The effect of extrusion on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of novel gluten-free expanded products based on carob fruit, pea and rice blends Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-12-08 C. Arribas, B. Cabellos, C. Cuadrado, E. Guillamón, M.M. Pedrosa
The bioactive compounds (inositol phosphates, α-galactosides, protease inhibitors, lectins, and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity (ORAC) of different rice-legume (carob fruit and pea) blends were evaluated in non-extruded (as control) and extruded formulations. Extrusion reduced (p < 0.05) the inositol phosphates (5.7–30.9%) and lectin (50–97%) contents, whereas the protease inhibitors were eliminated. The α-galactosides content increased (p < 0.05) after extrusion, while the different phenolic compounds studied were not affected to the same extent. A strong positive correlation was found between the ORAC values and total phenolic content in all the samples. The effect of extrusion process was well described by principal component analysis and was mainly characterised by the first principal component. The amounts of these bioactive compounds present in the novel gluten-free ready-to-eat foods (especially both formulations with10% carob fruit) could allow them to be considered functional foods that are suitable for a healthy lifestyle, helping to increase pulse consumption. Industrial relevance This research responds to the growing interest of consumers to find new healthy products, and, therefore, it may allow the food industry to meet their demand of functional foods. Extrusion cooking is a processing technique widely used in the food industry. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that blends based on legumes (carob fruit and pea) and rice can be a novel source of bioactive compounds to be used in the production of expanded gluten-free snack or breakfast cereals-like products with health promoting functions.
Radio-frequency treatment for stabilization of wheat germ: Storage stability and physicochemical properties Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-12-07 Bo Ling, Shaohui Ouyang, Shaojin Wang
Wheat germ (WG) is a nutritional valuable by-product of wheat milling. However, presences of high lipase (LA) activity and high content of unsaturated fatty acids induce rapid lipid rancidity in WG during storage. The aim of this study was to inactivate LA activity and improve the lipid stability of WG using radio-frequency (RF) heating treatment. Meanwhile, the color, functional, structure and antioxidant properties of WG samples stabilized by effective RF and conventional steaming treatments were also compared. Results indicated that WG stabilized by RF heating to 100 °C with holding for 15 min in hot air or heating to 110 °C with holding for 5 min could effectively inactivate LA activity to 18.2% or 22.5% of their original values. Under these conditions, the WG can be maintained with the acceptable oil quality for >90 d at controlled room condition in zip-lock PE bags. The color values and water/oil absorption capacity of WG were improved by RF stabilization treatments, but the protein solubility (PS) and foaming properties were reduced. RF stabilized WG also showed comparable emulsifying properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) to those of control. Compared with steam treatments, RF stabilized samples exhibited a brighter color, higher PS, TPC, or AC, better foaming/emulsifying properties, and clearer outline presence with intact starch granules in microstructure. RF treatments could be a promising stabilization method and improve some physiochemical properties of WG, which are important for industrial applications.
Fluorescence-based analyser as a rapid tool for determining soluble protein content in dairy ingredients and infant milk formula Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-12-03 Lisa E. Henihan, Colm P. O'Donnell, Carlos Esquerre, Eoin G. Murphy, Donal J. O'Callaghan
Milk protein, in particular native whey protein, is of interest to dairy manufacturers as a measure of functional and nutritional quality. However, quantification of soluble whey protein (SP) is time consuming; giving rise to the need to develop rapid, accurate, and portable at-line process analytical technology. In this study, the performance of a fluorescence-based analyser(F) (Amaltheys II, Spectralys Innovations, France) was evaluated for quantification of SPF and whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI)F in skim milk, whey protein concentrate and infant formula powders. Rehydration of powders prior to analysis was a key factor for ensuring repeatability and reproducibility. A comparison of the analyser with reference methods for SPF and WPNIF resulted in coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.993 for both SPKjeldahl method and WPNIGEA. The results show the fluorescence-based analyser to be rapid, compact, and accurate device, suited for providing reliable support to dairy ingredient and infant formula manufacturers. Industrial relevance The fluorescence based analysis investigated in this article is suitable for application in the dairy industry where it can be used as a rapid, at-line PAT tool for both liquid and powder samples. The technology has the potential to replace well-established methods for measurement of soluble protein. The main benefit to industry is the ability to respond more rapidly to variations in soluble protein without compromising on the accuracy associated with more time consuming methods.
Characterization of CO2 laser browning of dough Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 Jonathan David Blutinger, Yorán Meijers, Peter Yichen Chen, Changxi Zheng, Eitan Grinspun, Hod Lipson
We study the application of laser-heating technology to browning dough, due to its potential for high-resolution spatial and surface color control. An important component of this process is the identification of how laser parameters affect browning and baking and whether desirable results can be achieved. In this study, we analyze the performance of a carbon dioxide (CO2) mid-infrared laser (operating at 10.6 μm wavelength) during the browning of dough. Dough samples—consisting of flour and water—were exposed to the infrared laser at different laser power, beam diameter, and sample exposure time. At a laser energy flux of 0.32 MW m−2 (beam diameter of 5.7 mm) and sample exposure time of 180 s we observe a maximum thermal penetration of 0.77 mm and satisfactory dough browning. These results suggest that a CO2 laser is ideal for browning thin goods as well as for food layered manufacture.Industrial relevanceA CO2 laser that operates at a wavelength of 10.6 μm (IR) was used as an alternative method for browning dough. The high-power flux of the laser and the high energy absorption of food at this wavelength allow for rapid surface browning; however, the high absorption limits thermal penetration depth. Nevertheless, accuracy of the laser beam enables high resolution spatial and thermal control of the non-enzymatic browning process. This high precision cooking makes laser-browning particularly ideal for food layered manufacture (FLM), a food processing technique that has gained increased attention in recent years. Using FLM, one can adjust the printed layer height to match cooking penetration depth. As a digital manufacturing technology, laser-browning could also enable manufacture of highly complex and customized food geometries and textures.
Current status of emerging food processing technologies in Latin America: Novel thermal processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 L. Moreno-Vilet, H.M. Hernández-Hernández, S.J. Villanueva-Rodríguez
This review aims to describe the basic principles and applications of novel thermal technologies focusing on studies in Latin American countries with respect to those worldwide to define the current needs in research. Definitions, technical characteristics, mechanisms of bacterial inactivation, and potential applications are described, as well as the current status of these technologies and their main challenges for industrialisation. The research advances, as evidenced by the number of publications in international journals, are reviewed with special focus on publications from Latin America. The research on novel thermal emerging technologies for food processing is widely dominated by the USA. In Latin America, this research area is much smaller; however, a vast array of possible applications exists considering the diversity of products in the region, which has not yet been explored.
Athermal extraction of green tea: Optimisation and kinetics of extraction of polyphenolic compounds Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 C.S. Murugesh, Navin K. Rastogi, R. Subramanian
An efficient athermal extraction process for green tea, subduing the inherent disadvantage of low yield has been proposed. This process attained 90% total polyphenolic compounds and 96% extractable solids comparable with the conventional hot extraction. The extraction followed two-stage kinetics. A mathematical model with a new approach describing the kinetics of the second stage and extending the predictability to the yield of total polyphenolic compounds inclusive of the instantaneous first stage was deduced from fundamental mass transfer kinetics. The experimental data fitted well with the model (R2 0.941–0.999; RMSE 0.055–0.336). The overall mass transfer coefficient increased from 0.112 to 0.207 min−1 with a particle size reduction from 1.96 to 0.108 mm. The EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activities of both cold (6.20 μg/mL) and hot extract (5.45 μg/mL) favourably compared with Trolox® (5.20 μg/mL). The cold extracted tea possessed superior organoleptic quality, having a bearing in the ready-to-drink tea preparation. Industrial relevance Cold brewed green tea has been reported to be superior in organoleptic characteristics and possesses similar or superior bioactivity compared to hot brewed tea. Low yield of cold extraction is the most prominent limiting factor in its industrial adoption. The proposed athermal extraction process could overcome this drawback and make the cold extraction industrially viable while offering a superior product.
Effects of drying methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of the pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peels Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Nur Farhana Abd Rahman, Rosnah Shamsudin, Amin Ismail, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim Shah, Jaturapatr Varith
Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus, which contains a number of nutrients advantageous to human health. Non-edible parts of pomelo consist of flavedo, albedo, lamella and waste obtained from juice extraction (pulp waste). The peels are also thought to be part of waste products, which generally being discarded. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant activity of processed pomelo peels after oven drying (50 and 60 °C) and freeze drying treatments in comparison with fresh pomelo peels. A slightly different (4%–6%) in TPC was observed in oven dried pomelo peels in comparison with fresh peels, indicating that there was a slightly effect of post-drying methods on retaining the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. In vitro assays revealed that post-drying methods involved oven drying exerted a higher TPC compared to freeze drying in overall parts of pomelo byproducts. Highest retention of bioactive compounds was found in fresh pomelo peels (437–1876 mg GAE/100 g DM), followed by oven dried at 50 and 60 °C (892–1336 mg GAE/100 g DM), and freeze dried (555–1267 mg GAE/100 g DM). In terms of oven dried pomelo byproducts, the highest TPC was retained in albedo (1337 mg GAE/100 g DW), followed by flavedo (1226 mg GAE/100 g DW), lamella (998 mg GAE/100 g DW) and pulp waste (962 mg GAE/100 g DW) respectively. Therefore, oven drying was the most suitable post-drying method to retain the bioactive compounds for pomelo byproducts. This knowledge may inspire consumer or pomelo industry operators to re-evaluate their byproducts, reduce the waste and expand the application of pomelo fruits. Industrial relevance Non-edible of pomelo fruits are thought as a part of waste products which generally being discarded. Interestingly, it was found that the peel have higher phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials than the pulps. However, processing involves drying process diminishes the product quality due to the deviations in quantity and feature of thermolabile phytochemicals. The objective of this work was to assess variations in total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant behavior of processed pomelo peels during post drying treatments. The information reported here may encourage pomelo industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of pomelo fruits and reducing waste. As natural products, with apparent antioxidant capacity, processed pomelo residues look very promising for use in development of functional and nutraceutical applications.
Metabolic and sensory evaluation of ultrasound-assisted osmo-dehydrated kiwifruit Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 M. Nowacka, S. Tappi, U. Tylewicz, W. Luo, P. Rocculi, M. Wesoły, P. Ciosek-Skibińska, M. Dalla Rosa, D. Witrowa-Rajchert
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of ultrasound (US) pre-treatment on endogenous metabolic activity of kiwifruits slices subjected to osmotic dehydration (OD), measured by metabolic heat production in isothermal calorimeter, respiration rate, structure changes and cell viability. Moreover, the overall changes on minimally processed kiwifruit were also studied by means of electronic tongue system. Kiwifruit slices (10 mm thick) were treated with US in the bath at a frequency of 35 kHz for 10, 20 and 30 min. The OD process was conducted in a 61.5% sucrose solution at 25 °C for pre-established contact period of 0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 min. The results showed that the application of US pre-treatment and OD process promoted the reduction of metabolic heat as a consequence of a partial loss of vitality. Moreover, US and US + OD treatment specifically impacted the structure and the chemical picture of kiwifruit samples. Industrial relevance Ultrasound treatment coupled with osmotic dehydration could be applied at industrial level in order to save time and energy for a further dehydration process. Moreover, fruit tissue treated with ultrasound treatment promoted structural modifications and chemical changes in the kiwifruit tissue, as resulted from the present study, which could be useful for the industries to design novel products with intermediate moisture content.
Effects of non–thermal plasmas on seed-borne Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex and germination parameters of soybean seeds Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-20 María Cecilia Pérez Pizá, Leandro Prevosto, Carla Zilli, Ezequiel Cejas, Héctor Kelly, Karina Balestrasse
Diaporthe/Phomopsis (D/P) is a complex of seed-borne fungi that severely affects soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), one of the most important crops worldwide. Non-thermal plasma treatment is a fast, economic and ecological friendly technology that can destroy seed-borne fungi and improve seed quality. Soybean seeds were exposed for 1, 2 and 3 min to a quasi-stationary (50 Hz) dielectric barrier discharge plasma operating at atmospheric pressure air. Different carrying gases (O2 and N2) and barrier-insulating materials were used. In this work we focused on the ability of plasma to control D/P in soybean seeds and to enhance seed quality. To support these results, different antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase), lipid peroxidation and phytohormones (ABA and AIA) content in seeds were evaluated. The results demonstrated reductions of 29% in catalase activity and increments of 30% in glutathione content after plasma treatment, reversing the oxidative damage caused by D/P fungi. This eco-friendly technology improved soybean seed quality and, for the first time, its efficiency in controlling soybean seed-borne pathogen fungi that colonize the inside of seeds was demonstrated.
Comparison of enzymatic and precipitation treatments for gluten-free craft beers production Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Mauro Fanari, Mauro Forteschi, Manuela Sanna, Manuel Zinellu, Maria Cristina Porcu, Luca Pretti
Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity are both related to gluten consumption. In sensitive subjects, gluten triggers an immune-mediated enteropathy for which no therapy is yet available. Beer must be avoided by gluten sensitive subjects, since it is generally made from gluten containing grains such as barley and wheat. In this study we compared two different deglutinization treatments on an American India Pale Ale, brewed on a craft beer pilot plant: an enzymatic process based on Aspergillus niger prolyl endopeptidase and a precipitation process by silica gel. The gluten amount in all stages of brewing, and the effects of treatments on standard quality attributes, chemical composition and sensory profile were evaluated. Both treatments were able to reduce gluten level below 20 ppm, showing a different behavior. Only slight differences were observed in the chemico-physical characteristics of treated and untreated beers, whereas sensory analysis did not highlight any change. Industrial relevance Considering the massive increase of microbreweries and the grown of gluten-free products market, two different deglutinization treatment were compared in pilot plant production of craft beer. Results show how it is possible to produce a gluten-free beer from traditional ingredients. The slight differences observed between treatments had no impact on the sensory profile, allowing to brew high quality gluten-free beers.
Ethanol and ultrasound pre-treatments to improve infrared drying of potato slices Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-04 Meliza Lindsay Rojas, Pedro E.D. Augusto
Ethanol and ultrasound (US) were applied as pre-treatments to improve the infrared (IR) drying of potato slices. Pre-treatments included Control samples (Without any pre-treatment), samples immersed in ethanol (Ethanol treated) and treated with US using ethanol (Ethanol + US) and water medium (Water + US). Effects on microstructure, drying, rehydration, and viscoelasticity were studied. Microstructure analyses suggested that ethanol affected the potato cell wall. The Water + US pre-treatment impacted the starch granules dispersion inside cells. However, higher modifications were observed when Ethanol + US was applied. Compared to the Control, all pre-treatments decreased the drying time, while Ethanol + US provided the highest reduction. In contrast, a slight decrease in rehydration properties was observed. The dried and rehydrated samples presented similar viscoelasticity among them but differed significantly with the in-natura (fresh potato) samples. Possible mechanisms were discussed. The results open new perspectives about an innovative method to improve drying.
Experimental and theoretical analysis of drying grapes under an indirect solar dryer and in open sun Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-04 Hajar Essalhi, Mohamed Benchrifa, Rachid Tadili, M.N Bargach
In the present work, the drying behavior of grapes under open sun and into indirect solar dryer was studied. The indirect solar dryer was designed in the Solar Energy and Environment Laboratory of Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco. It consists of a solar collector, a heat exchanger, a water storage tank and a drying chamber. Results show that during off sunshine hours, the heat transfer from the water storage tank kept the grapes temperature higher than ambient temperature. Drying results indicated that the times required for drying grapes starting at the initial moisture contents of 79.8% (w.b.) till final moisture contents of 20.2% (w.b.) were 120 h and 201 h in indirect solar and open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 10 thin-layer drying models to describe and compare the drying characteristics of the grapes. Comparisons were based on the coefficient of correlation (R), root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced chi-square (χ2). Midilli et al. model is found to best depict grapes drying behavior in both indirect solar and open sun drying. The evaluated values of the effective moisture diffusivity of grapes sun drying and grapes indirect solar drying when applying the Fick's diffusion model were 2.34 × 10−11 and 4.08 × 10−11 m2/s, respectively.
Microwave-assisted pasteurization of beverages (tamarind and green) and their quality during refrigerated storage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Arnold David González-Monroy, Gabriela Rodríguez-Hernández, César Ozuna, María Elena Sosa-Morales
Microwave-assisted treatments for the pasteurization of a tamarind and green (formulated with pineapple, nopal, guava, and lemon juice) beverages were studied. The beverages were treated with microwaves (490 W, 2450 MHz) in batches of 480 mL until reach the target temperature for the inactivation of the enzyme pectinmethylesterase (90 °C, with holding time of 12 s). Thermal images were taken after the treatments to guarantee the heating uniformity. Bottles were closed, cooled and stored in refrigeration for 21 days. The heating time was 255 s and 280 s for the green and tamarind beverages, respectively. Enzymatic activity was reduced 100% and microbiological accounts were depressed after MW-pasteurization. There were no significant changes in pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids in tamarind beverage in comparison with untreated samples (p > 0.05). However, MW-pasteurization affected sensory attributes and color in the green beverage (p < 0.05). Industrial relevance Microwaves (MW) are an alternative among the emerging technologies for preservation of diverse fluid foods, with advantages such as, high efficiency, sustainability and reduction of time and costs. This study found viable MW-pasteurization to preserve the sensory, physicochemical and microbiological properties of the tamarind beverage even for 21 days under refrigeration. Despite a safe and stable product may be obtained, the color and sensory attributes should be improved for green beverage. The proposed batch microwave-assisted pasteurization is a short treatment, which can be applied in small facilities or rural zones, with potential to be scaled up it to an industrial level.
Inactivation of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in coconut water using pressure-assisted thermal processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-25 Angelica M. Chourio, Fabiola Salais-Fierro, Zahid Mehmood, Sergio I. Martinez-Monteagudo, Marleny D.A. Saldaña
The effect of pressure assisted thermal processing (PATP) was evaluated on the inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) and selected quality attributes of coconut water. Coconut water from green young coconuts was treated at 200, 400 and 600 MPa, 40–90 °C, and 60–1800 s of holding time. The activities of PPO and POD were determined using spectrophotometric methods. No enzymatic activity was detected for both enzymes within 300 s at 90 °C/400–600 MPa. The combination of 400 MPa/90 °C/300 s yielded POD and PPO inactivation, and could be used in the industrial development of PATP treated-coconut water. The POD showed to be more pressure-temperature resistant than the PPO in coconut water. The pressure-temperature inactivation kinetics of PPO and POD in coconut water were well described by the Weibull model. The activation energy for the inactivation of POD and PPO were 107–192 and 41–191 kJ mol−1, respectively, while the activation volume varied from −13.2 to 10.2 and −37 to 9.2 cm3 mol−1, respectively. Total phenolic content extractability significantly increased after PATP treatments at all conditions evaluated compared to the control. Low ∆E values of PATP treated coconut water were obtained, indicating imperceptible change of color. Industrial relevance Pressure Assisted Thermal Processing (PATP) is an emerging technology that requires further research. The results of this study highlighted for the first time the potential of PATP on polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase inactivation of coconut water, maintaining color characteristics of coconut water. The pink color after PATP treatment was not observed. In addition, the use of kinetic models helped to determine the optimal conditions for enzyme inactivation. The outcomes of this study can be used for further industrial development of PATP treated-coconut water.
Changes in soybean trypsin inhibitor by varying pressure and temperature of processing: A molecular modeling study Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-30 Sai Kranthi Vanga, Ashutosh Singh, Vijaya Raghavan
In recent years, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations have been used to understand the effects of various processing methods on the structural properties and stability of proteins. In this study, the conformational changes in soybean trypsin inhibitor molecule were evaluated with the use of high temperature and pressure. The MD simulations have been performed at various temperatures (300 K, 345 K and 373 K) and pressure (1 bar, 3 kbar, 6 kbar) combinations. The results showed that the soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) molecule is relatively stable at high temperatures, primarily due to the presence of disulphide bonds. However, at higher pressures, significant compaction was observed. Root mean square deviations, Radius of gyration and volume of the STI molecule were evaluated. Furthermore, Ramachandran plots were used to evaluate the stability of the various simulated molecules. It was found that the compaction resulted in high steric interferences among the core residues.
Plasma activated water and airborne ultrasound treatments for enhanced germination and growth of soybean Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-24 Chiara Lo Porto, Dana Ziuzina, Agata Los, Daniela Boehm, Fabio Palumbo, Pietro Favia, Brijesh Tiwari, Paula Bourke, Patrick J. Cullen
The effect of two novel technologies, also in combination, on germination and growth of soybeans has been investigated. On one side, ultrasound treatment of the seeds increased water uptake without altering the morphology and the wettability of the seed coat, but also induced slight chemical modifications of the outer part of the seed. Plasma-activated water (PAW), obtained from treating water with non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma in air, increased the rate of germination and subsequent plant growth. Different combinations of these two technologies were tested in order to study their interaction and to identify an optimum treatment process. Industrial relevance A great urgency in crop management is to enhance sustainability. The aim is to achieve a cheap and eco-friendly production process reducing the wide current use of energy, irrigation water, chemicals and pesticides. Soybeans is a legume whose worldwide production is increasing in the last years therefore a higher efficiency and sustainability in its cultivation is obviously very appealing. Cold plasma and Ultrasound technologies are well-known in the industrial scenario and their applications in crop production are recently drawing attention; the potential of combining these two powerful techniques is clearly very promising.
Comparative study of high hydrostatic pressure and high temperature short time processing on quality of clear and cloudy Se-enriched kiwifruit juices Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Xinxing Xu, Jingjing Deng, Dongsheng Luo, Yejun Bao, Xiaojun Liao, Haiyan Gao, Jihong Wu
Selenium (Se) distribution was investigated and a comparative study was carried out into the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high temperature short time (HTST) treatments on quality for both clear and cloudy Se-enriched kiwifruit juice (clear-SKJ, cloudy-SKJ). Organic Se which accounted for 62.32% has a wider distribution than inorganic Se in kiwifruits and mainly comprising Se-protein and Se-polysaccharide. The process of separating kiwifruit pomace from juice caused significant decline in Se content with 43.07% and 49.04% in cloudy and clear juices respectively, and the sterilization process of HHP and HTST significantly decreased the Se contents from 50.46 ± 0.42 μg/kg to 39.63 ± 0.51 μg/kg and 37.93 ± 0.08 μg/kg in cloudy-SKJ, respectively. During the storage period, HTST- and HHP-processed juices showed no significant differences in total Se content, and similarly for certain chemical-physical qualities of total soluble solids, titratable acid, viscosity and pH. In addition, HHP (500 MPa/10 min) and HTST (110 °C/8.6 s) treatments inactivated yeasts and molds (Y&M) completely and sustained total aerobic bacteria (TAB) counts below 2.0 Log10 CFU/mL which guaranteed the microbiological safety in clear-SKJ during storage at 4 °C and 25 °C for 42 days, but TAB counts were detected >2.0 Log10 CFU/mL which demonstrated a shorter shelf life in cloudy-SKJ under the same storage conditions. Moreover, the HHP-treated sample showed better quality characteristics compared with the HTST-treated sample during 42-day storage except for total phenols and the storage time at 4 °C was more conducive to the preservation of the juices after HHP and HTST treatments. Industrial relevance Se-enriched kiwifruit juice is a promising Se-enriched beverage product which has high nutrition and economic value. The results obtained underline the different effects of HHP and HTST on quality and storage stability of Se retention, microorganisms, color, total phenols, chlorophyll and other quality-related aspects. This study may provide technical support for the application of HHP or HTST in the Se-enriched kiwifruit juice industry. Furthermore, a non-thermal technique which can improve functional juice properties to meet the demand of consumers for healthier products is provided in this study.
Post-harvest shelf-life of banana and guava: Mechanisms of common degradation problems and emerging counteracting strategies Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-20 Sanchita Biswas Murmu, Hari Niwas Mishra
Banana and guava have short shelf-life at tropical ambient temperature due to climacteric ripening associated changes like rapid softening, senescence spotting, off-odor development, anthracnose, and crown rot disease incidence, and chilling injury occurrence during storage below 13 °C. Commercially post-harvest treatment involved submerging banana and guava in solutions of benomyl or thiabendazole or imazalil. These chemicals are harmful to human health and the environment. Moreover, the fungal pathogens have developed resistance to these fungicides. Hence search of alternative non-chemical, health and environment friendly strategies are major focus of the researchers over the world. Treatment with organic acids, plant extract having antimicrobial properties prevented diseases either by direct action on the fungus or by inducing defense response by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, lipoxygenase, catalase. Degradation of plant parts occurs due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species and enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols during senescence, chilling stress, low oxygen, or high carbon dioxide injury. The deteriorations are evaluated by physical parameters like color change, accumulation of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde byproducts, accumulation of thiobarbituric reactive compound and ion leakage percentage. The selection of application concentration and treatment duration of 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP) treatment which act as an ethylene inhibitor is critical in extending shelf-life of banana and guava. The modified atmosphere, controlled atmosphere storage and edible coating reduced time to occurrence and intensity of climacteric peak respiration, slowed down ripening associated changes, prevented accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby extended shelf-life of guava and banana.
Influence of partial pressure of oxygen on ascorbic acid degradation at canning temperature Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Nizar Al Fata, Stéphane Georgé, Naïma Dlalah, Catherine M.G.C. Renard
Oxygen is known to be one of the major causes of oxidative degradations of nutrients. Ascorbic acid, a component of interest due to its health benefits, is reported to be highly oxygen sensitive. To understand better the influence of oxygen on ascorbic acid retention at canning temperature, thermal treatment was performed in model solution at pH = 3.5 with varying partial pressure of oxygen from 0 MPa (strict anaerobic conditions) to 0.1 MPa in the headspace gas, from 95 °C to 125 °C, starting from an initial concentration of 900 mg/L. Treatment of 320 min was not sufficient to completely degrade all ascorbic acid initially present in the medium under anaerobic conditions and with a partial pressure of oxygen in headspace at 0.03 MPa, but treatment of 120 min was sufficient to degrade all initial ascorbic acid when the partial pressure of oxygen in headspace was set at 0.1 MPa. Apparent reaction orders were calculated; they were of 1 under anaerobic conditions, and 0.5 or 0.75 depending on partial pressure of oxygen. Activation energy was calculated using the Arrhenius law under anaerobic conditions only (Ea = 67 kJ/mol). When oxygen is present, whichever its partial pressure in headspace, no acceleration of reaction was observed with increased temperature.
Physical properties of 3D printed baking dough as affected by different compositions Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Fan Yang, Min Zhang, Sangeeta Prakash, Yaping Liu
Gel formation characteristics and physical properties of baking dough changes with different composition of water, sucrose, butter, flour and egg contents. This study aims to explore how these changes affect 3D printing of the dough through laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), torque rheometer and texture analyser. Results show a pseudoplastic gel with suitable level of physical properties such as relatively higher extrudability, gel strength, elasticity and relatively lower ductibility was required to obtain better shape of the extruded samples. In conclusion, the best shape of 3D printing baking dough which was retained with proper gel formation characteristics and physical properties was obtained with a recipe containing water (29 g), sucrose (6.6 g), butter (6.0 g), flour (48 g) and egg (10.4 g) per 100 g of formulation. Industrial relevance The formulation of baking dough affected the modeling quality of printed samples. Thus, the optimized formulation of modified baking dough will contribute to the success in practical production.
The impact of steam-blanching and dehydration on phenolic, organic acid composition, and total carotenoids in celery roots Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Liga Priecina, Daina Karklina, Tatjana Kince
From the nutritional point of view, studying thermal and non-thermal processing effects is highly important for various nutrients which include numerous biologically active components in vegetables used daily. Therefore, the aim of current research was to study steam-blanching (at 1.5 and 3.0 min), convective drying, microwave-vacuum (MV) drying and then calculate the effect each had on individual organic acids, individual phenolic compounds, total phenolics, antiradical activity of phenolic compounds and colour within the celery roots. Fresh celery roots contain a trace amount of carotenoids which decreases significantly during drying. Total phenolic content in fresh celeries was determined in lower concentrations than flavonoids and during drying process their content increases. It was determined that celery roots dried with the convective method contained higher total phenolic content than those dried with the MV method, however, the highest flavonoid content was observed in the MV dried root samples which were preheated with steam. The determined individual phenolic compounds in higher amounts were: 3.4-dihydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, sinapic and t(3)-cinnamic acids. The determined major organic acids in higher amounts were oxalic, malonic, citric, ascorbic and succinic acids.
Simultaneous saccharification and cultivation of Candida utilis on cassava peel Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Olufunke Ezekiel, Ogugua Aworh
Candida utilis yeast, a rich source of proteins and vitamin B-complex was cultivated on cassava peel, a food processing waste, which was first liquefied with Termamyl 120 L α-amylase enzyme. The cultivation process was optimized simultaneously with saccharification with Novo AMG 300 L amyloglucosidase using response surface methodology approach. The design involved three duration of enzyme hydrolysis (0, 4.5 and 9 h) prior to inoculation with Candida utilis representing varied degrees of hydrolysis (0, 50 and 100%) and initial pH (4.5, 5.0 and 5.5). Measured responses were change in yeast protein ranging from 1.13 to 1.91 mg/mL, change in cell concentration ranging from 2.30 to 3.90 mg/mL and specific growth rate ranging from 0.21–0.51.100% hydrolysis and initial pH of 5.0 gave the highest changes in yeast protein (1.92 mg/mL) and cell concentration (3.90 mg/mL); 100% hydrolysis and pH 5.5 gave the highest specific growth rate. The optimal solution was obtained at pH of 5.5 and 100% degree of hydrolysis with a degree of desirability of 0.8. The cultivation of Candida utilis yeast on cassava peel is of high significance to food and agro-based industries for the production of value added products, waste disposal and valorisation. Industrial relevance Cassava peel is a major waste product from cassava processing industry which is faced with an enormous challenge regarding its disposal. This study revealed that Candida utilis can be cultivated successfully on cassava peel slurry; the cultivation of this yeast on cassava peel is of high significance to food and agro-based industries for the production of value added products waste disposal and valorisation.
Impact of magnetic assisted freezing in the physicochemical and functional properties of egg components. Part 2: Egg yolk Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 F. Fernández-Martín, M. Pérez-Mateos, S. Dadashi, C.M. Gómez-Guillén, P.D. Sanz
Effects of freezing assisted with magnetic fields (MFs) in a commercial Cell Alive System (CAS) unit at − 50 °C, with a static MF only (0% CAS) and with a static MF plus oscillating MF (10% CAS), on egg yolk (Y) was investigated. Y samples were obtained from commercial eggs laid by three hen strains (two of them in fortified cages and the third one free outdoors). The main goal was to study the thermal denaturation of protein involved in MF processing. Results showed that freezing treatment was the factor with the highest influence. Thermal denaturation enthalpy of Y was markedly affected (~ 45% total protein in comparison with Fresh sample), but similar for the two MF processes, where 0% CAS was taken as the Control freezing treatment. MF effects were predominantly thermal in nature and were the factor with the highest influence on the thermal behavior (which ran parallel to that of egg white, as described in Part 1), as well as on most of the functional properties exhibited by the MF samples. Rheology and free Sulfhydryl content were studied complementarily to Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. Some important functional properties such as Emulsion Ability and Emulsion Stability were also determined. The hen strain feeding factor had practically no influence on the physical or functional behavior of both untreated and processed Y samples, except on their color parameters.
Comparison of bactericidal effects of two types of pilot-scale intense-pulsed-light devices on cassia seeds and glutinous millet Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Hee-Jeong Hwang, Chan-Ick Cheigh, Myong-Soo Chung
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of two types of pilot-scale intense pulsed light (IPL) devices constructed in our laboratory. Cassia seeds and glutinous millet, with initial microbial loads of 2.04 × 104 and 5.03 × 103 CFU/g, respectively, were treated by cyclone-type and belt-type IPL devices at total fluences of 3.89–54.43 J/cm2. The maximum microbial reductions of the cassia seeds and glutinous millet were 0.74, and 0.66 log/g, respectively, when using the cyclone-type IPL, and 2.63 and 0.55 log/g when using the belt-type IPL device. The geometric mean diameter of cassia seeds and glutinous millet was 0.25 and 0.13, respectively. The cassia seeds having larger particle size than glutinous millet showed a greater bactericidal effect when treated with the belt-type device. Therefore, the design of the treatment chamber can have an improved bactericidal effect on cassia seeds, demonstrating the importance of selecting a suitable IPL device according to the size of the sample to be treated.
Ultrasound as a pretreatment to reduce acrylamide formation in fried potatoes Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-24 A. Antunes-Rohling, S. Ciudad-Hidalgo, J. Mir-Bel, J. Raso, G. Cebrián, I. Álvarez
Acrylamide is a compound that is potentially carcinogenic for human. This means that levels of acrylamide in foods should be reduced to a maximum. The acrylamide molecule is present in foods subjected to processes at temperatures above 120 °C, and it is formed through the reaction that takes place between asparagine and reducing sugars in the Maillard reaction. Fried potatoes are one of the main sources of acrylamide. In order to provide healthier food, this investigation proposes to apply high intensity ultrasound (US) as a frying pretreatment in water for 30 min, in order to reduce the acrylamide content of fried potatoes. Different US treatments were studied at distinct frequencies (35 and 130 kHz), ultrasonic power densities (0, 9.5, 47.6 and 95.2 W/kg), and water temperatures (30 and 42 °C). To evaluate the effects caused by ultrasonic cavitation, the increment of weight and moisture, the decrease in reducing sugars and the electrical conductivity of water in different treatments were evaluated. After frying, colorimetric analyses (L*, a* y b*) were carried out to ascertain the indirect formation of acrylamide in potatoes. At the temperature of 42 °C, the weight gain was greater as the ultrasonic power used in both frequencies was lower. Increments in US power densities decreased the potatoes' moisture gain and increased the electrical conductivity of soaking water. A treatment of 35 kHz and 92.5 W/kg at 42 °C provided an additional extraction of 31% of the reducing sugars over that of control samples. The colorimetric parameters L * and a * decreased and increased, respectively, with the frying time for the treatment at 35 kHz/92.5 W/kg/42 °C, which are a consequence of the reduction of reducing sugars by ultrasound. Thanks to the application of this treatment, 90% acrylamide content reduction was determined compared to potatoes fried directly, and up to 50% reduction with respect to control samples only soaked in water (42 °C/30 min). This investigation has demonstrated that US pretreatments can serve as a valid strategy to reduce the acrylamide content of fried potatoes.
Quality changes in combined pressure-thermal treated acidified vegetables during extended ambient temperature storage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Shreya S. Kamat, Kshirod K. Dash, V.M. Balasubramaniam
A study assessed combined pressure-thermal treatment effect on quality attributes of selected acidified vegetables (banana pepper, red beets and green asparagus) over 30 days storage at 25 °C. Vegetables were acidified by suspending them in pickling liquid either through thermal blanching or 8 h storage at ambient temperature. Subsequently, samples were pressure treated in a pilot scale high pressure processor at 600 MPa, 45° or 65 °C for 5 min and stored at ambient temperature for 30 days. Quality analyses included texture, enzyme activity, color, pH and °Brix. Processed products remained stable during storage (pH < 4.0). Blanching in conjunction with combined pressure-thermal treatment (600 MPa, 45°/65 °C) inactivated the enzymes; however, it impaired texture ultimately softening the product. Results indicated that pressure treatment at 65 °C without blanching better retained quality attributes while inactivating PPO and POD (p < 0.05). Among the vegetables tested, pepper and asparagus maintained their crunchiness attribute. Industrial relevance The research documented the quality changes in selected acidified vegetable pickles subjected to various pressure-thermal treatments. By reducing thermal impact, high pressure treatment in combination with modest heat can help preserve quality attributes of acidified vegetable pickles with the extended shelf life. The knowledge from this study could help the food processors in deciding relevance of high pressure processing for industrial manufacturing of acidified low-acid shelf-stable vegetable matrices.
Effect of microencapsulated extract of pitaya (Hylocereus costaricensis) peel on color, texture and oxidative stability of refrigerated ground pork patties submitted to high pressure processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Leda C.M. Cunha, Maria Lúcia G. Monteiro, Bruno R.C. Costa-Lima, Juliana M. Guedes-Oliveira, Victor H.M. Alves, André L. Almeida, Renata V. Tonon, Amauri Rosenthal, Carlos A. Conte-Junior
This study aimed at investigating the effect of microencapsulated microwave-assisted extracts of pitaya peel on color, texture and oxidative stability of pork patties pressurized at 500 MPa for 10 min and stored at 4 °C during 9 days. Different enhancement levels, namely 0 (NC and PNC), 100 (P1) and 1000 (P10) ppm were investigated. High pressure processing (HPP) accelerated (P ≤ 0.05) color (L* and a* values) and texture changes, as well as lipid and protein oxidation during refrigerated storage. Butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT), P1 and P10 demonstrated a protective effect (P ≤ 0.05) against the alterations promoted by HPP. Moreover, P1 and P10 demonstrated potential for inhibiting (P ≤ 0.05) protein oxidation induced by HPP and thus, minimized (P ≤ 0.05) hardness and chewiness changes in the pork matrix. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the scalability of the application at the industrial scale.
Influence of compositional characteristics and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Iberian dry-cured ham after prolonged refrigerated storage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-05 Nerea Martínez-Onandi, Ana Rivas-Cañedo, Antonia Picon, Manuel Nuñez
The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa and refrigerated storage for 5 months on the volatile fraction of 30 Iberian dry-cured hams of different compositional characteristics was investigated. Compositional characteristics significantly influenced 11 compounds (3 alcohols, 3 carboxylic acids, 2 alkanes, 2 benzene compounds and 1 aldehyde) out of the 116 compounds identified in the volatile fraction of Iberian ham. HPP treatment had a significant effect on 34 volatile compounds, with higher levels of 11 compounds and lower levels of 23 compounds in HPP-treated samples than in control samples. Refrigerated storage for 5 months significantly influenced the levels of 75 compounds, 25 of which appeared or increased while 50 disappeared or decreased. During that period, the total abundance of volatile compounds decreased by 5.1% in control ham and 1.3% in HPP-treated ham. Iberian ham commercial shelf life should be limited to maintain its sensory characteristics. Industrial relevance HPP treatment and refrigerated storage of dry-cured ham are advantageous industrial and commercial procedures. In the particular case of Iberian ham, both HPP and refrigerated storage brought about a decrease in the total levels of volatile compounds. Therefore, adequate HPP treatment conditions and commercial shelf life should be cautiously set in order to safeguard the unique odor and aroma characteristics of Iberian ham.
3D printed milk protein food simulant: Improving the printing performance of milk protein concentration by incorporating whey protein isolate Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Yaowei Liu, Dasong Liu, Guanmian Wei, Ying Ma, Bhesh Bhandari, Peng Zhou
This paper aimed to establish a milk protein based 3D printing food simulant and investigated the effect of whey protein isolate (WPI) concentration on the printing performance of milk protein concentrate (MPC). WPI and MPC powders at different ratios were prepared in paste (35 wt%, total dry matter content). The rheological properties and water distribution of protein matrix prepared with different MPC/WPI ratios were characterized with a rheometer and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), respectively. Moreover, the variations in the microstructure of printed objects were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The printed objects showed different appearance and physical properties; the printing fidelity was also evaluated by measuring the geometric accuracy of printed objects. The rheological and texture data showed that the presence of WPI could reduce the apparent viscosity and soften the MPC paste, benefiting the printing process. The results showed that the milk powder paste mixture prepared with MPC/WPI at a ratio of 5/2 was the most desirable material for extrusion-based 3D printing, which could be successfully printed and matched the designed 3D model best. Industrial relevance 3D printing in food sector has been an attractive and emerging technology owing to its potential advantages, such as customized food designs, personalized and digitalized nutrition, simplifying supply chain and so on. This paper established a high protein food simulant for 3D printing, optimized its printing performance with whey protein isolate, and studied the physicochemical property of prepared protein pastes. The overall results indicated that milk protein powders could be the promising materials for the application in food 3D printing. In flowing studies or practical production, the glycerol could be replaced by ingredients such as syrup, honey etc. This study may give more insights into 3D printing applied in food sector and facilitate the further developments of 3D food printing.
Combined effect of pulsed electric field and osmotic dehydration pre-treatments on mass transfer and quality of air dried goji berry Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-05 E. Dermesonlouoglou, A. Chalkia, G. Dimopoulos, P. Taoukis
Pulsed electric field (PEF) and osmotic dehydration (OD) pre-treatments can improve the slow and energy intensive process of goji berry drying. The effect of PEF and OD processing conditions on mass transfer, color, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was studied. Application of PEF (0.9–2.8 kV/cm, up to 7500 pulses) caused tissue permeabilization (electrical conductivity disintegration index, Zp, value up to 0.38, due to the structure of goji berry waxy peel) and significantly enhanced mass transfer during subsequent OD and air drying (increased effective diffusivity coefficients Dew and Des and drying rate kdrying respectively). Combining OD (55 °C, 60 min), PEF (2.8 kV/cm, 750 p) and air drying (60 °C) compared to conventional air drying led to total processing time decrease (by 180 min or 33%), better color retention, higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content.
Modeling of permeate flux decline and permeation of sucrose during microfiltration of sugarcane juice using a hollow-fiber membrane module Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-25 Chirasmita Panigrahi, Sankha Karmakar, Mrinmoy Mondal, Hari Niwas Mishra, Sirshendu De
Microfiltration (MF) of centrifuged sugarcane juice was used as a pre-clarification step prior to further clarification. MF was performed with the objectives of achieving maximum flux, minimum retention of sucrose and maximum rejection of total solids as well as maximum removal of microorganisms from the permeate keeping the nutritional and physico-chemical profile intact. In this regard, experiments were done using a polyacrylonitrile-based MF membrane of filtration area 0.027 m2 and pore size of 0.1 μm. A detailed investigation of the effects of different operating conditions, namely transmembrane pressure TMP (35, 69, 104 and 138 kPa) and cross flow velocity CFV (0.123, 0.246 and 0.369 m/s) on membrane productivity and juice quality was undertaken. The steady-state permeate flux ranged from 5.41 to 6.23 l/m2∙h for the domain of the operating conditions studied herein. Profiles of permeate flux and sucrose concentration in permeate were modeled using a gel layer controlling model under the framework of boundary layer analysis. The optimized operating conditions were found to be TMP of 104 kPa and CFV at 0.369 m/s, yielding a flux of 6.04 l/m2∙h and having sucrose and polyphenols concentration of 104.8 g/l and 9.38 mg GAE/100 ml, respectively. Total solids (26%) and turbidity (98%) were removed to a great extent during MF along with remarkable improvement of clarity (3 times). Microbiological evaluation confirmed that, MF successfully reduced the total viable plate count by 5 log CFU/mL scale and yeast and mold count by 4 log CFU/mL scale.
Improvement of fatty acid profile in breads supplemented with Kinako flour and chia seed Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 D. Giaretta, V.A. Lima, S.T. Carpes
Breads with functional ingredients can be a healthier alternative to a low-saturated fatty acid diet. The effects of the substitution of wheat flour with kinako flour and chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) on the fatty acid profile of bread, were investigated. With the aim of improving the nutritional quality of the breads, the fatty acid profile of soybean, kinako, chia and breads, were evaluated by gas chromatography. In these food matrices, six fatty acids were detected; the most expressive ones were linoleic, oleic, palmitic and linolenic acids. The highest polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) amounts were achieved for the chia seed and the linolenic acid was predominant. The PUFA amount was higher than 63% and the major component was linoleic acid; 53.81 and 55.95 mg/100 g of total lipids in the soybean seeds and kinako flour, respectively. The addition of kinako flour and chia seed to bread resulted in a reduction in SFA and MUFA content and a significant increase in the content of PUFA. Furthermore, a lower n-6/n-3 ratio was obtained in special breads that had an addition of kinako flour and chia. Intrinsic characteristics of these food matrices can improve the quality of breads and can bring health benefits to the consumer.
Mechanisms of carrot texture alteration induced by pure effect of high pressure processing Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 Yaxin Sun, Xulei Kang, Fang Chen, Xiaojun Liao, Xiaosong Hu
The pure effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400–1200 MPa/2 min) on carrot (Daucus carota L.) texture was investigated with minor influence of adiabatic heating. For carrot hardness and chewiness, 400 MPa result in respective loss of 71.0%, 73.8%, but no further loss was observed as pressure increased. Cohesiveness and resilience were observed to recover as pressure above 1000 MPa. Mechanisms exploration from cellular microstructure showed that carrot cells evolved from orderliness at atmospheric pressure to corrugation, elongation, collapse but partially compaction at 400, 800 and 1200 MPa, respectively, accompanied with movement of cytoplasmic content to intercellular spaces. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted the characteristic biochemical responses of HPP-treated carrots with pronounced ion leakage (>70%), hydrogen peroxide accumulation (>128.0%, 800–1200 MPa) and enhanced pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity (>135.2%, 400–1000 MPa). Moreover, molecular weight analysis of pectin polysaccharides showed that HPP triggered pectin depolymerisation, solubilisation of water insoluble pectin and fraction interconversion. Overall, carrot texture is interactively influenced by pressure-induced modifications on cell morphology, membrane integrity and pectin properties. Industrial relevance Application of HPP in industrial scale is rising. As an essential factor highly linked with freshness, texture alteration during processing is an industrial-concerned issue. This work provides information on textural alteration under a wide pressure range (400–1200 MPa). The reported pressure thresholds triggering different cellular responses of carrot tissue therefore added new theoretical basis for the industrial optimisation of high pressure conditions. The temperature control strategy used could be potentially applied in food industry with the substituted food-friendly pressure transmitting medium, as well as other areas requiring strict temperature control, for instance high pressure extraction.
Atmospheric-pressure plasma treated water for seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean and its sterilization effect on mung bean sprouts Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-08 Renwu Zhou, Jiangwei Li, Rusen Zhou, Xianhui Zhang, Size Yang
Quantitative microbial assessment for Escherichia coli after treatment by high voltage gas phase plasma Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Višnja Stulić, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Bačun-Družina, Dean Popović, Jasna Mrvčić, Zoran Herceg
High voltage electrical discharge (gas and liquid) plasmas are new developing techniques used for food and water decontamination. This study investigates the influence of high voltage gas phase plasma treatment on several parameters: inactivation of Escherichia coli K12, recovery, proteomic analyses, cellular leakage and influence of pH and generated H2O2 species on inactivation of the E. coli cells. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration. Electrical conductivity (100 and 800 μS/cm), polarity (+/−), time (5 and 10 min) and frequency (60, 90 and 120 Hz) were chosen in order to determine their influence on listed parameters. Statistical analyses were obtained to optimize conducted treatments. Treatment regime of 90 Hz, positive polarity, 100 μS/cm and 10 min resulted in the highest reduction (7.8 log10 CFU/mL) of E. coli. Recovery of cells after the treatment suggested oxidative stress overcome. Industrial relevance Plasma processing is an energy effective process, comparing to traditional thermal processes like pasteurization and sterilization. Plasma treated liquid remains at low temperature, which lowers electrical energy consumption during industrial processes. The proposed study investigates the possible application of high voltage gas phase electrical discharge plasmas for inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 in water. The main aim was to confirm effectiveness of plasma treatment conducted in argon (which is uninfected by plasma and can be recycled) on inactivation and cell recovery of E. coli K12. This research is a first step towards the development of the gas phase plasma technology for disinfection of liquids. However, future development, optimization and application of this technology for food sterilization will lead to acceptable ecological regulations like lowering greenhouse gas emissions.
Synergistic effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol with hydroxytyrosol and α-tocopherol on the Rancimat oxidative stability of vegetable oils Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-08-04 Antonio Lama-Muñoz, Fátima Rubio-Senent, Alejandra Bermúdez-Oria, África Fernández-Prior, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez
The current work evaluated the ability of pure 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) in combination with a commercial phenolic extract from Olea europaea rich in HT to prevent the oxidation of edible vegetable oils. The commercial phenolic extract was highly soluble in all matrices and significantly improved the oxidation stability and delayed the onset of rancidity of oils compared to a control (with no antioxidant). The combinations of DHPG with other natural antioxidants, such as HT and α-tocopherol, showed that it can be a useful supplement to increase the shelf life of sunflower oil. Synergism was observed when DHPG and HT were added in combination. The synergistic effect was directly related to the concentration ratio between both antioxidants. The mixtures containing DHPG/α-tocopherol and DHPG/HT/α-tocopherol also showed effectiveness in delaying oxidation.
Several melanosis-inhibiting formulas to enhance the quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 M.E. López-Caballero, O. Martínez-Álvarez, M.C. Gómez-Guillén, P. Montero
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of several melanosis-inhibiting formulations on quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) during storage. The formulations tested were as follows: one containing 4-hexylresorcinol (0.1%) in combination with organic acids (citric, ascorbic and acetic) and chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] and di-sodium di-hydrogen pyrophosphate [PPi]); a commercial formula based on sulphites (3%), and another formulation containing a mixture of chitosan (0.3%) and commercial sulphites. Non-treated shrimp were used as control. The 4-hexylresorcinol-based formulation was more effective than 3% of commercial sulphite solutions in preventing melanosis. This treatment prolonged the sensory acceptability of shrimp by up to six days in ice storage. During chilled storage, the treatment with the 4-hexylresorcinol-based formula inhibited the growth of microorganisms by 1.5–2 log cycles as compared to commercial sulphites, especially H2S-producers and pseudomonads. At the end of the experimental period, TVB-N levels were slightly higher in the lot treated with 4-hexylresorcinol (33 mg/100 mg) and reflected greater endogenous enzymatic activity, since the counts of the spoiler microorganisms remained around log 5 cfu/g or even lower. In general, the incorporation of chitosan to sulphites did not improve or produce a marked effect on shrimps during storage. During the sensory analysis, the panellists rated all the lots very similar, although the 4-hexylresorcinol formulation was the only one with a neutral odour at the end of the period. The 4-hexylresorcinol-based formulation induced yellow-green colorations to some extent in the cephalothorax, possibly due to the effect of organic acids and chelants, while the rest of the lots presented greyish/blackish colorations. Therefore, the formulation based on 4-hexylresorcinol may safely substitute traditional sulphites to improve the quality of fresh shrimp and prolong their shelf life during storage.
Validation of coffee by-products as novel food ingredients Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Natalia Aparicio García, Beatriz Fernandez-Gomez, Eduardo Guisantes-Batan, Francisco Velázquez Escobar, Gracia Patricia Blanch, Manuel Ignacio San Andres, Sebastián Sanchez-Fortun, María Dolores del Castillo
Effect of high-pressure processing on flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity of apple ‘Golden Delicious’ from different geographical origin Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-06-02 Irene Fernández-Jalao, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno, Begoña De Ancos
The influence of high-pressure processing (HPP) (400, 500 and 600 MPa at 35 °C for 5 min) on different classes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple from two different growing regions, northeastern of Spain (lowland climate) (S-apples) and north of Italy (mid-mountain climate) (I-apples) was investigated. Total hydroxycinnamic acids, total dihydrochalcones and total flavan-3-ols content were higher in S-apple (untreated and HPP-treated) than in I-apples and total flavonols content was higher in I-apples. HPP affected phenolic compounds and AA depending on the apple geographical origin. 400 MPa/35 °C/5 min increased total flavonols (30%) and maintained total phenolic compounds determined by HPLC (TP-HPLC) in S-apples. The higher increase of TP-HPLC (54%) was achieved when I-apple was treated at 600 MPa. Untreated and HPP-treated I-apples displayed higher AA than S-apples. HPP (400 and 600 MPa) increased AA in I-apple. Positive correlations were found between TP-HPLC and AA (TP-FC, DPPH·, ABTS·+ and FRAP) in both Italian and Spanish apples. Industrial relevance The apples of cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ are one of the most consumed fruits in the UE. High-pressure processing (HPP) of these fruits acquires great importance to obtain ingredients and apple functional foods highly demanded by consumers. For this, it is necessary to know the process variables and plant material that favor greater extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity characteristics. This paper provides useful results to help fruit processor to select the appropriate HPP conditions and the geographical origin of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple to obtain apple-based products with high content on different classes of phenolic compounds with beneficial health effects.
Validation and biochemical characterisation of beneficial argan oil treatment in biomass propagation for industrial active dry yeast production Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Rocío Gómez-Pastor, Agustín Aranda, Emilia Matallana
Biomass propagation for the production of active dry yeasts (ADY) is an economically important industrial process where cellular oxidative stress significantly limits yield and fermentative capacity in the final product. Oxidative stress affects macromolecular cell components, such as lipid and proteins, thus impairing many different cellular processes. Its detrimental effect is prevented and alleviated by complex signalling, detoxifying and protein protecting systems, which can be induced by antioxidant treatments. Here we validate the general beneficial effect of argan oil treatment in bench-top simulations of industrial yeast biomass propagation as an effective technological strategy to improve the biomass yield and fermentative capacity of ADY for subsequent wine making in grape must. We also identify biochemical and metabolic clues, and protein and enzymatic targets which contribute to the improved performance of yeasts in ADY production, which is relevant for future food industry applications.
Phenolic compounds, microstructure and viscosity of onion and apple products subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Beatriz Herranz, Irene Fernández-Jalao, M. Dolores Álvarez, Amparo Quiles, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno, Isabel Hernando, Begoña de Ancos
Microstructure, viscosity and their relationship with bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in onion and apple products (untreated and HPP) and commercial quercetin supplement throughout a dynamic gastrointestinal digestion (GID) model were investigated. In non-digested (ND) samples, untreated and HPP-onion presented higher total phenolic and flavonol content (TFC-HPLC and TPC-FC) than apple counterparts. TFC-HPLC decreased throughout GID phases in all samples studied. TFC-HPLC bioaccessibility was higher in onion (~17.6%) than in apple (~10%) and in quercetin supplement (0.027%). HPP did not improve TFC-HPLC bioaccessibility. Throughout GID, onion and apple showed a significant decrease in both consistency (K) and apparent viscosity at 10 s−1 but higher values were found in apple. These data agree with TFC-HPLC and TPC-FC decrease and with the lower bioaccessibilities of apple compared with onion. Food matrix had a more significant effect than HPP on TFC-HPLC bioaccessibility, which is related to the rheological behavior of the GID-phases. Industrial relevance High-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 25 °C during 5 min) combined with freeze-drying enhanced significantly flavonols extractability (TFC-HPLC) in onion and apple and in some cases their bioaccessibility. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds in each food matrix is being required by industrials and consumers concerned to know the actual amount of bioactive compounds that are available for intestinal absorption. The change of the matrices viscosity studied throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GID) could predict the bioaccessibility of these bioactive compounds. HPP could be proposed as a strategy for increasing the extractability of bioactive compounds in vegetable derived products.
Pulsed Electric Field treatment after malolactic fermentation of Tempranillo Rioja wines: Influence on microbial, physicochemical and sensorial quality Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Lucía González-Arenzana, Javier Portu, Noelia López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana Rosa Gutiérrez, Rosa López, Isabel López-Alfaro
During wine stabilization, control of the microbial population is required in order to ensure a quality wine. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) was applied to commercial wines in a continuous flow to reduce the amount of SO2 added after the end of malolactic fermentation to manage microbial populations. Samples of wine from three commercial wineries of the Rioja Qualified Designation of Origin were treated with 30 mg/L SO2, with 15 mg/L SO2 and PEF, and only with PEF. The inactivation of the microbiota with the PEF treatment was greater than the inactivation achieved with SO2 four days after treatment. Six months later, the lactic acid bacteria population was still viable in some of the wines. Regarding the physicochemical characterization of the wines, the PEF treatment was positive for quality because the wines had greater color intensity and lower volatile acidity. Moreover, organoleptic analysis indicated different scoring depending mainly on the characteristics of the original wine. Despite these positive results, further studies are advisable to optimize the control of lactic acid bacteria. Industrial relevance The application of PEF during wine stabilization after MLF can be a viable alternative for the oenological industry to reduce the SO2 dosage used in winemaking.
Olive oil nutritional labeling by using Vis/NIR spectroscopy and compositional statistical methods Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 José A. Cayuela-Sánchez, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo
Food nutritional labeling is compulsory in the European Union since 13 December 2016. The olive oil fatty acid composition shows high variation depending mainly on the variety. Thus, olive oil nutritional labeling is problematic for the industry. Besides, the analysis of all batches of olive oil using the official methods is expensive. Therefore, the olive oil industry is seriously concerned about solutions for nutritional labeling. In this study, a new rapid technique to measure the nutrients for the olive oil nutritional labeling, is assessed. A novel partial least squares (PLS) calibration model using log-ratio coordinates has been formulated and successfully tested for predicting the percentages of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids based on visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The model provided accuracy suitable for labeling, under the rules in force in the European Union. The error was generally much lower than the tolerance. Industrial relevance The approach here proposed can be a suitable solution for olive oil nutritional labeling, which is a current challenge for the olive oil industry.
Olive mill wastewater as a potential source of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory compounds against the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Jose Manuel Silvan, Manuel Alejandro Pinto-Bustillos, Pablo Vásquez-Ponce, Marin Prodanov, Adolfo J. Martinez-Rodriguez
Phenolics and secoiridoids from crude olive mill wastewater (OMW) were purified using a preparative hybrid separation process: pressure-driven cross-flow membrane micro-(MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) and solid phase extraction (SPE). Five fractions with different contents of these compounds were obtained and their antibacterial activity against several strains of Campylobacter was evaluated. The results showed that the fraction with the highest content of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds had a relevant antibacterial activity against all tested strains with a strain-dependent character. Pre-treatment of LPS-stimulated cells with this fraction decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), showing its potential as anti-inflammatory agent. Finally, the effect of the same fraction on the viability of human intestinal epithelial cell lines was evaluated. In conclusion, OMW could be useful as a potential source of bioactive compounds against Campylobacter, increasing the valorisation of olive oil by-products.
Thermally-treated strawberry extrudate: A rich source of antioxidant phenols and sugars Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Juan Cubero Cardoso, Fátima Rubio-Senent, Antonio Serrano, Rafael Borja, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Fernando G. Fermoso
Strawberries have antioxidant, cardiovascular, and antiproliferative properties. The agroindustrial production of strawberry concentrate generates a food waste after extrudation that is usually landfilled. This strawberry extrudate is a rich source of valuable bioactive compounds such as phenols and sugars. In the present study, industrial thermal treatments currently in use for the valorization of other agricultural wastes were determined to be suitable for the treatment of strawberry extrudate. Thermal treatment conditions in the range of 90 °C to 200 °C were studied. Thermal treatment at 150 °C for 60 min without acid addition was the most efficient process based on the solubilization of sugars and phenols as well as the antioxidant capacity of the liquid phase produced. Instead of sending this residual fraction to landfill, such treatment would permit the use of strawberry extrudate as a source for the recovery of valuable bioactive compounds.
Combined effect of cold atmospheric plasma, intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the microbial behavior in/on (food) model systems during storage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 C. Smet, M. Baka, L. Steen, I. Fraeye, J.L. Walsh, V.P. Valdramidis, J.F. Van Impe
Microbial decontamination by means of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) offers great potential for treatment of heat-sensitive food products, extending their storage life. CAP is created by applying a high voltage to a gas stream, resulting in microbial inactivation according to different mechanisms. This paper thoroughly assesses the influence of CAP on the storage life of food model systems inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. (Food) model systems, with varying intrinsic factors (pH, salt concentration, and food (micro)structure), are treated for 5 min using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor generating a helium‑oxygen plasma. Following treatment, the impact of extrinsic factors is evaluated by storage at 8 °C or 20 °C. During storage, cell densities are determined. Data are fitted with predictive (growth or inactivation) models. As additional experiments indicate that the CAP treatment itself has a limited or even negligible effect on the properties of the model system (pH, aw, (micro)structure), the microbial behavior of CAP treated samples during storage can be attributed to the treatment. CAP treatment can result in microbial reductions up to 2.7 log10 and prolongs storage, however its rate of success is dependent on both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. An important factor is the storage temperature, as recovery of CAP treated cells proves more difficult when stored at 8 °C. At 20 °C, cell growth is merely slowed down. Additionally, at pH 5.5, 6% (w/v) NaCl, osmotic stress is induced on the microorganisms, which results in low cell recovery or further inactivation. The influence of the food (model) structure on the storage behavior is insignificant. Industrial relevance Although being a very promising technology, most studies regarding the use of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for food decontamination focus on the inactivation of a target microorganism, in relation to a specific food product. Fundamental knowledge on this non-thermal technology, including its impact on the storage life, is lacking. This study investigates the effect of CAP on the microbial behavior during storage. By performing tests on model systems, for a variation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, this work renders information on the suitability of this novel technology regarding treatment of a broad spectrum of food products. Moreover, this study demonstrates the limited impact of CAP on the food (model) properties, enhancing the suitability of the technology to be implemented in the food industry.
By-products of the rice processing obtained by controlled debranning as substrates for the production of probiotic bacteria Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-12 Premsuda Saman, Pablo Fuciños, José A. Vázquez, Severino S. Pandiella
Cereal debranning is a milling process in which bran layers are sequentially removed by controlled abrasion. Six rice fractions were produced with increasing debranning degrees: A (0–2.3% w/w), B (2.3–3.8% w/w), C (3.8–5% w/w), D (5–6.3% w/w), E (6.3–7.3% w/w) and F (7.3–100% w/w). Fermentation media were prepared from all fractions, and evaluated for supporting the growth of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 and Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 8821. Biomass, substrate consumption, and lactic acid production were accurately modelled using an unstructured mathematical model. A 3.7% (w/w) debranning degree resulted optimal in stimulating the growth of the selected probiotic strains. Results obtained suggest that this fraction might be suitable for producing potential synbiotic formulations. Industrial relevance There are many health benefits associated with the consumption of synbiotic foods, combining probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds. The development of rice-based synbiotic products might be an approach, offering a healthy alternative for individuals with, for instance, lactose intolerance.
Hyperbaric cold storage: Pressure as an effective tool for extending the shelf-life of refrigerated mackerel (Scomber scombrus, L.) Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 L. Otero, M. Pérez-Mateos, F. Holgado, G. Márquez-Ruiz, M.E. López-Caballero
The efficacy of hyperbaric cold storage for preserving lean fish has been recently demonstrated but, to the best of our knowledge, no data exist for fatty fish. To evaluate the effect of hyperbaric cold storage on the shelf-life and quality of fatty fish, we stored Atlantic mackerel fillets at 5 °C, both at atmospheric pressure and at 50 MPa. After 12 days of hyperbaric storage, no microbial growth was observed. Thus, most counts were similar or slightly lower than those of control samples at day 0, while H2S-producing organisms and sulphite-reducing bacteria reduced under the detection limits. Moreover, no significant lipid degradation was observed. By contrast, increased microbial counts and significant lipid hydrolysis were detected in the samples stored at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, even though the protein profile was significantly altered during hyperbaric storage, most fish-quality indicators (pH, TVB-N, drip loss, water-holding capacity, and firmness after cooking) were better preserved in the mackerel samples stored at 50 MPa. These results clearly prove that hyperbaric cold storage was more efficient than conventional refrigeration for the preservation of Atlantic mackerel fillets. Industrial relevance Long-term preservation of fatty fish is a challenge for the seafood industry mainly due to lipid degradation that can rapidly reduce fish quality. If effective against lipid degradation, hyperbaric cold storage could be an interesting technology to preserve fish and fish products. The increased cost resulting from hyperbaric storage should be overcome by an extended shelf-life of a high-quality product.
Microbial and chemical characterization of commercial washing lines of fresh produce highlights the need for process water control Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Francisco López-Gálvez, Juan A. Tudela, Ana Allende, Maria I. Gil
Process wash water and washed products from three different fresh produce processing lines were characterized at commercial scale. Different physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of wash water were measured. Great variability between processing lines on the physicochemical quality of process wash water was observed, caused in part by the type of produce washed. The relationship between lower aerobic mesophilic bacteria and higher free chlorine (FC) concentrations in wash water was detected (Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) = −0.53). Independently of the FC concentration, most of the water samples (>80%) showed presence of cultivable (limit of detection 1 CFU/100 mL), probably caused by the uncontrolled pH conditions. Higher values of FC and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in wash water were related to lower microbial load in washed produce (PCC = −0.82, and − 0.79, respectively). Higher concentration of chlorine was linked to a higher presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the wash water, and washing in chlorinated water led to a significant increase in the concentration of DBPs in produce. However, the accumulation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in process wash water was not correlated with higher concentrations of these DBPs in produce. Industrial relevance The washing step of fresh produce processing lines is a critical process. The dose of disinfectants needs to be adequately optimized to avoid microbial contamination without generating the accumulation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, critical parameters that influence the efficacy of water disinfection and the occurrence of DBPs in fresh produce processing lines were identified under commercial conditions. The results evidenced that monitoring and control of pH play a critical role by maximizing the concentration of the most active form of chlorine in the water. The parameter UV254 measured on-line in the washing tank, can be suggested as a suitable indicator of the presence of organic matter in fresh produce wash water.
Some new findings on the potential use of biocompatible silver nanoparticles in winemaking Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-04-26 Irene Gil-Sánchez, Miguel Monge, Beatriz Miralles, Gloria Armentia, Carolina Cueva, Julian Crespo, Jose M. López de Luzuriaga, M. Elena Olmos, Begoña Bartolomé, Dolores González de Llano, MaVictoria Moreno-Arribas
There is currently an increasing commercial demand for silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) due to their wide applicability in various markets. Because of their powerful antimicrobial properties, these nanoparticles are frequently used for food-associated consumer products. In this paper, the effect of two Ag NPs coated with biocompatible materials – PEG-Ag NPs 20 (polyethylene glycol) and GSH-Ag NPs (reduced glutathione) – to control microbial growth in wines was assessed. Both Ag NPs were subjected to an in vitro three-step digestion, and changes in their morphology and an assessment of their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells were determined. Both Ag NPs were effective against the different microbial population present in tested wines. Regarding their in vitro digestion, the size and shape of the nanoparticles were almost unaltered in the case of GSH-Ag NPs, while in PEG-Ag NPs 20 some particle agglomeration was observed. Overall, these results suggest that Ag NPs may reach the intestine in a nano-scaled form. Finally, Caco-2 cell experiments seemed to exclude toxicity of Ag NPs at the intestinal epithelium. Industrial relevance Traditionally, sulphur dioxide (SO2) has been used by oenologists to control the microbial population in wine. As a result of increasing evidence of possible health risks associated with this additive in wine, there has been growing interest in finding new alternatives to replace it. Silver nanoparticles display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, so they could constitute a very promising approach to reducing SO2 in winemaking.
Iron bioavailability from food fortification to precision nutrition. A review Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-04-23 Ruth Blanco-Rojo, M. Pilar Vaquero
Iron deficiency anaemia is a Worldwide Public Health problem and the fortification of food with iron is the most cost-effective prevention strategy. The correct combination of iron form and food vehicle is crucial, as well as the dietary context of consumption. Combinations of iron with an enhancer of its bioavailability and avoidance of interaction with iron inhibitors are recommended. New iron fortificants, innovative complexes, coatings and nanoparticulates, and biofortification are the main research lines. Ultimately, human assays are necessary before industrial production. In this regard, precision nutrition helps to identify the vulnerable groups that, according to genotype, dietary habits, physical activity and, most recently, metagenomic profile, may benefit from a specific iron-fortified food. This review addresses the modifiers of iron bioavailability and the main aspects to take into account in the development of iron-fortified food to prevent iron deficiency. Industrial relevance • The potential target population that would benefit from iron-fortified foods is that at risk of iron deficiency. However, there are also segments of population at risk of iron overload. • Iron fortification involves complex technological issues, but the economic impact is very high. • Research on “omics” sciences delivers scientific results applicable to the design and production of iron-fortified food.
Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of combined high pressure processing and sage in beef burgers during prolonged chilled storage Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-04-17 L. Mizi, S. Cofrades, R. Bou, T. Pintado, M.E. López-Caballero, F. Zaidi, F. Jiménez-Colmenero
The combined effect of sage (0.3 and 0.6%) and high pressure processing (HPP) [300 MPa (10 min, 9.9 °C) and 600 MPa (10 min, 10.2 °C)] on the antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics of beef burgers during prolonged chilled storage (60 days) was analysed. Sage powder showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but the addition of sage powder to burgers had no apparent effect on antimicrobial activity; however, antioxidant activity was detected as measured by TBARS, hexanal and photochemiluminescence (PCL). In general, lipid oxidation increased in all samples during storage. HPP at 600 MPa had no effect on lipid oxidation but caused mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts to remain close to the detection limit for at least 6 days. Significant correlations were found between lipid oxidation measured by TBARS and PCL and between TBARS with hexanal over the storage period. Sage had no detrimental effects on sensory attributes of burgers. Industrial relevance Sage is an aromatic plant with excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. High pressure processing (HPP) is an efficient non-thermal preservation technology. As far as the authors are aware, very few studies have holistically addressed the question of stability (microbial spoilage and oxidation of lipids) of traditionally-prepared burgers as affected by HPP and addition of a natural plant. This paper examines the possible application of both treatments so as to obtain beef burgers with suitable oxidative and microbiological stability over prolonged chilled storage without this affecting sensory attributes.
Electrospraying assisted by pressurized gas as an innovative high-throughput process for the microencapsulation and stabilization of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil in zein prolamine Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-04-09 M.A. Busolo, S. Torres-Giner, C. Prieto, J.M. Lagaron
Zein, a prolamine obtained from maize, was employed to encapsulate a fish oil highly enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by an innovative process termed electrospraying assisted by pressurized gas (EAPG). This technology combines high electric voltage with pneumatic spray to yield a high-throughput encapsulation process. Semi-spherical zein flowable capsules with mean sizes of 1.4 μm containing the DHA-enriched fish oil were produced by EAPG from inert ethanol solutions at room conditions, presenting a high encapsulation efficiency. The oxidative stability tests carried out in the zein microcapsules obtained by EAPG showed that the DHA-enriched fish oil was efficiently protected over storage time. Sensory tests were also performed on fortified reconstituted milk with the freshly prepared zein/DHA-enriched fish oil microcapsules, suggesting negligible oxidation effects after 45 days. The results described herein indicate that EAPG is a promising innovative high-throughput electrospraying-based methodology for the encapsulation of bioactives and, therefore, the resultant DHA-enriched fish oil containing microcapsules can be industrially applied for the formulation of fortified foods. Industrial relevance An innovative process, termed electrospraying assisted by pressurized gas (EAPG), is herein originally presented as a novel encapsulation methodology. This technology is based on the combination of high voltage and pneumatic spray, allowing the formation of microcapsules at room temperature conditions. Thus, EAPG shows a great deal of potential to encapsulate nutraceuticals and other bioactives that are sensitive to thermal degradation and/or oxidation. The resultant bioactive-containing capsules can be, thereafter, applied to develop novel fortified food products.
Production of a β-d-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) by an extraction/microfiltration/reverse osmosis (nanofiltration) process Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Diego Morales, Fhernanda Ribeiro Smiderle, Adriana Jimenez Piris, Cristina Soler-Rivas, Marin Prodanov
A pilot-scale process combining extraction of Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) powder in water (98 °C, 1 h), cross-flow microfiltration and reverse osmosis (nanofiltration) was performed to obtain β-glucan-rich extracts. Suspensions (45–80 L) obtained after 3 extractions were clarified by microfiltration reducing their turbidity to <1 NTU. Membrane flux was completely recovered after filtration. One of the clarified extracts was concentrated (to 6–7 L) by reverse osmosis (Nanomax95) and the other two by nanofiltration (Nanomax50 and ALNF99-2517). Different physicochemical parameters (permeate flux, total soluble substances, total suspended particles and electrical conductivity) were monitored during filtration and the bioactive compounds present in the obtained fractions (β-glucans, total carbohydrates, chitins, eritadenine, lenthionine, ergosterol) were analyzed. The more adequate membrane for Shiitake extract concentration was Nanomax50 because it showed higher filtration flux and higher values of bioactive compounds in the obtained extract than the extracts obtained with the other two membranes. Industrial relevance This work describes a pilot-scale procedure for obtaining β-d-glucan-rich extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake mushrooms). The extracts might be used in novel functional foods due to their high content in hypocholesterolemic compounds. The process combines extraction with boiling water, cross-flow membrane clarification and reverse osmosis/nanofiltration concentration of β-d-glucans. The procedure is scalable to industrial level.
Resistance changes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium treated by High Hydrostatic Pressure and Pulsed Electric Fields and assessment of virulence changes by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a test organism Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Maria Sanz-Puig, Adriana Velázquez-Moreira, Clara Torres, Jose Ángel Guerrero-Beltrán, Luis Miguel Cunha, Antonio Martinez, Dolores Rodrigo
The goal of this study was to evaluate the development of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium resistance against Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) and High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), and to study the possible virulence changes of the resistant subpopulations using Caenorhabditis elegans. Results showed that S. Typhimurium became resistant to both non-thermal technologies after four consecutive treatments. Survival probability of the worms (C. elegans) increased significantly when they were fed with S. Typhimurium treated by PEF four consecutive times in comparison with the other two subpopulations, untreated and treated once. For HHP, results indicated that up to percentile 50%, the survival probability of worms fed with treated microorganisms (once and four times) was greater than that of worms fed with untreated ones. Also, the C. elegans egg-laying pattern was modified and there were significant differences in the number of eggs laid in the first two days among the three subpopulations studied. Consequently, although S. Typhimurium develops microbial resistance against PEF or HHP treatments, when it is applied repeatedly, its virulence against C. elegans appears to decrease. Industrial relevance Among the non-thermal technologies, Pulsed Electric Fields and High Hydrostatic Pressure have a great potential. Nevertheless, it is necessary to validate them from a safety point of view because of the huge amount of damaged cells that can be obtained if sublethal treatments are applied. These studies have industrial relevance in food safety ensuring proper processing when using these non-thermal technologies.
Coaxial electrospraying of biopolymers as a strategy to improve protection of bioactive food ingredients Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Laura G. Gómez-Mascaraque, Fran Tordera, Maria Jose Fabra, Marta Martínez-Sanz, Amparo Lopez-Rubio
Coaxial electrospraying is a promising technique for the production of multilayer encapsulation structures whose potential has already been demonstrated for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The aim of this work was to extend its application to the food sector by developing novel coaxially electrosprayed microcapsules using all food-grade materials. For this purpose, zein and gelatin were used as shell biopolymers to microencapsulate two model bioactive ingredients, i.e. epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as a model hydrophilic compound and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as a model hydrophobic molecule. The performance of the coaxially-obtained particles in terms of protection was evaluated in comparison with that of uniaxially electrosprayed materials. Particle sizes varied with composition and encapsulation efficiency (EE) was dependent on the chemical affinity between the shell matrix and the bioactive compound, but in general, greater EE was obtained in the coaxial systems. Moreover, enhanced bioactive protection ability was demonstrated by the coaxial structures, as observed in thermal degradation assays (for ALA) and antioxidant activity after in-vitro digestion (for EGCG). Industrial relevance This work emphasizes the usefulness of the electrospraying technique for the production of encapsulation structures for bioactive protection using all food-grade materials, without the need of applying high temperatures and generating small capsule sizes (in the submicron range). It also demonstrates that the coaxial configuration may be used to design encapsulation systems with enhanced protection ability for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic bioactive compounds.
Insects as ingredients for bakery goods. A comparison study of H. illucens, A. domestica and T. molitor flours Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Cristina M. González, Raquel Garzón, Cristina M. Rosell
Due to a rising demand for proteins, food industry is considering new alternative protein sources that can be used for human food. The aim of this research was to explore the potential use of insects' flour as protein-rich ingredient for bakery products. Hermetia illucens, Acheta domestica and Tenebrio molitor were ground and used to replace 5% wheat flour in doughs and breads. The protein content of the insect flours ranged from 45% to 57% (d.m.) and fat content from 27% to 36% (d.m.). The inclusion of insects' flour affected the rheological properties (water absorption and stability), of dough during mixing, having less water adsorption. Breadmaking process could be carried out with all the composite flours. Breads containing A. domestica flour showed similar specific volume and texture parameters than wheat bread, but with higher content of proteins and fibers. Globally, results confirmed the usefulness of insects' flour for making breads with improved nutritional value. Industrial relevance This study evaluated the potential application of three different insects as protein source ingredients for bakery products. Results confirm that insects flour could be added to replace wheat flour in breads without significantly affecting dough properties and leading to breads with acceptable technological quality and improved nutritional profile.
Short term evolution of nutritionally relevant milk fatty acids of goats fed a cereal-based concentrate enriched with linseed oil Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Alfonso Cívico, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Nieves Núñez Sánchez, Francisco Peña Blanco, Andrés L. Martínez Marín
Goat diet supplementation with linseed oil (LO) can be a fruitful technological strategy to enhance the nutritional value of milk fat. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of LO in a basal diet rich in starch on goat milk fatty acid (FA) profile. The FA contents were monitored exhaustively during 24 h after LO supplementation or elimination by gas chromatography. Rumenic acid, the main conjugated linoleic acid isomer and α-linolenic acid, both related with bioactive properties, significantly rose in milk between 12 and 24 h after the inclusion of LO in the diet. On the contrary, medium-chain saturated FA decreased. Changes in other nutritionally relevant milk FA as well as short term effects caused by dietary LO suppression are discussed. Industrial relevance Fortification of livestock feeds with lipid supplements is a technological approach that has attracted growing attention in order to change milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Enrichment of ruminant diets with linseed oil (LO) increases omega-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acid as well as decreases saturated FA in milk fat, which improves the nutritional value of dairy products. The present study explores the timing of those changes in the first 24 h after LO inclusion or suppression in the diet. We observed that changes of goat milk fat composition occurred for the most part between 12 and 24 h of LO supplementation, while those changes disappeared between 6 and 12 h after LO suppression. These results would be relevant for producers and industrialists in order to establish appropriate milk collection periods which provide an improved FA profile due to LO supplementation.
Fermentation of commercial soy beverages with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains featuring high β-glucosidase activity Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Susana Delgado, Lucía Guadamuro, Ana Belén Flórez, Lucía Vázquez, Baltasar Mayo
An increase of isoflavone aglycone content in soy foods can be attained through fermentation with food-grade bacteria. In this study, two commercial soy beverages with distinctive chemical composition (AS and VS) were fermented by strains of lactobacilli (eight strains) and bifidobacteria (two strains) with a high β-glucosidase activity. Along fermentation, growth of the strains and isoflavone deglycosylation in the soy beverages were monitored. Large differences in growth, aglycone content and chemical parameters in AS and VS beverages fermented by different species and strains were observed. Isoflavone glycosides were completely transformed into their corresponding aglycones by most strains during fermentation of AS beverage, whereas large amounts of undeglycosilated isoflavones were still present in fermented VS. Four strains showing strong deglycosylation activity and appropriate technological properties (Lactobacillus casei LP71, Lactobacillus plantarum E112, Lactobacillus rhamnosus E41 and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum C35) were proposed as industrial starters to improve functionality in soy-based fermented foods.
Enrichment in phenolic compounds of black ripe olives through nano-filtration and vacuum evaporation techniques Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 3.116) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Pedro García-Serrano, Concepción Romero, Manuel Brenes, Pedro García-García
The aim of this work was to obtain ripe olives enriched in bioactive compounds of phenolic nature. For this, two partially purified solutions rich in phenols from the table olive processes were used as cover in the packaging: washing waters of Spanish-style green olives or previous preservation acid solutions of ripe olives. Both solutions were nano-filtered through a 4000 Da membrane and vacuum evaporated at pilot plant scale. Regenerated liquids were employed at 50% and 100% in the packing brine. Results demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a >3-fold higher concentration of phenolic compounds in olives than with the traditional method when using the regenerated washing water at 100% to enrich the packing brine. Moreover, a <2-fold higher concentration was found in olives enriched with the regenerated preservation solution at 100%. It must also be noted that the color, texture and flavor of the olives were not affected by the use of regenerated washing water as packing solution. Industrial relevance Among the different types of commercial table olives, black ripe have the lowest content in phenolic compounds. The methodology developed in this work will allow the enrichment of black olives in these bioactive substances, in particular hydroxytyrosol, which has been attributed to many beneficial properties for human health. The methodology is simple and easy to implement by processors. Hence, these results will contribute to the nutritional valorization of black ripe olives.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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