Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Salmonella by single and multiple wavelength ultraviolet-light emitting diodes Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Andrew Green, Vladimir Popović, Jacob Pierscianowski, Michael Biancaniello, Keith Warriner, Tatiana Koutchma
This study compared the inactivation efficacy and performance of UV-LEDs emitting at 259, 268, 275, 289, and 370 nm against a low pressure mercury lamp at 253.7 nm for the foodborne pathogens, E. coli, Listeria and Salmonella. Action spectra were determined for three pathogenic and three non-pathogenic strains and compared with UV absorbance of their bacterial DNA. The lethality of UV wavelengths correlated with bacterial DNA absorbance. At an equivalent UV dose (7 mJ·cm−2), UV-LEDs emitting at 259 and 268 nm achieved the highest log count reductions out of the tested wavelengths. Refrigeration (4 °C) increased irradiance of the 268 nm UV-LEDs while not affecting reduction of Listeria compared to 25°°C. Combining 259 and 289 nm UV-LED wavelengths at an equivalent UV dose had a synergistic effect on reduction of E. coli and Listeria, yielding a 1.2 and 0.6 log higher reduction, respectively, than the expected additive effect. Industrial relevance UV-LED treatment at 259, 268, and 275 nm can either equal or, in most cases, surpass the inactivation efficacy of traditional LPM lamps at 253.7 nm. Further, the determined action spectra can be used to identify the optimum inactivation wavelength for common foodborne pathogens and hence increase processing efficiency. In some cases, inactivation efficacy can be improved by combining UV wavelengths in order to achieve a synergistic effect. The effectiveness of UV-LED treatment at refrigeration temperatures validates their use in cold environments. Overall, UV-LEDs have strong potential within the food industry due to their advantages and possibilities for incorporation into a wide variety of treatment systems.
Fermentation of commercial soy beverages with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains featuring high β-glucosidase activity Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Susana Delgado, Lucía Guadamuro, Ana Belén Flórez, Lucía Vázquez, Baltasar Mayo
An increase of isoflavone aglycone content in soy foods can be attained through fermentation with food-grade bacteria. In this study, two commercial soy beverages with distinctive chemical composition (AS and VS) were fermented by strains of lactobacilli (eight strains) and bifidobacteria (two strains) with high β-glucosidase activity. Along fermentation, growth of the strains and isoflavone deglycosylation in the soy beverages were monitored. Large differences in growth, aglycone content and chemical parameters in AS and VS beverages fermented by different species and strains were observed. Isoflavone glycosides were completely transformed into their corresponding aglycones by most strains during fermentation of AS beverage, whereas large amounts of undeglycosilated isoflavones were still present in fermented VS. Four strains showing strong deglycosylation activity and appropriate technological properties (Lactobacillus casei LP71, Lactobacillus plantarum E112, Lactobacillus rhamnosus E41 and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum C35) were proposed as industrial starters to improve functionality in soy-based fermented foods.
Control of Brettanomyces bruxellensis on wine grapes by post-harvest treatments with electrolyzed water, ozonated water and gaseous ozone Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Francesco Cravero, Vasileios Englezos, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Fabrizio Torchio, Simone Giacosa, Susana Río Segade, Vincenzo Gerbi, Luca Rolle, Luca Cocolin
In this study, we investigated the possible effect of electrolyzed water (EW), aqueous ozone (WO) and gaseous ozone (GO) on Brettanomyces bruxellensis DSM 7001 strain artificially inoculated on the grape surface and on its evolution during the subsequent, inoculated must fermentation. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments against B. bruxellensis, as well as its presence during fermentation. Particularly, GO treatment of 24 h decreased its presence by about 2.1 Log, making it possible to reduce significantly the concentration of ethylphenols in the wine in relation to the control wine. EW and WO treatments caused less relevant reductions. The results showed that all the treatments reduced the presence of this yeast on grapes. However, in these experimental conditions it was not possible to achieve a complete removal of this undesirable yeast. Industrial relevance Brettanomyces spp. is considered a wine spoilage yeast due to its ability to produce off-flavors (described as Brett character) and high levels of acetic acid. Broad disinfectant action against microorganisms, eco-friendliness and easiness of on-site application are among the main advantages of the ozone and the electrolyzed water. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the EW, WO and GO treatments against B. bruxellensis inoculated on post-harvest grapes.
Comparison between thermal pasteurization and high pressure processing of bovine skim milk in relation to denaturation and immunogenicity of native milk proteins Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Dimuthu Bogahawaththa, Roman Buckow, Jayani Chandrapala, Todor Vasiljevic
High pressure processing (HPP), conducted at 400, 500 or 600 MPa for 15 min at 30 °C, of raw skim milk was studied in comparison to high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), considering protein denaturation and immunogenicity. HTST pasteurization least impacted denaturation of native proteins leading to mostly unchanged milk immunogenicity. HPP resulted in denaturation of whey proteins, mostly β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), and disturbed structure of the casein micelle. HPP at 600 MPa caused protein aggregation, involving mainly BLG and κ-casein, through thiol disulphide interactions. α-Lactalbumin (ALA) was least denatured. The balance between expression of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 type cytokines, which is believed to regulate adverse immune response, was initially shifted toward Th1 with increasing high pressure, then the immunogenic capacity of milk proteins diminished at 600 MPa. This could be related to exposure of T cell-specific linear epitopes followed by unfolding of protein structure firstly and masking of them by protein aggregation subsequently with increasing high pressure. Industrial relevance HPP of raw milk has been well studied as an alternative process for conventional thermal pasteurization, based on inactivation of microorganisms and extension of shelf life. However, HPP can denature native milk proteins leading to altered immunogenicity. Three recommended HPP conditions and a commercial HPP method were assessed in comparison to HTST pasteurization considering impact on denaturation of milk proteins and milk immunogenicity. Scientific findings of the current study would guide the industry to identify HPP conditions that not only achieve the required level of microbial inactivation and shelf life, but also to establish desired levels of native properties of milk and milk immunogenicity.
Effect of sodium metabisulfite pretreatment on micrographs, surface roughness and X-ray diffraction analyses of solar dried potato cylinders Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini Punam Tripathy, Shanker Lal Shrivastava
Most food industries perceive the significance of microscopy-based approaches to optimize existing drying processes to improve and control characteristics in dried food products. In this work, pretreated potato cylinders of 50 mm length and varying diameters of 8, 10 and 13 mm were dried in a mixed-mode solar dryer. Effect of pretreatment on surface properties of dried samples was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Microstructural analysis showed more porous and firm structure of pretreated samples. AFM images revealed the closeness of pretreated samples with raw sample. Lower values of skewness (0.084 ± 0.15; −0.840 ± 0.28) and kurtosis (2.243 ± 0.81; 3.550 ± 0.99) in case of cross-sectional and surface analysis of pretreated dried samples indicated smooth and undamaged surface. The degree of crystallinity and relative crystallinity of pretreated samples are overestimated in the range of 39.96–117.82% and 38.88–117.85% respectively. Industrial relevance This research is focused on studying the effect of pretreatment on surface and microstructural properties of solar dried potato cylinders. These properties will help in understanding the quality changes during drying and hence will be essential for enabling better process control and improvement in the product appearance by optimizing the pretreatment and drying parameters. Therefore, it is important for food industry to expedite practical applications of solar drying in food process engineering.
Modulation of the emulsifying properties of pea globulin soluble aggregates by dynamic high-pressure fluidization Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Bonastre Oliete, Francois Potin, Eliane Cases, Rémi Saurel
Investigation of conformation change of glycated ovalbumin obtained by Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation under drying treatment Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Guang-xian Liu, Jun Liu, Zong-cai Tu, Xiao-mei Sha, Hui Wang, Zhen-xing Wang
Irradiation can significantly improve the incorporation of glucose into protein. In this study, the efficacy on conformation change and glycation extent of ovalbumin (OVA) powder was investigated during Co-60 irradiation treatment. Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the conformation and structure change of glycation OVA under various irradiation doses condition. A dose dependent increase in UV absorbance and development of fluorescence was observed. Free amino groups content showed that up to 5 kGy irradiation could accelerate the glycation reaction between OVA and glucose, while there were inapparent differences among the other various doses. Intrinsic, synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectra showed that the glycation reaction caused the dynamic quenching of OVA and changed the polarity of the hydrophobic microenvironment (Trp and Tyr residues) of OVA with unfolding conformation change.
Impact of high pressure processing in hydration and drying curves of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Ricardo Henrique Belmiro, Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst, Marcelo Cristianini
High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal technology that can promotes structural changes inside the food matrix, affecting cells integrity and improving the water diffusivity and might starch gelatinization. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were processed by HHP up to 600 MPa and the process impact on hydration, drying, rehydration, cooking time and final texture were evaluated. Results showed that HPP improved the beans hydration (up to 4.7 times faster), drying (water diffusivity was 27% higher for sample processed at 600 MPa) and even rehydration (up to 2.1 times faster). Additionally, HPP reduced the cooking time of the beans in 15 min, due to the higher initial hydration. Therefore, HPP can be considered an interesting process to change the beans characteristics aiming to reduce the time of final prepare (hydration + cooking) or as a preprocessing to improve the drying efficiency.Industrial relevanceHHP, at short time, proved to be a technology capable in promoting technological improvement in bean processing, affecting both industrial (lower drying time) and consumer processing (lower hydration and cooking times) with no negative effects in the final texture of the grains.
Mathematical approach for the Listeria monocytogenes inactivation during high hydrostatic pressure processing of a simulated meat medium Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Arícia Possas, Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez, Antonio Valero, Francisco Rincón, Rosa Maria García-Gimeno
Based on a central composite experimental design, the effects of five factors: pH (4.6–6.6), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0–10%), sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0–152 ppm), pressure (P, 300–600 MPa) and pressure-holding time (t, 0–10 min) on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by high hydrostatic pressure processing on a simulated meat medium (SMM) were evaluated and quantified. Results showed that L. monocytogenes reductions during pressure treatments ranged from 0 to >6 log cfu/g. A polynomial inactivation model was developed being P, t and NaCl the only significant factors influencing HP-lethality (p ≤ 0.05). Inactivation on SMM increased with the increase in P and t, and a synergistic effect between both factors on process effectiveness was remarked. By increasing NaCl concentration (i.e. lowering aw values), a baroprotective effect on L. monocytogenes cells was evidenced. Besides the well-known effects of technological parameters, this study highlights the relevant influence of meat products formulations on the inactivation of L. monocytogenes induced by HHP processing.
Enrichment in phenolic compounds of black ripe olives through nano-filtration and vacuum evaporation techniques Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Pedro García-Serrano, Concepción Romero, Manuel Brenes, Pedro García-García
The aim of this work was to obtain ripe olives enriched in bioactive compounds of phenolic nature. For this, two partially purified solutions rich in phenols from the table olive processes were used as cover in the packaging: washing waters of Spanish-style green olives or previous preservation acid solutions of ripe olives. Both solutions were nano-filtered through a 4000 Da membrane and vacuum evaporated at pilot plant scale. Regenerated liquids were employed at 50% and 100% in the packing brine. Results demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a >3-fold higher concentration of phenolic compounds in olives than with the traditional method when using the regenerated washing water at 100% to enrich the packing brine. Moreover, a <2-fold higher concentration was found in olives enriched with the regenerated preservation solution at 100%. It must also be noted that the color, texture and flavor of the olives were not affected by the use of regenerated washing water as packing solution.Industrial relevanceAmong the different types of commercial table olives, black ripe have the lowest content in phenolic compounds. The methodology developed in this work will allow the enrichment of black olives in these bioactive substances, in particular hydroxytyrosol, which has been attributed to many beneficial properties for human health. The methodology is simple and easy to implement by processors. Hence, these results will contribute to the nutritional valorization of black ripe olives.
Food engineering and food science and technology: Forward-looking journey to future new horizons ☆ Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 I. Sam Saguy, Yrjö H. Roos, Eli Cohen
The overall objectives of this were to assess the status of Food engineering (FE), Food science and technology (FS&T) and related fields using a global web-survey included: identifying the major challenges and opportunities; and making specific recommendations for future possible paradigm shifts. Respondents from academia, private research institutes, industry, government, consulting and others sectors participated. The most important topics selected were: ‘Innovation/open innovation,’ ‘broad education and multidisciplinary capabilities,’ ‘career development & prospects,’ and ‘applied research,’ and lowest importance were ‘basic science’ and ‘salary.’ Highest possible impact on FE and FS&T future curricula were: ‘food safety, waste reduction/management’ and ‘environmental impact, food sustainability and security.’ Overwhelming majority (>68%) indicated that FE or FS&T should be integrated with other existing/evolving academic program. Principal component analysis yielded 3-new variables, offering insights on the relationship between geographical education location and sustainability, innovation and employability. The competitive landscape calls for reshaping of the domains vision.Industrial relevance•Basic research and salary were selected by the respondents to have a very low importance. Enhancing applied research, agility, attractiveness of the field and strengthen research relevance and collaboration with industry.•Both government/state and food industry financial support is a clear indication of the significant role they play in the innovation ecosystem collaboration.•Significant difference between North America & Canada and Europe on addressing innovation, soft skills and employability offer new insights on enhancing utilization of innovation, science, technology and impact.•Innovation and open innovation offer FE and FS&T unique new horizons for spearheading change and opportunities to alleviate typical industrial and academic conservativeness and risk aversion.
Pulsed electric field for increasing intracellular trehalose content in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 E.M.J. Vaessen, H.M.W. den Besten, T. Patra, N.T.M. van Mossevelde, R.M. Boom, M.A.I. Schutyser
Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been developed and applied in food industry for several purposes. In this study we used PEF for increasing the intracellular trehalose content in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Our results indicated that it is possible to increase intracellular trehalose content in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to ~100 mM with 75% survival when applying a PEF treatment with an electric field strength of 7.5 kV/cm. Fluorescence staining of PEF-treated cells with propidium iodide (PI) and SYTO 9 showed that at 7.5 kV/cm only a small fraction (23%) of the cells had a permeated membrane by this PEF treatment, of which approximately half had an irreversible permeated membrane. Resealing of the pores in the membrane for PI uptake was very fast, in the order of seconds. These results indicate that PEF treatment is promising for increasing intracellular trehalose, but further optimization is required to increase the trehalose content in all cells.Industrial relevanceThe market for probiotics is growing. Probiotic survival during processing steps such as spray drying is essential for their beneficial effect. We studied pulsed electric field treatment as a method to increase the intracellular trehalose content in L. plantarum WCFS1 which could enhance bacterial robustness during processing. This increased bacterial robustness may again contribute to more energy efficient processing routes of probiotic foods.
High pressure processing (HPP) of aronia berry puree: Pilot scale processing and a shelf-life study Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Bo Yuan, Mary-Grace C. Danao, Mei Lu, Steven A. Weier, Jayne E. Stratton, Curtis L. Weller
Aronia berry puree was subjected to 400 and 600 MPa, 5 min high pressure processing (HPP) and then microbial shelf-life and quality changes of aronia puree during 8-week refrigerated storage were evaluated. HPP reduced the aerobic plate counts (APC) significantly and APC changed insignificantly during the 8-week storage. HPP completely inactivated yeasts and molds, and no regrowth was observed during 8-week storage. In contrast, yeasts in untreated puree increased from 4.7 to 6.1 log CFU/g. Physicochemical properties, total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of aronia puree had insignificant changes right after HPP and during 8-week refrigerated storage. Total anthocyanin content of untreated samples and those treated at 400 MPa decreased continuously during the storage. HPP, especially processing at 600 MPa for 5 min, could be an effective preservation technique for microbial population reduction, quality retention, and shelf-life extension of aronia puree.Industrial relevanceThe growing demand for minimal processed and antioxidant-rich aronia berry products has stimulated the interest of food industry. Industrial sector demands methods to extend the microbial shelf-life and maintain its quality and nutritional values of aronia berry products during refrigerated storage. The results of this study demonstrated that HPP is effective in extending the microbial shelf-life, maintaining the quality and preserving the bioactive antioxidants of aronia berry puree during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage.
High pressure processing (HPP) of aronia berry purée: Effects on physicochemical properties, microbial counts, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacities Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Bo Yuan, Mary-Grace C. Danao, Jayne E. Stratton, Steven A. Weier, Curtis L. Weller, Mei Lu
The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 200 to 600 MPa for 2.5 or 5 min on physicochemical properties (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids content/TSSC, pulp content, particle size distribution, and viscosity), microbial counts (aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold counts), bioactive compounds (total phenolic and anthocyanin contents), and antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power) of aronia berry purée were investigated. All measurements were compared between HPP treated and untreated purées. TSSC and viscosity decreased significantly when pressurized above 400 MPa for 2.5 min and at all HPP conditions, respectively. Other physicochemical properties changed insignificantly after HPP. Pressurization at 400 and 600 MPa effectively reduced yeasts and molds to below 1 log CFU/g, and reduced aerobic bacteria to <2 log CFU/g only when pressurized for 5 min. No significant reduction in phenolic contents or antioxidant capacities in pressurized purée was observed.Industrial relevancePurée is a feasible form of aronia berry used as food product, considering the astringent taste of whole aronia berry. The results of this study suggest that HPP could significantly reduce the microbial counts of aronia berry purée, while retaining antioxidant capacities and most physicochemical properties of aronia berry purée. The outcomes could help the food industry apply HPP to the commercial production of aronia berry purée based food products to meet the quality standards with safety ensured.
Effect of thermal and high-pressure treatments on the antirotaviral activity of human milk fractions Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 José Antonio Parrón, Daniel Ripollés, Sergio José Ramos, María Dolores Pérez, Miguel Calvo, Lourdes Sánchez
Rotaviral gastroenteritis is associated with high rate of infant mortality and morbidity. Antirotaviral activity has been associated with some glycoproteins, such as immunoglobulins A (IgA), lactoferrin (LF), mucins and lactadherin of human milk. Although holder pasteurization (HoP, 63 °C for 30 min) is the treatment currently applied to human milk, it may lead to a decrease of its bioactive properties. The antirotaviral capacity of human milk showed to be mainly associated with the whey fraction, focusing on IgA and LF, with neutralizing values of 100, 100 and 62%, at 1 mg protein/mL, respectively. HoP reduced the antirotaviral activity of human whey, IgA and LF, 30, 98 and 60%, respectively. Interestingly, high temperature-short time (HTST) pasteurization at 75 °C for 20 s did not affect the antirotaviral activity of samples, while the highest HHP treatment at 600 MPa for 15 min only reduced the activity of human whey, IgA and LF, 9, 40 and 10%, respectively.
Effect of plant protein-polysaccharide complexes produced by mano-thermo-sonication and pH-shifting on the structure and stability of oil-in-water emulsions Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Gulcin Yildiz, Junzhou Ding, Juan Andrade, Nicki J. Engeseth, Hao Feng
Model-based energy performance analysis of high pressure processing systems Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 James C. Atuonwu, Savvas A. Tassou
Mathematical models are developed to simulate the behaviour of high pressure processing systems (single- and multi-cycle processes of different pulse-shapes) and predict the effects of processing parameters on their energy consumption. The validity of the models is established by comparing simulation results with experimental measurements from published works and the present study. Specific energy consumption is shown to depend mainly on holding pressure, pressure medium compressibility, equipment scale and vessel filling efficiency. Inlet temperature, compression and decompression times show negligible effects as do cycle pressure shapes. Longer compression times, however, reduce power capacity requirements, if all other conditions remain constant. The holding time has negligible effects on energy consumption, save for leakages and standby power, hence, extending it does not incur significant energy penalties. On the other hand, a drop in holding pressure leads to a more than proportionate drop in energy consumption. Hence, lower-pressure, longer-time processes are more advantageous from an energy standpoint, provided they satisfy product quality, safety and throughput requirements. Lower-compressibility fluids enable higher pressures to be established with lower energy losses. Higher equipment scales and vessel filling efficiencies reduce the proportion of wasted energy. These conditions are therefore beneficial for energy-efficient operation.Industrial relevanceThe production of clean-label, minimally-processed and microbial-safe food products with excellent nutritional, organoleptic properties and extended shelf life is becoming increasingly important. High-pressure processing HPP is a promising technology in this regard, increasingly being deployed at commercial scale. To reduce per-unit HPP product costs, which are currently higher than those of traditional thermal systems, it is important to reduce energy usage, which constitutes a significant proportion of operating costs. The modelling scheme developed in this work would help process designers and operators determine optimal processing conditions with respect to energy consumption, while satisfying product quality and safety constraints; providing a basis for improved process automation.
Heating surimi products using microwave combined with steam methods: Study on energy saving and quality Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-03 Hongwei Cao, Daming Fan, Xidong Jiao, Jianlian Huang, Jianxin Zhao, Bowen Yan, Wenguo Zhou, Wenhai Zhang, Hao Zhang
Moisture content plays an important role in aspects of the food processing such as energy transfer, food yield, and quality. This study investigated the effects of the moisture content of surimi on its electromagnetic characteristics. At moisture contents between 78% and 80%, both the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss increased, but gradually decreased with the increase of frequency. The strongest microwave absorption appeared at a thickness of 8 mm at 2.45 GHz. A moisture content of 0.45% was supplied to surimi using steam as an auxiliary heating method. The gel strength was obviously improved by a combination of microwave treatment (35 kW) and steam heating, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the network structure was also denser. In addition, the new heating mode with medium microwave power received the highest score on the comprehensive sensory evaluation after frying. The combination of microwave and steam preparation can save 11.68% ± 1.8% of the energy used in the conventional heating method, even when taking into account the combustion of methane produced during the wastewater treatment process.
Comparative study of ohmic vacuum, ohmic, and conventional-vacuum heating methods on the quality of tomato concentrate Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-03 Ali Fadavi, Saeed Yousefi, Hosain Darvishi, Hossein Mirsaeedghazi
In the present research, tomato juice was concentrated via Ohmic heating with two modes of operation, namely atmospheric condition (OHAC) and vacuum condition (OHVC), and conventional vacuum heating (CVH) as the control mode. The effect of heating conditions on the quality of tomato concentration (lycopene, turbidity, pH and acidity) and electrical conductivity were evaluated. The OHVC reduced the concentration time in the range of 10–30%, compared with the OHAC. The comparison of the mean value of the heating rate indicated that the vacuum application reduced the heating rate by 0.8%. The electrical conductivity of OHAC changed from 0.68 S/m at initiate point to 1.25 S/m at the boiling point then decreased to 1.05 S/m at the end of the process, the corresponding values for OHVC was 0.7, 1.13 and 1.11 S/m. The mean percentage change of pH, acidity, lycopene, and turbidity for OHVC were 0.47, 24.03, 7.99, and −30.77 respectively which were lower to the corresponding value for OHAC and CVH. It appears that the application of vacuum condition in the ohmic heating treatment of tomato juice can preserve juice quality. Industrial relevance Due to the high energy consumption of heating in the conventional processing methods, energy efficient systems are demanded for thermal concentration of juices. Ohmic heating is an emerging technology and a very promising in food industries. Comparing with conventional heating processes, ohmic heating can save energy and provide a rapid and uniform heating of pumpable food, resulting a product with a higher quality. The results showed that vacuum coupled with ohmic heating had a significant effect on quality. One of the keys to reducing the thermal damage to products during manufacture is the shortening of the heating time and reducing the boiling point, ohmic-vacuum heating required a lower time and boil at lower temperature, thereby is more advisable for thermal processing from the point of view of energy saving and quality aspects.
The impact of atmospheric cold plasma treatment on inactivation of lipase and lipoxygenase of wheat germs Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Haniye Tolouie, Mohammad Amin Mohammadifar, Hamid Ghomi, Amin Seyed Yaghoubi, Maryam Hashemi
Ultrasound-assisted lye peeling of peach and comparison with conventional methods Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Wenjun Wang, Lijuan Wang, Yiming Feng, Yunfeng Pu, Tian Ding, Xingqian Ye, Donghong Liu
In the present study, ultrasound-assisted lye peeling (ULP) was applied in peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and compared with other methods. Different lye concentrations, ultrasonic power density, peeling time and temperature were investigated during ULP process. To evaluate peeling effectiveness, peeled thickness, peeling loss, peach color and peeling performance score were determined. The effects of ULP on quality of peaches were also considered to determine the optimum peeling process. As a result, Lye concentration of 0.50 mol/L combined with a power density of 270 W/L for 90 s at 90 °C demonstrated the optimal peeling effectiveness. Compared with manual peeling, hot water peeling (90 °C, no lye), ultrasound-assisted hot water peeling (90 °C, no lye, 270 W/L) and lye peeling (90 °C, alkali concentration of 0.50 mol/L), ULP showed the highest peeling performance score accompanied with appropriated peeling loss and peeled thickness. The color, soluble solids and titratable acidity for ULP peaches showed slight difference from peaches peeled by other methods. Industrial relevance Traditional peeling methods especially LP not only led to excessive loss of pulp but also damaged the environment to a great extent. Ultrasound as a green technology enhanced mass transfer and heat transfer, further promoting the efficiency of peeling process. In this study, ULP showed higher peeling performance with reduced peeling time, and the peaches quality was guaranteed, demonstrating the potential of ULP as an alternative to conventional peach peeling methods.
Pulsed Electric Fields enhances calcium infusion for improving the hardness of blanched carrots Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Sze Ying Leong, Dafu Du, Indrawati Oey
This study investigated the feasibility of using Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) to facilitate calcium infusion, with the aim to improve the hardness of blanched carrots. Moreover, this study explored the relationships between carrot hardness and in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility, and between in vivo mastication effects and the in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility of different individuals. Findings showed that calcium infusion facilitated by PEF treatment at an electric field strength of 1.9 kV/cm was effective in improving the hardness of blanched carrots by 57%, leading to similar level of hardness for carrots subjected to conventional overnight soaking in calcium chloride solution followed by moderate temperature precooking (60 °C, 30 min). PEF could shorten the calcium infusion to 12.12 ms and reduce the required calcium concentration to 300 ppm. Moreover, in vivo mastication of blanched carrots preserved by new and conventional approaches revealed that the hardness perception and in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility of carrot samples were predominantly influenced by the differences in masticatory pattern between individuals. Overall, PEF would be a fast solution to enhance calcium infusion for preserving hardness of blanched carrots and the in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene was comparable between carrots with PEF-enhanced calcium infusion and conventional calcium infusion. Industrial relevance This study demonstrates the feasibility of using PEF to accelerate the infusion of calcium ions into carrot to preserve its hardness after blanching. It was found that overnight soaking of carrots with CaCl2 could be shortened tremendously in which the passive diffusion of calcium ions into the carrot cells can occur instantaneously during PEF at a lower concentration of CaCl2. Moreover, the application of a PEF-assisted calcium infusion pre-treatment can produce blanched carrots with similar hardness as those preserved with overnight calcium infusion followed by moderate temperature precooking at 60 °C for 30 min. This implies that PEF could replace the precooking step to achieve similar carrot hardness after blanching. More importantly, this study had gathered new information on how consumers perceived the hardness of blanched carrots preserved by PEF-assisted calcium infusion technique and on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids after an in vivo mastication to orally process the carrots.
Radio frequency heating uniformity evaluation for mid-high moisture food treated with cylindrical electromagnetic wave conductors Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Hankun Zhu, Dong Li, Jiwei Ma, Zhilong Du, Peigang Li, Shujun Li, Shaojin Wang
Non-uniform heating is an important obstacle for applying radio frequency (RF) energy in food processing, especially for the material with high moisture content. To further extend wide applications of the RF heating uniformity improvement based on our previous study with cross electromagnetic wave conductor (EWC), a novel and effective method with cylindrical electromagnetic wave conductors and cylindrical containers was introduced in this study to improve the electromagnetic energy distribution inside the sample with mid-high moisture content. The associated computer simulation model with cylindrical EWC and container was also developed and validated based on RF experimental results to evaluate the heating uniformity. The results showed that the parameters of EWC (diameter and height) had a positive effect on the RF heating uniformity index. The sample treated with cylindrical EWC had better heating uniformity but lower temperature than that treated with cross EWC based on the comparison results. The improved target uniformity index (TUI) and the decreased heating time also indicated the positive effects of cylindrical EWC. A simplified structure for cylindrical EWC was developed and evaluated by computer simulation, which may provide potential applications of the cylindrical EWC to achieve the required RF heating uniformity in mid-high moisture food.
Enzyme-assisted peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Tem Thi Dang, Nina Gringer, Flemming Jessen, Karsten Olsen, Niels Bøknæs, Pia Louise Nielsen, Vibeke Orlien
An enzymatic method to facilitate the peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) was developed. The protease solutions were used to mature the shrimps to promote shell-loosening prior to peeling. The efficiency of peeling enzyme-treated shrimps was evaluated by a new quantitative measurement based on the tensile force, presented as a peelability profile. It was found that enzymatic maturation efficiently improved the peelability of shrimps. The factors affecting the peelability of the enzyme-matured shrimps were the type of enzyme, enzyme concentration and maturation duration, while changes in pH had no impact. Maturation of shrimps in solutions of the endoproteases Endocut-01L (180 NU/g) and Endocut-03L (60 U/g) and the exoprotease Exocut-A0 (100 U/g) resulted in better peelability compared to shrimps matured in endoprotease Tail21 (65 U/mL) and 2% NaCl. A combination of 0.25% Endocut-03L and 0.25% Exocut-A0 for 20 h resulted in the best peeling of shrimps (100% completely peeled shrimps, 3 mJ/g work and 89% meat yield). Reuse of the enzyme solution was possible due to a 95% retention rate of proteolytic activity after two 20-h cycles of maturation. The studied enzymatic maturation offered a better shrimp product with respect to texture and color in comparison with an industrial brine-matured reference, i.e., ~22% higher redness and ~31% higher hardness. Industrial relevance Enzymatic maturation is an attempt made as a pre-treatment to facilitate the removal of the shell from meat of shrimp. This approach would benefit the shrimp processing industry by 1) enhancing peeling efficiency that includes least efforts to remove the shell, high rate of completely peeled shrimps and high meat yield; 2) shortening the duration of maturation but still sufficiently loosening the shell for machine peeling; 3) performing as a chemical-free peeling aid, which may increase the preference of consumers over chemical compounds; and 4) being environmentally friendly since disposal of enzyme waste is harmless to the environment.
High protein ingredients of microalgal origin: Obtainment and functional properties Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Aline Massia Pereira, Cristiane Reinaldo Lisboa, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
Protein concentrates and isolates were developed from the microalga Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass and characterized by functional aspects for food application. Proteins were solubilized at pH 11 and precipitated at pH 4.2 (protein isoelectric point determined by potentiometric titration), with the aid of a high-speed homogenizer. With this procedure, it was possible to obtain a protein concentrate with 83.9 ± 1.7 wt% of protein and a protein isolate with 91.3 ± 1.2 wt%. Protein extraction from this microalga allowed a significant increase in protein solubility and foam stability. Furthermore, proteins from both concentrate and isolate presented higher resistance to thermal denaturation than the original proteins of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass. These results show the application potential of the concentrate and the protein isolate from Spirulina sp. LEB 18 in foods for protein supplementation, since they have >80 and 90% protein, respectively. Industrial relevance text Using proteins from microalgal sources can serve as a sustainable alternative to meet world food demand. The isoelectric precipitation extraction method can be applied on a large scale, achieving high yields. Protein extracts present potential application in specific foods for protein supplementation. Protein extraction can be allied to other biocomposites extraction, such as carbohydrates and lipids for biofuels production.
Changes in the shelf life stability of riboflavin, vitamin C and antioxidant properties of milk after (ultra) high pressure homogenization: Direct and indirect effects Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Sion Sharabi, Zoya Okun, Avi Shpigelman
Changes in the stability during shelf life of riboflavin, vitamin C and the antioxidant capacity of (ultra) high pressure homogenized ((U)HPH) milk were explored. With increasing pressures, a decrease of up to 50% in the degradation rate of riboflavin was observed, likely due to an indirect effect induced by (U)HPH leading to increased scattering and absorbance of the wavelengths related to riboflavin's photosensitized oxidation. Such mechanism was also confirmed in a model system. Vitamin C presented minimal decrease in concentration immediately after (U)HPH treatment, yet it quickly degraded during shelf life. The antioxidant capacity of (U)HPH treated milk measured by ORAC showed a higher value when compared to pasteurized milk, yet no effect was observed by the ABTS method. The observed changes during shelf life, that can be related to direct and indirect processing effects suggest that (U)HPH can assist in possible improvement of milk nutritional quality. Industrial relevance Milk is a highly consumed product worldwide due to its high nutrient content. Novel innovative methods are constantly researched to improve the nutritional qualities of foods including milk. High or Ultra high pressure homogenization ((U)HPH, depending on the maximal pressure) is a novel technology that can possibly provide microbial inactivation in addition to numerous physicochemical changes in the product. The aim of this project was to evaluate the direct and indirect effect of (ultra) high homogenization pressures on nutritional qualities of milk exposed to fluorescent light during shelf life, conditions encountered in retail stores. A better fundamental understanding of the outcomes of novel processing technologies such as (U)HPH on quality parameters such as vitamin content and antioxidant properties can promote further development and acceptance of those technologies by the industry and by the consumers.
Sanitizing food contact surfaces by the use of essential oils Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 I. Falcó, M. Verdeguer, R. Aznar, G. Sánchez, W. Randazzo
Chemical sanitizers continue to be widely used by the food industry to disinfect food contact surfaces. However, as some chemical disinfectants have been reported to produce unhealthy by-products, alternative and natural compounds need to be investigated. To this end, nine essential oils (EOs) were screened to develop a natural sanitizing solution (SAN) for disinfecting food contact surfaces. Once extracted, their antimicrobial activity and chemical composition were determined. An exploratory multivariate approach was used to investigate the relationships between the chemical and microbiological data sets. Among the tested EOs, Thymbra capitata EO, containing up to 93.31% oxygenated monoterpenes (mainly carvacrol), showed the strongest antimicrobial activity and thus was assayed as a potential SAN for food contact surfaces. To this end, a SAN consisting of 1% T. capitata EO was first validated according to the AOAC standard, which showed about an 8 log reduction for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica after 30 and 60 s of contact time, respectively. Then, the SAN was evaluated at various concentrations, cleanliness conditions, and contact times on stainless steel, glass, and polypropylene surfaces for sanitizing purposes. The results showed that the SAN containing 2.5% of T. capitata EO applied for 10 min, reduced the levels of E. coli by >3 log and S. enterica by 1 log under clean working conditions on the three tested surfaces. These findings indicate that EOs can be used as natural disinfectants to decontaminate food contact surfaces, thus lowering the risk of the indirect transfer of bacterial pathogens to food or persons.
Simultaneous saccharification and cultivation of Candida utilis on cassava peel Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Olufunke Ezekiel, Ogugua Aworh
Candida utilis yeast, a rich source of proteins and vitamin B-complex was cultivated on cassava peel, a food processing waste, which was first liquefied with Termamyl 120 L α-amylase enzyme. The cultivation process was optimized simultaneously with saccharification with Novo AMG 300 L amyloglucosidase using response surface methodology approach. The design involved three duration of enzyme hydrolysis (0, 4.5 and 9 h) prior to inoculation with Candida utilis representing varied degrees of hydrolysis (0, 50 and 100%) and initial pH (4.5, 5.0 and 5.5). Measured responses were change in yeast protein ranging from 1.13 to 1.91 mg/ml, change in cell concentration ranging from 2.30 to 3.90 mg/ml and specific growth rate ranging from 0.21–0.51.100% hydrolysis and initial pH of 5.0 gave the highest changes in yeast protein (1.92 mg/ml) and cell concentration (3.90 mg/ml); 100% hydrolysis and pH 5.5 gave the highest specific growth rate. The optimal solution was obtained at pH of 5.5 and 100% degree of hydrolysis with a degree of desirability of 0.8. The cultivation of Candida utilis yeast on cassava peel is of high significance to food and agro-based industries for the production of value added products, waste disposal and valorisation. Industrial relevance Cassava peel is a major waste product from cassava processing industry which is faced with an enormous challenge regarding its disposal. This study revealed that Candida utilis can be cultivated successfully on cassava peel slurry; the cultivation of this yeast on cassava peel is of high significance to food and agro-based industries for the production of value added products waste disposal and valorisation.
Pulsed electric fields processing of apple tissue: Spatial distribution of electroporation by means of magnetic resonance imaging and computer vision system Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Nicolò Dellarosa, Luca Laghi, Luigi Ragni, Marco Dalla Rosa, Angelo Galante, Brigida Ranieri, Tiziana Marilena Florio, Marcello Alecci
The optimal application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology, used by food industry to assist mass transfer processes, depends on the effectiveness of the induced electroporation. The present work aimed at exploring the application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) combined with Computer Vision System (CVS) analysis to assess the spatial distribution of electroporation in apple tissue. PEF-treated apple samples were compared with Dipping (Dip) and Vacuum Impregnation (VI) to gain insight into the spatial distribution of mechanisms that lead to microstructural modifications over time. CVS showed that electroporation modified heterogeneously apple microstructure, causing enzymatic browning unevenly across the samples. MRI transverse relaxation times (T2) maps and longitudinal relaxation times (T1)-weighted images throughout apple tissue confirmed the inhomogeneous distribution and extent of the cell disruption, along with the release of intracellular content toward the external solution. Industrial relevance The novel applications of pulsed electric fields require fast and reliable methods to detect and estimate the breakage of the membranes integrity in order to boost their industrial adoption and optimization. The present study provided analytical tools able to monitor the spatial distribution of electroporation in plant tissue samples within minutes and consequently to speed up and improve the assessment of different PEF treatments.
Optimization of high pressure processing parameters to preserve quality attributes of a mixed fruit and vegetable smoothie Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 M.V. Fernandez, G.I. Denoya, M.V. Agüero, R.J. Jagus, S.R. Vaudagna
Fruit & Vegetable (F&V) smoothies are rich in nutrients and other health related compounds. However, they have a short shelf-life and the traditional methods applied to preserve them generate losses in their natural flavor and nutrients. The aim of this study was to optimize the pressure level (35–650 MPa) and holding time (1–9 min) of High Pressure Processing (HPP), performed at an initial temperature of 20 °C and only modified by adiabatic heating of a F&V smoothie in order to achieve microbial and enzymatic inactivation while maintaining its natural attributes. Response surface methodology with a Doehlert design and Desirability function were employed to simultaneously optimize these quality attributes. Results showed that HPP enhances microbial quality and does not affect pH, total soluble solids, texture and total phenolic content. Moreover, the optimal HPP treatment (627.5 MPa/6.4 min) leads to reductions of 85%, 45% and 10% on PME, POD and PPO, increases antioxidant capacity by 75% and maintains or slightly improves the color of the smoothie. Industrial relevance text F&V smoothies are tasty, healthy, convenient and ready to drink, fulfilling all the current demands of consumers. This has led to an accelerated increase in their popularity. However, they have a short shelf life mainly attributed to microbial and enzymatic spoilages. HPP is proposed as a non-thermal method able to prolong shelf-life of the products by means of microbial and enzymatic inactivation, while preserving bioactive compounds and quality characteristics. An optimization assay was carried out in order to find optimal process conditions for the F&V smoothie's preservation. The promising results obtained can help to promote the use of HPP as an alternative technology for the preservation of this kind of products.
How high pressure pre-treatments affect the function and structure of hen egg-white lysozyme Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst, Mariana Abrahão Bueno de Morais, Carolina Yumi Tominaga, Andrey Fabricio Ziem Nascimento, Mário Tyago Murakami, Marcelo Cristianini
A comparative study between high pressure homogenization (HPH, 40–120 MPa) and high pressure processing (HPP, 300–600 MPa) with respect to their effects on lysozyme structure and functionality was carried out. The results showed that high pressure processing induced: (i) activity increase in the presence of NaCl (≤0.6 M), especially for samples processed by HPH (up to 6 times at pH 4.5), (ii) thermal resistance reduction up to 34 and 40% for HPP and HPH, respectively, (iii) higher resistance to low pH, with consequent activity increase at pH 5.5 (up to 40% for HIP samples) and at pH 4.0 (up to 110% for HPH samples) and (iv) activity recovery up to 21 days of storage at 5 °C, indicating a molecular reorganization after processing. Structurally, only discrete and transient alterations were observed by X-ray crystallography. Therefore, the results highlighted that HPP and HPH reversibly changed the lysozyme functionality in different ways and is an interesting alternative to improving lysozyme performance, if carried out immediately before enzyme usage. Industrial relevance HPP and HPH are generally described as technologies able to increase the activity of several enzymes and are suggested as tools to improve the performance of commercial enzymes. The results showed that both processes improved lysozyme functionality, but the structural alteration was slight and probably transient, possibly indicating the need for processing the lysozyme immediately before using it to ensure functional gains.
High pressure induced water absorption and gelatinization kinetics of paddy Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Chandrakala Ravichandran, Soumya Ranjan Purohit, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao
The effect of high pressure on water absorption, diffusion and gelatinization Characteristics of paddy (Basmati cv.) were studied in the pressure range 350–550 MPa. Two different soaking conditions were considered, in first condition, grains were pre-soaked at 40 °C for 6 h prior to treatment, and in second condition grains were treated directly without pre-soaking. These two conditions were exposed to pressure at 350, 450 and 550 MPa; temperature of 30, 40 and 50 °C for 300, 600, 900 and 1200 s, respectively. The pressure was found to act synergistically with temperature influencing the water absorption in grains and facilitating moisture absorption up to 50% (db) in pre-soaked grains. However, the rate of water absorption was even higher in case of un-soaked grains with diffusivity values of 9.30 × 10−10 m2/s. Therefore, treatment of unsoaked grain at 450 MPa at 30 °C for 600 s was found sufficient to reach 40% moisture content (db). On the other hand, maximum gelatinization up to 25% was achieved in pre-soaked grains treated at highest pressure and temperature studied (550 MPa for 50 °C). The rate of gelatinization followed first-order kinetic model at any given pressure and temperature and the rate constant (k) was observed to be vary minimally with pressures and temperatures. The Arrhenius model and Eyring's model was used for the prediction of the activation energy (Ea) and activation volume (ΔV) for the reaction, which was indicative of restricted gelatinization of paddy starch. Industrial relevance In order to use high pressure as an alternative technique to thermal parboiling, a full understanding of pressure-induced water absorption, diffusion and gelatinization kinetics are necessary. Adoption of high pressure processing for water absorption by paddy can be very much promising in order to reduce the processing time.
Packaging concepts for fresh and processed meat – Recent progresses Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Benjamin Schumann, Markus Schmid
Modern societal, economic, nutritional and ecological changes warrant the continued evolution of packaging solutions in order to meet new requirements. This review examines current advances in the development of novel packaging related technologies, methods and materials for fresh and processed meat. The current focus of research has been found to concentrate on the development of sustainably producible packaging materials as well as increased functionality of packaging systems in general. Active & intelligent packaging solutions are showing great promise for the improvement of packaging functionality and will enable extended shelf life, higher quality and greater safety of packed meat. Novel approaches in this field are increasingly examining the use of natural functional additives and combination methods. Although often held back by legal restrictions, low retail or consumer acceptance and sometimes incomplete development, intelligent packaging systems are still being devised and show good potential for augmenting the present methods for maintaining the safety of packed meat. The overall goals of current research are to enhance the safety and quality of packed meat while reducing costs and negative environmental impacts by utilizing natural materials and synergy effects. Good efforts are being made with regard to these objectives although many promising concepts still require some additional refining for commercialization.
Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on coriander by freeze-drying and supercritical CO2 drying Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Siméon Bourdoux, Andreja Rajkovic, Stijn De Sutter, An Vermeulen, Sara Spilimbergo, Alessandro Zambon, Gerard Hofland, Mieke Uyttendaele, Frank Devlieghere
Coriander, either fresh or inoculated with three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, was treated with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, with and without drying) or freeze-dried. After drying in scCO2 for 150 min at 80 bar and 35 °C, the aerobic plate count, yeasts and molds, and the Enterobacteriaceae were reduced by 2.80, 5.03, and 4.61 log CFU/g, respectively. The total count of mesophilic aerobic spores was not significantly reduced by the treatment. Freeze-drying induced lower reductions with 1.23, 0.87, and 0.97 log CFU/g, respectively. After treatment at 100 bar and 40 °C without drying, inoculated strains of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes were inactivated by >7.37, >4.73 and 4.99 log CFU/g, respectively. After drying in scCO2 for 150 min at 80 bar and 35 °C, the strains were reduced by >5.18 log CFU/g. Freeze-drying resulted in lower inactivation with maximum 1.53, 2.03, and 0.71 log reduction, respectively. This study indicated that scCO2 can be used for drying while offering a good inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes as well as most of the bacteria in the vegetative form naturally occurring on coriander. Industrial relevance Although dried foods are considered microbiological stable foods and show adverse conditions to microbial growth, they may still host pathogenic microorganisms, which may proliferate upon sufficient rehydration. Highly contaminated commodities such as herbs and spices can pose a threat to consumer health if not processed carefully. There is therefore a need to develop or improve drying techniques which can provide dried foods while reducing the initial contamination to acceptable levels in a single process. CO2 is a cheap, accessible solvent, with a low critical point (31 °C, 73.8 bar). Moreover, in the supercritical region, CO2 exhibits potent microbicidal properties. Therefore, supercritical CO2 drying could be a valuable alternative non-thermal technique for conventional drying methods, such as air-drying or freeze-drying, when medium to high value-added food products with high initial contamination are involved.
Closed-loop spray drying solutions for energy efficient powder production Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 S.N. Moejes, Q. Visser, J.H. Bitter, A.J.B. van Boxtel
This paper introduces a closed-loop dryer system to reduce the energy consumption for milk powder production. The system is based on a monodisperse droplet atomizer which reduces the amount of fines in the exhaust air, and allows dehumidification and recirculation of the air over the dryer. In this way the latent and sensible heat from the dryer exhaust are recovered. Two adsorbent systems for dehumidification are discussed; a membrane contactor with a liquid desiccant, and a zeolite sorption wheel. Four configurations for closed-loop spray drying are simulated and optimized. By heat integration of the adsorber-regenerator system with the dryer and preceding concentration step, the energy consumption is significantly reduced to 4.9 MJ heat per kg milk powder. The final heat integration solutions were obtained by simultaneous optimization of the operational conditions and the heat exchanger network based on pinch analysis. Industrial relevance Drying is an energy intensive operation in processing. To comply with the upcoming regulations that arise from the EU goals for sustainable development, the energy consumption of drying processes should be reduced drastically. Emerging technologies are the key for the next step in energy efficiency improvement. A closed-loop spray drying system for milk powder production is simulated and optimized in this work. The proposed technologies are: monodisperse droplet drying, membrane contactor and a zeolite wheel. By applying air dehumidification and heat integration the latent and sensible heat are recovered from the exhaust air. The energy consumption for milk concentration and spray drying has the potential to be lowered from 8.4 to 4.9 MJ heat per kg milk powder. Although milk powder has been considered, the proposed system is also applicable to other food products, as well as in the (bio)chemical, pharmaceutical and paper industry.
Valorization of pineapple waste for the extraction of bioactive compounds and glycosides using autohydrolysis Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Leonardo Sepúlveda, Aloia Romaní, Cristóbal Noé Aguilar, José Teixeira
Autohydrolysis process, an alternative technology that uses only water as extraction solvent, was evaluated for the extraction of glycosides and polyphenols from pineapple waste. A Box-Behnken design was carried out using different temperatures (150–200 °C), solid-liquid ratio (1:40–1:10 w/v) and reaction time (15–45 min). The best condition for the production of glucose (27.6 g/L) and fructose (33.8 g/L) was 150 °C, 30 min and 1:10 w/v while the highest amount of extracted total polyphenols (1.75 g/L) was obtained at 200 °C, 30 min and 1:10 w/v solid-liquid ratio. In all treatments were detected gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, coumaric acid and caffeic acid. These results indicate autohydrolysis as a valuable alternative for the sustainable extraction of high value-added molecules for further use in industrial, food, cosmetic and health applications.
A novel biodegradable film from edible mushroom (F. velutipes) by product: Microstructure, mechanical and barrier properties associated with the fiber morphology Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Wenhang Wang, Kai Zhang, Cong Li, Shan Cheng, Jingyang Zhou, Zinan Wu
In order to efficiently utilize mushroom-processing waste discharge, insoluble fiber (FVIF) from aged Flammulina velutipes stipe was prepared with a series of wet milling steps of colloid mill (CM), PFI, low pressure homogenization (LPH) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) and formed into film by casting method. The SEM images depicted that morphology and size of FVIF varied (fibrous to spherical; 5 um to 50 nm) with a tendency of uniform and micronization as homogenization intensity increased. Accordingly, HPH-fiber film presented a smoother surface and more compact internal structure, especially a higher tensile strength (49.83 ± 3.63 MPa) and a better barrier property to water vapor (0.095 ± 0.003a g·mm/m2·h·kPa) and oxygen (9.96 ± 0.63 meq/kg). Moreover, HPH benefited the film's thermal stability, color and transparency. It confirmed that film performance is closely associated with fiber morphology and HPH provides a potential approach to develop new edible film from mushroom byproducts.
System feasibility: Designing a chlorine dioxide self-generating package label to improve fresh produce safety part II: Solution casting approach ☆ Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Carol Saade, Bassam A. Annous, Anthony J. Gualtieri, Karen M. Schaich, LinShu Liu, Kit L. Yam
This work evaluated the ability of an innovative and practical package label made from biobased polymers impregnated with sodium chlorite and citric acid to generate and release chlorine dioxide (ClO2) at levels sufficient to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on packaged fresh produce. The concentrations of generated ClO2 by these labels were dependent on the number of layers used and the inclusion of barrier layers. Release rates decreased exponentially with number of layers, providing an additional level of control. Storage temperature had no significant effect on the release of ClO2. All labels released ClO2 at concentrations capable of complete inactivation of Salmonella cells on TSA plates. Under low-humidity conditions, the labels reduced the levels of Salmonella on inoculated mung bean seeds by up to 2.0 log CFU/g. These results indicate that these labels can be used in a wide range of storage environments for enhancing safety and shelf-life of packaged fresh produce. Industrial relevance The biobased packaging labels present a commercially viable solution to the problem of controlling microbial growth on fresh produce. Due to the ease of manufacture under existing commercial coating technology, they can be produced and activated simultaneously with fresh produce packaging in the plant. These labels can be adapted to different food safety requirements by modulating the number of functional biobased layers, without or with biobased barrier layers, and label surface areas for generating the required concentration of ClO2 at the optimal rate.
High power ultrasound frequency for olive paste conditioning: Effect on the virgin olive oil bioactive compounds and sensorial characteristics Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Mohamed Aymen Bejaoui, Araceli Sánchez-Ortiz, Maria Paz Aguilera, Maria J. Ruiz-Moreno, Sebastian Sánchez, Antonio Jiménez, Gabriel Beltrán
High power utrasound (HPU) treatment of olive paste is used to enhance malaxation or as alternative to malaxer. Because previous laboratory scale experiments were conducted at different frequencies, it's necessary to determine the best work frequency for future application at industrial scale. For these reasons experiment of HPU treatment applying three different frequencies 20, 40 and 80 kHz were carried out and compared with a reference without treatment. The virgin olive oil (VOO) were extracted after treatments by two procedures: HPU application and direct centrifugation and HPU application followed by malaxation and centrifugation. HPU treatment did not show alteration on the VOO fatty acid composition and phenolic compounds. The volatile compounds, related to the positive sensorial attribute, showed levels similar to those from conventional malaxation and those related to the off flavors were not observed. The HPU treatment gave Extra VOO with a more equilibrated sensorial profile.
Effect of thermosonication batch treatment on enzyme inactivation kinetics and other quality parameters of cloudy apple juice Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 A.E. Illera, M.T. Sanz, O. Benito, S. Varona, S. Beltrán, R. Melgosa, A.G. Solaesa
Cloudy apple juice has been treated by thermosonication in batch mode as an alternative processing to thermal treatment. Thermosonication was found to be effective to inactivate polyphenol oxidase; however, pectinmethylesterase was found to be more resistant. An increase of the working ultrasound amplitude and the amount of energy supplied to the juice led to lower enzyme residual activities. Enzyme inactivation kinetics were determined at different temperatures (from 44 to 67 °C). Inactivation data were described by the first order kinetic model and the Weibull model, both models yielding good fitting. Thermosonication treatment caused a homogenization effect reflected in the shifting of the particle size distribution towards smaller diameters. The effect of the nature of dissolved gases in the juice on enzyme inactivation was studied by displacing the air dissolved in the juice by bubbling nitrogen or carbon dioxide, previous to the thermosonication experiments. Higher inactivation rates were obtained by displacing the air with nitrogen. Industrial relevance Consumers demand of natural and fresh-like products has driven the food industry to investigate alternative technologies to replace conventional food heat treatments that may affect food quality. Among these technologies, thermosonication treatment is an attractive technology that can inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. This work shows that some enzymes that cause deleterious effect on cloudy apple juice can be more effectively inactivated by thermosonication than by thermal treatment, in the same temperature range, reducing the damages caused by heating.
Mechanism characterization of bacterial inactivation of atmospheric air plasma gas and activated water using bioluminescence technology Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Shyam Suwal, Claudia P. Coronel-Aguilera, Jameson Auer, Bruce Applegate, Allen L. Garner, Jen-Yi Huang
We assessed the efficacy of bacterial inactivation using a dielectric barrier discharge in three different plasma setups: plasma gas (PG), and direct and indirect plasma activated water (PAW), where deionized water was placed either between or away from the electrodes, respectively. We used bioluminescent Escherichia coli K12 lux as a model bacteria in a biosensor format to study the inactivation kinetics and mechanism of action of produced PG and PAW. The results showed that uninterrupted application of PG decreased bioluminescence rapidly by 1-log within the first minute and 3.6-log after 10 min of treatment. Exposing the bacterial culture with a sublethal dose of PAW (1 mL) rapidly decreased the bioluminescence; however, luminescence slowly recovered after exposure. Subsequent treatment with PAW decreased the bioluminescence to a lesser extent. In addition, direct PAW induced a greater decrease in bioluminescence compared to indirect treatments for both single and multiple exposures. In contrast to the PG, PAW treatments induced a lower bactericidal effect with 0.11 to 0.22-log reduction for indirect PAW and 0.2 to 0.32-log for direct PAW. Our results also indicate that antimicrobial activity of PAW decreased slowly within 20 min of its preparation. The rapid decrease in bioluminescence followed by a partial recovery in a repeatable pattern suggests an incomplete inactivation, and that the reducing power of the cell helps them to survive. Moreover, the complete and partial oxidation of NADH solutions in vitro by PG and PAW, respectively, strongly suggest that the lux fluorophore FMNH2 and other reducing cofactors could be the target of such treatment before other cell components. This hypothesis was supported by the tendency to recover luminescence by potentially replenishing the pool of FMNH2 after plasma treatment. It is also important to consider that the reducing power of the cell (NADH, NADPH, and FMNH2) is crucial for cell viability mostly due to reducing potential for critical metabolic reactions. Therefore, in situ bioluminescence monitoring technology can potentially serve as a unique approach to elucidate the mechanism of bacteria inactivation in real time. Industrial relevance The present study developed three dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma setups to produce plasma gas and plasma activated water, which can disinfect both food products and their contact surfaces regardless of geometry. Our in situ bioluminescent technology elucidated bacterial inactivation mechanisms of plasma treatments, which may potentially suggest sufficient exposures to plasma resulting in safe food products without deteriorating their quality. The results will help food manufacturers apply new plasma-based disinfection methods with appropriate treatments.
Effect of high pressure on the antimicrobial activity and secondary structure of the bacteriocin nisin Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-02 Chloé Modugno, Camille Loupiac, Antoine Bernard, Audrey Jossier, Fabrice Neiers, Jean-Marie Perrier-Cornet, Hélène Simonin
Effect of high pressure (HP) treatment on the antimicrobial properties and the structure of nisin was evaluated. Nisin solutions at pH 2.8 or 6.1 were treated by HP at 500 MPa – 10 min – 20 °C and their antimicrobial potency was determined. It appeared that HP clearly impacted the antimicrobial activity of nisin, with respective activity loss of 22.5% and 49.9% at pH 2.8 and 6.1. Structural analysis of nisin by circular dichroism and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies revealed that the decrease of nisin antimicrobial activity was likely due to the unfolding of the protein induced by HP. A loss of nisin β-turns structure, particularly significant at neutral pH, was linked to the drastic drop in antimicrobial activity, as these structures are implicated in the nisin interaction with the bacterial membrane. Industrial relevance The combination of nisin and high pressure (HP) can be use at an industrial scale to inactivate bacteria. Nisin is allowed as a food additive (E234) and can be added at a final concentration ranging from 120 to 500 IU/g, depending on the product. In this work, we showed that HP can induce a significant reduction of nisin activity (- 22.5% at pH 2.8 and -49.9% at pH 6.1). Therefore, this activity loss could be taken into account to manage the final nisin concentration in HP-treated food products.
Active packaging using an olive leaf extract and high pressure processing for the preservation of sliced dry-cured shoulders from Iberian pigs Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 G. Amaro-Blanco, J. Delgado-Adámez, M.J. Martín, R. Ramírez
The effect of an active packaging (AP) based on olive leaf extract and/or high pressure processing (HPP) was evaluated for the preservation of sliced Iberian dry-cured shoulders during storage. Shoulders came from Iberian pigs (100%) reared outdoors in the Dehesa and fed with acorns and pasture. Dry-cured shoulders were sliced and vacuum packaged in an active packaging with olive leaf extract. HPP at 600 MPa for 7 min was applied to packages and microbiological, color, oxidative and sensory changes were evaluated during 150 days of refrigerated storage. High reductions of microbial counts were found after HPP and the subsequent storage. Instrumental color parameters of dry-cured shoulder were similar in control and AP and/or HPP, and values were stable during storage. Neither AP and/nor HPP modified lipid oxidation values; and during refrigerated storage similar increases of TBA-RS were found in all treatments. Protein oxidation did not show significant differences among treatments, however, protein oxidation was not modified during storage. Most sensory parameters (appearance, taste, flavor and texture) did not show significant differences due to AP and/or HPP. Therefore, AP with olive leaf extract was not effective to preserve sliced dry-cured shoulder alone or combined with HPP. HPP was effective to decrease microbial counts, also, oxidative, color and sensory parameters were not affected after processing and after 150 days of refrigerated storage. Likely oxidative characteristics of shoulders from pigs reared outdoors would be partly responsible of the high stability of this product during processing and storage. Industrial relevance The demand of sliced dry-cured Iberian ham has importantly increased in the last years. During the slicing and packaging, the shelf-life and the safety of the hamcan be reduced. Industrial sector demands new methods to prolong the shelf-life and maintain the original quality of sliced ham during storage. The utilization of an active packaging with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties could increase the shelf-life of this product. Hydrostatic high pressure processing is a non-thermal food processing technology which allows the inactivation of pathogens. The combined effect of both methods (processing and packaging) could improve the antimicrobial effect while preserve the quality after processing to enhance the shelf-life of the product.
Application of high pressure processing for prevention of greenish-gray yolks and improvement of safety and shelf-life of hard-cooked peeled eggs Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz, Bora Jeong, Jeong Un Kim, Namho Ha, Hyunah Lee, Sang-Do Ha, Jiyong Park
Hard-cooked peeled eggs (HCEs) are value-added ready-to-use egg products susceptible to microbial re-contamination during post-processing stages. A post-processing terminal step using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP 500, 550, 600 MPa for 5 min at 25 °C) was applied to ensure maximum safety of HCEs and the effects of processing were evaluated and compared with a commercial thermal post-processing intervention using steam heating. A significant discoloration in the form of greenish-gray yolks was observed in HCEs after steam heat post-processing due to overcooking. Color values of the HCE yolk (L*, a*, b*) after HHP post-processing were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from non-post-processed HCEs. Non-thermal and thermal post-processing interventions each kept the growth of microbial contaminants at < 104 CFU/g throughout 45 days of refrigerated storage. Microbial counts in non-post-processed HCEs exceeded this safety limit within 3 d. Sensory analysis showed significantly higher preference scores for the quality attributes of HCEs post-processed with HHP than with steam heating. Inactivation curves of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated onto HCE surfaces after all HHP levels were well-fitted to the biphasic mathematical model. HHP post-package pasteurization at 550 MPa for 5 min showed potential as a terminal non-thermal kill step for commercial production of HCEs. Industrial relevance A non-thermal post-processing intervention using HHP can be considered as a terminal kill step during commercial production of HCEs to ensure maximum microbiological safety and to extend the shelf life of HCEs without formation of unappetizing greenish-gray yolks. The biphasic mathematical model can be used to predict growth and survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in HCEs and to conduct a risk analysis of this type of food products.
Enrichment of waste yeast with bioactive compounds from grape pomace as an innovative and emerging technology: Kinetics, isotherms and bioaccessibility Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-14 Fernanda Thaís Vieira Rubio, Giselle Maria Maciel, Marcos Vieira da Silva, Vanesa Gesser Corrêa, Rosane Marina Peralta, Charles Windson Isidoro Haminiuk
Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass obtained from brewing industry was thermally and chemically modified and applied for the biosorption of phenolic compounds from Cabernet Sauvignon and Bordeaux grape pomace extracts. The main purpose of this research was to enrich biomasses with bioactive compounds as an alternative for industrial waste recovery. Yeasts prepared by alkaline treatment showed the best performance in the uptake of phenolic compounds, with the highest sorption capacity of 190.28 mg g− 1 when in contact with Cabernet Sauvignon extract, 93.2% higher in comparison to non-treated yeast biomass. Biosorption was able to increase the bioaccessibility of grape pomace extracts. Alkaline pretreated yeasts showed an antioxidant capacity of 188.90 μmol TE L− 1, 196% higher than yeasts without treatment, and a bioaccessibility 147% higher than control yeast suspension. Enriched biomasses display an important role in the preservation of the antioxidant capacity and in the bioaccessibility of compounds even after an in vitro digestion.
Impact of pulsed light treatments and storage time on the texture quality of fresh-cut tomatoes Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-08-18 C. Guillermo Valdivia-Nájar, Olga Martín-Belloso, Robert Soliva-Fortuny
The effect of pulsed light (PL) treatments at fluences of 4, 6 or 8 J cm− 2 on microbial growth, weight loss, pectinmethyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities of fresh-cut tomatoes was evaluated through 20 days of storage at 5 °C. Additionally, a pair-wise comparison test was assayed to determine whether potential consumers could detect differences between untreated and PL-treated samples. Microbial counts of PL-treated tomato slices were up to 2 Log CFU g lower than those on untreated samples over storage. Fresh-cut tomatoes exhibited slight firmness decrements, changes in the pectinolytic enzymes and increased weight losses over the storage. However, sensory evaluation did not reveal significant differences over at least 10 days. In summary, PL-treatments showed to be effective to reduce the microbial growth with a low impact on the physical quality of fresh-cut tomatoes. Industrial relevance PL-treatments are proposed as a non-thermal strategy to increase the safety of fresh-cut commodities. In spite of their non-thermal nature, these treatments may have a photothermal effect, which could be deleterious to the product quality and shelf-life. This study contributes to the understanding of PL and its impact on the physical quality of fresh-cut tomatoes, thus helping to identify the range of conditions that can be industrially applied without causing major texture damage on the treated product.
Evaluation of the impact of high pressure on the storage of filled traditional chocolates Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-04 João Dias, Patrícia Coelho, Nuno B. Alvarenga, Ricardo V. Duarte, Jorge A. Saraiva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (400 MPa for 2.5 min and 500 MPa for 1 min) and storage temperature (4 °C and 20 °C), on the physicochemical, rheological and microbiological properties of filled chocolates during storage time. The results showed that the physicochemical (moisture, water activity and pH) and microbiological parameters (total aerobic mesophiles, moulds and yeasts) were particularly affected, at 20 °C, during storage time (P < 0.05). The dynamic rheological parameters (G′ and G″) were not affected by pressure or time of HHP treatment, but were affected by the higher storage temperature especially after 180 d. The mechanical spectra of chocolate fillings stored at 4 °C was the least affected, when compared with the chocolates stored at 20 °C (0.1 MPa/20 °C, 400 MPa/20 °C and 500 MPa/20 °C). Industrial relevance The preservation of traditional filled chocolates can present some hurdles due to the use of perishable raw materials, physical changes during processing, and also to the influence of external factors, which tend to shorten shelf-life. The most important factors that contribute to the shelf-life of filled chocolates include physical properties (i.e. drying, sugar bloom or fat bloom), microbiological stability (i.e. the use of ingredients with high water content will ease the development of moulds and yeasts) and chemical properties (i.e. oxidation of fatty acids or hydrolysis of fatty acids or saponification). The use of HHP in filled chocolates could be an important contribution to improve the food safety of high quality filled chocolates as an alternative to conventional heating treatments or refrigeration.
Application of innovative technologies, moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields and high-pressure thermal treatment, to preserve and/or improve the bioactive compounds content of pumpkin Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 J. García-Parra, F. González-Cebrino, J. Delgado-Adámez, R. Cava, O. Martín-Belloso, P. Elez-Martínez, R. Ramírez
The application of novel technologies such as moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) and/or high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments improved the quality of processed pumpkin. MIPEF was applied to whole pumpkin in order to increase the bioactive compounds content, in contrast, HPT treatment was applied in order to preserve the purées. Traditional thermal treatment (TT) of pasteurization and sterilization was compared with equivalent HPT treatments. The effect of processing (TT vs. HPT) in purées made from pumpkin pretreated with MIPEF was evaluated. Microbiological counts, enzyme inactivation (polyphenol oxidase, PPO) and bioactive compounds content (carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity) were analyzed in all processed purées. Regarding the pretreatment of the pumpkin, the application of MIPEF increased the content of some bioactive compounds of interest, such as carotenoids. The HPT treatment equivalent to sterilization preserved high levels of carotene compounds and antioxidant activity of pumpkin purée although this treatment importantly modified the original color of purée. However, the HPT treatment equivalent to pasteurization did not inactivate PPO enzyme in contrast to the effect reached by the equivalent TT. The bioactive compounds levels in HPT treated purée were similar or lower than those treated by TT. Industrial relevance Pulsed electric fields and high pressure thermal processing are emerging non-thermal food processing technologies. Moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) were applied to increase the generation of bioactive compounds in vegetables. This treatment enhanced the carotenoids content in pumpkin. High pressure thermal treatment (applied at conditions equivalent to sterilization) was the method that best preserved pumpkin purées. The application of MIPEF to pumpkin and HPT treatment to the resulting purées could be proposed as a strategy for producing and preserving vegetable products with high bioactive compounds content.
Impact of fluidized bed granulation on structure and functional properties of the agglomerates based on the durum wheat semolina Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-07 Bettina Bellocq, Bernard Cuq, Thierry Ruiz, Agnès Duri, Kevin Cronin, Denis Ring
The granulation step determines the production yield and the final characteristics of the agglomerated couscous grains of durum wheat. The objective of the present work was to explore the capability of the fluidised bed technology to produce agglomerates of durum wheat semolina. The impacts of different processing conditions have been investigated on the structure and functional properties of the agglomerates. The size, shape, water content, compactness, and mechanical strength of the granules were measured. The fluidized bed agglomeration process has been found to produce agglomerates of durum wheat with different attributes compared to those produced by granulation using the low shear mixers. The results were discussed in regard to the hydro-textural approach, in order to get a better understanding of the mechanisms and relationships between process, structure, and properties. Two major agglomeration mechanisms contribute to the growth of the wet agglomerates: a fractal-structuring process followed by a phenomenon of densification. By studying the evolution of the compactness, diameter and water content, it was demonstrated that inter granular arrangements led to an expansion followed by a densification of the wet agglomerates. A relationship was proposed to describe the growth using a fluidized bed of the wet agglomerates of durum wheat semolina.
Inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice by microwave and conventional thermal processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Érica Sayuri Siguemoto, Jorge Andrey Wilhelms Gut, Antonio Martinez, Dolores Rodrigo
The inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 4972) and Listeria monocytogenes (CECT 4032) inoculated in apple juice were evaluated under conventional isothermal treatments at four temperatures (55, 60, 65 and 70 °C) and microwave heating at four power levels (400, 600, 800 and 1000 W). For both thermal treatments, it was possible to achieve a 5-log10 reduction, as recommended by the FDA. The survival curves were non-log-linear and were well described by the Weibull model. To compare treatments, the survival ratio was calculated over the time temperature history of the microwaved samples based on the Weibull parameters for conventional heating and it was compared with the experimental data. Results show that microwave microbial inactivation was more efficient than predicted in 18 out of 28 tests, which suggests the existence of enhanced inactivation under microwave heating. Industrial relevance The growing demands for natural and nutritious foods have promoted the development of preservation technologies to ensure consumer safety and to preserve the original nutritional and organoleptic characteristics of the food. Among the emerging technologies, microwave heating has shown great potential for the continuous pasteurization of fluid foods offering rapid volumetric heating, lower surface temperatures and possible enhanced effects. The result of this study shows that microwave pasteurization of apple juice is a promising technology to enhance microbial safety.
Nanoencapsulated Thymus capitatus essential oil as natural preservative Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Mariem Ben Jemaa, Hanen Falleh, Raja Serairi, Marcos A. Neves, Mejdi Snoussi, Hiroko Isoda, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Riadh Ksouri
In the present study, a nanoemulsion was developed to improve the functional performance of Thymus capitatus essential oil (thyme EO) as natural food preservative. Thyme EO was submitted to phytochemical prospection and its safety limit was evaluated by acute oral toxicity. Hereafter, the EO was nanoencapsulated and the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of bulk and encapsulated EO were examined. Results showed that concentrations up to 2 g·kg− 1 b.w. of T. capitatus EO did not present any toxic effects. Moreover, results exhibited an enhancement of nanoencapsulated EO antibacterial activity. In fact, nanoemulsion demonstrated higher growth inhibition diameters than free EO (15.8 and 9.8 mm, against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively). Furthermore, nanoemulsion exhibited significant lower minimum inhibitory concentration against all tested bacteria than bulk EO. However, nanoencapsulating T. capitatus EO decreased significantly its antioxidant activity. Indeed, for DPPH test, free EO IC50 concentrations were considerably lower than those of the nanoencapsulated form (300 and 390 μg·mL− 1, respectively). As well, the capacity of T. capitatus EO to inhibit the β-carotene bleaching has been reduced after its nanoencapsulation. These results provide useful information for designing effective natural preservative able to inhibit food bacterial spoilage.
Dielectric properties of rice model food systems relevant to microwave sterilization process Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-08 Thammanoon Auksornsri, Juming Tang, Zhongwei Tang, Huimin Lin, Sirichai Songsermpong
Model foods as chemical marker carriers are needed to evaluate the heating patterns and location of hot and cold spots in developing microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) processes. Previous research on model food development has been conducted for high moisture foods, with limited data on medium moisture foods (20–60% water). This research aimed to determine the dielectric properties (dielectric constants and loss factors) and penetration depths of rice grain (RG) and rice flour gel (RFG) model foods with moisture contents between 50 to 60% (wet basis) and of cooked rice (CR) over a frequency range of 300–3000 MHz at temperatures from 20 to 121 °C. The dielectric properties of rice models with 0% salt and 0.5% d-ribose closely matched the properties of CR; this indicated that rice model foods could be used to emulate CR for heating pattern and cold/hot spot detection in the development of MATS processes at 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. Therefore, rice model foods developed in this research could be useful in the future for the food companies, in order to visualizing the heating pattern and determining the location of cold and hot spots during MATS process of medium moisture foods, such as rice, pasta or macaroni used as main ingredient in ready-to-eat meal products.
Impact of HHP processing on volatile profile and sensory acceptance of Pêra-Rio orange juice Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-07 Raíssa Bittar Mastello, Natália Soares Janzantti, Antônio Bisconsin-Júnior, Magali Monteiro
The purpose of this study was to evaluate volatile compounds and sensory acceptance of HHP processed orange juice compared with non-processed and pasteurized orange juices. RSM and sniffing were successfully applied for optimization of HS-SPME conditions. The chosen HS-SPME conditions 37 °C during 25 min of exposure properly characterized the volatile profile of HHP processed, pasteurized and non-processed orange juices. HHP processing conditions had an impact on the volatile profile of the juice. Sensory acceptance was higher for non-processed and similar for HHP and pasteurized orange juice. PCA discriminated processed from non-processed orange juice, and HHP from pasteurized orange juice. HHP processed orange juice was characterized by ethyl butanoate, octanal, 1-octanol, linalool, ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate, nootkatone and ethyl octanoate. Pasteurized orange juice was characterized by the same compounds as HHP, plus geranyl acetate and apart from ethyl octanoate. Terpinolene, octyl acetate, carveol, carvone, linalyl acetate and δ-elemene characterized non-processed orange juice. Industrial relevance HHP processing has been used as an efficient food preservation process in order to meet consumers growing demand for juices with natural-like attributes. Orange juice HHP processing is claimed to inactivate PME and eliminate microorganisms by pressurizing the juice, maintaining freshness, sensorial and nutritive value. This technology is still not being used by the Brazilian juice industry, which presents itself as a whole range of opportunities. Therefore the focus on volatile compounds from Pêra-Rio orange juice is due to its importance for Brazilian citrus industry. In this study orange juice pressurized in a pilot plant was compared to the non-processed and pasteurized orange juice, presenting a new approach for the analysis of volatile compounds, using RSM HS-SPME optimization combined with sniffing, and most importantly, considering the aroma representativeness, in order to properly evaluate the impact of HHP processing on the volatile compounds, responsible for the flavor of the juice and discriminate the volatile profile of the HHP orange juice compared with non-processed and pasteurized orange juice. Sensory acceptance of HHP processed orange juice was also performed to verify if changes in volatile profile were perceived by consumers.
Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of raw beef round eye Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Xi Feng, Cheorun Jo, Ki Chang Nam, Dong U. Ahn
The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationships among lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, off-taste and off-odor in irradiated raw beef round eye. Raw beef round eye was prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. Significant increases in lipid oxidation and protein oxidation were found in irradiated raw beef round eye, while significant decreases were observed in the color values (L*-, a*-, and b*-value). The degradation of nucleotides can contribute to the taste changes (increase in sourness and decrease in umami taste) in the irradiated raw beef round eye, which was further confirmed by the electronic tongue data. The sulfur volatiles (e.g.: dimethyl disulfide) from the sulfur-containing amino acids increased significantly after irradiation, indicating these are closely related to the off-odor of irradiated beef round eye.
Electro-membrane fractionation of antioxidant peptides from protein hydrolysates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) byproducts Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Shyam Suwal, Sunantha Ketnawa, Andrea M. Liceaga, Jen-Yi Huang
Fish protein hydrolysates are an important source of antioxidant peptides. Electrically driven membrane fractionation called electrodialysis with filtration membrane (EDFM) is a separation technology based on molecular charge and mass, which can fractionate active peptides from complex hydrolysates. This work aimed to evaluate the feasibility of sequential EDFM process for separation of cationic (CP) and anionic (AP) peptides from rainbow trout frame protein hydrolysate, and determine their antioxidant properties. The concentrations of CP and AP increased in the recovery solution, reaching 156 and 85 μg/mL, respectively, after 4-hour treatment, with migration rates of 19.55 ± 2.19 and 10.94 ± 0.39 g/m2 h. The CP separation was approximately 50% energy efficient than AP. Both CP and AP fractions were enriched with peptides with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging properties. The results showed that two-step EDFM process is feasible for recovery and concentration of antioxidant peptides from rainbow trout protein hydrolysate. Industrial relevance The electro-membrane fractionation developed in this study is a two-step process, which is able to selectively separate antioxidant peptides from enzymatic protein hydrolysates based on charge and size. With this particular raw material as the feed, we have shown that using this approach lead to the highest peptide migration rate and a significant improvement in antioxidant activities of both peptide fractions. In addition, this technique is very selective, and environmental friendly as it requires no use of solvent and consumes less energy compared to conventional chromatographic techniques, and thus can be used as a green technology for the fractionation of bioactive peptides from a complex mixture of protein hydrolysates.
Multi-stage continuous and intermittent microwave drying of quince fruit coupled with osmotic dehydration and low temperature hot air drying Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-07 Jalal Dehghannya, Seyed-Hamed Hosseinlar, Maryam Khakbaz Heshmati
In recent years, using intermittent microwave (IM) to dry foodstuffs has been taken into consideration as one of the new drying methods in food industry. The aim of this research was to dry cubic pieces of pre-treated “quince” fruit by sucrose osmotic solution using IM – hot air (HA) drying at a low temperature (40 °C) in order to investigate the effects of this process on improving the dried product quality. The variables of the process included sucrose osmotic solution in 5 concentration levels of 0 (control), 10, 30, 50, and 70% (w/w) and microwave at 4 powers of 0 (control), 360, 600, and 900 W, with 4 pulse ratios of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Findings indicated that compared to control samples, the samples pre-treated by osmotic solution had lower effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff). However, Deff increased through increase in power and pulse ratio of the microwave. Increasing the concentration of the osmotic solution, power, and pulse ratio led to significant decreases in shrinkage. Due to high shrinkage, the quince samples dried by continuous microwave – HA method showed higher bulk density in comparison to the samples dried by IM – HA. In addition, samples dried by IM with low power showed the highest rehydration followed by those dried by IM with high power; however, the control samples dried merely by HA had the lowest rehydration. Moreover, a significant decrease in specific energy consumption was noticed through increasing the microwave power. Drying by IM – HA at the power of 900 W and the pulse ratio of 4 had the lowest specific energy consumption, while drying with only HA had the highest specific energy consumption.
Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on Rhizopus chinensis lipase: II. Intermediate states during unfolding Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Gang Chen, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang, Jian Jin, Osvaldo H. Campanella, Biao Feng
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is currently considered a well-established technology for processing food and biological materials and there is an interest in investigating the changes in the structural and functional properties of these materials after high pressure treatment. Therefore, the changes in the structure of Rhizopus chinensis lipase (RCL) after high hydrostatic pressure treatment were investigated. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the secondary structure of RCL is maintained at pressures below 400 MPa and becomes gradually disordered after higher pressures are applied. Near-UV CD spectra showed that the RCL begins to lose its tertiary structure at pressure over 400 MPa. Fluorescence quenching and the binding of 1-anilinonaphtha-lene-8-sulfonate confirmed that a partially unfolded intermediate, with loosely compacted conformation and hydrophobic regions, is formed at a pressure of 600 MPa. These results also suggest that RCL maintains a native-like state at pressures below 400 MPa. Above 500 MPa RCL molecules showed characteristics of being in a molten globule state. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements indicated that RCL molecules at these pressures are aggregating. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 to the protein solution could prevent the aggregation, and at 600 MPa the molecule had a hydrodynamic radius approximately 8% larger than that observed for the control sample, which was regarded as being in the molten globule state. The observations suggest that at increasing pressures, the unfolding mechanism of RCL follows well-defined steps from a native state via a native-like structure ending in molten globular state or molecular aggregation.
Inactivation of Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus flavus in malting barley by pulsed light and impact on germination capacity and microstructure Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-13 María Helga Zenklusen, María Bernarda Coronel, María Águeda Castro, Stella Maris Alzamora, Héctor Horacio Lucas González
The impact of pulsed light (PL) fluence on reduction of Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus flavus conidia in barley grains (aw 0.60 and 0.98), germinability and structure was studied. Treatments were done for 5–75 s at 5 and 10 cm distance from the flash lamp (fluence: 11.0–165.8 J/cm2 at 5 cm, and 6.0–89.6 J/cm2 at 10 cm). Maximum reduction in fungal population was 1.2–1.7 log cycles up to 5–15 s (fluence: 6.0–18.0 J/cm2). Acceptable germinability values were obtained up to 25 s treatment at 10 cm distance. Light microscopy study supported changes in germinability. Most of the structure elements of the caryopsis were drastically altered with high fluence values, while embryo viability was maintained with doses up to 29.9 J/cm2. PL up to 18.0 J/cm2 could be a nonchemical option to reduce moulds in barley with minor impact on germinability. Industrial relevance text The reduction of fungal load in malting barley will contribute to improve the production process and the quality of beer. The application of intense light pulses up to 18.0 J/cm2 (15 s, 10 cm from the lamp quartz window) could be a potentially suitable nonchemical (residue-free) option to reduce fungal presence in barley grains with minor impact on structure and germinability.
The inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in bayberry juice during thermal and ultrasound treatments Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-25 Xiamin Cao, Chunfang Cai, Yongling Wang, Xiaojian Zheng
Ultrasound is recognized as a non-conventional processing technology for food preservation and quality improvement. Effects of thermal and ultrasound treatment on the inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in bayberry juice were studied. Whether cooling with ice bath during ultrasound treatment was conducted to separate effects of heat and cavitation effects. In all processes, the inactivation kinetics of PPO and POD followed a first-order model (R2 = 0.864–0.997).The DT value during thermal inactivation varied from 151.99 to 6.23 min for PPO and the corresponding ZT values and activation energy (Ea) were 13.16 °C and 166.77 kJ/mol, while those parameters of POD were 298.26–7.08 min, 14.25 °C and 153.49 kJ/mol, respectively. The ultrasound (US) inactivation rate constants (k) for PPO ranged from 0.0556 min− 1 to 0.8878 min− 1 with the corresponding D values of 41.44–2.59 min and ZUI values of 312.50 W/cm2. However, the k value of PPO during ultrasound with cooling (USC) decreased to 0.0412–0.3268 min− 1, while the D and ZUI values increased to 55.92–7.05 min and 432.90 W/cm2, indicating that the heat brought out during ultrasound treatment significantly enhanced the inactivation kinetics of PPO. The inactivation rates of POD by US treatment were also higher than those by USC at the same ultrasound intensity and time. In addition, the kinetic parameters for POD by US and USC treatment were lower than those of PPO, inferring its more sonication resistant. Industrial relevance Ultrasound is a non-thermal food processing method for microorganism and enzyme inactivation, as well as quality maintenance. Attractive color is one of the most important quality attribute of bayberry products and strongly affects the consumer acceptance and preference. A key role in color degradation in berry fruit products is attributed to enzymatic browning of phenolic compounds which mainly related to PPO and POD. Therefore, the inactivation of PPO and POD is necessary for better color retention and shelf life increasing. This study would provide technical support for PPO and POD inactivation of ultrasound technique in bayberry juices processing.
Physicochemical and functional properties of high pressure-treated isolated pea protein Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-16 Dongfang Chao, Stephanie Jung, Rotimi E. Aluko
Commercial isolated yellow field pea protein isolate (IPP) was subjected to 200, 400 and 600 MPa high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments followed by determination of some physicochemical and functional properties. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed HHP-induced formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates. Intrinsic fluorescence showed most intense at 600 MPa where fluorescence intensity was less than half of the control IPP. The 600 MPa-treated IPP also showed more unfolded structure with an extensive red shift (384 nm) in wavelength of maximum tryptophan fluorescence. However, solubility profile was very similar and was not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by HHP treatment. At pH 3.0, HHP-treated IPP formed significantly (p < 0.05) higher quality emulsions with oil droplet sizes (d4,3) of 26–68 μm when compared to 52–92 μm for the control IPP. Foaming capacity was also higher at pH 3.0 with a maximum value of 81% when compared to maximum values of 38% and 62% obtained, respectively at pH 5.0 and 7.0.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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