits for the other BG. The BG based on POA, with particular emphasis on disease resistance or on roughage consumption and feed efficiency, were very different from BG for organic and conventional production based on economic models and farmers' preferences in both simulated genetic change and correlations between BG. The BG that was created based on the principles of organic agriculture could be used as a specific index for organic dairy farming in Denmark, but this index was economically not very sustainable. Hence, an intermediate breeding goal could be developed by breeding companies to address both economics and the principles of organic agriculture.
Assessment of selenium bioaccumulation in lactic acid bacteria J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Ana Paula Mörschbächer, Anja Dullius, Carlos Henrique Dullius, Cassiano Ricardo Bandt, Daniel Kuhn, Débora Tairini Brietzke, Fernando José Malmann Kuffel, Henrique Pretto Etgeton, Taciélen Altmayer, Tamara Engelmann Gonçalves, Ytan Andreine Schweizer, Eliézer Quadro Oreste, Anderson Schwingel Ribeiro, Daniel Neutzling Lehn, Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza, Lucélia Hoehne
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for living beings, as it helps to maintain the normal physiological functions of the organism. The numerous discoveries involving the importance of this element to the health of human beings have fostered interest in research to develop enriched and functional foods. The present study evaluated the potential for bacterial strains of Enterococcus faecalis (CH121 and CH124), Lactobacillus parabuchneri (ML4), Lactobacillus paracasei (ML13, ML33, CH135, and CH139), and Lactobacillus plantarum (CH131) to bioaccumulate Se in their biomass by adding different concentrations of sodium selenite (30 to 200 mg/L) to the culture medium. Quantification of Se with UV and visible molecular absorption spectroscopy showed that the investigated bacteria were able to bioaccumulate this micromineral into their biomass. Two of the L. paracasei strains (ML13 and CH135) bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations (38.1 ± 1.7 mg/g and 40.7 ± 1.1 mg/g, respectively) after culture in the presence of 150 mg/L of Se. This bioaccumulation potential has applications in the development of dairy products and may be an alternative Se source in the diets of humans and other animals.
Aluminosilicate clay improves production responses and reduces inflammation during an aflatoxin challenge in lactating Holstein cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 R.T. Pate, D.M. Paulus Compart, F.C. Cardoso
Mitigation strategies are vital in minimizing the health and economic risks associated with dairy cattle exposure to aflatoxin (AF). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a commercially available aluminosilicate clay in a lactation diet on production responses, blood chemistry, and liver inflammatory markers of multiparous lactating Holstein cows during an AF challenge. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 758 ± 76 kg; days in milk = 157 ± 43 d] were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods: no adsorbent and no AF challenge (CON), no adsorbent and an AF challenge (POS), 113 g of aluminosilicate clay top-dressed on the total mixed ration (adsorbent; FloMatrix, PMI Nutritional Additives, Arden Hills, MN) with an AF challenge (F4), or 227 g of adsorbent with an AF challenge (F8). The challenge consisted of 100 μg of AFB1/kg of dietary dry matter intake administered orally. For each period, milk was sampled 3× daily from d 14 to 21; blood, feces, and urine were sampled on d 14, 18, and 21; and liver samples were taken on d 18. Liver tissue was assessed for gene expression and histological hepatocyte inflammation. Statistical analysis was preformed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Fat-corrected milk (POS = 37.2, F4 = 39.2, and F8 = 38.9 kg/d) increased as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased. There was a decrease in milk AFM1 concentration at d 18 as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased (POS = 0.33, F4 = 0.32, and F8 = 0.27 µg/kg). There was a decrease in AFM1 concentration in urine (POS = 2.10, F4 = 1.89, and F8 = 1.78 µg/kg) and AFB1 concentration in feces (POS = 4.68, F4 = 3.44, and F8 = 3.17 µg/kg) as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased. Cows in CON had greater concentrations of serum cholesterol (202 mg/dL) and plasma superoxide dismutase (2.8 U/mL) compared with cows in POS (196 mg/dL and 2.6 U/mL, respectively). Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase increased as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased (POS = 37.8, F4 = 39.3, and F8 = 39.1 U/L). The expression of NFKB1 was greater in the liver of cows in POS (0.78) compared with cows in CON (0.70). The expression of MTOR was greater in the liver of cows in CON (1.19) compared with cows in POS (0.96). When compared with cows in CON, cows in POS had greater odds ratio for hepatocyte inflammation (odds ratio = 5.14). In conclusion, the adsorbent used in this study had a positive effect on milk production and hepatocyte inflammation and reduced AF transfer.
Impaired hepatic autophagic activity in dairy cows with severe fatty liver is associated with inflammation and reduced liver function J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Xiliang Du, Guowen Liu, Juan J. Loor, Zhiyuan Fang, Ryan Bucktrout, Yuchen Yang, Qianqian Ye, Zhen Shi, Taiyu Shen, Xinghui Wang, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Bin Lv, Dongmei Xing, Yiwei Zhu, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li
The ability of liver to respond to changes in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Autophagy encompasses mechanisms of cell survival, including capturing, degrading, and recycling of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. During negative nutrient status, autophagy provides substrates to sustain cellular metabolism and hence, tissue function. Severe negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with fatty liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic autophagy status in dairy cows with severe fatty liver and to determine associations with biomarkers of liver function and inflammation. Liver and blood samples were collected from multiparous cows diagnosed as clinically healthy (n = 15) or with severe fatty liver (n = 15) at 3 to 9 d in milk. Liver tissue was biopsied by needle puncture, and serum samples were collected on 3 consecutive days via jugular venipuncture. Concentrations of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were greater in cows with severe fatty liver. Milk production, dry matter intake, and concentration of glucose were all lower in cows with severe fatty liver. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and γ-glutamyl transferase were all greater in cows with severe fatty liver. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A were also markedly greater in cows with severe fatty liver. The mRNA expression of autophagosome formation-related gene ULK1 was lower in the liver of dairy cows with severe fatty liver. However, the expression of other autophagosome formation-related genes, beclin 1 (BECN1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 (PIK3C3), autophagy-related gene (ATG) 3, ATG5, and ATG12, did not differ. More important, ubiquitinated proteins, protein expression of sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1, also called p62), and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3, also called LC3)-II was greater in cows with severe fatty liver. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an increased number of autophagosomes in the liver of dairy cows with severe fatty liver. Taken together, these results indicate that excessive lipid infiltration of the liver impairs autophagic activity that may lead to cellular damage and inflammation.
Distribution of hydrophilic and lipophilic antibacterial drugs in skim milk, cream, and casein J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Z. Ozdemir, B. Tras, K. Uney
This study determined the distribution of drugs to different milk fractions according to their physicochemical properties. Hydrophilic drugs tend to concentrate in skim milk, whereas lipophilic drugs tend to concentrate in cream. The concentration of a drug in casein is related to its degree of binding to milk proteins. Thus, we aimed to determine whether withdrawal time in whole milk differs from that in cream, casein, and skim milk. Amoxicillin and tylosin were selected as prototype hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, respectively. The study was conducted in vitro and in vivo to determine whether in vitro conditions reflect the distribution of drugs in the different milk fractions in vivo. The in vivo study was conducted using a crossover design on 6 healthy Holstein dairy cattle. First, amoxicillin (i.m., single dose, 14 mg/kg) was administered to cows. Following a 1-wk washout period, tylosin (i.m., single dose, 15 mg/kg) was administered. Concentrations of amoxicillin and tylosin in milk and milk fractions were measured using HPLC-UV. In the in vitro study, 0.04 to 400 μg/g of amoxicillin and 0.05 to 50 μg/g of tylosin were spiked to drug-free milk and the concentrations in milk and milk fractions were measured. In addition, the percentage of total protein in milk and milk fractions was determined. Amoxicillin accumulated more in skim milk than in cream and casein, both in vitro (92%) and in vivo (73%, skim milk-to-whole milk ratio). The distribution of tylosin in whole and skim milk was similar to that of amoxicillin in the in vitro study, in contrast to the accumulation of tylosin in cream seen in vivo. However, the accumulation ratio of tylosin in cream was lower than expected. By either method, tylosin was less concentrated in casein than in skim milk and cream. The percentage of total protein was similar in skim milk and whole milk and higher than in cream. Thus, amoxicillin accumulates less in cream and casein, suggesting that these fractions would pose a lower risk to the consumer. Tylosin was still present at the maximum residue limit (50 μg/kg) 24 h after injection in the casein fraction and 48 h after injection in the cream fraction.
Multivariate analysis of the milk coagulation process in ovine breeds from Spain J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 J. Caballero-Villalobos, A. Figueroa, K. Xibrraku, E. Angón, J.M. Perea, A. Garzón
In Spain, ewe milk is mainly used for cheesemaking, and farming systems have traditionally been based on the use of autochthonous breeds. However, in recent years, the progressive introduction of highly productive foreign breeds in Spanish farms has led to an increasing interest in the characterization of dairy sheep breeds to evaluate whether genetic selection schemes should focus on productivity or milk technological aptitude. The purpose of this work was to explore milk composition and coagulation to classify 4 of the main dairy sheep breeds used in Spain. This study included 832 individual ewe milk samples from the breeds Manchega, Assaf, Merino de Grazalema, and Merino de Los Pedroches. Samples were analyzed for native pH, composition (fat, protein, lactose, and total solids), coagulation properties, and individual laboratory curd yield. An indicator of coagulation efficiency was also determined. Canonical discriminant analysis was performed to establish differences and similarities among breeds based on the measured variables. In addition, cluster analysis was performed to study and quantify the concrete relationships among the discriminated groups. Discriminant analysis proved to be a powerful tool to accurately draw distinctions between breeds. In all cases, discrimination among breeds was evident and the 4 breeds could be easily differentiated. Cluster analysis showed greater similarity between Merino de Grazalema and Assaf compared with the other breeds, and F-statistics indicated a higher discriminating ability for the variables related to milk composition. However, Merino de Grazalema and Manchega were difficult to separate according to milk composition, but the coagulation process differenced them clearly. Coagulation also evidenced similarities between Manchega and Merino de Los Pedroches, although the latter was revealed to be the most different breed of all 4, which could lay the ground for its differentiation as an independent breed in the Official Catalogue of Spanish Livestock Breeds.
Effects of pegbovigrastim administration on periparturient diseases, milk production, and reproductive performance of Holstein cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 M. Zinicola, H. Korzec, A.G.V. Teixeira, E.K. Ganda, L. Bringhenti, A.C.C.H. Tomazi, R.O. Gilbert, R.C. Bicalho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treating Holstein cows with pegbovigrastim on periparturient diseases, milk production, and reproductive performance while exploring the mode of action of an immunomodulatory protein. Cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments, untreated control (CTR, n = 423) and pegbovigrastim (PEG, n = 417). At 7 d from the anticipated calving date (d −7), cows allocated to PEG received a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg of pegylated recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (pegbovigrastim injection, Imrestor, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). A second injection was administered within 24 h after calving (d 0). Blood samples were obtained from a subset of cows (CTR, n = 103; PEG, n = 102) at −7 and 0, 3, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. Samples were used for hemogram and quantification of haptoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and trace and macro minerals. Vaginal cytobrush was performed on the same subset cows at d 0, 7, and 14 to assess the relative neutrophil count. Additionally, colostrum samples were collected to measure IgG, IgM, IgA, and lactoferrin concentrations. Postpartum disease occurrence was recorded from calving until 30 d in milk (DIM). Weekly milk yield was recorded for the first 12 wk after calving. Cows treated with PEG had a 3- to 4-fold increase in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte numbers, with a peak at 3 d after treatment followed by a gradual decline, but the counts remained significantly greater compared with CTR at 14 DIM. The administration of PEG did not affect the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, retained fetal membranes, metritis, puerperal metritis, and endometritis. Primiparous cows treated with PEG tended to have lower odds of developing hyperketonemia than CTR [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23 to 1.42]. Cows treated with PEG had higher odds of being diagnosed with lameness within 30 DIM compared with CTR (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.76); however, we found no significant differences by 60 DIM. Treatment with PEG increased the odds of displaced abomasum (OR = 8.27, 95% CI = 1.02 to 66.6). Cows treated with PEG had higher odds of being diagnosed with 1 or more clinical diseases compared with CTR cows (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.90). We observed no differences in linear scores or milk composition between treatments. Furthermore, primiparous cows treated with PEG produced more milk than CTR primiparous cows during the first 12 wk postpartum (PEG = 37.51 ± 0.66; CTR = 35.91 ± 0.65 kg), but no differences were observed on energy-corrected milk. Treatment did not alter reproductive performance; additionally, cows diagnosed with metritis or puerperal metritis and treated with PEG tended to have higher proportion of neutrophils in the vaginal mucosa when compared with CTR metritic cows. Although PEG treatment increased circulating polymorphonuclear leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte numbers, as expected, it was detrimental to cow health because it increased morbidity.
Short-term methane emissions from 2 dairy farms in California estimated by different measurement techniques and US Environmental Protection Agency inventory methodology: A case study J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 C. Arndt, A.B. Leytem, A.N. Hristov, D. Zavala-Araiza, J.P. Cativiela, S. Conley, C. Daube, I. Faloona, S.C. Herndon
The effects of source and concentration of dietary fiber, starch, and fatty acids on the daily patterns of feed intake, rumination, and rumen pH in dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 I.J. Salfer, M.C. Morelli, Y. Ying, M.S. Allen, K.J. Harvatine
The daily patterns of feed intake and rumination influence rumen fermentation, rumen pH, and timing of absorbed nutrients in the dairy cow, but the effects of diet composition on these patterns are not well characterized. Data from 3 previously published experiments were examined to determine the influence of dietary starch, fiber, and fatty acids (FA) on daily patterns of intake, rumination, and rumen pH. Dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were investigated in 2 experiments, each with duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square designs with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in cows fed cows 1×/d at 1200 and 1400 h, respectively. To investigate fiber content and digestibility in the first experiment, brown midrib or isogenic conventional corn silage were fed in low- and high-NDF diets (29 and 38%, respectively). To investigate starch source and concentration in the second experiment, ground high-moisture corn or dry ground corn were fed in low- and high-starch diets (21 and 32%, respectively). Effect of fat concentration and saturation was investigated in the third experiment using a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design that fed cows 1×/d at 0900 h; treatments included a control diet with no added fat and 2.5% added saturated FA, unsaturated FA, or a mixture of the saturated and unsaturated FA. In the first 2 experiments, intake followed a similar daily pattern regardless of starch and NDF concentration or digestibility. Rumination displayed a treatment by time interaction for both NDF and starch concentration, with high-fiber, low-starch diets causing greater rumination overnight but not midday. High-starch diets decreased total daily rumen pH equally across the day, but did not change the daily pattern. Type of corn silage did not affect the daily patterns of rumination or rumen pH, but pH was reduced throughout the day in brown midrib diets. In the third experiment, no interactions between fatty acid supplement and time of day were observed for intake, rumination, or rumen pH. Within all experiments, rumination fit or tended to fit a 24-h rhythm regardless of diet, with the amplitude of the rumination being reduced in low-starch diets and diets containing saturated FA or a mixture of saturated and unsaturated FA. Overall, intake, rumination, and rumen pH follow a daily pattern that was minimally modified by dietary fiber and starch type and level or fat level and fatty acid profile.
Genetic analysis of subclinical mastitis in early lactation of heifers using both linear and threshold models J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Saranya G. Narayana, Filippo Miglior, S.Ali Naqvi, Francesca Malchiodi, Pauline Martin, Herman W. Barkema
Subclinical mastitis (SCM) causes economic losses for dairy producers by reducing milk production and leading to higher incidence of clinical mastitis and premature culling. The prevalence of SCM in first-lactation heifers is highest during early lactation. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for SCM in early lactation in first-parity Holsteins. Somatic cell count test-day records were collected monthly in 91 Canadian herds participating in the National Cohort of Dairy Farms of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Only the first test-day record available between 5 and 30 d in milk was considered for analysis. The final data set contained 8,518 records from first lactation Holstein heifers. Six alternative traits were defined as indicators of SCM, using various cutoff values of SCC, ranging from 150,000 to 400,000 cells/mL. Both linear and threshold animal models were used. Overall prevalence of SCM using the 6 traits ranged from 13 to 24%. Heritability estimates (standard error) from linear and threshold models ranged from 0.037 to 0.057 (0.015 to 0.018) and from 0.040 to 0.051 (0.017 to 0.020), respectively. We found strong genetic correlations (standard error) among alternative SCC traits, ranging from 0.90 to 0.99 (0.013 to 0.069), indicating that these 6 traits were genetically similar. Despite low heritability, based on estimated breeding values (EBV) predicted from both models, we noted exploitable genetic variation among sires. Higher EBV of SCM resistance corresponded to sires with a higher percentage of daughters without SCM. Based on a linear model (all 6 traits), percentage of daughters with SCM ranged from 5 to 13% and from 19 to 33% for the top 10% and worst 10% of 69 sires with minimum 20 daughters in at least 5 herds, respectively. Spearman's rank correlations among EBV of sires predicted from linear (from 0.75 to 0.95) and threshold (from 0.74 to 0.95) models were moderate to high, respectively. Very high rank correlations (0.98 to 0.99) between EBV predicted for the same trait from linear and threshold model indicated that reranking of sires based on model used was minimal. In conclusion, despite low heritability, we found utilizable genetic variation in early lactation of heifers. Hence, genetic selection to improve genetic resistance to SCM in early lactation of heifers was deemed possible.
Estimation of intrachromosomal inbreeding depression on female fertility using runs of homozygosity in Finnish Ayrshire cattle J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 K. Martikainen, A. Sironen, P. Uimari
Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which in turn increases the frequency of harmful recessive alleles, resulting in inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression on fertility reduces the profitability of dairy farming by decreasing the lifetime milk production of cows and by increasing insemination and veterinary costs. Continuous homozygous segments, called runs of homozygosity (ROH), are currently considered to provide an effective measure of genomic inbreeding. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of increased intrachromosomal homozygosity for female fertility in the Finnish Ayrshire population using ROH and haplotype analysis. Genotypes were obtained from 13,712 females with the Illumina BovineLD v.2 BeadChip low-density panel (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and imputed to 50K density. After quality control, 40,554 single nucleotide polymorphisms remained for the analysis. Phenotypic data consisted of records for nonreturn rate, intervals from first to last insemination (IFL), and intervals from calving to first insemination. The raw phenotypic values were preadjusted for systematic effects before statistical analyses. The ROH-based inbreeding coefficients (FROH) were used as covariates in the mixed model equation to estimate the association between inbreeding and inbreeding depression on female fertility. First, we estimated the effect of increased chromosomal FROH. We detected significant inbreeding depression on IFL. Based on our results, a 10% increase in FROH on chromosomes 2, 18, and 22 were associated with IFL of heifers lengthening by 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 d, respectively. Similarly, a 10% increase in FROH on chromosome 15 was associated with IFL of second-parity cows increasing by 2.3 d. Next, we located the regions within the chromosomes showing inbreeding depression. Our analysis revealed regions near the beginning of chromosome 2 and toward the ends of chromosomes 15, 18, and 22 that were associated with inbreeding depression on IFL. Last, we performed a haplotype analysis for the detected regions. The most promising haplotypes of each region were associated with IFL of heifers increasing by 4.4, 3.2, and 4.1 d on chromosomes 2, 18, and 22, respectively. The haplotype on chromosome 15 associated with IFL of second-parity cows increasing by 7.6 d. Overall, the breeding program requires inbreeding control, as increased genomic inbreeding in our study was associated with reduced reproductive ability in Finnish Ayrshire cattle.
Metabolic effects in mice of cream formulation: Addition of both thickener and emulsifier does not alter lipid metabolism but modulates mucus cells and intestinal endoplasmic reticulum stress J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 M. Milard, F. Laugerette, S. Bugeat, P. Plaisancié, M. Létisse, E. Meugnier, E. Loizon, A. Durand, C. Buisson, A. Géloën, S. Serieye, M-C. Michalski
Additives stabilize or improve the organoleptic or functional properties (or both) of many dairy products including whipping cream. Their influence on the metabolic effect of dairy cream is scarcely known. We tested the hypothesis that added emulsifier (lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; MAG/DAG), thickener (carrageenan, CGN), or both, could modify the metabolic effect, notably in the intestine and liver. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed UHT cream (indirect treatment) mixed with nonlipidic powder (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk. We compared creams (1) without additive (Ctl), (2) with thickener (Th), 0.02% of κ-CGN, and (3) with both thickener and emulsifier, 0.1% of MAG/DAG esters (Th/Em). We analyzed plasma parameters, intestine, and liver. Fasting glycemia, insulinemia, triglyceridemia, nonesterified fatty acids, body weight gain, and liver weight did not differ among groups. After 1 wk, Th/Em had higher expression in the duodenum of some of the genes involved in (1) intestinal lipid absorption and (2) tight junction proteins versus Ctl and Th. After 4 wk, mucus cell number in the small intestine was higher in Th/Em versus Ctl and Th. Genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the duodenum were more expressed in Th/Em after 1 wk. After 4 wk, in the colon, a higher expression of ER stress genes was observed for Th versus Th/Em and Ctl. Liver damage score was not altered by additives. Adding both CGN (0.02%) and MAG/DAG esters (0.1%) in dairy cream did not result in deleterious outcomes in mice after 4 wk regarding lipid metabolism, intestinal permeability, and liver disorders. The longer term effect of intestinal ER stress modulation deserves further investigation.
Short communication: Bovine leukemia virus infection in adult cows does not interfere with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Juan Pablo Jaworski, Juan Manuel Sala, Alejandra Capozzo
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a widespread infection that can affect innate and adaptive immunity; however, little information exists on how BLV infection affects foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccination programs. Vaccination for FMDV is compulsory in many regions of the world, and vaccine efficacy is monitored by measuring total antibodies against this virus. In a previous study, we observed that BLV-infected heifers produced a lower amount of antibodies in response to FMDV at first vaccination. In this follow-up study, we show that BLV status does not interfere with the total level and avidity of anti-FMDV–specific antibodies induced after repetitive routine vaccination in adult cattle. This is relevant information for the proficiency of vaccine-based FMDV control programs in BLV-endemic regions.
Effects of fat inclusion in starter feeds for dairy calves by mixing increasing levels of a high-fat extruded pellet with a conventional highly fermentable pellet J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 H. Berends, M. Vidal, M. Terré, L.N. Leal, J. Martín-Tereso, A. Bach
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of an extruded high-fat pellet mixed with a conventional pelleted calf starter on energy intake and performance around weaning in calves. To this end, 75 female Holstein newborn calves (41.0 ± 4.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 iso-nitrogenous solid feed treatments consisting of 4 levels of fat inclusion by mixing a low-fat highly fermentable control pellet with 3 different levels of inclusion of an extruded high-fat pellet [control (100:0), 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30], and a high-fat single pellet (HFSP). The HFSP was equivalent iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous, although it had almost 1 percentage point difference in fat relative to the 80:20 treatment, to contrast the effect of the dual-component pellet mixture. The extruded high-fat starter feed contained a high proportion of fat (38%), mainly from hydrogenated palm fatty acids. Calves were offered a milk replacer up to 900 g/d, and then pre-weaned at 49 d of age by halving milk allowance until 56 d when calves were weaned. Calves had ad libitum access to the starter diets, chopped straw, and water. Individual milk replacer and starter intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed at 49 and 84 d of age to evaluate blood glucose homeostasis. Apparent total-tract digestibility was determined from 70 to 75 d of age. Calves on the 90:10 treatment had greatest starter feed intake mainly due to a marked increase in solid feed intake around weaning. Metabolizable energy intake was increased when the extruded pellet was included in the starter. No differences were present in digestibility of ether extract among solid feed treatments. The area under the curve of blood glucose concentration after the glucose tolerance test was greatest in 80:20; intermediate in 70:30, HFSP, and control; and lowest in 90:10 calves. No differences were observed for insulin or other parameters related to blood glucose homeostasis. Delivering dietary fat by mixing an extruded high-fat pellet with a conventional highly fermentable pellet to reach a total fat content of 7% results in increased starter intake, energy intake, and body weight gain until 84 d of age compared with a conventional low-fat pellet, or a single pellet with increased fat content.
Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infections in Canadian dairy herds J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Caroline S. Corbett, S.Ali Naqvi, Cathy A. Bauman, Jeroen De Buck, Karin Orsel, Fabienne Uehlinger, David F. Kelton, Herman W. Barkema
Johne's disease is a progressive, chronic disease with inflammation of the small intestine of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Accurately estimating prevalence of MAP infections is important when controlling spread of infection or monitoring effectiveness of control programs. In the absence of a consistent test method used in prevalence studies across Canada, prevalence estimates among regions and programs cannot be compared. The aim of the current study was to estimate and compare prevalence of MAP infection in Western Canada, Ontario, Québec, and the Atlantic provinces, as well as among varying herd sizes and housing types. On 362 dairy farms located in all 10 provinces of Canada, environmental samples were collected and cultured for detection of MAP. For each herd, 1 sample was collected from the lactating cow area and manure storage. An additional environmental sample was collected from the area where breeding-age heifers were housed. Using prior distributions from previous research, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess the ability of only 2 environmental samples (manure storage and lactating cow area) to identify MAP-positive farms, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 38 and 100%, respectively. We found no difference in sensitivity and specificity when including breeding-age heifers environmental samples. Test characteristics were applied to environmental culture results from the 362 participating farms in all 4 regions, resulting in true prevalence estimates of 66% for farms in Western Canada, 54% in Ontario, 24% in Québec, and 47% in Atlantic Canada. Herds housed in tiestalls had lower prevalence than freestall-housed herds, and herds with 101–150 and >151 cows had higher prevalence than herds with ≤100 cows. This was the first time MAP prevalence was determined using 1 detection method, performed in 1 laboratory, and within a single year across Canada, enabling direct comparisons of prevalence among regions, housing types, and herd sizes.
Enhancing the natural killer cell activity and anti-influenza effect of heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum nF1-fortified yogurt in mice J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Da Hyun Kim, Woo-Chang Chung, Su-hyun Chun, Ji Ho Han, Moon Jung Song, Kwang-Won Lee
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a global public health concern. It causes respiratory diseases ranging from mild illness to fatal disease. Natural killer (NK) cells are an innate immune component that kill infected cells and secrete cytokines to modulate the adaptive immune system; they constitute the first-line defense and play important roles in controlling IAV infection. This study evaluated the effect of daily administration of heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum nF1-fortified yogurt on immunity and protection against IAV infection. Mice administered with heat-treated L. plantarum nF1-fortified yogurt showed elevated NK cell-related cytokine expression levels. Daily administration of the L. plantarum nF1-fortified yogurt before IAV infection also enhanced splenic NK activity, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, and survival rate. Thus, daily administration of nF1-fortified yogurt enhances host immunity and helps prevent IAV infection.
Effects of overconditioning on pancreatic insulin secretory capacity, fat infiltration, and the number and size of islets in dairy cows at the end of the dry period J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 H. Bogaert, J. De Koster, W. Van den Broeck, M. Van Eetvelde, G. Opsomer
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that overconditioning in dairy cows at the end of the dry period leads to infiltration of fat and alterations of the insulin secretory capacity of the pancreas. Pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows were selected based on body condition score (BCS) at the start of the dry period. Body condition score varied between cows to have optimal conditioned (2.5 < BCS ≤3.5, n = 5) and overconditioned (3.5 < BCS ≤5, n = 5) cows. All animals underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) at an average of 260 d of gestation to measure the pancreatic insulin secretory capacity and assess peripheral insulin sensitivity regarding glucose metabolism. Eight days after the IVGTT, animals were slaughtered. The pancreas was dissected and weighed and tissue samples were taken for histological analysis. Results revealed that overconditioning in dairy cows led to fat infiltration in the pancreas and an increase in size of pancreatic islets expressed relative to the total area of pancreatic tissue. In addition, results revealed a positive correlation between serum fatty acid concentration and peak insulin concentration and area and number of pancreatic islets expressed relative to the total area of pancreatic tissue. The IVGTT revealed that overconditioned animals have a higher insulin secretory capacity of the pancreas, as demonstrated by higher peak insulin concentration, higher acute insulin response to glucose, and higher area under the curve (AUC) for insulin compared with optimal conditioned cows. A higher AUC for glucose during the first 60 min following administration of the glucose bolus in overconditioned cows indicates an insulin-resistant state regarding glucose metabolism. Our results suggest that the pancreas of overconditioned dairy cows at the end of gestation compensates for the concomitantly elevated level of peripheral insulin resistance by greater secretion of insulin.
Total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage improves milk fatty acid profile and antioxidant capacity of Holstein dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 M. Khosravi, Y. Rouzbehan, M. Rezaei, J. Rezaei
Total mixed rations containing corn silage (CS) or forage sorghum silage (SS) were fed to mid-lactation Holstein cows to determine the effects on feed intake, lactation performance, milk composition and fatty acid profile, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, rumen microbial N synthesis, and antioxidant status. The experiment was designed as a 2-period change-over (two 28-d periods) trial with 2 diets including CS diet or SS diet and 12 cows. Total replacement of CS with SS had no significant influence on dry matter intake. Substituting CS with SS had no effect on milk production, feed efficiency, and milk concentrations of fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat, whereas yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose were greater for cows fed the CS diet. Blood parameters including glucose, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, urea N, and fatty acids were not affected by the dietary treatments. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were not significantly influenced by the diets. Replacing CS with SS had no effect on total saturated fatty acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas total polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage was greater with the SS diet. Proportions of C20:0, C18:3n-3, and C18:3n-6 were affected by feeding SS. Cows fed CS had a greater amount of urinary purine derivatives. Feeding SS had a positive effect on total antioxidant capacity of blood and milk. In conclusion, SS can be fed to lactating Holstein cows as a total replacement for CS without undesirable effects on animal performance, but with positive effects on antioxidant capacity and polyunsaturated fatty acids of milk. This forage can be an excellent choice for dairy farms in areas where cultivation of corn is difficult due to water shortage.
Short communication: Teat-end shape and udder-level milking characteristics and their associations with machine milking-induced changes in teat tissue condition J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 M. Wieland, D.V. Nydam, N. Älveby, P. Wood, P.D. Virkler
Machine milking-induced changes in teat tissue condition, such as congestion and edema, have been associated with teat canal openness, penetrability, and thus susceptibility to new intramammary infections and diminished animal well-being. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association of teat-end shape and machine milking-induced short-term changes in teat tissue condition. Our secondary objective was to study the association of udder-level milking characteristics and short-term changes. Data from 125 Holstein cows were analyzed in a longitudinal prospective cohort study. Cows were housed in freestall pens with sand bedding, fed a total mixed ration, and milked 3 times per day. Teat-end shape was classified into 3 categories: pointed, flat, and round. Udder-level milking characteristics were obtained from electronic on-farm milk meters. Short-term changes in teat tissue condition after machine milking were assessed visually. Multivariable generalized mixed model analysis showed an association between teat-end shape and short-term changes. Compared with teats with round teat-end shape, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for short-term changes was 1.68 (0.53–5.31) and 0.03 (0.004–0.19) in teats with pointed and flat teat-end shape, respectively. There was an association between milking characteristics and short-term changes such that higher milk flow rate during the first 15 s of milking decreased the likelihood of short-term changes. The adjusted probability of short-term changes for a milking observation of a mid-lactation cow and an average first 15-s milk flow rate of 0.5 and 1.5 kg/min was 53.0% (42.8–63.8) and 32.9% (15.2–57.3), respectively. Our results suggest that teat-end shape may be one of the risk factors that contribute to machine milking-induced short-term changes. Milking characteristics (e.g., first 15-s milk flow rate) may have the potential as a measure to indirectly monitor teat tissue changes associated with machine milking on a daily basis, though further research is needed to validate this hypothesis and to establish thresholds that could serve as on-farm guidelines.
Associations between routinely collected Dairy Herd Improvement data and insemination outcome in UK dairy herds J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 C.D. Hudson, M.J. Green
Milk constituent concentrations in samples taken during early lactation are often used to generate proxy measures for energy balance in dairy herds. This study aimed to explore associations between these and other measures routinely recorded by Dairy Herd Improvement schemes and insemination outcome, with an emphasis on the likely predictiveness of such measures for conception risk (the proportion of inseminations that are successful) at herd level. Data from 312 UK dairy herds were restructured so that each unit of data represented an insemination at less than 100 d in milk (DIM). Milk constituent concentrations from the first and second test days (corrected for the effects of season and DIM at sampling) were used as potential predictors of insemination outcome in a logistic regression model. Other predictors included representations of milk yield and other information routinely collected by Dairy Herd Improvement Associations; random effects were used to account for clustering at cow and herd levels. The final model included a large number of predictors, with several interaction and nonlinear terms. The relative effect sizes of the measures of early lactation milk constituent concentrations were small. The full model predicted just under 64% of observed variation in herd-year conception risk (i.e., the proportion of inseminations that were successful in each herd in each calendar year); however, around 40% was accounted for by the herd-level random effect. The predictors based on early lactation milk constituent concentrations accounted for less than 0.5% of observed variation, and representations of milk yield (both overall level of yield and early lactation curve shape) accounted for around 7%; DIM at insemination, parity, interservice interval, year, and month accounted for the remaining 15%. These results suggest that early lactation milk constituent information is unlikely to predict herd conception risk to a useful extent. The large proportion of observed variation explained by the herd-level random effect suggests that there are unmeasured (in this study) or unmeasurable factors that are consistent within a herd and are highly influential in determining herd conception risk.
Genetic variation in serum protein pattern and blood β-hydroxybutyrate and their relationships with udder health traits, protein profile, and cheese-making properties in Holstein cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Alessio Cecchinato, Tania Bobbo, Pamela L. Ruegg, Luigi Gallo, Giovanni Bittante, Sara Pegolo
The aim of this study was to investigate in Holstein cows the genetic basis of blood serum metabolites [i.e., total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio (A:G), and blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)], a set of milk phenotypes related to udder health, milk quality technological characteristics, and genetic relationships among them. Samples of milk were collected from 498 Holstein cows belonging to 28 herds. All animal welfare and milk phenotypes were assessed using standard analytical methodology. A set of Bayesian univariate and bivariate animal models was implemented via Gibbs sampling, and statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters of concern. We observed a small additive genetic influence for serum albumin concentrations, moderate heritability (≥0.20) for total proteins, globulins, and A:G, and high heritability (0.37) for blood BHB. Udder health traits (somatic cell score, milk lactose, and milk pH) showed low or moderate heritabilities (0.15–0.20), whereas variations in milk protein fraction concentrations were confirmed as mostly under genetic control (heritability: 0.21–0.71). The moderate and high heritabilities observed for milk coagulation properties and curd firming modeling parameters provided confirmation that genetic background exerts a strong influence on the cheese-making ability of milk, largely due to genetic polymorphisms in the major milk protein genes. Blood BHB showed strong negative genetic correlations with globulins (−0.619) but positive correlations with serum albumin (0.629) and A:G (0.717), which suggests that alterations in the serum protein pattern and BHB blood levels are likely to be genetically related. Strong relationships were found between albumin and fat percentages (−0.894), between globulin and αS2-CN (−0.610), and, to a lesser extent, between serum protein pattern and milk technological characteristics. Genetic relationships between blood BHB and traits related to udder health and milk quality and technological characteristics were mostly weak. This study provides evidence that there is exploitable additive genetic variation for traits related to animal health and welfare and throws light on the shared genetic basis of these traits and the phenotypes related to the quality and cheese-making ability of milk.
Methionine and choline supply alter transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine pathways to different extents in isolated primary liver cells from dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Y.F. Zhou, Z. Zhou, F. Batistel, I. Martinez-Cortés, R.T. Pate, D.L. Luchini, J.J. Loor
Insufficient supply of Met and choline (Chol) around parturition could compromise hepatic metabolism and milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Mechanistic responses associated with supply of Met or Chol in primary liver cells enriched with hepatocytes (PHEP) from cows have not been thoroughly ascertained. Objectives were to isolate and culture PHEP to examine abundance of genes and proteins related to transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathways in response to Met or Chol. The PHEP were isolated from liver biopsies of Holstein cows (160 d in lactation). More than 90% of isolated cells stained positively for the hepatocyte marker cytokeratin 18. Cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) mRNA abundance was only detectable in the PHEP and liver tissue compared with mammary tissue. Furthermore, in response to exogenous Met (80 μM vs. control) PHEP secreted greater amounts of albumin and urea. Subsequently, PHEP were cultured with Met (40 μM) or Chol (80 mg/dL) for 24 h. Compared with control or Chol, mRNA and protein abundance of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase (PEMT) were greater in PHEP treated with Met. The mRNA abundance of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) was greater in Met-treated PHEP compared with control or Chol. Compared with control, greater expression of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), and choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) was observed in cells supplemented with Met and Chol. However, Chol led to the greatest mRNA abundance of CHDH. Abundance of choline kinase α (CHKA), choline kinase β (CHKB), phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 α (PCYT1A), and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1) in the CDP-choline pathway was greater in PHEP treated with Chol compared with control or Met. In the transsulfuration pathway, mRNA and protein abundance of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) was greater in PHEP treated with Met compared with control or Chol. Similarly, abundance of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) was greater in response to Met compared with control or Chol. Overall, these findings suggest that transmethylation and transsulfuration in dairy cow primary liver cells are more responsive to Met supply, whereas the CDP-choline pathway is more responsive to Chol supply. The relevance of these data in vivo merit further study.
Symposium review: Embryo survival—A genomic perspective of the other side of fertility J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 H. Khatib, N. Gross
The majority of embryonic loss in cattle occurs within the first 3 to 4 wk of pregnancy, and there are currently no accurate predictors of pregnancy outcome. Existing embryo quality assessment methods include morphological evaluation and embryo biopsy. These methods are not accurate and carry some health risks to the developing embryo, respectively. Therefore, there is need to identify noninvasive biomarkers such as microRNA that can predict embryo quality and pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, researchers need a better understanding of the dynamic interaction between the mother and the embryo. The transcriptome of the uterus shows plasticity that depends on the embryo type so that the expression level of some genes for in vivo embryos would be different from that of in vitro-produced embryos. Similarly, the embryonic transcriptome and epigenome change in response to different environmental factors such as stress, diet, disease, and physiological status of the mother. This embryo–mother crosstalk could be better understood by investigating the molecular signaling that occurs at different stages of embryonic development. Although transcriptomics is a useful tool to assess the roles of genes and pathways in embryo quality and maternal receptivity, it does not provide the exact functions of these genes, and it shows correlation rather than causality. Therefore, an in-depth functional genomic analysis is needed for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling embryo development. In this review, we discuss recent genomic technologies such as RNA interference, gapmer technology, and genome editing techniques used in humans and livestock to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of genes affecting embryo development.
Short communication: The effect of diarrhea and navel inflammation on the lying behavior of veal calves J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 M.J. Studds, L.L. Deikun, D.E. Sorter, J.A. Pempek, K.L. Proudfoot
Many veal calves arrive to growing facilities with diseases, including diarrhea and navel inflammation. Observing neonatal calf behavior, such as lying behavior, can be used to better detect and determine the implications of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of navel inflammation and diarrhea on lying behavior in neonatal veal calves. This study was part of a larger experiment that included a total of 360 male Holstein calves from 3 cohorts; from these calves, we selected a subset of 125 calves (every third calf as they entered the barn) to be fitted with 3-dimensional accelerometers (Hobo Pendant G data loggers; Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA) on 1 hind leg to continuously measure lying time, number of lying bouts, and lying bout duration. Calves were housed individually on slatted flooring (Tenderfoot; Tandem Products Inc., Minneapolis, MN) in 3 rooms of a mechanically ventilated barn. Health exams were conducted twice weekly for 2 wk starting the day after arrival. Exams included rectal temperature, navel score (0 = normal, 1 = mildly inflamed, 2 = moderately inflamed, 3 = severely inflamed), and fecal score (0 = normal, 1 = semiformed, 2 = loose, 3 = watery). Calves were considered to have navel inflammation (n = 22) or diarrhea (n = 15) if they scored ≥2 during at least 3 of the 4 health exams. The lying behavior of these calves was compared with that of normal calves (n = 18) that had no signs of illness and rectal temperatures <39.4°C during at least 3 of the 4 health exams. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA; models included cohort (1, 2, or 3), health status (normal, navel inflammation, or diarrhea), week (1 or 2), and a health by week interaction. There was an effect of health status on lying time, whereby normal calves spent more time lying compared with calves with inflamed navels and tended to spend more time lying compared with calves with diarrhea. There was no effect of health status on the number of lying bouts per day or on the duration of lying bouts. There were no health by week interactions. Results indicate that neonatal veal calves with navel inflammation and diarrhea may be less comfortable than calves without these conditions. Veal producers should consider adapting their facilities to create more comfortable lying environments to help calves better recover from disease, such as by adding a hospital pen with comfortable bedding.
Optimized cultural conditions of functional yogurt for γ-aminobutyric acid augmentation using response surface methodology J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 L. Chen, J. Alcazar, T. Yang, Z. Lu, Y. Lu
Yogurt, a functional dairy food product, is an effective medium for delivering beneficial functional ingredients. One ingredient, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), has growing appeal in the development of functional foods for its potential in reducing the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and stress as a bioactive agent. However, the concentration of GABA in existing food products is remarkably low. We developed a functional yogurt rich in GABA using Streptococcus thermophilus fmb5. The GABA yield of yogurt was enhanced by optimization of culture conditions using single factor and response surface methods. The results showed that culture temperature, monosodium glutamate concentration, and culture time are the 3 main factors that affect GABA yield. The optimal culture conditions were determined as follows: 38.8°C for culture temperature, 20 g/L of monosodium glutamate, and 120 h of culture time. Under the above optimal conditions, the actual yield of GABA production was maximized at 9.66 g/L, which was 1.2 times or higher than that of from any single factor treatment. The GABA concentration, viable bacteria number, and water-holding capacity of GABA-rich yogurt were stable throughout the whole storage time. The results show that producing yogurt with Streptococcus thermophilus fmb5 and the optimized culture conditions will achieve high GABA concentrations that maximize health benefits to consumers.
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei YBJ01 reduced d-galactose–induced oxidation in male Kuming mice J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Huayi Suo, Shanchun Liu, Jian Li, Yangping Ding, Hongwei Wang, Yu Zhang, Xin Zhao, Jia-Le Song
We investigated in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei YBJ01 (LPSP-YBJ01) isolated and identified from fermented yogurt. Strain LPSP-YBJ01 had stress tolerance against acidity, bile salt, and osmotic pressure. Five in vitro antioxidant assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity of LPSP-YBJ01, which could scavenge free radicals (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl) and superoxide anion in vitro. In addition, strain LPSP-YBJ01 had stronger antilipid peroxidation activity and weak reducing power in vitro. We measured in vivo antioxidant activity of LPSP-YBJ01 in an oxidation mouse model induced by d-galactose injection. Strain LPSP-YBJ01 significantly increased serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and total-antioxidant capability, and inhibited generation of malondialdehyde in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, strain LPSP-YBJ01 also increased the hepatic and splenic protein expressions of some antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, Cu/Zn-SOD, and Mn-SOD in mice treated with d-galactose. Thus, LPSP-YBJ01 had antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo and may be a useful probiotic.
Effects of dry period energy intake on insulin resistance, metabolic adaptation, and production responses in transition dairy cows on grass silage–based diets J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 S. Salin, A. Vanhatalo, S. Jaakkola, K. Elo, J. Taponen, R.C. Boston, T. Kokkonen
High energy intake in the dry period has reportedly had adverse effects on mobilization of body reserves, DMI, and productivity of dairy cows. We investigated whether grass silage (GS) fed ad libitum (HEI; 141% of daily metabolizable energy requirements) in an 8-wk dry period affects metabolic adaptation—specifically, peripheral insulin resistance—compared with a total mixed ration consisting of GS, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal (55/40/5%; CEI; 108% of metabolizable energy/d) fed ad libitum. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design until 8 wk after parturition. Commercial concentrates were fed 1 and 2 kg/d during the last 10 to 6 and 5 to 0 d before the expected calving date, respectively. Postpartum, a similar lactation diet with ad libitum access to GS and increasing concentrate allowance (maximum of 16 kg/d) was offered to all. The HEI group gained more body weight and had higher plasma insulin, glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than the CEI group prepartum. Postpartal plasma glucose tended to be higher and milk yield was greater from wk 5 onward for HEI compared with CEI cows. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at −13 ± 5 d and 9 ± 1 d relative to calving. The HEI cows had greater insulin response to glucose load and smaller area under the response curve for glucose than CEI cows in prepartal IVGTT. Thus, compensatory insulin secretion adapted to changes in insulin sensitivity of the peripheral tissues, preserving glucose tolerance of HEI cows. Higher insulin levels were needed in HEI cows than in CEI cows to elicit a similar decrement of nonesterified fatty acid concentration in prepartal IVGTT, suggesting reduced inhibition of lipolysis by insulin in HEI cows before parturition. In conclusion, high energy intake of moderately digestible GS with low concentrate feeding in the close-up dry period did not have adverse effects on metabolic adaptation, insulin sensitivity, and body mobilization after parturition. Instead, this feeding regimen was more beneficial to early-lactation performance than GS-based total mixed ration diluted with wheat straw.
Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of prostaglandin F2α to treat purulent vaginal discharge in lactating dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 S. Borchardt, S. Ludwig, W. Heuwieser
The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) on reproductive performance using a 4-point vaginal discharge score (VDS) and (2) to evaluate the effect of PGF2α treatment in cows with PVD on reproductive performance. Holstein cows (n = 2,473) from 1 commercial dairy farm had their vaginal discharge scored at 32 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) using a 4-point scale. Cows were also scored for body condition score and had their ovaries examined using transrectal ultrasound. A VDS-2 or greater was used to define PVD. Cows with PVD were assigned to receive 2 doses of 500 µg of PGF2α analogue (n = 277; Cloprostenol; PGF Veyx forte, Veyx Pharma Ltd., Schwarzenborn, Germany) 14 d apart (odd ear tag number) or remained untreated (n = 272; even ear tag number). All cows not detected in estrus at 90 ± 3 DIM were enrolled into a timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. The effect of VDS and the effect of PGF2α in cows with PVD on reproductive performance were evaluated separately. First service conception risk (FSCR), time to first AI, and time to pregnancy were used as indicators for reproductive performance. Data were analyzed with Cox's regression and mixed logistic models. The prevalence of PVD was 22.2% (548/2,473). We detected an interaction of parity and VDS for FSCR and time to pregnancy. In primiparous cows, VDS had no effect on FSCR and time to pregnancy. In multiparous cows, VDS had an effect on FSCR and time to pregnancy. Multiparous cows having a VDS-2 or a VDS-3 had decreased odds of pregnancy at first AI compared with cows having a VDS-0. Multiparous cows with VDS-1 or VDS-3 had a decreased hazard of conceiving within 200 DIM. The treatment effect of PGF2α was conditional on parity. In primiparous animals with PVD without a corpus luteum present at 32 DIM, treatment with PGF2α reduced FSCR. Irrespective of the presence of a corpus luteum, treatment with PGF2α decreased the hazard of conceiving within 200 DIM in primiparous cows. Although multiparous cows with PVD treated with PGF2α had increased odds of pregnancy at first AI, no treatment effect was observed on the hazard of conceiving within 200 DIM. Our results do not support the blanket use of PGF2α as a treatment option in postpartum dairy cows having PVD.
Estimation of circulating bovine leukemia virus levels using conventional blood cell counts J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 S. Nakada, J. Kohara, K. Makita
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widely prevalent in Japanese dairy farms. To control BLV infections in Japan, segregating or managing cows according to their proviral load (PVL) is a rational strategy. This study was conducted to establish a quantitative procedure for estimating blood PVL per microliter using a statistical model to offer a cost-effective alternative to the conventional quantitative real-time PCR method. In total, 250 Holstein cows infected with BLV were identified from 10 commercial dairy farms. Information on age was collected and blood samples were tested for white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and PVL using PCR. Generalized linear models with quasi-Poisson errors were used to estimate PVL by selecting age, logarithm of lymphocyte count, and their interaction term as explanatory variables. To evaluate the model, blood samples of 92 BLV-infected Holstein cows from 2 other commercial dairy farms were tested, and measured PVL values were compared with estimated PVL values by the model. The logPVL per microliter was modeled by positive associations with log lymphocyte count and age and a negative association with the interaction term. In the evaluation, measured PVL values had a strong correlation with estimated PVL values (Spearman's ρ = 0.87). In conclusion, our model provides a cost-effective and more rapid alternative to the conventional method to facilitate test and segregation or management of BLV-suspected cows.
Production of dairy cows fed distillers dried grains with solubles in low- and high-forage diets J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Sanjeewa D. Ranathunga, Kenneth F. Kalscheur, Jill L. Anderson, Kevin J. Herrick
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary forage and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) concentration on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were blocked by parity and milk production and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain low forage [LF; 17% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] or high forage (HF; 24.5% forage NDF) and DDGS at 0 or 18% of diet dry matter. The forage portion of the diet consisted of 80% corn silage and 20% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). A portion of the ground corn and all of the expeller soybean meal and extruded soybeans from 0% DDGS diets were replaced with DDGS to formulate 18% DDGS diets. Overall, we found no interactions of forage × DDGS concentrations for any of the production measures. We observed no effect of diet on dry matter intake. Milk yield was greater when cows were fed LF diets compared with HF diets (43.3 vs. 41.5 kg/d). Milk fat concentration (3.03 vs. 3.38%) was lower for cows fed LF diets compared with HF diets, whereas protein concentration (3.11 vs. 2.98%) and yield (1.34 vs. 1.24 kg/d) were greater for cows fed LF diets compared with HF diets. Yields of fat, total solids, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were not affected by diets. Cows partitioned equally for milk, maintenance, and body reserves. Replacing starch from ground corn and protein from soybean feeds with DDGS at either 17 or 24.5% of forage NDF concentration in the diet was cost-effective and did not affect the production performance of lactating dairy cows.
Supplementation effects of pomegranate by-products on oxidative status, metabolic profile, and performance in transition dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 M. Safari, E. Ghasemi, M. Alikhani, S. Ansari-Mahyari
Recent studies demonstrated a high antioxidant capacity for pomegranate components due to their rich bioactive compounds, such as conjugated fatty acids and phenolics. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to assess whether pomegranate seed or pomegranate seed pulp (peel + seed) supplementation could be effective to improve antioxidant status, and hence metabolic profile and performance in periparturient dairy cows. After a 1-wk pretreatment period, Holstein cows (primiparous n = 12, multiparous n = 18) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments from 25 d before expected calving through 25 d postcalving. The dietary treatments included (1) control (CON); (2) diet supplemented with pomegranate seeds (PS; 400 g/cow per day); and (3) diet supplemented with pomegranate seed pulp (PSP; 400 g of seeds/cow per day + 1200 g of peels/cow per day). Compared with CON, supplementation with either PS or PSP had no effects on dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, total protein, globulin, and aspartate amino transferase, but enhanced plasma total antioxidant activity, and lowered triacylglycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate at both pre- and postpartum periods. Plasma concentration of glucose, albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were not affected by dietary treatments at prepartum, whereas SOD activity increased and glucose, albumin, MDA, and FFA-to-albumin ratio decreased by feeding both by-products at postpartum period. In contrast to PS, supplementing PSP resulted in a greater decrease in plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentration and higher increase in SOD activity. Energy- and fat-corrected milk yields were higher in cows fed PSP diet compared with those fed CON or PS diets, but content of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across the dietary treatments. These findings indicated that dietary pomegranate by-products supplementation, in particular PSP, could improve antioxidant status, which was associated with a decline in lipid oxidation (FFA and β-hydroxybutyrate) and peroxidation (MDA) and an enhancement in glucose utilization as well as fat-corrected milk yield.
Is rumination time an indicator of methane production in dairy cows? J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 L. Zetouni, G.F. Difford, J. Lassen, M.V. Byskov, E. Norberg, P. Løvendahl
As long as large-scale recording of expensive-to-measure and labor-consuming traits, such as dry matter intake (DMI) and CH4 production (CH4P), continues to be challenging in practical conditions, alternative traits that are already routinely recorded in dairy herds should be investigated. An ideal indicator trait must, in addition to expressing genetic variation, have a strong correlation with the trait of interest. Our aim was to estimate individual level and phenotypic correlations between rumination time (RT), CH4P, and DMI to determine if RT could be used as an indicator trait for CH4P and DMI. Data from 343 Danish Holstein cows were collected at the Danish Cattle Research Centre for a period of approximately 3 yr. The data set consisted of 14,890 records for DMI, 15,835 for RT, and 6,693 for CH4P. Data were divided in primiparous cows only (PC) and all cows (MC), and then divided in lactation stage (early, mid, late, and whole lactation) to analyze the changes over lactation. Linear mixed models, including an animal effect but no pedigree, were used to estimate the correlations among traits. Phenotypic and individual level correlations between RT and both CH4P and DMI were close to zero, regardless of lactation stage and data set (PC or MC). However, CH4P and DMI were highly correlated, both across lactation stages and data sets. In conclusion, RT is unsuitable to be used as an indicator trait for either CH4P or DMI. Our study failed to validate RT as a useful indicator trait for both CH4P and DMI, but more studies with novel phenotypes can offer different approaches to select and incorporate important yet difficult to record traits into breeding goals and selection indexes.
Short communication: Effect of refrigerated storage on the pH and bacterial content of pasteurized human donor milk J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 S. Vázquez-Román, D. Escuder-Vieco, M.D. Martín-Pelegrina, B. Muñoz-Amat, L. Fernández-Álvarez, P. Brañas-García, D. Lora-Pablos, J. Beceiro-Mosquera, C.R. Pallás-Alonso
Once pasteurized donor milk is thawed for its administration to a preterm or sick neonate, and until it is administered, it is kept refrigerated at 4 to 6°C for 24 h. After this time, unconsumed milk is discarded. This time has not been extended, primarily because of the concern of bacterial contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in pH and bacterial count when pasteurized donor milk was kept under refrigeration for a prolonged period (14 d). In this prospective study, 30 samples of pasteurized donor milk from 18 donors were analyzed. Milk was handled following the regular operating protocols established in the neonatal unit and was kept refrigerated after thawing. pH measurements and bacteriology (on blood agar and MacConkey agar plates) were performed on each sample at time 0 (immediately after thawing) and then every day for 14 d. Changes in pH of samples over time were evaluated with linear mixed-effects regression models. A slow but gradual increase in milk pH was observed starting from the first day [mean (±SD) pH of 7.30 (±0.18) at time 0 and 7.69 (±0.2) on d 14]. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples throughout the complete trial except in one sample, in which Bacillus flexus was isolated. In conclusion, pasteurized human donor milk maintains its microbiological quality when properly handled and refrigerated (4–6°C). The slight and continuous increase in milk pH after the first day could be due to changes in the solubility of calcium and phosphate during refrigerated storage.
Immunoreactive properties of α-casein and κ-casein: Ex vivo and in vivo studies J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Ewa Fuc, Dagmara Złotkowska, Emilia Stachurska, Barbara Wróblewska
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ex vivo and in vivo studies immune potential of α- and κ-casein. Ex vivo, naïve mouse splenocytes were stimulated with α- or κ-casein. After 120 h of culture, the proliferation index (PI), determined by 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining, did not vary for either antigen, suggesting similar ex vivo immunogenic potential of both casein fractions. In vivo, BALB/ccmdb mice were sensitized with α- or κ-casein and then gavaged with primary antigen. Mice immunized with α-casein had higher levels of IgG (216.33) and IgA (210.22) in serum at the end of the experiment compared with mice immunized with κ-casein (215 and 29.3 for IgG and IgA, respectively). The use of α-casein for mouse immunization and ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation resulted in higher concentrations of secreted cytokines (IL4, IL10) compared with κ-casein stimulation. This is consistent with increasing regulatory T cell (Treg) lymphocyte populations, independent of the antigen used for stimulation. In summary, the immunogenic potential of α- and κ-casein was similar. Humoral and cellular immune responses confirmed their strong, independent potential to induce B and T cells. We propose that the lymphocyte proliferation index be used as an initial screening for protein immunogenicity.
Short communication: Multi-component interactions causing solidification during industrial-scale manufacture of pre-crystallized acid whey powders J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Kamil P. Drapala, Kevin M. Murphy, Quang Tri Ho, Shane V. Crowley, Shane Mulcahy, Noel A. McCarthy, James A. O'Mahony
Acid whey (AW) is the liquid co-product arising from acid-induced precipitation of casein from skim milk. Further processing of AW is often challenging due to its high mineral content, which can promote aggregation of whey proteins, which contributes to high viscosity of the liquid concentrate during subsequent lactose crystallization and drying steps. This study focuses on mineral precipitation, protein aggregation, and lactose crystallization in liquid AW concentrates (∼55% total solids), and on the microstructure of the final powders from 2 independent industrial-scale trials. These AW concentrates were observed to solidify either during processing or during storage (24 h) of pre-crystallized concentrate. The more rapid solidification in the former was associated with a greater extent of lactose crystallization and a higher ash-to-protein ratio in that concentrate. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis indicated the presence of a loose network of protein aggregates (≤10 µm) and lactose crystals (100–300 µm) distributed throughout the solidified AW concentrate. Mineral-based precipitate was also evident, using scanning electron microscopy, at the surface of AW powder particles, indicating the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate during processing. These results provide new information on the composition- and process-dependent physicochemical changes that are useful in designing and optimizing processes for AW.
Invited review: Microbiota of the bovine udder: Contributing factors and potential implications for udder health and mastitis susceptibility J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Hooman Derakhshani, Kelsey B. Fehr, Shadi Sepehri, David Francoz, Jeroen De Buck, Herman W. Barkema, Jan C. Plaizier, Ehsan Khafipour
Various body sites of vertebrates provide stable and nutrient-rich ecosystems for a diverse range of commensal, opportunistic, and pathogenic microorganisms to thrive. The collective genomes of these microbial symbionts (the microbiome) provide host animals with several advantages, including metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates, biosynthesis of vitamins, and modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems. In the context of the bovine udder, however, the relationship between cow and microbes has been traditionally viewed strictly from the perspective of host-pathogen interactions, with intramammary infections by mastitis pathogens triggering inflammatory responses (i.e., mastitis) that are often detrimental to mammary tissues and cow physiology. This traditional view has been challenged by recent metagenomic studies indicating that mammary secretions of clinically healthy quarters can harbor genomic markers of diverse bacterial groups, the vast majority of which have not been associated with mastitis. These observations have given rise to the concept of “commensal mammary microbiota,” the ecological properties of which can have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of mastitis and offer opportunities for development of novel prophylactic or therapeutic products (or both) as alternatives to antimicrobials. Studies conducted to date have suggested that an optimum diversity of mammary microbiota is associated with immune homeostasis, whereas the microbiota of mastitic quarters, or those with a history of mastitis, are considerably less diverse. Whether disruption of the diversity of udder microbiota (dysbiosis) has a role in determining mastitis susceptibility remains unknown. Moreover, little is known about contributions of various biotic and abiotic factors in shaping overall diversity of udder microbiota. This review summarizes current understanding of the microbiota within various niches of the udder and highlights the need to view the microbiota of the teat apex, teat canal, and mammary secretions as interconnected niches of a highly dynamic microbial ecosystem. In addition, host-associated factors, including physiological and anatomical parameters, as well as genetic traits that may affect the udder microbiota are briefly discussed. Finally, current understanding of the effect of antimicrobials on the composition of intramammary microbiota is discussed, highlighting the resilience of udder microbiota to exogenous perturbants.
The effect of individual quarter dry-off in management of subclinical mastitis on udder condition and milk production in organic dairy herds: A randomized field trial J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 A.P. Skarbye, M.A. Krogh, J.T. Sørensen
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of individual quarter dry-off in management of subclinical mastitis on clinical development, behavior during milking, and short-term production loss. The study was conducted as a controlled randomized trial in 5 commercial organic dairy herds. Seventy cows meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments: individual quarter dry-off (QDO) or continued milking. The inclusion criteria constituted an increase in somatic cell count from below to above 400,000 cells/mL at milk recording and identification of a quarter scoring of at least 3 and higher than the remaining quarters at California mastitis testing (scale 1–5). Quarters were evaluated clinically for atrophy, swelling, firmness, signs of pain, and milk leakage, and rectal temperature of the cows was measured. Behavior during milking was assessed as average frequency of hind limb tripping and kicking during milking obtained by registrations on video recordings. Milk production loss was estimated based on average daily milk yield for 19 d subsequent to treatment start, with reference to average daily milk yield in 19 d before treatment. The QDO treatment was associated with quarter swelling and increased quarter firmness around d 10 from treatment start and with quarter atrophy around d 40 from treatment start. However, around d 40 from treatment start 35% of the dried-off quarters remained nonatrophic and only 6% of the quarters were completely dry. The QDO was associated with signs of pain related to the dried-off quarter. No obvious effects on behavior during milking of QDO treatment was observed. On average the production loss associated with QDO was 4.1 kg/d (95% confidence interval: 3.1–5.0) greater than for continued milking. The production loss depended on parity, days in milk, and prior yield on the quarter subjected to dry-off (Q1). The production loss increased with increasing prior yield on Q1. For the majority of cows the increase in production loss was below 1 kg of milk/d when the prior yield on Q1 increased by 1 kg of milk/d, demonstrating a compensatory production potential of the nontreated quarters. Early lactation multiparous cows showed the greatest compensatory potential. Further studies into the effect on welfare, cure rates, and transmission are needed to determine the feasibility of individual quarter dry-off.
Short communication: Effects of dietary addition of N-carbamylglutamate on milk composition in mid-lactating dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 F.F. Gu, S.L. Liang, Z.H. Wei, C.P. Wang, H.Y. Liu, J.X. Liu, D.M. Wang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on milk production and composition in mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows. Sixty multiparous cows with a mean body weight of 669 kg (standard deviation = 71) and 176 days in milk (standard deviation = 55) were blocked based on parity and milk production and randomly assigned into 4 treatments, a basal diet supplemented with 0, 10, 20, or 40 g of NCG/d per cow. Milk yield and composition were recorded weekly, whereas dry matter intake and plasma variables were determined every 2 wk. The results showed that the addition of NCG had no effect on the dry matter intake and milk yield of the cows. Milk fat content and yield increased linearly with NCG addition. The contents of milk protein and total solid also increased linearly in the cows fed NCG, whereas the yield of protein was not affected by the treatments. Conversely, dietary addition of NCG increased the plasma nitric oxide content in a quadratic manner. Moreover, addition of NCG linearly increased the plasma Arg content. Overall, the results indicate that dietary NCG addition increased the milk protein and fat contents, which improved the milk quality of lactating dairy cows.
Agar-immobilized basil–lactic acid bacteria bioproducts as goat milk taste-masking agents and natural preservatives for the production of unripened goat cheese J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Elena Bartkiene, Ruta Laurikietyte, Vita Lele, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Erika Mozuriene, Aldona Baltusnikiene
Goat milk cheeses have become popular recently; however, many consumers do not choose these products because they have specific sensory properties that are not acceptable to all consumers and the shelf life of the cheese is short. The concept of this work was to increase overall acceptability and shelf life of unripened goat milk cheese by using Ocimum basilicum and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135, Lactobacillus paracasei LUHS244, Pediococcus pentosaceus LUHS100, Pediococcus acidilactici LUHS29, and Lactobacillus brevis LUHS140) bioproducts (basil-LAB) immobilized in agar. A basil-LAB bioproduct could be a promising multifunctional ingredient for cheese manufacturing because it has a low pH, high LAB count, and high total phenolic compound content (after fermentation pH decreased by 25.4%, LAB count averaged 7.2 log10 cfu/g, and total phenolic compound content increased by 30.9%). Use of different LAB in the preparation of basil-LAB bioproducts had a significant influence on cheese pH and hardness, and compared with cheese samples prepared with nonfermented basil, cheese samples prepared with basil-LAB bioproducts had, on average, higher pH (by 2.6%) and lower hardness (by 36.0%), similar to the control cheese (without basil). Overall acceptability of cheese was significantly influenced by the basil-LAB bioproduct immobilization process; in all cases, cheese samples prepared with fermented and immobilized basil-LAB bioproduct had better acceptability (5 points). After 120 h of storage, cheese samples prepared with basil-LAB bioproducts fermented with LUHS135, LUHS244 and LUHS140, no enterobacteria were found, and we detected strong negative and moderate negative correlations, respectively, of LAB count with enterobacteria count and yeast/mold count (r = −0.7939 and r = −0.4495, respectively). Finally, immobilization increased LAB viability in fresh goat milk cheese, which led to a reduction in enterobacteria and mold/yeast contamination during storage and an increase in overall acceptability compared with nonimmobilized basil-LAB. Therefore, basil-LAB bioproducts fermented with LUHS135, LUHS244, and LUHS140 strains can be recommended for preparing fresh goat milk cheese with extended shelf life and high acceptability.
Flux and transmission of β-casein during cold microfiltration of skim milk subjected to different heat treatments J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Justyna Zulewska, Jarosław Kowalik, Bogdan Dec
Raw skim milk was subjected to different heat treatments: thermization (65°C, 20 s), pasteurization (72°C, 15 s), and no heat treatment (milk was microfiltered using 1.4-µm membranes at 50°C for bacteria removal; 1.4 MF). The milk (thermized, pasteurized, and 1.4 MF) was cooled and stored at 2°C until processing (at least 24 h) with cold (∼6°C) microfiltration using a benchtop crossflow pilot unit (Pall Membralox XLAB 5, Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY) equipped with 0.1-µm nominal pore diameter ceramic Membralox membrane (ET1-070, α-alumina, Pall Corp.). The flux was monitored during the process, and β-casein transmission and removal were calculated. The study aimed to indicate the conditions that should be applied to maximize β-casein passage through the membrane during cold microfiltration (5.6 ± 0.4°C) of skim milk. The proper selection of heat treatment parameters (temperature, time) of the feed before the cold microfiltration process will increase β-casein removal. It is not clear whether the difference in β-casein transmission between 1.4 MF, thermized, and pasteurized milk results from the effect of heat treatment conditions on β-casein dissociation from the casein micelles or on passage of β-casein through the membrane. The values of the major parameters (permeation flux and tangential flow velocity, through the wall shear stress) responsible for a proper membrane separation process were considerably lower than the critical values. It seems that the viscosity of the retentate has a great effect on the performance of the microfiltration membranes for protein separation at refrigerated temperatures.
Effect of estrous expression on timing and failure of ovulation of Holstein dairy cows using automated activity monitors J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Tracy A. Burnett, Liam Polsky, Manveen Kaur, Ronaldo L.A. Cerri
The aim of this study was to determine if estrous expression, as measured by an automated activity monitor (AAM), affects timing and failure of ovulation of lactating Holstein dairy cows. Cows were equipped with 2 AAM, one neck-mounted (AAMC) and one leg-mounted (AAML), by 10 d postpartum and enrolled into the trial when their activity crossed the alert threshold on the AAMC. A total of 850 episodes of estrus from 293 different cows were used for this study. When cows were enrolled, their ovaries were scanned by transrectal ultrasonography and gait and body condition scored. Ovaries of cows detected in estrus were scanned twice daily for a maximum of 3 d to determine the disappearance of the preovulatory follicle (ovulation) and the interval from estrus to ovulation was calculated. Physical activity data recorded from the AAM were used to determine estrus behavior using 2 traits: (1) peak activity and (2) duration. Peak activity was only available for the AAML. Peak activity was defined as the maximum activity during an estrus episode. Duration of estrus was defined as the time the activity of the cow exceeded threshold values set by the AAM software. The AAMC correctly identified 87.8% of the estrus alerts, with 12.2% false positives. The average (±standard deviation) intervals from activity alert to ovulation were 25.8 ± 10.2 and 24.7 ± 9.3 h for the AAMC and AAML, respectively. Changes in estrous expression were associated with differences in the interval from alert to ovulation. Cows with short intervals to ovulation were found to have less intense estrous expression than cows with medium and long length intervals to ovulation using the AAMC, whereas using the AAML, cows with short intervals to ovulation exhibited less intense estrous expression than cows with medium but the same as those with long intervals to ovulation. Furthermore, irrespective of the AAM, estrus events with less estrous expression had increased odds of having a short interval to ovulation (below the median of 20 h) when compared with those having greater estrous expression (2.6 and 1.9 increased odds for the AAMC and AAML, respectively). Ovulation failure was affected by estrous expression because estrus events with greater peak activity or longer duration had reduced ovulation failure compared with those with less estrous expression (AAMC peak activity: 1.9 ± 1.4 vs. 9.5 ± 1.7%; AAML peak activity: 2.3 ± 1.4 vs. 6.2 ± 1.5%; AAMC duration: 2.1 ± 1.4 vs. 8.9 ± 1.7%). In addition, cows with more estrous expression had greater pregnancy per artificial insemination than those with less estrous expression with both the AAMC (42.3 ± 0.4 vs. 31.7 ± 0.4%) and the AAML (43.1 ± 0.4 vs. 36.3 ± 0.4%). Pregnancy per artificial insemination results were consistent even when removing cows that failed to ovulate. In conclusion, expression of estrus was highly associated with ovulation timing, ovulation failure, and fertility when using 2 different AAM. Cows with greater estrous expression have longer intervals from activity alert to ovulation, experience less ovulation failure, and have greater pregnancy per artificial insemination.
Invited review: Use of infrared technologies for the assessment of dairy products—Applications and perspectives J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 M. De Marchi, M. Penasa, A. Zidi, C.L. Manuelian
Dairy products are important sources of nutrients for human health and in the last years their consumption has increased worldwide. Therefore, the food industry is interested in applying analytical technologies that are more rapid and cost-effective than traditional laboratory analyses. Infrared spectroscopy accomplishes both criteria, making real-time determination feasible. However, it is crucial to ensure that prediction models are accurate before their implementation in the dairy industry. In the last 5 yr, several papers have investigated the feasibility of mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy to determine chemical composition and authenticity of dairy products. Most studies have dealt with cheese, and few with yogurt, butter, and milk powder. Also, the use of near-infrared (in reflectance or transmittance mode) has been more prevalent than mid-infrared spectroscopy. This review summarizes recent studies on infrared spectroscopy in dairy products focusing on difficult to determine chemical components such as fatty acids, minerals, and volatile compounds, as well as sensory attributes and ripening time. Promising equations have been developed despite the low concentration or the absence of specific absorption bands (or both) for these compounds.
Assessing and comparing antioxidant activities of lactobacilli strains by using different chemical and cellular antioxidant methods J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Guangqing Mu, Yuan Gao, Yanfeng Tuo, Huanyu Li, Yuqing Zhang, Fang Qian, Shujuan Jiang
Some lactobacilli strains had beneficial effects on human beings due to their antioxidant activities. In this study lactobacilli strains stored in our laboratory were screened for potential antioxidant activities by investigating their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, resistance to H2O2, and hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity; then the antioxidant activities of the screened strains were evaluated by cellular antioxidant assay and protection for HT-29 cells against H2O2 injury assay. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum Y44 could scavenge oxygen free radicals, inhibit the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species without creating obvious cytotoxic effects, and protect HT-29 cells against H2O2 injury evidenced by the significant decrease of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) ratio and heat shock protein 70 expression, increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and decrease of malondialdehyde level of HT-29 cells damaged by H2O2. It was speculated that L. plantarum Y44 protect HT-29 cells against oxygen radical injury through scavenging reactive oxygen species and activating intracellular antioxidant enzymes. A significant correlation was observed among the results of the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, protection assay for HT-29 cells against H2O2 injury, and the cellular antioxidant assay. The findings indicated that L. plantarum Y44 could be a probiotic candidate with antioxidant properties and combining several chemical antioxidant methods and antioxidant cellular models could be an effective procedure to screen lactobacilli strains with antioxidant activity.
Energy balance and diurnal variation in methane production as affected by feeding frequency in Jersey cows in late lactation J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 J.V. Judy, G.C. Bachman, T.M. Brown-Brandl, S.C. Fernando, K.E. Hales, P.S. Miller, R.R. Stowell, P.J. Kononoff
Methane (CH4) production of ruminants typically increases with increased dry matter intake (DMI). However, few studies have observed the effects of feeding multiple times a day and its effects on diurnal variation in CH4 production and energy balance in late-lactation dairy cattle. A study using headbox-style indirect calorimetry and 12 multiparous (225 ± 16.2 d in milk; mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows was conducted to determine the effects of feeding twice daily on diurnal variation in CH4 production and total energy balance. A crossover design with 14-d periods (10 d of adaption and 4 d of collection) was used to compare 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of either once a day feeding (1×; 100% of feed given at 1000 h) or twice a day feeding (2×; 50% of feed given at 1000 h and the final 50% at 2000 h) with a common diet fed in both treatments. Dry matter intake was not different between treatments, with a mean of 16.9 ± 0.88 kg/d. Once a day feeding tended to have greater milk yield compared with twice a day feeding (21.2 vs. 20.4 ± 1.59 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat and milk protein percentage were not different, with means of 6.18 ± 0.20% and 3.98 ± 0.08%, respectively. Total CH4 production did not differ between treatments, with a mean of 402.1 ± 20.8 L/d. Similarly, CH4 per unit of milk yield and DMI was not different between treatments, with means of 20.5 ± 1.81 and 23.8 ± 1.21 L/kg, respectively. Feeding frequency did not affect diurnal variation of hourly CH4 production, with a mean of 17.1 ± 0.74 L/h. A trend was observed for a treatment × hour interaction. Methane production per hour increased after the second feeding for cattle fed twice versus once daily. Gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and balance (milk plus tissue) per kilogram of DMI did not differ by feeding frequency, with means of 4.41 ± 0.01, 3.05 ± 0.03, 2.63 ± 0.03, and 1.32 ± 0.08 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was 146 kcal/kg of metabolic body weight, with an efficiency of converting metabolizable energy to net energy balance (milk plus tissue) of 76%. Nitrogen balance did not differ among treatments, with a mean balance of 17.3 ± 13.0 g/d. Therefore, total CH4 production and energy maintenance were not affected by feeding frequency. However, CH4 was variable throughout the day, and caution should be exercised when collecting CH4 samples at a limited number of time points because this may under- or overestimate total production.
Evaluation of biopreservatives in Greek yogurt to inhibit yeast and mold spoilage and development of a yogurt spoilage predictive model J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 A.J. Buehler, N.H. Martin, K.J. Boor, M. Wiedmann
Dairy products, including cultured dairy products such as cheese and yogurt, are susceptible to fungal spoilage. Traditionally, additives such as potassium sorbate have been used to control fungal spoilage; however, with consumer demand for clean-label products, other strategies to control fungal spoilage (e.g., biopreservatives) are increasingly being used in dairy formulations. In order to help the dairy industry better evaluate biopreservatives for control of fungal spoilage, we developed a challenge study protocol, which was applied to evaluate 2 commercially available protective cultures for their ability to control yeast and mold spoilage of Greek yogurt. Greek yogurt formulated with and without protective cultures was inoculated with a cocktail consisting of 5 yeasts and 1 mold to yield inoculum levels of 101 and 103 cfu/g of yogurt. The inoculated yogurts were stored at 7°C and fungal counts as well as time to visible growth, on the yogurt surface, of mycelium mold colonies or yeast were determined over shelf-life. Whereas fungal concentrations increased to spoilage levels (≥105 cfu/g) in all yogurt formulations at both inoculum levels by d 23 of storage at 7°C, no surface mold was observed over 76 d in any of the products formulated with protective cultures. Control yogurts without biopreservatives all showed surface mold by d 23. In order to allow industry to better evaluate the business effects of improved control of surface mold growth that can be achieved with protective cultures, we developed a Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate consumer exposure to visible mold growth in yogurt formulated without fungal inhibitors. Our model showed that initial mold contamination rate has the largest effect on the model outcome, indicating that accurate data on contamination rates are important for use of these models. When air plates were used, in a proof-of-concept approach, to estimate initial contamination rates in a small yogurt manufacturing operation, our model predicted that 550 ± 25.2 consumers (±standard deviation) would be exposed to visible mold growth for every 1 million cups of yogurt produced. With initial contamination rate data for individual facilities, this model could be used by industry to estimate the number of consumers exposed to visible mold spoilage and could allow industry to better assess the value of mold-control strategies.
A randomized controlled trial on the effect of incomplete milking during the first 5 days in milk on reproductive performance of dairy cows J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 C. Krug, P.-A. Morin, P. Lacasse, J.-P. Roy, J. Dubuc, S. Dufour
The main objective of the current study was to measure the effect of incomplete milking on luteal activity and on pregnancy hazard. We also aimed to study the effect of early-lactation hyperketonemia (i.e., β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentration ≥1.4 mmol/L during the first 3 wk in milk) on those reproductive outcomes. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 853) from 13 commercial herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Cows were assigned to a control or a treatment group, incompletely milked (10–14 L of milk collected/d) from 1 to 5 DIM. Blood samples were collected once a week during weeks in milk 1 to 3 for β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentration, and a threshold of 1.4 mmol/L was used to define hyperketonemia. During weeks in milk 5 and 7, cows were sampled for progesterone blood concentration, and a threshold of 1 ng/mL was used to define luteal activity. Reproductive information and culling dates were obtained through herd records. Logistic regression models and survival analyses were used to assess the effect of treatment on luteal activity and on pregnancy hazard, respectively. Analogous models were used to investigate the effect of early-lactation hyperketonemia on reproductive outcomes. The odds of luteal activity for incompletely milked cows were 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–1.7) times those of conventionally milked cows. The effect of treatment on pregnancy hazard varied as a function of time, parity, and start of the breeding period. In second-parity cows that started the breeding period <55 d in milk, the pregnancy hazard (95% confidence interval) in incompletely milked cows was 576.3 (240.0–1,383.7), 36.9 (18.9–72.1), 6.8 (3.3–13.8), 2.5 (1.0–5.9), and 0.13 (0.07–0.26) times that of conventionally milked cows at 1 to 21, 22 to 43, 44 to 65, 66 to 87, and >87 d after the voluntary waiting period, respectively. The treatment did not have an effect on pregnancy hazard in cows in third parity or greater or in those starting the breeding period ≥55 d in milk. Early-lactation hyperketonemia was not associated with any of the reproductive outcomes. In conclusion, the incomplete milking protocol had no effect on luteal activity and had a positive effect on pregnancy hazard in second-parity cows in herds with a short voluntary waiting period (<55 d). We did not observe an effect of early-lactation hyperketonemia on luteal activity or on pregnancy hazard.
Symposium review: Omics in dairy and animal science—Promise, potential, and pitfalls J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 J.D. Lippolis, E.J. Powell, T.A. Reinhardt, T.C. Thacker, E. Casas
Sequencing the first genome took 15 yr and $3 billion to complete. Currently, a genome can be sequenced in a day for a few thousand dollars. Comparing the relative abundance of nearly every mRNA transcript and small RNAs from cells and tissues from different experimental conditions has become so easy that it can take longer to transfer the data between computers than to perform the experiment. Nucleotide sequencing techniques have become so sensitive that the greatest concern is not detecting a gene or transcript but rather, falsely identifying one. Better genome sequencing has led to more complete transcriptomic and proteomic databases and, combined with more sensitive instrumentation and separation techniques, is bringing us closer to detecting complete transcriptomes and proteomes. The promise of these powerful omics techniques is to lead us to new and unexpected connections between molecular processes in the context of animal health. This promise cannot be achieved without hypothesis-driven research that connects omics data with animal health experiments. Any researcher who wishes to invest the time and resources in omics experiments should be aware of the common pitfalls and limitations of these techniques so they can avoid these issues and maximize the use of these research tools. Several important questions must be asked: What is the quality of the databases and how they are annotated? Are the annotations based on experimental results or computational predictions? What assumptions are made by the analysis algorithms, and how will this affect the result? Finally, how can the research community use the vast amount of data being generated by omics experiments in ways to achieve the goals of better animal health and production (which is the promise of omics technologies)? Until the observations shown in omics data sets are used to achieve the goals of better animal health and production, the potential of omics technology will not be fully realized.
Methionine and valine activate the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway through heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor (TAS1R1/TAS1R3) and intracellular Ca2+ in bovine mammary epithelial cells J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Y. Zhou, Z. Zhou, J. Peng, J.J. Loor
Amino acids play a key role in regulating milk protein synthesis partly through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. However, the involvement of extracellular AA sensing receptors in this process is not well understood. In nonruminants, it is well established that the AA taste 1 receptor member 1/3 (TAS1R1/TAS1R3) heterodimer contributes to the sensing of most l-AA. Whether this receptor is functional in bovine mammary cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine essential AA signaling through TAS1R1/TAS1R3 and their roles in regulating mTOR signaling pathway and casein mRNA abundance in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells and the Mac-T cell line. The bovine mammary epithelial cells were stimulated with complete Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (+EAA), medium without EAA (−EAA), or medium supplemented with only 1 of the 10 essential AA, respectively. The nonessential AA levels were the same across all treatments. Small interference RNA targeting TAS1R1 were designed and transfected into bovine primary mammary epithelial cells (bPMEC). Supplementation of a complete mixture of essential AA or Arg, Val, Leu, His, Phe, Met, and Ile individually led to greater mTOR phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 was greater in the presence of Val, Leu, Trp, Met, and Ile. Valine, Leu, Met, and Ile led to greater eIF4E-binding protein 1 phosphorylation. Although +EAA and a few individual AA tested induced increases in intracellular calcium, Met and Val were the most potent. Knockdown of TAS1R1 decreased intracellular calcium in bPMEC cultured with both Val and Met. Phosphorylation of mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1, and eIF4E-binding protein 1 was lower when TAS1R1 was knocked-down in bPMEC supplemented with Val and Met. In addition, small interference RNA silencing of TAS1R1 resulted in lower β-casein (CSN2) abundance. The TAS1R1/TAS1R3 receptor may sense extracellular AA and activate mTOR signaling in bovine mammary cells, likely by elevating intracellular calcium concentration. This mechanism appears to have a role in Met- and Val-induced changes in CSN2 mRNA abundance. Further in vivo studies will have to be performed to assess the relevance of this mechanism in the mammary gland.
Short communication: Single-step genomic evaluation of milk production traits using multiple-trait random regression model in Chinese Holsteins J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 H. Kang, C. Ning, L. Zhou, S. Zhang, Q. Yan, J.-F. Liu
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prediction performance of the single-step genomic BLUP method using a multi-trait random regression model in genomic evaluation for milk production traits of Chinese Holsteins, and investigate how parameters w, τ, and ω used in the construction of the combined relationship matrix (H) affected prediction accuracy and bias. A total of 2.8 million test-day records from 0.2 million cows were available for milk, protein, and fat yields. Pedigree information included 0.3 million animals and 7,577 of them were genotyped with medium-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels. Genotypes were imputed into Geneseek Genomic Profiler HD (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) including 77K markers. A reduced data set for evaluating models was extracted from the full data set by removing test-day records from the last 4 yr. Bull and cow validation populations were constructed for each trait. We evaluated the prediction performance of the multiple-trait multiple-lactation random regression single-step genomic BLUP (RR-ssGBLUP) models with different values of parameters w, τ, and ω in the H matrix, taking consideration of inbreeding. We compared RR-ssGBLUP with the multiple-trait multiple-lactation random regression model based on pedigree and genomic BLUP. De-regressed proofs for 305-d milk, protein, and fat yields averaged over 3 lactations, which were calculated from the full data set, were used for posteriori validations. The results showed that RR-ssGBLUP was feasible for implementation in breeding practice, and its prediction performance was superior to the other 2 methods in the comparison, including prediction accuracy and unbiasedness. For bulls, RR-ssGBLUP models with w0.05τ2.0ω1.0,w0.05τ2.5ω1.0, and w0.1τ1.6ω0.4 achieved the best performance for milk, protein, and fat yields, respectively. For cows, the RR-ssGBLUP with w0.2τ1.6ω0.4 performed the best for all 3 traits. The H matrix constructed with larger τ and smaller ω gave better convergence in solving mixed model equations. Among different RR-ssGBLUP models, the differences in validation accuracy were small. However, the regression coefficient indicating prediction bias varied substantially. The increase of w and τ, and decrease of ω, led to an increase in the regression coefficient. The results demonstrated RR-ssGBLUP is a good alternative to the multi-step approach, but the optimal choice of parameters should be found via preliminary validation study to achieve the best performance.
The extent that certain dairy farmer attitudes and behaviors are associated with farm business profitability J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 N.W. O'Leary, R.M. Bennett, R.B. Tranter, P.J. Jones
The way in which farm managers' attitudes, personality, behavior, values, and sociodemographic characteristics influence farm business performance is, at best, only partially understood. The study reported here expands on this understanding by analyzing the attitudes and personal attributes of 80 dairy farmers in Great Britain in relation to the profitability over 3 yr of their farm businesses. Business goals, temperament, purchasing behavior, and having a growth mindset toward the business were found to be associated with profitability. A linear regression model consisting of 5 variables related to the above was presented that predicts 34% of the observed variation in profitability. Each of these variables were questions related to the participants' personal attitudes or beliefs. Other assessed variables, such as specific husbandry behaviors or practices, or management practices and sociodemographic characteristics, did not warrant inclusion in the final model. These results uniquely contribute to understanding how the attitudes, personality, behaviors, and attributes of dairy farmers are associated with, and thus likely to influence, the profitability of their farm businesses.
Short communication: The effects of offering a high or low plane of milk preweaning on insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in dairy heifer calves J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 J. Haisan, M. Oba, D.J. Ambrose, M.A. Steele
Although positive effects on growth have been shown when calves are placed on high planes of nutrition, little information exists regarding the effect of this feeding strategy on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone whose fundamental action is to stimulate growth, and its binding proteins during the preweaning period. The objective of this study was to characterize IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in plasma during the pre- and immediate postweaning period, when calves were offered a high or low plane of whole milk. Twenty-six female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to either a high (HI; 10 L/d; n = 13) or low (LO; 5 L/d; n = 13) plane of milk following colostrum feeding at d 3 of life. Calves were fed their respective diet as whole milk until d 48 when a 10-d weaning transition began. During this transition, milk was reduced by 10% per day such that all calves received no milk on d 59 of life. Blood samples were collected bi-weekly to measure IGF-1 and IGFBP in plasma. Calves fed HI gained more body weight than calves fed LO during the preweaning period (d 1–48 of life; 0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d); however, no differences in average daily gain or metabolizable energy intake during the weaning transition (d 48–58 of life) or postweaning period (d 59–70 of life) occurred. Concentrations of IGF-1 were higher in HI calves during the preweaning period, which was associated with high levels of IGFBP-3 at wk 5 and lower IGFBP-2 during each measured time point preweaning as compared with LO. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 was lower in HI calves only during wk 1, and IGFBP-5 was not affected by the dietary treatment. Overall, offering a high plane of nutrition was associated with changes in plasma IGF-1 and IGFBP that would indicate greater growth and development preweaning but not necessarily postweaning.
The effects of feeding more milk on periprandial plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 concentrations in preweaning dairy calves J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 J. Haisan, M. Oba, T. Sugino
The objective of this study was to evaluate periprandial plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in response to a milk meal in preweaning dairy calves. Nineteen Holstein heifer calves were fed either a high (10 L/d; n = 9) or low (5 L/d; n = 10) amount of pasteurized whole milk from d 2 to 50 of life. Calves were housed in individual pens for the first 19 ± 3 d and fed only milk before being moved to a group pen, where they remained on their respective milk treatment and offered calf starter ad libitum. Blood samples were collected sequentially for 240 min following their milk meal at wk 3, 5, and 7 of life to characterize the periprandial response in plasma concentrations of GLP-2, glucose, and BHB. Baseline plasma glucose concentrations were increased, when a high amount was fed; however, we found no difference in area under the curve. Feeding a high amount of whole milk had no effect on baseline or periprandial plasma BHB concentrations. Baseline plasma GLP-2 concentrations decreased as calves aged. Feeding a high amount of whole milk tended to significantly increase baseline GLP-2 concentrations throughout compared with calves fed a low amount. The periprandial response of GLP-2 was not biphasic until calves were 7 wk old. In conclusion, feeding a high amount of milk may increase GLP-2 concentrations in preweaning calves, although its exact mechanism is unknown.
Short communication: Heritability of susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Brian W. Kirkpatrick, Beth M. Lett
Johne's disease in cattle is the result of infection of the small intestine by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), leading to an incurable inflammatory bowel disease (Johne's disease or paratuberculosis). The disease is a concern both for its direct cost to dairy producers and for its zoonotic potential. The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability for susceptibility to infection of cattle by MAP using Johne's testing records (ELISA test for presence of antibodies to MAP in milk or blood) from US Holstein cattle from 2009 to 2016. Data sets were edited to include records from herds with 100 or more total records and sires with 50 or more daughters. Data sets were further edited to include (1) only herds with at least 1 positive test, (2) herds with at least 2.5% positive test results, and (3) herds with at least 5% positive test results to examine the effect of data from herds with higher proportions of positive tests, and presumably higher pathogen exposure, on heritability estimates. Two models were used in this study, a linear sire model and a binary threshold-probit sire model. Both were mixed models considering fixed effects of herd and age at test, the latter as a covariate accounting for linear and quadratic effects; random effects included sire and residual. Analyses were conducted using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Heritability estimates (±standard error) from the linear model were 0.041 ± 0.004, 0.050 ± 0.004, and 0.062 ± 0.007 for data from herds with at least 1 positive test, ≥2.5% positive tests, and ≥5% positive tests, respectively. Heritability estimates from the threshold model were 0.157 ± 0.014, 0.174 ± 0.016, and 0.186 ± 0.021 for data from herds with at least 1 positive test, ≥2.5% positive tests, and ≥5% positive tests, respectively. Heritability estimates from the linear model were affected by population incidence for positive tests, in contrast to estimates from the threshold model, likely accounting for the difference in magnitude of heritability estimates between models and suggesting that the threshold model analysis is the better choice. Heritability estimates increased as data were restricted to herds with presumed higher MAP exposure for both linear model and threshold model analyses. These estimates are similar to previous estimates in other dairy cattle populations and suggest the potential for selection to lessen susceptibility to MAP infection.
Short communication: Calcium partitioning during microfiltration of milk and its influence on rennet coagulation time J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Justyna Zulewska, Jarosław Kowalik, Adriana Lobacz, Bogdan Dec
Pasteurized skim milk was subjected to (1) microfiltration (MF) at 50°C and (2) MF at 6°C after storage at 2°C. The products of these treatments were retentate (RMF50) and permeate (PMF50), and retentate (RMF6) and permeate (PMF6), respectively. Additionally, RMF50 was subjected to (3) cold MF after water dilution to produce retentate (RMF6R) and permeate (PMF6R). Calcium migration was monitored by analyzing ionic, soluble, and total calcium content in feed, retentates, and permeates. The influence of calcium partitioning and calcium addition to feed, retentates, and retentates diluted with water was determined. Without CaCl2 addition, only skim milk, RMF50, and RMF6 coagulated after rennet addition. Higher true protein and casein content of RMF50 and RMF6 resulted in shorter time of renneting. The retentates diluted with water showed no signs of coagulation within 40 min. The addition of PMF6R to RMF50 did not affect rennet coagulation time within the observed 40 min in comparison to RMF50 + water. In general, higher CaCl2 addition resulted in shorter rennet coagulation time. Special attention should be paid to calcium partitioning during membrane processing of cheesemilk. The level of calcium addition should be adopted to calcium content in such cheesemilk, which is affected by conditions of the filtration process (i.e., concentration factor and temperature).
Eating behavior, milk production, rumination, and digestibility characteristics of high- and low-efficiency lactating cows fed a low-roughage diet J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Y.A. Ben Meir, M. Nikbachat, Y. Fortnik, S. Jacoby, H. Levit, G. Adin, M. Cohen Zinder, A. Shabtay, E. Gershon, M. Zachut, S.J. Mabjeesh, I. Halachmi, J. Miron
This study aimed to identify individual characteristics differing among high-efficiency (HE; upper 20%, n = 31), low-efficiency (LE; lower 20%, n = 31), and mid-efficiency (ME, 60% n = 93) lactating cows. Primiparous (37) and multiparous (118) high-producing milking cows at 30 to 180 d in milk were fed individually a low-roughage diet [31.6% of dry matter (DM)] for 4 wk. Daily average DM intake, rate of eating, visit duration, meal size, and daily rumination time were higher in LE compared with HE cows. On the other hand, HE cows exhibited higher digestibility of DM, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber than the LE cows. Daily eating time was similar in the HE and LE groups and higher than that of the ME cows. Visit and meal frequency, average visit and meal duration, daily lying time, and pedometer activity were similar in the HE, LE, and ME groups. The HE cows produced 1.75% more milk, but similar energy-corrected milk compared with the LE cows. Milk fat and protein content were lower by 1.8 and 3.8%, respectively, in the HE cows than in the LE group. Body weight (BW) and BW gain were similar in the 3 efficiency groups. Diurnal distribution of DM intake showed 6 distinct major meals, each composed of 1.1 to 1.6 visits. Higher intake peaks (greater meal size) were found in the LE cows compared with the HE group. Daily DM intake was highly correlated (affected) with energy-corrected milk production (r = 0.61), BW (r = 0.4), eating rate (r = 0.57), and visit size (r = 0.54). Energy balance showed that the lower efficiency of the LE cows was attributed to their excess heat production and energy loss.
Using geometric morphometrics for the genetics analysis of shape and size of lactation curves in Israeli first-parity Holstein cattle J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Angel-Amed Durón-Benítez, Joel Ira Weller, Ephraim Ezra
Our objective was to combine the methods of geometric morphometrics and multivariate quantitative genetics to genetic evaluation of the size and shape of lactation curves of milk of 3,492 Israeli first-parity Holstein cattle. Lactation records were treated as morphological data, for which 2 different lactation shape functions were evaluated, one depicted by a line graph and the other by an orbital graph. The lactation curves from both shape functions were represented by 2-dimensional Cartesian landmark coordinates. The 2 sets of landmarks were then analyzed individually for each shape function with geometric morphometrics to separate variation into components of size and shape. The analysis yielded 2 size measures and 2 sets of shape variables, and they were the inputs to estimate variance components using the MTC REML individual animal model program. Variance components were also estimated for the 305-d lactation production as a reference. Shape variables showed negligible correlation with 305-d production, providing evidence of size and shape of lactation curve as separate characters. The size measure derived from the orbital-depicted lactation curve had equal heritability (0.39 ± 0.01; ± standard error) and complete genetic and environmental correlations with 305-d production, whereas the size measure derived from the line-depicted lactation curve showed low heritability (0.09 ± 0.01) and environmental correlation (0.02 ± 0.004) and relative high genetic correlation with 305-d production (0.48 ± 0.04). This may validate both the orbital graph to depict lactation records and the use of geometric morphometrics to split variation of lactation curve into size and shape components. The maximal heritability for shape of lactation curve was 0.55 for orbital- and 0.56 for line-depicted lactation curves. The respective patterns of variations were visualized as shape changes from the mean shape in the data set. Geometric morphometrics are well grounded within the theory of shape analysis and can be paired with conventional methods in the field to characterize the patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation of shape and size of lactation curve in dairy cattle.
Integrated analysis of long noncoding RNA and mRNA expression profiles reveals the potential role of long noncoding RNA in different bovine lactation stages J. Dairy Sci. (IF 2.749) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 X. Zheng, C. Ning, P. Zhao, W. Feng, Y. Jin, L. Zhou, Y. Yu, J. Liu
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) play a critical role in mammary development and breast cancer biology. Despite their important role in the mammary gland, little is known of the roles of lncRNA in bovine lactation, particularly regarding the molecular processes underlying it. To characterize the role of lncRNA in bovine lactation, 4 samples of Holstein cow mammary gland tissue at peak and late lactation stages were examined after biopsy. We then profiled the transcriptome of the mammary gland using RNA sequencing technology. Further, functional lncRNA-mRNA coexpression pairs were constructed to infer the function of lncRNA using a generalized linear model, followed by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses. More than 1,000 putative lncRNA were identified, 117 of which were differentially expressed between peak and late lactation stages. Bovine lncRNA were shorter, with fewer exon numbers, and expressed at significantly lower levels than protein-coding genes. Seventy-two differentially expressed (DE) lncRNA were coexpressed with 340 different protein-coding genes. The KEGG pathway analysis showed that target mRNA for DE lncRNA were mainly related to lipid and glucose metabolism, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Further bioinformatics and integrative analyses revealed that 12 DE lncRNA potentially played important roles in bovine lactation. Our findings provide a valuable resource for future bovine transcriptome studies, facilitate the understanding of bovine lactation biology, and offer functional information for cattle lactation.
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