Postharvest UV-C application to improve health promoting secondary plant compound pattern in vegetable amaranth Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-01-07 E.O. Gogo, N. Förster, D. Dannehl, L. Frommherz, B. Trierweiler, A.M. Opiyo, Ch. Ulrichs, S. Huyskens-Keil
Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) is gaining importance among the African indigenous leafy vegetables (AIVs) in the diets of many households in Africa. However, improper processing, handling, and storage of AIVs often result in faster deterioration thus high quantitative and qualitative losses with reduced availability of these highly nutritive and health promoting plants. Targeted application of UV-C has been shown to induce beneficial physiological responses of crops after harvest. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of postharvest UV-C application on health promoting secondary plant compounds of vegetable amaranth cv. Madiira. Eight weeks after planting, leaves were harvested and treated with UV-C (254 nm) at either 1.7 kJ m−2 or 3.4 kJ m−2 while untreated leaves served as control. The leaves were kept up to 4 d and 14 d at 20 °C (65% RH) and 5 °C (85% RH), respectively. Characteristic health promoting plant compounds, such as vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPOX) activity and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and their correlations were analyzed. Results showed that the accumulation of secondary metabolites was dependent on UV-C dosage, storage temperature and duration. Vitamin E, carotenoids (e.g. lycopene, β-carotene and lutein), flavonoids (e.g. quercetin and kaempferol derivatives), phenolic acids (e.g. ferulic, coumaric and caffeic acid derivatives) as well as GPOX activity and TEAC increased in UV-C treated vegetable amaranth leaves compared with the untreated samples. Furthermore, there was a relationship in most studied secondary compounds and TEAC. The UV-C effects at both storage conditions were comparable for most studied compounds while storage duration variedly affected the compounds studied. The increase in the studied secondary plant compounds is attributed to their plant defense mechanism against oxidative damage of plant tissues by UV-C irradiation. This could be an important strategy in reducing the loss of secondary plant compounds, hence maintaining nutritional and health promoting properties of AIVs during postharvest supply chain.
Physical properties of 3D printed baking dough as affected by different compositions Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Fan Yang, Min Zhang, Sangeeta Prakash, Yaping Liu
Gel formation characteristics and physical properties of baking dough changes with different composition of water, sucrose, butter, flour and egg contents. This study aims to explore how these changes affect 3D printing of the dough through laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), torque rheometer and texture analyser. Results show a pseudoplastic gel with suitable level of physical properties such as relatively higher extrudability, gel strength, elasticity and relatively lower ductibility was required to obtain better shape of the extruded samples. In conclusion, the best shape of 3D printing baking dough which was retained with proper gel formation characteristics and physical properties was obtained with a recipe containing water (29 g), sucrose (6.6 g), butter (6.0 g), flour (48 g) and egg (10.4 g) per 100 g of formulation. Industrial relevance The formulation of baking dough affected the modeling quality of printed samples. Thus, the optimized formulation of modified baking dough will contribute to the success in practical production.
Effects of radiofrequency-assisted freezing on microstructure and quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 N. Hafezparast-Moadab, N. Hamdami, M. Dalvi-Isfahan, A. Farahnaky
In this research, freezing was combined with radiofrequency waves (RF) as a novel method and its application was investigated on rainbow trout fish. The main purpose of this study was determination of the effect of RF waves on freezing process and quality characteristics of fish after thawing as compared to the conventional air blast freezing method. The effects of three radiofrequency pulse patterns and three electrode gaps (2, 3 and 4 cm) on the quality of frozen fish such as drip loss, colour, texture and microstructure were investigated. As compared to the control sample, RF-assisted freezing reduced drip loss, however no significant difference was observed in weight loss on freezing. Textural analysis showed that hardness, gumminess and chewiness of RF treatments were similar to the fresh sample (unfrozen) and no significant difference was found between them. The colour of frozen fillets was not significantly influenced by RF application. Histology tests conducted to investigate the microstructure of frozen fish indicated that the size of the formed ice crystals was significantly reduced under RF-assisted freezing and at the minimum electrode gap it was about 75% of the size of the ice crystals of the control sample frozen without RF.
The effect of non-thermal plasma on the lipid oxidation and microbiological quality of sushi Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Piotr Kulawik, Carlos Alvarez, Patrick J. Cullen, Ramon Aznar-Roca, Anne Maria Mullen, Brijesh Tiwari
The study examined the effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) on the total viable count and lipid oxidation of two common sushi products: nigiri and hosomaki. Sushi samples were treated with NTP using a dielectric barrier discharge system with 70 and 80 kV of potential differences for 5 min. The samples were stored at 4 °C for 11 days and analysed for total aerobic count, moisture and protein content, TBA index and fatty acids composition. Although the effect of NTP on the total aerobic counts was not statistically significant, a tendency in log reduction could be observed, with 1–1.5 log cfu/g reduction. Moisture and protein content, as well as fatty acids composition of sushi was not affected by the treatment. The TBA index of treated samples increased significantly by 0.4–1.5 mg/kg, with hosomaki reaching higher TBA index than nigiri. Although NTP in the studied conditions can, to a limited degree, increase the microbiological quality of the sushi samples, it also increases the oxidation rate.
Microencapsulation of zataria essential oil in agar, alginate and carrageenan Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Gholamreza Kavoosi, Maryam Derakhshan, Mohsen Salehi, Ladan Rahmati
Microencapsulation efficiency of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) into seaweed polymer including agar, alginate and carrageenan was investigated by exploration of zeta-potential, particle size, polydispersity, viscosity and radical scavenging activity of dispersion and tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongastion at break, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and atomic force microscope analysis of related foams. Append of ZEO into agar, alginate and carrageenan dispersion led to a decrease of the pH, conductivity, zeta-potential and particle size, an increase of the viscosity and antioxidant capacity of the dispersion and also a decrease of the tensile strength and elastic modulus and an increase in elongation at break and thermal stability of the foam. Such modification confirmed entrapment of ZEO in agar, alginate and carrageenan scaffold, while carrageenan is the most effective polymer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated no covalent interaction between active groups of essential oil and functional groups of agar, alginate and carrageenan. Inductrial relevance This study clealy suggest, agar, alginate and carrageenan are promising pharmaceutical excipients for encapsulation of essential oil to increase bioavailability and reduce volatility of ZEO. ZEO also increase the functionality of agar, alginate and carrageenan to make them as a medicinal food for treatment oxidative stress or as a bioactive applicant for food packaging material.
The application of response surface methodology for the development of sensory accepted low-salt cooked ham using high pressure processing and a mix of organic acids Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Ciara M. O'Neill, Malco C. Cruz-Romero, Geraldine Duffy, Joseph P. Kerry
The objective of this study was to develop sensory accepted low-salt cooked ham by the application of response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to assess the effects of the independent factors salt replacer (Artisalt™) (0–100%), high pressure treatment (0.1–600 MPa) and a mix of organic acids (Inbac™) (0.2–0.4%) on hardness, flavour, saltiness and overall sensory acceptability (OSA) of the cooked ham. The main factor that affected all response variables was salt replacement. The optimum parameters to maximise salt reduction and produce hams with similar OSA associated with this type of products were Artisalt™ (53%), HPP (535 MPa) and Inbac™ (0.3%) and the cooked ham manufactured using the optimum parameters contained 1.4% total salt which is a 46% reduction compared to control samples which contained 2.6% total salt. Overall, a combination of salt replacer, HPP and organic acids showed great potential for the development of cooked ham with significantly reduced salt content. Industrial relevance Consumer studies have shown that meat consumption is being more and more influenced by health, nutritional and environmental considerations; therefore, companies are constantly searching for new and emerging technologies to reduce salt in meat products and enhance shelf life to reduce food waste. In this study we used a novel approach which showed great potential in salt reduction of ham as the quality and sensory acceptability of the ham were similar and/or better after salt was replaced by 53%. The hurdle approach used in this study is expected to improve the safety and shelf life of the low-salt optimised ham and this confirmatory study is underway.
Effects of e-beam irradiation on amino acids, fatty acids, and volatiles of smoked duck meat during storage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Yunhee Jo, Kyung-A An, Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Joong-Ho Kwon
The effects of e-beam irradiation on changes in amino acids, fatty acids, and volatiles in smoked duck meat were investigated during refrigerated storage (0, 20, and 40 days) at 4 °C. Irradiation at 1.5 to 4.5 kGy led to significant variation in hydrolyzed amino acids (HAA), free amino acids (FAA), fatty acids, and volatile profiles. HAA contents did not show significant difference with respect to the applied irradiation dose, however FAA level significantly decreased according to a dose-dependent manner and storage time. Fatty acids showed a dose-dependent decrease but there was little effect of storage periods during 40 days. Trans-fatty acids were not observed in irradiated and non-irradiated smoked duck meat. The levels of acids and sulfur compounds decreased with increasing irradiation doses and storage periods, whereas alcohols, aldehydes, and phenols increased as the storage periods increased. Thus, optimum dose of irradiation < 3 kGy may not cause the quality changes in smoked duck meat during storage. Industrial relevance Effects of e-beam irradiation were investigated on amino acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles in smoked duck meat. E-beam irradiation applied at different doses may affect the contents of both hydrolyzed as well as free amino acids of smoked duck meat. The current research findings present the potential implications regarding effects of e-beam irradiation treatment on smoked duck meat during storage.
Effects of high-intensity ultrasound, high-pressure processing, and high-pressure homogenization on the physicochemical and functional properties of myofibrillar proteins Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Siwen Xue, Xinglian Xu, Huimin Shan, Huhu Wang, Jing Yang, Guanghong Zhou
High-Intensity Ultrasound (HIU), High-Pressure Processing (HPP), and High-Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were applied to myofibrillar protein suspensions (MPS) under selected conditions, with an untreated sample designated as the control. The results revealed that MPS subjected to HPP had increased solubility, but solubility was reduced with HIU and HPH (p < 0.05). Furthermore, rheological studies indicated that HPH-treated MPS had poor gel-formation ability, whereas HPP-treated MPS formed gels in a modified manner, which resulted in lower gel strength than the control, however it had the lowest cooking loss (p < 0.05). Investigations of reactive-sulfhydryl and hydrophobic contents of the treated MPS indicated that the three techniques each denatured MPS differently. HIU, HPP and HPH all tended to expose hydrophobic residues; however, HIU reduced the reactive-sulfhydryl contents significantly, while HPP and HPH acted in the opposite manner. We concluded that HPP would be the most effective process for the manufacturing of gel-based meat products. Industrial relevance The modern meat industry is seeking novel technologies to modify and/or improve the quality of meat and meat products, hence adding value to products as well as meeting demands of consumers. High-intensity ultrasound (HIU), high-pressure processing (HPP) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH), were applied to myofibrillar proteins suspensions. Their effects on myofibrillar proteins (MP), and different outcomes were observed. HIU can be an effective technique to improve the quality of MP gels, but some technical problems, such as heterogeneous distribution of ultrasonic waves, must be improved; HPP was the most effective technique in modifying MP in a manner that improved yield of MP gels when heated, whereas HPH was not effective for gel-type meat product. The information derived from this study provided a direct comparison of the three techniques and their influences on MP and thermally induced gels. This provides a useful reference for meat scientists and processors when choosing innovative technologies for the manufacture of meat products.
Effect of novel technologies on polyphenols during food processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-17 Muhammad Kamran Khan, Khalil Ahmad, Sadia Hassan, Muhammad Imran, Nazir Ahmad, Changmou Xu
Lifestyles have changed the eating norm of people leading to chronic and degenerative maladies. In fact, prevailing use of highly processed and convenient-to-eat foods have reduced intake of polyphenol rich food importantly fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols are important component of our diet with good antioxidant and high anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, industries have started to implement particular food processing techniques crucial to achieve food products having high amount of health promoted components with appropriate shelf life. Nowadays, emerging technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, ultrasound, microwave, ohmic heating and irradiation are being studied as an alternative to conventional ones, obtaining promising results. Energy efficiency, environment conservation, processing time reduction and retention of nutritional properties are key benefits for using innovative food processing technologies. The present review will summarize the current knowledge about different novel food processing technologies on the retention of polyphenols.
High-pressure effects on the mechanism of accumulated inosine 5′-monophosphate Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-16 Zhang Huijuan, Pan Jian, Liang Juan, Xia Xiaoxiao
This study was conducted to determine whether the application of ultrahigh pressure could modify the content of inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) in fresh pork and give direct detection of each relevant enzymatic activity to affirm the enzymatic mechanism. Pressure (0–400 MPa) and time (10 min) were applied to two types of samples: adenosine monophosphate deaminase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase in normal saline and IMP in pork tenderloin. The results showed that varied degrees of susceptibility depended upon the pressure level. The pressure of 300 MPa could promote the formation of IMP to 1250%, at which the activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, an enzyme catalyzing adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to IMP, was maximized. In contrast, the activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were suppressed at this extreme pressure, resulting in decomposition of IMP. Finally, IMP accumulated to its maximum level at 300 MPa.
Pulsed electric fields as a green technology for the extraction of bioactive compounds from thinned peach by-products Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Diego Redondo, María E. Venturini, Elisa Luengo, Javier Raso, Esther Arias
Thinned fruits are agricultural by-products which nowadays have few economic or environmental benefits. However, previous studies have revealed that these immature fruits have a large amount of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pulsed electric fields (PEF) might be a suitable green technology for enhancing the extraction of phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant compounds from fresh thinned peaches, thus reducing the use of methanol. Moreover, response surface methodology has been used to determine the optimal PEF treatment conditions, observing that the solvent is the main factor. The highest amounts of bioactive compounds were extracted using 80% methanol and no PEF. Methanol combined with PEF produced a negative effect on the extraction yield. However, the use of water as a solvent increased the amount of total bioactive compounds and individual phenols (chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid and neochlorogenic acid). Thus, PEF-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from thinned peach fruits using water as a solvent is an alternative to conventional extraction methods which require dried products, large amounts of organic solvents and long extraction times.
Ultra-high pressure effects on color, volatile organic compounds and antioxidants of wholegrain brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) during storage: A comparative study with high-intensity ultrasound and germination pretreatments Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Qiang Xia, Yunfei Li
An investigation of high intensity ultrasonication and chemical immersion treatments on Campylobacter jejuni and spoilage bacteria in chicken Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Ahmed Kassem, Joseph Meade, Kevina McGill, Ciara Walsh, James Gibbons, James Lyng, Paul Whyte
High intensity ultrasonication (US) alone or in combination with chemical immersion treatments of lactic acid (3% LA), sodium decanoate (3% SD) and trisodium phosphate (10% TSP) were investigated to reduce populations of Campylobacter jejuni and spoilage organisms in raw chicken. Different experimental conditions were used including a range of temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C and 54 °C) and exposure times (1, 2 and 3 min). All combination treatments significantly reduced C. jejuni compared to their individual treatments while only the combination US + SD significantly reduced Total Viable Count (TVC). Multiple linear regression predicted bacterial reductions resulting from changing treatment, temperature and time or each group of microorganisms. Increasing temperature from 4 °C to 54 °C would enhance C. jejuni, TVC and Total Enterobacteriaceae Count (TEC) reductions by 0.73, 1.02 and 1.37 log10 cfu/g respectively. Increasing time from 1 to 3 min enhanced bacterial dependent of C. jejuni and TEC by 0.49 and 0.31 log10 cfu/g respectively. Industrial relevance. This study demonstrates the potential application of high intensity ultrasomication alone or in combination with chemical treatments to reduce bacterial contamination of chicken carcasses. Different tempretures and times were investigated to optimize the most effective treatments conditions in chicken abattoirs.
Sanitation of fresh-cut endive lettuce by plasma processed tap water (PPtW) – Up-scaling to industrial level Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-09 Uta Schnabel, Mathias Andrasch, Jörg Stachowiak, Christoph Weit, Thomas Weihe, Christian Schmidt, Peter Muranyi, Oliver Schlüter, Jörg Ehlbeck
The decontamination and sanitation methods currently used are mainly antimicrobial ineffective, generate high costs with a high consumption of water and chemicals (additives). As an alternative, non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure could be a versatile tool. Therefore, a pilot-scaled set-up based on a microwave-plasma source that generates plasma processed air (PPA), a gaseous mixture which contains manifold RNS-based chemical compounds gaining, among others, the antimicrobial effectivity of that mixture. The PPA was introduced to a water-processing device (WPD) to enrich tap water. By this way, plasma processed tap water (PPtW), which can be applied for the decontamination of packaging material, fresh produce and processing equipment, was generated. This is a new and innovative method for the generation of antimicrobial active plasma processed water. In our experiments, the native contamination of fresh-cut lettuce treated with PPtW in a common washing process and the microbial load of the washing water itself was investigated. Different treatment scenarios showed the influence of PPtW to the fresh-cut lettuce and the washing water as well as the hygienic problems of recontamination during the washing process. The characteristics of plasma and its generated cocktail of long living chemical compounds in air and in water leading to a significant bacterial inactivation and offering a wide range of possible applications. Industrial relevance The safety, quality and shelf life of freshly cut vegetables greatly depend on the microbial load, especially with phyto and human pathogens, of the produce as well as the hygienic design of production device and good handling and production practice. This study shows that the application of PPW/PPtW, as a promising non-thermal sanitation technology, enables the inactivation of native contamination on fresh-cut lettuce in industrial relevant level. It further describes the impact of the necessity of hygienic environment during production to avoid cross- and re-contamination. The results contribute to the understanding and product-specificity of PPW-induced effects on safety, quality and shelf life of fresh cut lettuce and could be a basis for a possible industrial implementation and complement of common technologies.
Crossflow microfiltration coupled with diafiltration to concentrate and purify carotenoids and flavonoids from citrus juices Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Jessica Polidori, Claudie Dhuique-Mayer, Manuel Dornier
This work aimed to evaluate an eco-friendly process based on microfiltration with a diafiltration stage in order to concentrate and purify the main carotenoids and flavonoids in citrus juices. Pilot plant scale trial parameters were: tubular ceramic membranes with 0.2 μm pore diameter, 40 °C and 3 bar of transmembrane pressure. Different operating conditions were tested varying volumetric reduction ratio (VRR) from 2.5 to 10 and diavolume (DV) up to 1.7. Permeate flux ranged from 20 to 100 L h− 1 m− 2 according to the VRR. The concentration was multiplied by 5 to 10 for carotenoids and hesperidin but only by 2 to 3 for narirutin. Diafiltration increased the purity of carotenoids and hesperidin from 8 to 20 times. A model was validated for prediction of the concentration and purification factors vs. VRR and DV and the retentions were 100%, 97% and 63% for carotenoids, hesperidin and narirutin.
Aqueous fractionation processes of soy protein for fibrous structure formation Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 Marlies Geerts, Birgit L. Dekkers, Albert van der Padt, Atze Jan van der Goot
Desired properties of ingredients differ for various applications. Here, we use a reverse engineering approach to obtain soy protein fractions targeted for the application of meat analogs. Aqueous fractionation was used to produce these soy protein fractions, which were structured with simple shear flow deformation while heating. The water holding capacity (WHC), nitrogen solubility index (NSI), enthalpy of transition, and viscoelastic properties were determined. We found that a soy protein fraction/full fat flour blend resulted in distinct fibrous structures but only when the soy protein fraction was toasted at 150 °C. At this optimum toasting temperature (150 °C), the protein fractions had a high WHC, intermediate NSI and its viscoelastic property was characterized as G* between 1 and 10 kPa. These functional properties were shown to be key for fibrous structure formation, whereas, the influence of the state of the proteins was limited. Industrial relevance The market for meat analogs is growing. Nowadays, most of the meat analogs are produced with soy protein concentrates and isolates. These concentrates and isolates are obtained with conventional fractionation processes that involve organic solvents to extract the oil first. As a result, the application of these ingredients is limited, e.g. the product cannot be classified as organic. In this study, we therefore investigated aqueous fractionation of soy to obtain a soy protein fraction with desired functionality that can be used for the application of meat analogs and satisfy the values of consumers.
Tiger nuts and its by-products valorization: From extraction of oil and valuable compounds to development of new healthy products Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Elena Roselló-Soto, Mahesha M. Poojary, Francisco J. Barba, Jose M. Lorenzo, Jordi Mañes, Juan Carlos Moltó
Consumer's growing demand for consumption of “Horchata de chufa”, a Spanish beverage produced from tiger nut tubers, has led to large-scale production of tiger nuts, and its subsequent processing for the food industry. Recent investigations clearly show that tiger nut is a valuable source of stable vegetable oils, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and phytosterols as well as high-added value compounds (proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds). Several conventional (Soxhlet) and alternative innovative (SC-CO2, enzyme, high pressure, etc.) extraction methods have been developed for the efficient recovery of tiger nut oil and high-added value compounds. Moreover, several authors have shown the potential of tiger nuts by-products in the development of new healthier and functional products such as fiber rich and oxidative stable foods. The present review provides an overview of these investigations and tries to expose potential avenues for future research in commercial exploitation of tiger nuts and its by-products. Industrial relevance Tiger nuts and their by-products obtained from “horchata de chufa” manufacturing process have a remarkable y content of nutrients, fiber and bioactive compounds (eg. polyphenols). Moreover, they have a high amount of oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, and phytosterols, thus being a valuable source to be incorporated into different food matrices in order to modify their technological and functional properties. At this stage of development, tiger nuts by-products are underutilized at an industrial level. For example, the literature about the oil extraction from tiger nuts by-products is scarce and most of the studies have been focused on the use of conventional (Soxhlet) extraction of oil. This review provides an overview of some of the most relevant innovative processing technologies to allow the industrial sustainability and green recovery of oil from tiger nuts and their by-products and, tries to expose potential avenues for future research in commercial exploitation of tiger nuts and its by-products as source of ingredients to be incorporated in new food matrices to improve their technological and functional aspects.
Production and characterization of chitosan based edible films from Berberis crataegina's fruit extract and seed oil Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Murat Kaya, Preethi Ravikumar, Sedef Ilk, Muhammad Mujtaba, Lalehan Akyuz, Jalel Labidi, Asier M. Salaberria, Yavuz S. Cakmak, Seher Karaman Erkul
Effect of low and high pulsed electric field processing on macro and micro minerals in beef and chicken Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Ammar Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Alan Carne, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi, David Barr, Malcolm Reid, Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit
The present study investigated the effects of low pulsed electric field (LPEF, 2.5 kV, 200 Hz and 20 μs) and high pulsed electric field (HPEF, 10 kV, 200 Hz and 20 μs) on the levels of 40 macro- and micro-minerals in raw and cooked cold-boned beef loins at 1 and 14 days of post-treatment and in chicken breasts at 1 and 4 days. PEF treatment reduced the concentration of Ca (P < 0.01), Na (P < 0.001) and Mg (P < 0.03) and increased the concentration of Cr (P < 0.01) in beef compared to non-treated controls. HPEF chicken breast treated samples had significantly (P < 0.001) higher Ni concentration than LPEF and control samples that were not different from both treatment groups. Both LPEF and HPEF treated chicken samples had higher Cu concentrations than control samples. The results suggest that PEF treatment of meat can result in the release of elements from the PEF electrodes and contribute to the mineral status of beef and chicken meat samples. PEF appears to have a differential effect on mineral content according to the type of meat. The nutritional and safety consequences of these effects need to be evaluated.
The effect of pressure-assisted heating on the water holding capacity of chicken batters Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Hai-bo Zheng, Min-yi Han, Hui-juan Yang, Xing-lian Xu, Guang-hong Zhou
The ability of gel-type meat products to hold water is an important quality attribute, which is affected by processing. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of pressure-assisted heating, which can disrupt myofibrils and hinder heat-induced protein denaturation, on the water holding capacity of chicken meat batters. High pressure-assisted heating (100–400 MPa, 65 °C, and 30 min) and heating-only (0.1 MPa, 65 °C, and 30 min) was applied to chicken meat batters, the centrifugal loss, water distribution and mobility, microstructure, and residual denaturation enthalpy were determined. A threshold pressure of between 300 and 400 MPa was found, below which the WHC was improved, but impaired at greater pressures. Distributed exponential analysis of the T2 relaxation revealed three states of water binding (T2b, T21 and T22), each of which was significantly correlated with WHC. Pressure-treated batters had a higher amount of bound water than the heat-only batters, and showed a decrease in immobilized water and an increase in free water with increasing pressure. Myofibril structures were degraded by high pressure. High pressure resulted in a porous microstructure which held more water. However, pressures greater than the threshold caused loose gel-networks and decreased water holding capacities. The heat-denaturation of meat proteins was affected by high pressure. Actin was denatured by high pressure instead of heating, while collagen and some myosin derivatives were preserved from being denatured by heating. The changes in protein denaturation and batter microstructure were correlated with water distribution properties. The results contributed to a better understanding of the effects of high-pressure with heat on the water holding capacity of chicken batters. Industrial relevance A beneficial threshold pressure of between 300 and 400 MPa was found, below which the water holding capacity was improved, and above which water holding capacity was reduced. As the effect of high pressure on physical properties and sterilization were not always consistent, this finding reminds the meat industry need to adopt a suitable pressure to achieve a balance between physical properties and sterilization. The low filed nuclear magnetic resonance could be adopted in a routine examination of product quality.
Partial substitution of pork fat with canola oil in Toscana sausage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 G.M. Monteiro, X.R. Souza, D.P.B. Costa, P.B. Faria, J. Vicente
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effects of pork fat substitution with canola oil in Toscana sausage. Canola oil was incorporated into the product via lipid emulsion with water and collagen. The physicochemical and sensory parameters and fatty acid profiles were evaluated in five treatments with different canola oil concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%). The prepared sausages met the legal identity and quality standards, with no significant differences detected in the variables moisture, ash content, lipid, pH, colour and weight loss due to cooking (P > 0.05). We observed a significant increase in the linolenic fatty acid content (omega-3 series). In the sensory evaluation, a significant difference was observed only for the texture variable. Pig fat substitution with 10% canola oil in the Toscana sausage exhibited the best physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile. Industrial relevance Vegetable oils have been used in meat products as an alternative to improve their lipid profiles. The amount of fat and the lipid profiles of meat products are the most important factors for product quality and consumer health. Our understanding of the relationship between the intrinsic food quality and health is gradually increasing, and as a result, a revolution has occurred in eating habits. Therefore, an innovative product for a healthier consumer market has been created to meet the challenges of animal fat substitution on the organoleptic characteristics of Toscana sausage.
Effects of different freshness on the quality of cooked tuna steak Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-10 Hanlin Miao, Qin Liu, Hairong Bao, Xichang Wang, Song Miao
The variation in quality of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) steaks of different freshness after cooking were studied by analyzing K value, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-related compounds content, histamine content, sensory quality, E-nose and E-tongue analysis. The results indicated that when the freshness of raw tuna steak decreased from sashimi grade to cooking grade, IMP content significantly decreased whereas HxR content significantly increased after cooking. With the decrease of freshness, K value of the 4th day sashimi-grade tuna and the 6th day cooking-grade tuna increased from 18% and 24% to 27% and 45% respectively after cooking. The higher histamine content in raw tuna steak, the more significantly increased histamine level of cooked tuna was observed. Raw tuna steaks with sashimi grade have significant variation from those with cooking grade in odor and taste by E-nose and E-tongue analysis after cooking The sensory evaluation showed that the freshness of tuna steak significantly influence the cooking quality (p < 0.05). Industrial relevance Tuna is well appreciated worldwide because of its high nutritional value and potential health benefits. Canned tuna is one of the most widespread and recognized fish commodities in the world. The species utilized commonly for canning are skipjack, yellowfin and albacore tuna. Cooking tuna steak is normally used as semi-manufactured products in canned tuna industry. Control of the cooking unit operation is critically important to producing cooked muscle for tuna industry. However, freshness of raw tuna steak may have close connection with the quality of cooked tuna steak. This research paper presents the effects of different freshness on the cooking quality of tuna steak. Finding in this research showed primary knowledge of mastering the freshness of raw tuna steak for ensuring the quality of cooked tuna steaks in canned tuna industry.
Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical, structural and rheological properties of plant exudate gums Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-08 Afshan Mumtaz Hamdani, Idrees Ahmed Wani, Adil Gani, Naseer Ahmad Bhat, Farooq Ahmad Masoodi
Effect of a new microwave-dried orange fibre ingredient vs. a commercial citrus fibre on texture and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-06 Clara Talens, Saioa Álvarez-Sabatel, Yolanda Rios, Raquel Rodríguez
Orange by-products are an important source of dietary fibre. The objective of this study was to compare two gluten-free muffins formulated with two different orange fibres: one obtained by hot air coupled with microwave drying (HAD + MW) of orange peels and the other commercially available. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of the fibre dispersions were analysed and compared to commercial citrus fibre. Texture profile (TPA) and sensory analysis were carried out on both muffins. Total dietary fibre, water retention capacity, viscosity and viscoelastic properties (G′ and G″) were higher for HAD + MW fibre. The development of stronger gel-like structures during HAD + MW drying could explain higher hardness and chewiness values found during muffins TPA. However, these differences were not negatively perceived by panellists, as they all preferred HAD + MW muffins due to their attractive colour, flavour, texture and chewiness. HAD + MW drying resulted in a potential technology for obtaining improved dietary fibre ingredients for gluten-free bakery. Industrial relevance This work represents an approach to simultaneously solve and improve two current issues with gluten-free muffins: (1) to improve their nutritional and sensory properties and (2) to develop new processes for applying orange by-products as improved functional ingredients in bakery.
Whole genome sequence analysis; an improved technology that identifies underlying genotypic differences between closely related Listeria monocytogenes strains Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-08 Edward M. Fox, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Aidan Coffey, Cormac G.M. Gahan, Olivia McAuliffe
As the new technology of whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been shown to have greater discriminatory power in differentiating strains than the much-used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), there is currently a transition from using PFGE to WGS for disease outbreak investigation. Therefore, there is a need for comparison of bacterial isolates using both PFGE and WGS. In this study, two pairs of L. monocytogenes strains with geographically diverse sources of isolation but which had indistinguishable or closely related PFGE profiles, were subjected to WGS analysis. Comparative analysis of their genomes showed that one pair of strains which had closely related PFGE profiles in fact differed significantly from one another in terms of their antibiotic and heavy metal stress resistance determinants, and mobile genetic elements. Therefore, this research demonstrated the ability of WGS analysis to differentiate very closely related strains and that WGS analysis represents the most effective tool available for subtyping L. monocytogenes isolates.
Effect of reversed coffee grinding and roasting process on physicochemical properties including volatile compound profiles Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-05 Su Jeong Lee, Mina K. Kim, Kwang-Geun Lee
The conventional coffee roasting process includes roasting, grinding and extraction. Current study developed reversed coffee roasting process: grinding first before proceeding onto the roasting process. The physicochemical properties and volatile compound analysis were conducted on coffee prepared with conventional and reversed coffee roasting process. Two coffee samples, including coffee powder roasted with conventional process (C, control), and coffee powder prepared by reversed method of grinding and roasting (R. reversed). The L* value of commercial coffee was used as an index of roasting time and temperature. The particle size of R was significantly lower than that of C (p < 0.05) by 21.0%, respectively. The amount of trigonelline in C (264.23 μg/g) was significantly lower than R (p < 0.05). Other characteristics including L* value, moisture content, and pHs were not significant different between two coffee samples (p > 0.05). The volatile flavor compound profiles of two samples were slightly different, indicating potential flavor differences. Industrial relevance This study demonstrated new coffee roasting process, which is different from conventional coffee roasting process. Finding from current study suggest using the reversed coffee roasting process for commercial usage in coffee roasting process.
Non-additive response of starch systems in different hydration states: A study of microwave-absorbing properties Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 Daming Fan, Yishu Gao, Yanfang Chen, Mingfu Wang, Xiaohong Gu, Liyun Wang, Huijie Shen, Huizhang Lian, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang
In the food industry, microwave-based curing and modification represent green, low-energy-consumption techniques for food processing, offering significant advantages. Water, a representative high-dielectric material, can react with many food components; however, few studies on microwave absorption to these components have been reported. In this study, commercially available potato starch and rice starch (the latter a representative cereal starch) were selected as the research materials. Based on vector network analysis of these materials, the bow coaxial probe and improved arch methods were used to study the dielectric properties and microwave reflection loss of the potato starch and rice starch systems, with different hydration levels, at 2.45 GHz. Their absorption behaviour was compared with the classical model to study the absorption properties of the starch systems under different hydration conditions. The results showed that at ambient temperature, potato starch and rice starch had similar dielectric responses, which both showed a steady rise with increasing water content. Therefore, because of their similar dielectric properties, the two systems behaved similarly in the microwave field. However, further experiments found that the microwave absorption properties of both starches differed significantly from that of water: starch–water systems with different compositions varied nonlinearly in their microwave absorption performance, consistently with the “true single layer of water” theory.
The potential of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 enriched diets in laying hens, to improve egg vitamin D content and antioxidant availability Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 Sarah K. Duffy, Gaurav Rajauria, Louise C. Clarke, Alan K. Kelly, Kevin D. Cashman, John V. O'Doherty
Sixty Hy-line brown hens were randomly assigned to four barns (n = 4) to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) versus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) enriched diets on egg vitamin D concentration, antioxidant activity and egg quality parameters. Experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square consisting of 4 experimental treatments and 4 experimental periods. The treatments were (1) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ (2) 3000 IU of vitamin D₃ (3) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ and 37.5 μg of 25-OH-D₃ (4) 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ per kg of feed. Hens offered 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ had a higher (P < 0.05) total vitamin D egg yolk content (5.06 μg/egg), and antioxidant activity compared to other dietary treatments. The results demonstrates that the enrichment of hen diets with 25-OH-D₃ may be a useful approach and may contribute between 25 and 33% towards total vitamin D daily requirements while also improving antioxidant status of eggs. Industrial relevance Vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a major issue in northern Europe and has been described as a pandemic. A growing interest in vitamin D food fortification in northern Europe to satisfy the current dietary intake recommendations has been observed. The use of a bio-addition approach for increasing vitamin D intake through biofortification of livestock feeds attracts attention. Enrichment of the hen's diet with vitamin D may also supply additional benefits of increasing antioxidant activity. This increase in antioxidant activity may have the ability to increase food quality and extend the shelf life. This study explores the effect of vitamin D enriched diets fed to laying hens on vitamin D egg yolk content and antioxidant activity in the egg. These enriched diets could demonstrate that enrichment of hen diets with 25-hyroxvitamin D₃ may be a useful approach for tackling low vitamin D intakes and improving antioxidant capacity of eggs.
Effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generated plasma on microbial reduction and quality parameters of fresh mackerel (Scomber scombrus) fillets Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 I. Albertos, A.B. Martín-Diana, P.J. Cullen, B.K. Tiwari, S.K. Ojha, P. Bourke, C. Álvarez, D. Rico
The effect of atmospheric cold plasma generated by a novel in-package dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on microbial and quality parameters of mackerel fillets was investigated. DBD voltage (70 kV and 80 kV) and treatment time (1, 3 and 5 min) were studied. Within 24 h of DBD treatment, spoilage bacteria (total aerobic psychrotrophic, Pseudomonas and lactic acid bacteria) were significantly reduced. However, significant effects on lipid oxidation parameters (PV, Dienes) were observed for the treated samples. Both studied treatment factors, treatment voltage and time, significantly affected anti-microbial efficacy and lipid oxidation. Nevertheless, no changes in pH or colour (except for L*) were observed. These results suggest atmospheric cold plasma generated by DBD could be implemented as technology for fish processing, retaining product quality over its shelf life. However, further investigations are needed in order to implement this technology and to control and mitigate its limitations, mainly associated to increased oxidation. Industrial relevance Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has gained attention as an emerging and non termal technology for decontamination of food. This technology has been used on fruits and vegetables successfully for the inactivation of food-borne pathogens. However, this technology has not been investigated in fish, being a highly persibale product. The use of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to produce cold plasma showed a potential industrial application at low cost and convenience. Cold plasma was found to be effective for reducing the main problem of oily fish quality such as the spoilage bacteria. However, this technology seems to accelerate oxidative pathways; for this reason, further studies to investigate the use of antioxidants in combination with cold plasma as “hurdle technology” to minimise this negative effect are suggested.
Combined effects of ultrasound and pulsed-vacuum on air-drying to obtain unripe banana flour Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 C.I.A. La Fuente, R.F. Zabalaga, C.C. Tadini
In order to increase the water migration rate during unripe banana drying process, two pre-treatments were applied. Experiments were performed as following: 20 min of ultrasound (US) + air-drying at 50 °C; 20 min of US + 60 min of pulsed-vacuum (PV) + air-drying at 50 °C; 25 min of US + air-drying at 60 °C and 25 min of US + 60 min of PV + air-drying at 60 °C. Experimental data were adjusted to five models and the Midilli model resulted to fit best experimental data with r2 > 0.999, RMSE < 0.0119 and χ2 < 0.00012. Increasing in water effective diffusivity, at the two falling rate periods, were observed due to the application of US, whereas the combined technique of US + PV did not improve the water migration, at both air-drying temperatures. The results revealed drying time savings of (28 and 18) % at (50 and 60) °C, respectively. Industrial relevance In this work, ultrasound and ultrasound-pulsed vacuum pre-treatments prior to air-drying were applied as an alternative to produce unripe banana flour (UBF). This study indicates that the drying kinetics increased due to the application of ultrasound, preserving the resistant starch content of the final product. Hence, this technology diminishes the drying time and consequently reduces the energy costs, in comparison with to the conventional process. Therefore, the UBF rich in resistant starch content can be considered a functional ingredient that promotes dietary intake of unavailable carbohydrates, which may reduce the risks of non-communicable diseases.
Impact of magnetic assisted freezing in the physicochemical and functional properties of egg components. Part 1: Egg white Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 F. Fernández-Martín, M. Pérez-Mateos, S. Dadashi, C.M. Gómez-Guillén, P.D. Sanz
Effects of freezing assisted with magnetic fields (MFs) in a Cell Alive System (CAS) commercial unit at 50 °C, with a static MF only (0% CAS) and with a static MF plus oscillating MF (10% CAS) on egg white (W) was investigated. W samples were from commercial eggs from three strains of laying hens (two of them living in fortified cages and the third one in liberty at outdoor). The main goal was to follow the protein thermal denaturation involved in W processing. Thermal denaturation enthalpy was markedly affected (~ 50% total protein in comparison with fresh sample) but similar for both MFs processes, where 0% CAS was taken as Control freezing treatment. MFs effects were predominantly thermal in nature and constituted the factor with the highest influence on thermal behavior, as well as on the majority of the functional properties exhibited by MFs samples. Rheology and free Sulfhydryl content were studied complementarily to Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. Some important functional properties as Foaming parameters and Texture of W gel were also determined. The hen strains-feeding factor did not practically influence the physical or functional behaviors of both untreated and processed W samples.
Comparative study of the structural and physicochemical properties of two food derived antihypertensive tri-peptides, Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and Leucine-Lysine-Proline encapsulated into a chitosan based nanoparticle system Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 Minna K. Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh J. Byrne, Jesus M. Frias, Sinéad M. Ryan
Food derived tri-peptides; Leucine-Lysine-Proline (LKP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP) are angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and may have potential to alleviate hypertension. The aim of this work was to understand the interactions of IPP and LKP when formulated into a chitosan nanoparticle (NP) to help improve permeation. Our findings indicate different mean inhibitory concentrations (LKP: 0.36 ± 0.01 μM and IPP: 3.1 ± 0.6 μM) and encapsulation efficiencies at different ratios of chitosan: tripolyphosphate (LKP NPs: 65% at 6:1 and IPP NPs: 43% at 4:1). Molecular modelling and circular dichroism showed different stable amino side-chain-specific conformations for each peptide. IPP showed more steric hindrances to intra-chain rotations, resulting in an unordered peptide structure, whereas LKP showed more flexibility associated with a (disordered) β-strand-like conformer. In-vitro release kinetics showed a slower release for LKP NPs in acidic pH compared to IPP NPs. In conclusion, LKP NPs were found to have better binding compatibility with chitosan.
Influence of partial pressure of oxygen on ascorbic acid degradation at canning temperature Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Nizar Al Fata, Stéphane Georgé, Naïma Dlalah, Catherine M.G.C. Renard
Oxygen is known to be one of the major causes of oxidative degradations of nutrients. Ascorbic acid, a component of interest due to its health benefits, is reported to be highly oxygen sensitive. To understand better the influence of oxygen on ascorbic acid retention at canning temperature, thermal treatment was performed in model solution at pH = 3.5 with varying partial pressure of oxygen from 0 MPa (strict anaerobic conditions) to 0.1 MPa in the headspace gas, from 95 °C to 125 °C, starting from an initial concentration of 900 mg/L. Treatment of 320 min was not sufficient to completely degrade all ascorbic acid initially present in the medium under anaerobic conditions and with a partial pressure of oxygen in headspace at 0.03 MPa, but treatment of 120 min was sufficient to degrade all initial ascorbic acid when the partial pressure of oxygen in headspace was set at 0.1 MPa. Apparent reaction orders were calculated; they were of 1 under anaerobic conditions, and 0.5 or 0.75 depending on partial pressure of oxygen. Activation energy was calculated using the Arrhenius law under anaerobic conditions only (Ea = 67 kJ/mol). When oxygen is present, whichever its partial pressure in headspace, no acceleration of reaction was observed with increased temperature.
The impact of high voltage electrical discharge plasma on the chromatic characteristics and phenolic composition of red and white wines Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Katarina Lukić, Tomislava Vukušić, Marina Tomašević, Natka Ćurko, Leo Gracin, Karin Kovačević Ganić
The cold plasma is an emerging electrotechnology for the improvement of food safety without loss of physicochemical or sensory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of plasma treatments on the chromatic characteristics and phenolic composition of red and white wines. The red wine Cabernet Sauvignon and white wine Graševina were treated with high voltage electrical discharge plasma considering the variations in frequency (60, 90 and 120 Hz) and processing time (3, 5 and 10 min). Total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total tannins and chromatic characteristics were analyzed by spectrophotometry while free anthocyanins, phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols by the HPLC-UV/Vis. Obtained results illustrated that plasma treatments have influenced the stability of phenolic compounds in wines without major changes in color parameters. Also, among two different processing parameters, the duration time was the most significant factor inducing changes on wines. Industrial relevance High voltage electrical discharge plasma has been shown to affect the stability of wine phenols without any significant change in the color. An increase in the concentration of certain phenolic compounds in white wine suggest that this technique could be used in the wine industry as an alternative technique for enhancing the oxidative stability of wine and consequently the wine quality during the aging process.
Characterization of microbial community in high-pressure treated oysters by high-throughput sequencing technology Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-03 Cao Rong, Zhao Ling, Sun Huihui, Liu Qi
High-pressure (HP) processing technology has great application potential in bivalve mollusk industry. In this study, the effects of HP treatment on shucking and shelf-life extension of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) during 4 ± 1 °C storage were studied. Culture-independent high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology was used to investigate the microbiota of oysters treated by HP (300 MPa, 2 min) during storage. Results showed that HP treatment at 275 MPa for 3 min or 300 MPa for 2 min could achieve 100% full release of oyster adductor muscle, pressures higher than 300 MPa caused disadvantageous damage of shells. Therefore, HP treatment at 300 MPa for 2 min was particularly appropriate. Based on organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological analyses, shelf-life of 6–8 days for control and 12 days for HP-treated oysters could be expected. The dominant bacteria in fresh oysters were Vibrio (28.3%), Shewanella (10.3%) and Pseudoalteromonas (7.2%). HP treatment changed the spoilage microbiota of oysters dramatically. Psychrobacter was dominant in the HP-treated spoiled oysters and its proportion was 42.3%, while Pseudoalteromonas (32.2%) and Shewanella (19.5%) were dominant in the spoiled oysters without HP treatment. This study confirmed that HP processing was effective in facilitating the removal of oyster meats from the shells and prolonging their shelf-life. More importantly, HP treatment changed the microbiota of oysters during chilled storage. Industrial relevance As seafood, oysters have a short shelf-life. High-pressure (HP) processing technology has showed great application potentials in the bivalve mollusk industry. In this work, we determined the effects of HP treatment on the shucking and shelf-life extension of oysters. We used high-throughput sequencing technology to investigate the microbiota of control and HP-treated oysters during refrigerated storage. We found that HP treatment changed the spoilage microbiota of oysters dramatically. Psychrobacter was dominant in the HP-treated spoiled oysters, while Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella were dominant in the spoiled oysters without HP treatment. Therefore, controlling the growth of Psychrobacter could help to improve the quality of oysters treated by HP during storage.
Microbial and physicochemical evolution during hyperbaric storage at room temperature of fresh Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Liliana G. Fidalgo, Álvaro T. Lemos, Ivonne Delgadillo, Jorge A. Saraiva
Hyperbaric storage (HS; 50–75 MPa) at room temperature (25–37 °C) was evaluated using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and compared to refrigeration (4 °C, RF). HS at 75 MPa caused a reduction of about 3.5 log units of initial microbial counts, leading to an increase of the microbial shelf-life of at least 25 days, compared to RF (3 days) and HS at 50 MPa, while at 60 MPa a microbial growth slowdown was observed, increasing the microbial shelf-life to at least 6 days. Additionally, at 75 MPa no changes in colour was detected during the 25 days. However, HS/RT enhanced an increase in primary and secondary lipid oxidation products compared to RF, while for atmospheric pressure at room temperature, tertiary lipid oxidation increased. HS may represent an interesting methodology for fresh fish shelf-life extension by microbial growth inhibition and microbial reduction, with additional energy saving when compared to RF. Industrial relevance Hyperbaric storage at room temperature (HS/RT) has shown a shelf-life extension of fresh fish salmon, as well as possible energy savings, when compared to conventional refrigeration. HS/RT only involves energy consumption during the compression and decompression phases, not requiring additional energy to control the temperature or maintain the product under pressure. However, before industrial implementation, more research is needed to clarify the effect of these storage conditions on mechanisms implied in fish quality degradation.
Effect of ozone processing conditions on stability of fungal pigments Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Diederich Aguilar, Lourdes Morales-Oyervides, Juan Carlos Contreras, Alejandro Méndez-Zavala, Javier Raso, Julio Montañez
The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of ozone processing technology on the stability of fungal pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. suspended in a buffer of pH 6 and a beverage model system (BMS). Both samples were ozonated by different ozone levels (0.031 to 0.064 mg/min/mL) and processing times (0 to 10 min). The impact of these processing variables on color degradation parameters was studied. Significant changes in pigmented extract and pigmented beverage model system (BMS) were observed. Ozone concentration and treatment time demonstrated to be critical factors in the color degradation of fungal pigments. First-order kinetic models adequately described the degradation pattern of pigments during ozonation. Degradation rate constants ranged from 0.127 to 0.206 in the buffer and from 0.068 to 0.119 in the BMS. The CIE L*a*b* parameters also confirmed the degradation behavior during ozonation process. Results from this study indicated that color stability of microbial pigments is affected by ozone processing conditions, thus, this quality aspect should be considered before applying this type of colorants in food products processed with ozone. Industrial relevance Natural colorants sources are required to meet the recent growing demands by the food industry due to consumers concerns of using synthetic pigments. Microbial pigments are of increasing interest as a result of the high yields that can be produced by microorganisms. Recently, Talaromyces spp. has gained attention as a good pigment producer strain. However, the application of these pigments in food manufacturing will depend on their stability to food processing (thermal and non-thermal). Accordingly, this work aimed to determinate if the colorants produced by Talaromyces spp. are applicable given their stability under ozone pasteurization. Results indicated that fungal pigments exposed to ozone could be considered as a potential natural ingredient to replace the color loss of some fruit juice processed under ozone technology. These results are promising for future applications in the food sector.
Emerging and potential technologies for facilitating shrimp peeling: A review Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-29 Tem Thi Dang, Nina Gringer, Flemming Jessen, Karsten Olsen, Niels Bøknæs, Pia Louise Nielsen, Vibeke Orlien
Ready-to-eat shrimp processing is challenging due to the complex biological design with the shell tightly connected to the meat. Several techniques have been developed to weaken or loosen this connection, thus facilitating the subsequent peeling. The loosening process is typically undertaken by maturing the shrimps on ice or in brine, which requires several days, consequently risking loss in food quality and safety. To overcome those issues, developing novel technologies that not only assist the shell loosening but also retain the meat quality, safety and yield, is of paramount importance. This article reviews some essential characteristics of shrimp, the current methods of maturation, the use of the emerging technologies (high pressure, microwave, ultrasound, and enzyme) to facilitate the peeling of foods and clarify the potential of using them in shrimp shell removal. Industrial relevance During the production of peeled products, the shrimp processing industry has suffered from drawbacks of the traditional ice/brine maturations - a step facilitating the peeling. The drawbacks include yield loss, reduction of organoleptic quality, risk of microorganisms, time consuming issue and discontinuous process due to a long time soaking in maturing tanks. Therefore the need for seeking alternative methods to replace the traditional long maturations has grown, that address the future trends in sustainable processing of ready-to-eat shrimps. Emerging technologies e.g. high pressure, enzyme, ultrasound and microwave can potentially become the alternatives since they have strong peeling effects on lobsters, crabs, bivalve mollusks, eggshells, human skin, fruits and vegetables. Also these technologies offer benefits such as short process time, retained nutritional and sensorial characteristics, energy and water efficiency which all promise higher profits for the shrimp industry.
Dynamic fluid interface formation in microfluidics: Effect of emulsifier structure and oil viscosity Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-26 Kelly Muijlwijk, Xuezhu Li, Claire Berton-Carabin, Karin Schroën
Pulsed electric field treatment of citrus fruits: Improvement of juice and polyphenols extraction Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Sally El Kantar, Nadia Boussetta, Nikolai Lebovka, Felix Foucart, Hiba N. Rajha, Richard G. Maroun, Nicolas Louka, Eugene Vorobiev
The impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on orange, pomelo, and lemon in aqueous media was studied. Whole fruits and stack of peels were PEF treated at electric field strength of 3 kV/cm and 10 kV/cm, respectively. The PEF induced damage of the whole fruit was evaluated by different disintegration indexes. The PEF treatment increased the yield of juice obtained after pressing by 25% for orange, 37% for pomelo, and 59% for lemon. The effect of PEF on different parts of each fruit was studied. Flavedo and albedo were separated from the untreated fruit or PEF treated fruit and solvent extraction (1/1 ethanol/water solution) of polyphenols was conducted. The quantification and characterization of polyphenols in each part was compared for untreated and PEF treated fruit. The application of high electric field strength on orange peels enhanced the extraction of polyphenols up to 22 mg GAE/g DM. Industrial relevance Citrus fruits are valuable sources of bioactive compounds (vitamins, antioxidants, carotenoids and flavonoids) and their processing represents an industrial importance. An application of PEF to whole fruits may be useful for improving the efficiency of juice extraction from different citrus fruits. The concentration of polyphenols in the extracted juice could be significantly enhanced by the treatment of citrus peels with PEF at high electric field strength.
Physicochemical and functional properties of high pressure-treated isolated pea protein Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-16 Dongfang Chao, Stephanie Jung, Rotimi E. Aluko
Commercial isolated yellow field pea protein isolate (IPP) was subjected to 200, 400 and 600 MPa high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments followed by determination of some physicochemical and functional properties. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed HHP-induced formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates. Intrinsic fluorescence showed most intense at 600 MPa where fluorescence intensity was less than half of the control IPP. The 600 MPa-treated IPP also showed more unfolded structure with an extensive red shift (384 nm) in wavelength of maximum tryptophan fluorescence. However, solubility profile was very similar and was not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by HHP treatment. At pH 3.0, HHP-treated IPP formed significantly (p < 0.05) higher quality emulsions with oil droplet sizes (d4,3) of 26–68 μm when compared to 52–92 μm for the control IPP. Foaming capacity was also higher at pH 3.0 with a maximum value of 81% when compared to maximum values of 38% and 62% obtained, respectively at pH 5.0 and 7.0.
Ultra-high pressure homogenisation process for production of reduced fat mayonnaise with similar rheological characteristics as its full fat counterpart Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-16 Kemal Aganovic, Ute Bindrich, Volker Heinz
The potential of (ultra) high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) for production of emulsion (example of mayonnaise) with 28% of sunflower oil without thickeners and artificial emulsifiers was investigated. For purposes of comparison, a commercially available full fat (CFFM) and low fat mayonnaise (CLFM) were analysed. The emulsions were characterized by measuring the fat droplet size distribution, structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and rheological properties applying flow and oscillatory tests one day after the processing. The droplet size and microscopic images of UHPH produced emulsion revealed smaller fat droplets and a more even distribution of components, compared to the CFFM and CLFM. Similar consistency index of UHPH low fat emulsion compared to the CFFM was obtained in pressure range from 250 to 300 MPa. In the same pressure range the UHPH emulsion showed higher firmness parameter compared to CFFM. The results of the study showed clear potential of UHPH technology for production of emulsion reduced in fat, free of additional thickeners and artificial emulsifiers. Industrial relevance text Mayonnaise is considered as one of the most popular sauces worldwide with high fat content. High pressure homogenisation (HPH) is a new continuous technique for preparation and stabilisation of emulsions, by means of significantly reducing the size of oil droplets and improving interactions between emulsifier and fat phase. This allows for production of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with reduced fat content. Further, emulsion with reduced amount of emulsifiers or completely free of thickeners can be produced. The results of this study could be of great importance for consideration of scale-up possibilities and future implementation of UHPH in food industry for production of low fat emulsions, having a clean label. Moreover, the process could stimulate interest in product development and optimisation of existing processes. A consumer friendly product reduced in fat and with clean label could be produced.
Effect of citric acid and high pressure thermal processing on enzyme activity and related quality attributes of pear puree Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-14 Lei Zhou, Wei Liu, Regine Stockmann, Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe
Pear puree was acidified with citric acid and was subjected to thermal (TP) and high pressure-thermal processing (HPTP). Citric acid inhibited peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and preserved the color of pear puree. The addition of citric acid (2%, w/w) increased total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of pear puree by ~ 50%. POD was more sensitive than PPO to thermal and HPT inactivation. Citric acid enhanced thermal and HPT inactivation and complete inactivation of POD was observed after TP (90 °C, 7 min) and HPTP (600 MPa, 90 °C, 5 min) in acidified samples, while a maximum 60% inactivation of PPO was observed under these conditions. TP resulted in a slightly better color retention of acidified samples than HPTP under conditions of equivalent enzyme inactivation, whereas TPC and ORAC remained stable irrespective of the process. Industrial relevance This study investigated the effect of thermal and high pressure thermal processing with and without citric acid on the activity of oxidative enzymes and related quality attributes of pear puree. Citric acid inhibited enzymatic browning, protected polyphenolic antioxidants against oxidative degradation and resulted in 50% increase in antioxidant capacity when it was added at 2% (w/w). Acidified pear puree can possibly be used as an ingredient in products such as yoghurt, jams and baby food after either thermal or high pressure thermal processing due to its reduced oxidative enzyme activity, low pH, high antioxidant capacity and excellent color retention.
Characteristics of fermented seasoning sauces using Tenebrio molitor larvae Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-13 Joo-Hyoung Cho, Hui-Ling Zhao, Ji-Su Kim, Soo-Hee Kim, Chang-Ho Chung
As edible insects have come to be used as a dietary source of protein, related studies have been carried out in various fields. A liquid fermented seasoning was prepared using Tenebrio molitor larvae by applying the soy sauce fermentation process. Meju, koji, and roasted rice flour were combined with a 23% brine to produce a sauce. Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus licheniformis were used to ferment raw or defatted insect larvae, and the resulting material was used as an insect meju. The insect koji was prepared with defatted insects and A. oryzae. Six sauce samples, including soy sauce with two different ratios of ingredients (meju:koji:roasted rice flour = 6:2:2 and 8:1:1) were prepared with raw T. molitor larvae (raw insect sauce), defatted larvae (defatted insect sauce), and soy (soy sauce) after 20 days of fermentation at 25 °C. No difference in the L value was observed among experimental groups, but the 6:2:2 ratio sauces generally had higher L values than did the 8:1:1 ratio sauces. The raw insect sauce showed the highest b value. The overall color change (ΔE) over time was not significant, but the value was high for the insect sauce. Browning tended to increase as fermentation continued in the soy and raw insect sauces. Browning of defatted insect sauce increased, but decreased sharply on day 20. Sample pH values were 5.70–6.19 on day 0 and 5.66–6.02 on day 20. No significant change in pH was observed among samples. Titratable acidity increased overall during fermentation. The 6:2:2 ratio sauces had higher total soluble solids, reducing sugars, and total sugars than did the 8:1:1 ratio sauces. Total nitrogen content of the sauces was 1.06–1.19% after 20 days of fermentation. The 6:2:2 ratio sauces showed greater amino‑nitrogen content (0.26–0.32% on day 20) than did the 8:1:1 ratio sauces, indicating more efficient protein degradation. The percentage nitrogen degradation rates were higher for the insect sauces than for the soy sauce. Essential and nonessential amino acids, as well as amino acid derivatives, increased by 1.5–2 times during fermentation. The raw M6 insect sauce had the highest total free amino-acid content of 510.42 mg/kg. Glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, serine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, and valine contents were high in the sauces.
Unfolding and nanotube formation of ovalbumin induced by pulsed electric field Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-13 Jing-Ni Wei, Xin-An Zeng, Ting Tang, Zhuo Jiang, Yan-Yan Liu
Application of innovative technologies, moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields and high-pressure thermal treatment, to preserve and/or improve the bioactive compounds content of pumpkin Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 J. García-Parra, F. González-Cebrino, J. Delgado-Adámez, R. Cava, O. Martín-Belloso, P. Elez-Martínez, R. Ramírez
The application of novel technologies such as moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) and/or high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments improved the quality of processed pumpkin. MIPEF was applied to whole pumpkin in order to increase the bioactive compounds content, in contrast, HPT treatment was applied in order to preserve the purées. Traditional thermal treatment (TT) of pasteurization and sterilization was compared with equivalent HPT treatments. The effect of processing (TT vs. HPT) in purées made from pumpkin pretreated with MIPEF was evaluated. Microbiological counts, enzyme inactivation (polyphenol oxidase, PPO) and bioactive compounds content (carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity) were analyzed in all processed purées. Regarding the pretreatment of the pumpkin, the application of MIPEF increased the content of some bioactive compounds of interest, such as carotenoids. The HPT treatment equivalent to sterilization preserved high levels of carotene compounds and antioxidant activity of pumpkin purée although this treatment importantly modified the original color of purée. However, the HPT treatment equivalent to pasteurization did not inactivate PPO enzyme in contrast to the effect reached by the equivalent TT. The bioactive compounds levels in HPT treated purée were similar or lower than those treated by TT. Industrial relevance Pulsed electric fields and high pressure thermal processing are emerging non-thermal food processing technologies. Moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) were applied to increase the generation of bioactive compounds in vegetables. This treatment enhanced the carotenoids content in pumpkin. High pressure thermal treatment (applied at conditions equivalent to sterilization) was the method that best preserved pumpkin purées. The application of MIPEF to pumpkin and HPT treatment to the resulting purées could be proposed as a strategy for producing and preserving vegetable products with high bioactive compounds content.
Impact of drying deep beds of Rice with microwave set at 915 MHz frequency on the Rice milling yields Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-09 Deandrae L. Smith, Griffiths G. Atungulu
This study investigates the feasibility of achieving one-pass drying of high moisture content (MC) rice with microwaves (MWs) set at 915 MHz. Medium-grain rough rice at initial MC of 23% wet basis was dried using a MW dryer set to transmit energy at power levels 5, 10, and 15 kW for 4, 6, and 8 min for rice bed thicknesses of 5, 10 and 15 cm. Increasing MW specific energy up to 900 kJ/kg-grain resulted in increasing rice final surface temperature (FST) and drying rate which together had the effect of lowering the milled rice yield (MRY) and head rice yield (HRY). There was a statistically significant disparity in HRYs across the studied rice bed thicknesses. At the 10 to 15 cm (top) layer, the highest HRYs were observed (64.52%). The 0 to 5 cm (bottom) and the 5 to 10 cm (middle) layers had statistically similar mean HRYs that were both lower than the top layer.
The virtual food system: Innovative models and experiential feedback in technologies for winemaking, the cereals chain, food packaging and eco-designed starter production Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-08 César Aceves, Violaine Athès, Patrice Buche, Guy Della Valle, Vincent Farines, Fernanda Fonseca, Valérie Guillard, Kamal Kansou, Magdalena Kristiawan, Vincent Monclus, Jean-Roch Mouret, Amadou Ndiaye, Pascal Neveu, Stéphanie Passot, Caroline Pénicaud, Jean-Marie Sablayrolles, Jean-Michel Salmon, Rallou Thomopoulos, Ioan Cristian Trelea
This article presents an overview of five use-cases that illustrate food-system modeling approaches, most of them combining quantitative and qualitative methods. The cases deal with issues as diverse as: the modeling of winemaking fermentation; the choice of a food packaging material; the design of solid foam cereal products; argumentation modeling to support multistakeholder decision-making, and the control of freeze-drying for eco-design purposes. They tackle several challenges to modeling and knowledge engineering in food systems: capitalizing data and knowledge; structuring a shared vocabulary and domain knowledge in an ontology; formalizing viewpoints and contradictions from food-related debates; supporting multi-criteria decision-making.
Impact of HHP processing on volatile profile and sensory acceptance of Pêra-Rio orange juice Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-07 Raíssa Bittar Mastello, Natália Soares Janzantti, Antônio Bisconsin-Júnior, Magali Monteiro
The purpose of this study was to evaluate volatile compounds and sensory acceptance of HHP processed orange juice compared with non-processed and pasteurized orange juices. RSM and sniffing were successfully applied for optimization of HS-SPME conditions. The chosen HS-SPME conditions 37 °C during 25 min of exposure properly characterized the volatile profile of HHP processed, pasteurized and non-processed orange juices. HHP processing conditions had an impact on the volatile profile of the juice. Sensory acceptance was higher for non-processed and similar for HHP and pasteurized orange juice. PCA discriminated processed from non-processed orange juice, and HHP from pasteurized orange juice. HHP processed orange juice was characterized by ethyl butanoate, octanal, 1-octanol, linalool, ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate, nootkatone and ethyl octanoate. Pasteurized orange juice was characterized by the same compounds as HHP, plus geranyl acetate and apart from ethyl octanoate. Terpinolene, octyl acetate, carveol, carvone, linalyl acetate and δ-elemene characterized non-processed orange juice. Industrial relevance HHP processing has been used as an efficient food preservation process in order to meet consumers growing demand for juices with natural-like attributes. Orange juice HHP processing is claimed to inactivate PME and eliminate microorganisms by pressurizing the juice, maintaining freshness, sensorial and nutritive value. This technology is still not being used by the Brazilian juice industry, which presents itself as a whole range of opportunities. Therefore the focus on volatile compounds from Pêra-Rio orange juice is due to its importance for Brazilian citrus industry. In this study orange juice pressurized in a pilot plant was compared to the non-processed and pasteurized orange juice, presenting a new approach for the analysis of volatile compounds, using RSM HS-SPME optimization combined with sniffing, and most importantly, considering the aroma representativeness, in order to properly evaluate the impact of HHP processing on the volatile compounds, responsible for the flavor of the juice and discriminate the volatile profile of the HHP orange juice compared with non-processed and pasteurized orange juice. Sensory acceptance of HHP processed orange juice was also performed to verify if changes in volatile profile were perceived by consumers.
Multi-stage continuous and intermittent microwave drying of quince fruit coupled with osmotic dehydration and low temperature hot air drying Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-07 Jalal Dehghannya, Seyed-Hamed Hosseinlar, Maryam Khakbaz Heshmati
In recent years, using intermittent microwave (IM) to dry foodstuffs has been taken into consideration as one of the new drying methods in food industry. The aim of this research was to dry cubic pieces of pre-treated “quince” fruit by sucrose osmotic solution using IM – hot air (HA) drying at a low temperature (40 °C) in order to investigate the effects of this process on improving the dried product quality. The variables of the process included sucrose osmotic solution in 5 concentration levels of 0 (control), 10, 30, 50, and 70% (w/w) and microwave at 4 powers of 0 (control), 360, 600, and 900 W, with 4 pulse ratios of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Findings indicated that compared to control samples, the samples pre-treated by osmotic solution had lower effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff). However, Deff increased through increase in power and pulse ratio of the microwave. Increasing the concentration of the osmotic solution, power, and pulse ratio led to significant decreases in shrinkage. Due to high shrinkage, the quince samples dried by continuous microwave – HA method showed higher bulk density in comparison to the samples dried by IM – HA. In addition, samples dried by IM with low power showed the highest rehydration followed by those dried by IM with high power; however, the control samples dried merely by HA had the lowest rehydration. Moreover, a significant decrease in specific energy consumption was noticed through increasing the microwave power. Drying by IM – HA at the power of 900 W and the pulse ratio of 4 had the lowest specific energy consumption, while drying with only HA had the highest specific energy consumption.
Selected case studies presenting advanced methodologies to study food and chemical industry materials: From the structural characterization of raw materials to the multisensory integration of food Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Zoe Deuscher, Jean-Marie Bonny, François Boué, Véronique Cheynier, Sylvie Clerjon, Marie-Françoise Devaux, Julie Meneghel, Fabienne Guillon, Frédéric Jamme, Steven Le Feunteun, Stéphanie Passot, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Hélène Rogniaux, David Ropartz, Jonathan Thévenot, Anna Vallverdu-Queralt, Francis Canon
Agricultural resources give us food but also potential sources of feedstocks for the chemical industry. As demand from the growing human population rises, the food industry and the chemical industry face similar problems of scaling operations while sourcing the largest possible amount of at least reasonable-quality raw materials. Food is composed of complex structures formed from molecular assemblies (e.g. particles, fibres, crystals) whose properties depend in part on the molecular species present. In this context, investigations are needed to better understand raw material structure and structure transformation mechanisms in order to improve manufacturing processes and the properties of the final product (e.g. food), which means dedicated methodologies need to be developed. This review presents case studies illustrating advanced technologies designed for characterizing biopolymers, supramolecular complexes, cell membranes, enzymatic degradation of food matrices and biopolymers, flavor release dynamics during eating, cerebral multisensory integration of food and eating behavior.
Hygienic design of food processing lines to mitigate the risk of bacterial food contamination with respect to environmental concerns Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Christine Faille, Charles Cunault, Thomas Dubois, Thierry Bénézech
Public authorities, chain stakeholders and consumers are all concerned by microbial food safety. Microbiological hazards are one of the most common causes of food poisoning that has been considered for many years but still on the track nowadays considering the recent foodborne disease outbreaks largely reported by the media. Microbial contamination origins are diverse from the field to the plate e.g. soil, air, equipment surfaces, packaging material and staff.Firstly, this article highlights the ways in which the choice of materials plays a major role in surface hygiene. Hydrodynamic conditions directly linked to the equipment geometry are focused on, as is the role played by surfaces in contact with air in surface drying. Surface environmental conditions during processing or cleaning are discussed and new proposals described. Better knowledge of surface contamination and cleaning mechanisms would positively impact hygienic design principles, thereby mitigating any environmental impact of the cleaning operations in the food and beverage industries: new strategies are therefore proposed. Industrial relevance Hygienic design of food processing equipment is nowadays considered to be mandatory in the reduction of the risk microbial food contamination. The presentation of potential roles of materials on the remaining bacterial soil, after soiling and cleaning, provide new insights when envisaging any hygienic improvements. Equipment design plays a major role in contamination trapping or in the ease of removal via the flow arrangements, notably during cleaning and rinsing operations. More detailed knowledge of the flow mechanical actions combined with the unavoidable chemical action of the detergents would allow industries to go further in enhancing certain “good” phenomena, such as pulsed flow conditions. Last but not least are those possibilities offered by a hygienically designed processing line, in the quest for environmental impact mitigation of cleaning operations i.e. drinking water and energy reductions, or the use of new “green” mild detergents.
Structuring food to control its disintegration in the gastrointestinal tract and optimize nutrient bioavailability Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Didier Dupont, Steven Le Feunteun, Sébastien Marze, Isabelle Souchon
Unravelling the fate of food in the gastrointestinal tract is essential to better understand the health effects of food and fight against diet-related pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases and type-2 diabetes, and enable the design of food of high nutritional and sensory qualities to provide humans with a healthy diet. Research to date has mostly considered foods according to their composition. However, the role of the food matrix, i.e. the microstructure-level organization of nutrients and their interactions, in the digestive process was recently demonstrated. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups at the INRA to understand and model food digestion. Integration of the knowledge acquired will serve the development of a reverse engineering approach to design new foods purpose- adapted to meeting the nutritional needs of specific populations like infants or the elderly.
How to secure the meat chain against toxicants? Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Maïa Meurillon, Jérémy Ratel, Erwan Engel
Food safety is a growing concern for consumers, public authorities and food-chain stakeholders. Ensuring food safety is becoming increasingly important with regard to changing food habits and the globalization of food supply. This makes assessing chemical food safety a crucial issue, as food can be contaminated by various toxicants throughout the food chain. At farm level, raw materials can be contaminated by agrochemicals, including pesticides and veterinary drugs, as well as by environmental micropollutants such as POPs or heavy metals. Further chemical hazards associated to the occurrence of toxicants or to cross-contaminations can also arise during transport, processing or storage. This chapter presents and discusses recent advances in chemical food safety. Taking meat as a model, it gives an overview of promising novel approaches to better control the occurrence of chemical toxicants along the food chain, improve their risk assessment, and reduce their impact on human health by proposing novel mitigation strategies. Industrial relevance As meat may be contaminated by various chemical toxicants, its chemical safety is a growing concern for public authorities, industrials and consumers. This paper gives the different toxic contaminants potentially found in meat products and the possible strategies for their detection, mitigation and health impact assessment. This knowledge would permit industrials to develop new distinctive labels for safe food as well as to produce new ready-to-eat foods free of process induced toxicants or original recipes to add to dishes to reduce the health impact of these toxicants. Knowing the toxicant bioaccessibility would also permit industrials to target precise food product composition depending on the raw materials and the consumers' class. It finally proposes emerging analytical approaches to enable a more systematic control of meat chain. All the strategies developed herein on meat products could be transposable to other food chains of industrial interest and with products potentially contaminated from farm to fork.
An untargeted chemometric evaluation of plasma and ozone processing effect on volatile compounds in orange juice Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-10-03 E.G. Alves Filho, T.H.S. Rodrigues, F.A.N. Fernandes, E.S. de Brito, P.J. Cullen, J.M. Frias, P. Bourke, R.S. Cavalcante, F.D.L. Almeida, S. Rodrigues
The study of small molecules based on “fingerprint” approaches and non-target methodologies has been used to understand changes caused during natural or industrial processes. In this work, chemometrics was applied to evaluate changes according to the volatile composition of orange juice subjected to ozone and plasma processing, and its influence on the flavor compounds of the juice. HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis was able to differentiate the juices processed by ozone and plasma, mainly showing the oxidation of limonene, y-terpinene, and linalool to the orange off-flavor components α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, the formation of decanal, and the degradation of p-cymene. The multivariate chemical analysis of volatile compounds of orange juice indicated a significant difference between juices treated with short-period ozone treatment (1 to 3 min) and using long-period ozone treatment and plasma treatment.
Inhibitory effect of plant essential oil nanoemulsions against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium on red mustard leaves Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Ji-Hoon Kang, Kyung Bin Song
In this study, essential oil (EO) nanoemulsions as an alternative to chlorine-based sanitizers for red mustard leaves were prepared, and their inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria were examined. Red mustard leaves spot-inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium were treated with EOs alone, surfactants (SFs) (Tween 80 (T80), non-ionic; cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), cationic) alone, and nanoemulsions formulated with EOs (0.02%) and SFs (0.002%). The results indicated that nanoemulsions containing CPC exhibited a higher inhibitory effect than those including T80. The reductions in all pathogens after treatment with nanoemulsions containing EOs and CPC were higher (0.1–0.6 log reductions) than those of 0.02% NaOCl. In addition, nanoemulsion treatment did not affect the sensory qualities of red mustard during storage. Therefore, nanoemulsions with EOs and CPC can become an effective substitute for chlorine-based sanitizers for fresh-cut produce if regulations allow the use of CPC. Industrial relevance Foodborne-illness outbreaks related to fresh-cut produce have increased globally. The use of chlorine-based sanitizers in the fresh-cut produce industry has been decreasing due to health-related problems. Thus, an alternative washing treatment is needed to control pathogenic bacteria contaminating fresh-cut produce. Nanoemulsions with EOs and cationic SF developed in this study can be a suitable washing agent for inactivating foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut produce.
Internal and external factors affecting the crystallization, gelation and applicability of wax-based oleogels in food industry Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Chi Diem Doan, Iris Tavernier, Paula Kiyomi Okuro, Koen Dewettinck
In recent years, wax-based oleogelation has appeared as a new and effective strategy to structure liquid oil into soft, solid-like systems, which can be exploited as alternatives for trans- and/or saturated lipidic hardstocks in the production of lipid-based food products. Waxes are crystalline gelators, consisting of a mixture of straight-chain alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, wax esters, aldehydes, ketones, glycerol esters or di-esters. Wax-based gelation arises from the crystallization of wax particles. Tuning the preparation conditions such as cooling rate, shear rate and setting temperature can alter the crystallization and gelation of natural waxes in liquid oil. A better fundamental understanding on wax-based oleogelation is therefore important to control the quality of food products, in which these oleogels could act as structuring agents. In the food industry, wax-based oleogels can be utilized to partially or fully replace the trans- and/or saturated fats in fat-based food formulations such as shortening, margarine, confectionery products, ice-cream, and whipped-cream. Furthermore, oil migration can be prevented by using wax crystals to capture the free liquid oil within a fat-based confectionery filling.The scope of this review is to provide a concise insight into structuring liquid oil using natural waxes, with the emphasis on different internal and external factors affecting the physicochemical properties of wax-based oleogels. The innovative food applications of wax-based oleogels are also discussed in details. Industrial relevance Wax-based oleogelation has been emerged as a potential alternative to conventional oil structuring. The gelling behavior of natural waxes in liquid oils is governed by the polarity of the solvents, and by the wax crystal morphologies, which are determined by the nature and chain length of the chemical components present in waxes. In addition, the gelling behavior of wax-based oleogels can be tuned by altering the cooling and shear rates, and by changing the time and temperature of cooling. These factors strongly influence the physicochemical properties as well as the storage stability of wax-based oleogels. In addition, the application of wax-based oleogel in food formulations has encountered some technical challenges due to the incompatibility between oleogels and saturated fats, and due to the insufficient amount of solid content provided by waxes. With regard to the sensorial aspect, the waxy mouthfeel might be an obstacle restricting the acceptance of wax-based products in food markets. This review therefore provides a concise overview relating to the internal (chemical composition of natural waxes, type and polarity of solvents) and external factors (cooling rate, shear rate, storage time, and co-structuring) affecting the crystallization and gelation of wax-based oleogels, as well as their potential application in producing low-saturated fat products in food industry.
Potential application of essential oils as antimicrobial preservatives in cheese Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-29 Nasim Khorshidian, Mojtaba Yousefi, Elham Khanniri, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
Increasing demand of consumers to use food products without preservatives or natural preservatives as possible has compelled the food industries for utilization of preservatives with herbal and microbial origins instead of artificial preservative in their production. Essential oils are volatile, natural plant-derived substances that are used in medicine, food flavoring and food preservation. These diverse compounds represent considerable potential antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities via various mechanisms. This review represents an overview on the impact of essential oils and their constituents as natural antimicrobials versus common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in cheese along with the related mechanisms of actions. Industrial relevance Natural preservatives have proven popularity such that interest continues in substituting artificial additives with natural. Therefore, production of safe food without or with low amounts of synthetic preservatives is one of the most important challenges in the food industry. This review, introduces the potential application of essential oils as natural antimicrobial agents for reduction of common spoilage and pathogenic bacteria as well as molds and yeasts in cheese-making industry.
Active packaging using an olive leaf extract and high pressure processing for the preservation of sliced dry-cured shoulders from Iberian pigs Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 G. Amaro-Blanco, J. Delgado-Adámez, M.J. Martín, R. Ramírez
The effect of an active packaging (AP) based on olive leaf extract and/or high pressure processing (HPP) was evaluated for the preservation of sliced Iberian dry-cured shoulders during storage. Shoulders came from Iberian pigs (100%) reared outdoors in the Dehesa and fed with acorns and pasture. Dry-cured shoulders were sliced and vacuum packaged in an active packaging with olive leaf extract. HPP at 600 MPa for 7 min was applied to packages and microbiological, color, oxidative and sensory changes were evaluated during 150 days of refrigerated storage. High reductions of microbial counts were found after HPP and the subsequent storage. Instrumental color parameters of dry-cured shoulder were similar in control and AP and/or HPP, and values were stable during storage. Neither AP and/nor HPP modified lipid oxidation values; and during refrigerated storage similar increases of TBA-RS were found in all treatments. Protein oxidation did not show significant differences among treatments, however, protein oxidation was not modified during storage. Most sensory parameters (appearance, taste, flavor and texture) did not show significant differences due to AP and/or HPP. Therefore, AP with olive leaf extract was not effective to preserve sliced dry-cured shoulder alone or combined with HPP. HPP was effective to decrease microbial counts, also, oxidative, color and sensory parameters were not affected after processing and after 150 days of refrigerated storage. Likely oxidative characteristics of shoulders from pigs reared outdoors would be partly responsible of the high stability of this product during processing and storage. Industrial relevance The demand of sliced dry-cured Iberian ham has importantly increased in the last years. During the slicing and packaging, the shelf-life and the safety of the hamcan be reduced. Industrial sector demands new methods to prolong the shelf-life and maintain the original quality of sliced ham during storage. The utilization of an active packaging with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties could increase the shelf-life of this product. Hydrostatic high pressure processing is a non-thermal food processing technology which allows the inactivation of pathogens. The combined effect of both methods (processing and packaging) could improve the antimicrobial effect while preserve the quality after processing to enhance the shelf-life of the product.
Inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice by microwave and conventional thermal processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Érica Sayuri Siguemoto, Jorge Andrey Wilhelms Gut, Antonio Martinez, Dolores Rodrigo
The inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 4972) and Listeria monocytogenes (CECT 4032) inoculated in apple juice were evaluated under conventional isothermal treatments at four temperatures (55, 60, 65 and 70 °C) and microwave heating at four power levels (400, 600, 800 and 1000 W). For both thermal treatments, it was possible to achieve a 5-log10 reduction, as recommended by the FDA. The survival curves were non-log-linear and were well described by the Weibull model. To compare treatments, the survival ratio was calculated over the time temperature history of the microwaved samples based on the Weibull parameters for conventional heating and it was compared with the experimental data. Results show that microwave microbial inactivation was more efficient than predicted in 18 out of 28 tests, which suggests the existence of enhanced inactivation under microwave heating. Industrial relevance The growing demands for natural and nutritious foods have promoted the development of preservation technologies to ensure consumer safety and to preserve the original nutritional and organoleptic characteristics of the food. Among the emerging technologies, microwave heating has shown great potential for the continuous pasteurization of fluid foods offering rapid volumetric heating, lower surface temperatures and possible enhanced effects. The result of this study shows that microwave pasteurization of apple juice is a promising technology to enhance microbial safety.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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