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  • Development and optimization of novel infrared dry peeling method for ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-31
    A.E. Kate, P.P. Sutar

    The novel infrared dry-peeling method was developed as an alternative to the conventional lye and abrasion peeling of ginger rhizome. The experiments on infrared dry-peeling of ginger rhizome were conducted to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in peeling process, enhance the quality of peeled rhizomes and make it a sustainable method. The effects of operating parameters like infrared temperature (300°–400 °C), product to IR heater spacing (10–30 mm) and exposure time (120–300 s) on the peeling performance were investigated. The multiple response optimization was carried out using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were obtained at 300 °C infrared temperature, 21 mm spacing and 120 s exposure time which resulted in the peeling percentage of 92.77%, 90.40% peelability, 6.94% peeling loss and unpeeled percentage of 9.6. The comparative study of optimized infrared assisted peeling with conventional abrasion and lye peeling showed that infrared dry-peeling results in lower peeling losses. The SEM images of peels showed that IR radiation causes the desirable changes in elastic and other textural properties of the peel.

  • Non-thermal plasma for elimination of pesticide residues in mango
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Khanh Thi Kim Phan, Huan Tai Phan, Dheerawan Boonyawan, Pilairuk Intipunya, Charles S. Brennan, Joe M. Regenstein, Yuthana Phimolsiripol

    The effects of non-thermal plasma (NTP) on elimination of pesticide residues and on quality changes of mango (cv. Nam Dok Mai) were investigated. Varied flow rate of Ar gas (2, 5 and 8 L/min) and time dependent degradations of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin as a result of NTP treatments using a gliding arc (GA) discharge for 5 or 10 min were studied. Results showed that the NTP treatment for 5 min at 5 L/min Ar flow rate successfully decreased the concentrations of chorpyrifos by 74.0% and cypermetrin by 62.9%. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in titratable acidity and total phenolic content and increases in carotenoid content for the treated mangoes. However, total soluble solid, color and texture parameters were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The emission signal of hydroxyl (OH radical dot ) radicals at 309 nm was also obtained to monitor that the system was working properly. Industrial relevance This study demonstrates the potential application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) as a way to eliminate pesticide residues and on quality changes in mango. A varied flow rate of Ar gas and time dependent degradation of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were studied for NTP treatments produced using a gliding arc (GA) discharge. Our results have proved that the GA discharge NTP has the potential to be an effective method to ensure chemical safety not only for mangoes, but also for other types of postharvest produce. This system can be adapted for the industrial up-scale.

  • Athermal extraction of green tea: Optimisation and kinetics of extraction of polyphenolic compounds
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    C.S. Murugesh, Navin K. Rastogi, R. Subramanian

    An efficient athermal extraction process for green tea, subduing the inherent disadvantage of low yield has been proposed. This process attained 90% total polyphenolic compounds and 96% extractable solids comparable with the conventional hot extraction. The extraction followed two-stage kinetics. A mathematical model with a new approach describing the kinetics of the second stage and extending the predictability to the yield of total polyphenolic compounds inclusive of the instantaneous first stage was deduced from fundamental mass transfer kinetics. The experimental data fitted well with the model (R2 0.941–0.999; RMSE 0.055–0.336). The overall mass transfer coefficient increased from 0.112 to 0.207 min−1 with a particle size reduction from 1.96 to 0.108 mm. The EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activities of both cold (6.20 μg/mL) and hot extract (5.45 μg/mL) favourably compared with Trolox® (5.20 μg/mL). The cold extracted tea possessed superior organoleptic quality, having a bearing in the ready-to-drink tea preparation. Industrial relevance Cold brewed green tea has been reported to be superior in organoleptic characteristics and possesses similar or superior bioactivity compared to hot brewed tea. Low yield of cold extraction is the most prominent limiting factor in its industrial adoption. The proposed athermal extraction process could overcome this drawback and make the cold extraction industrially viable while offering a superior product.

  • Bread enriched with cricket powder (Acheta domesticus): A technological, microbiological and nutritional evaluation
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Andrea Roncolini, Cristiana Garofalo, Francesca Clementi, Marina Pasquini, Massimo Mozzon, Roberta Foligni, Nadia Raffaelli, Federica Zamporlini, Lucia Aquilanti

    Recently, the high nutritional value of edible insects attracted the attention of researchers and food industry for their potential use in foods with enhanced nutritional characteristics. In this study cricket (Acheta domesticus) powder was added to wheat flour to obtain bread with enhanced nutritional value. Bread loaves were obtained from doughs produced using different blends of wheat flour and cricket powder added in amounts of 10 or 30% (based on wheat flour) and baker's yeast and/or sourdough. Raw materials, dough and breads were subjected to technological, microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Overall, a negative linear correlation between the amount of added cricket powder and the dough technological parameters was seen. However, compared to control breads produced with the sole wheat flour, breads containing cricket powder showed a higher nutritional profile in terms of fatty acid composition, high protein content and occurrence of essential amino acids. Finally, bread enriched with 10% cricket powder showed a discrete global liking by untrained panelists. Data overall collected highlighted a good suitability of cricket powder for the production of enriched bread. Of note, the presence of spore-forming bacteria in cricket-based bread loaves, thus highlighting potential safety issues to be deepened. Industrial relevance The present study demonstrated that edible insects powder can be successfully included in leavened baked goods to enhance their protein content. The present research also responds to the growing awareness of consumers towards innovative and wholesome leavened goods, proving that edible insects can constitute a novel source of innovative ingredients to be used in bread making.

  • Physico-chemical characterization of a milk-clotting fraction extracted from turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) proventriculus
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    B. Mekhaneg, J.-M. Girardet, G. Humbert, F. Saulnier, C. Poirson, M.-M. Bellal

    Valorization of avian by-products such as turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) proventriculus in the preparation of milk clotting enzymes constitutes an alternative to commercial rennet. The clotting enzyme of Meleagris gallopavo has been prepared by ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation followed by purification by cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), and determination of the clotting protease activity performed on milk incubated at 35 °C. The clotting fractions are concentrated and dialyzed against Tris/HCl pH 7.0 through a membrane with cutoff 8000 Da, and separated by anion-exchange FPLC. The coagulating fractions obtained by cation-exchange chromatography are also separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which revealed only one fraction able to coagulate milk. Electrophoresis analysis revealed a band with apparent molecular mass of 36.5 kDa and seemed to correspond to pepsin-like enzyme according to primary sequence alignment analyses. Maximal clotting activity was obtained for optimal conditions of temperature of 55 °C and pH 5.4.

  • Effect of freezing and drying processes on the molecular traits of edible yellow mealworm
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Riccardo Melis, Angela Braca, Gilberto Mulas, Roberta Sanna, Simona Spada, Giuseppe Serra, Maria Leonarda Fadda, Tonina Roggio, Sergio Uzzau, Roberto Anedda

    Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) represents a highly sustainable source of proteins for food and feed. Industrial production of mealworm meals for food and feed must count on optimized processing methods based on a deep knowledge of nutritional and quality aspects. Viable mealworm larvae (VL) were frozen at −20 °C and dried under two different thermal conditions, namely high-temperature-short-time (HTST, 90 °C for 1.5 h) and low-temperature-long-time (LTLT, 50 °C for 62 h). Proximate composition, fatty acid analyses by gas-chromatography and metabolic profiling by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy were carried out and 1H NMR data investigated with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). While fatty acid profiles did not indicate significant differences among treatments, 1H NMR highlighted relevant molecular alterations associated to LTLT drying (95% of detected metabolites are altered by LTLT). In particular, detrimental hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) was favored during LTLT drying (approximately 25% reduction of TAG in LTLT compared to VL), accompanied by the enrichment of the free amino acid pool. Larvae composition was only minimally affected by the freezing process, with only 15% of the metabolite pool affected. Industrial relevance Sustainable industrial production of insect-derived products (insect meal, oil, and other extracts) must count on efficient processes and high standard quality. Freezing and drying are the most critical processing operations in insect industry, since they can strongly affect the quality of final products. It is demonstrated here that low-temperature-long time drying processes negatively affect insect products quality, while freezing and high-temperature-short time drying do not have a significant impact. Molecular details of nutrient degradation processes are provided.

  • Role of thermal and electric field effects during the pre-treatment of fruit and vegetable mash by pulsed electric fields (PEF) and ohmic heating (OH)
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    C. Mannozzi, T. Fauster, K. Haas, U. Tylewicz, S. Romani, M. Dalla Rosa, H. Jaeger

    The aim of this work was to quantify the recovery of juice and bioactive compounds of apple and carrot mashes treated by the electrotechnologies (PEF or OH) at different pre-heating temperatures (40, 60 or 80 °C), considering thermal and electric field based cell disintegration. In general, a higher cell disintegration resulting from the applied pre-treatments also resulted in higher juice yield (around 10% increase for carrot and 5% for apple compared to untreated). Regarding the carotenoid content of obtained carrot juices, only the PEF pre-treatment at 20 °C resulted in an increased extractability. A release of total polyphenols from apples into the juice increased in all pre-treated samples compared to the control. This study suggests that a combined pre-treatment can further improve the cell disintegration and juice yield and may have the potential to increase the recovery of bioactive compounds depending on the treatment parameters. Industrial relevance Thermal treatment followed by PEF or conducted by OH can still improve the cell disintegration and yield of juice. Moreover, the combination of thermal and electric field effects may also improve the recovery of bioactive compounds depending on the chosen treatment conditions. Therefore, the combined treatments show high potentiality for the application at industrial level to improve the release of the juice and at the same time to obtain novel products with high quality.

  • Headspace fingerprint as a potential multivariate intrinsic indicator to monitor temperature variation of thermal in-pack processes: A case-study on broccoli puree
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-03
    Tara Grauwet, Avi Shpigelman

    The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the potential of a headspace fingerprint as a multivariate intrinsic indicator for monitoring temperature history variation that can occur, for example, during in-pack food processing at the product level. Using solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS), we monitored the extracted volatile fraction of a series of 9 well-defined thermally processed broccoli purees, differing only in the maximal process temperature reached. Our results showed that the relative composition of the extracted volatile fraction clearly depended on the processing intensity (as a measure for thermal variation) applied. In addition, this headspace fingerprinting approach, including multivariate data analytical approaches, allowed a swift selection of specific intrinsic fingerprint markers. The evaluation of the concentration of each of these markers allows to discriminate between the different processing intensities. However, we suggest to perform a linear combination of the information from relevant identified intrinsic fingerprint markers given the increased reliability of a multiple response indicator. The presented approaches are a promising proof-of-principle that has potential to be exploited for monitoring other processing non-uniformities as well.Industrial relevanceThermal treatment is by far still the most commonly used preservation method for food with a high water content. In-pack retort treatment commonly results in some temperature non-uniformity occurring during the treatment at both the reactor and/or the product level. While the use of thermocouples for acquiring time-temperature history is often an excellent solution, the use of intrinsic food components as indicators can be of great advantage for process monitoring. So far usually pre-selected single component intrinsic indicators were suggested. In this work, we are presenting the utilization of the headspace fingerprint as a multivariate intrinsic indicator instead of using a single compound. From the industrial point of view, we present an innovative concept of monitoring product specific extracted volatile fraction, followed by selection of specific intrinsic fingerprint markers and linearly combining the information from those markers. While the advanced data analysis for selection of the fingerprint markers will have to be done per specific product, only the linear combination of the specific data from the markers can be used for routine analysis. Such concept can provide increased reliability due to the utilization of a non-pre-selected multiple response indicator with a relatively feasible monitoring of the markers using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS).

  • Effect of high-pressure processing on flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity of apple ‘Golden Delicious’ from different geographical origin
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-06-02
    Irene Fernández-Jalao, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno, Begoña De Ancos

    The influence of high-pressure processing (HPP) (400, 500 and 600 MPa at 35 °C for 5 min) on different classes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple from two different growing regions, northeastern of Spain (lowland climate) (S-apples) and north of Italy (mid-mountain climate) (I-apples) was investigated. Total hydroxycinnamic acids, total dihydrochalcones and total flavan-3-ols content were higher in S-apple (untreated and HPP-treated) than in I-apples and total flavonols content was higher in I-apples. HPP affected phenolic compounds and AA depending on the apple geographical origin. 400 MPa/35 °C/5 min increased total flavonols (30%) and maintained total phenolic compounds determined by HPLC (TP-HPLC) in S-apples. The higher increase of TP-HPLC (54%) was achieved when I-apple was treated at 600 MPa. Untreated and HPP I-apples displayed higher AA than S-apples. HPP (400 and 600 MPa) increased AA in I-apple. Positive correlations were found between TP-HPLC and AA (TP-FC, DPPH·, ABTS·+ and FRAP) in both Italian and Spanish apples.Industrial relevanceThe apples of cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ are one of the most consumed fruits in the UE. High-pressure processing (HPP) of these fruits acquires great importance to obtain ingredients and apple functional foods highly demanded by consumers. For this, it is necessary to know the process variables and plant material that favor greater extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity characteristics. This paper provides useful results to help fruit processor to select the appropriate HPP conditions and the geographical origin of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple to obtain apple-based products with high content on different classes of phenolic compounds with beneficial health effects.

  • Effect of infrared final cooking on some physico-chemical and engineering properties of partially fried chicken nugget
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Delasa Rahimi, Mahdi Kashaninejad, Aman Mohammad Ziaiifar, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak

    In this study the effects of IR cooking on physicochemical properties of the chicken nugget were investigated. The samples were cooked using deep fat frying, IR cooking, pre-frying-IR cooking and IR cooking-post frying. After treatments, the moisture and fat contents, weight loss, color, textural and sensorial attributes of samples were determined. The moisture and fat contents of the nuggets decreased when the higher heat fluxes and longer process time were applied. The minimum and the maximum total weight loss were observed during PF-IR (6.95 kW/m2–3 min) and IR-PF (10.25 kW/m2–7 min). Lower L*, higher a* and b* values were observed as the heat flux and cooking time increased. The IR cooked nugget using 6.95 kW/m2 and 10.25 kW/m2 had the lowest and the highest hardness and chewiness, respectively. Fick's law of diffusion was used to determine the effective moisture diffusivity, which varied between 1.09 × 10−8 to 2.69 × 10−8 m2/s. The estimated values of Ea from the modified Arrhenius type exponential equation in infrared, infrared-frying and frying-infrared cooking process were 4.27, 3.55 and 5.97 kW/kg, respectively. Sensorial properties revealed that the IR cooked and PF-IR cooked nuggets had the similar acceptance to the deep fat fried sample in addition to having significantly lower fat content.

  • Effect of high pressure on the antimicrobial activity and secondary structure of the bacteriocin nisin
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-02
    Chloé Modugno, Camille Loupiac, Antoine Bernard, Audrey Jossier, Fabrice Neiers, Jean-Marie Perrier-Cornet, Hélène Simonin

    Effect of high pressure (HP) treatment on the antimicrobial properties and the structure of nisin was evaluated. Nisin solutions at pH 2.8 or 6.1 were treated by HP at 500 MPa – 10 min – 20 °C and their antimicrobial potency was determined. It appeared that HP clearly impacted the antimicrobial activity of nisin, with respective activity loss of 22.5% and 49.9% at pH 2.8 and 6.1. Structural analysis of nisin by circular dichroism and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies revealed that the decrease of nisin antimicrobial activity was likely due to the unfolding of the protein induced by HP. A loss of nisin β-turns structure, particularly significant at neutral pH, was linked to the drastic drop in antimicrobial activity, as these structures are implicated in the nisin interaction with the bacterial membrane.Industrial relevanceThe combination of nisin and high pressure (HP) can be use at an industrial scale to inactivate bacteria. Nisin is allowed as a food additive (E234) and can be added at a final concentration ranging from 120 to 500 IU/g, depending on the product. In this work, we showed that HP can induce a significant reduction of nisin activity (-22.5% at pH 2.8 and -49.9% at pH 6.1). Therefore, this activity loss could be taken into account to manage the final nisin concentration in HP-treated food products.

  • Experimental investigation of the combined translational and rotational movement on an inclined conveyor on radio frequency heating uniformity
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    T. Koray Palazoğlu, Welat Miran

    The objective of this study was to explore the possibility to improve radio frequency (RF) heating uniformity by subjecting the food to RF energy on a moving inclined conveyor and horizontally rotating it about its central axis at the same time. To do this, wheat flour in a rectangular container was heated on a rotating turntable moving on an inclined conveyor using a radio frequency oven operating at 27.12 MHz and a maximum power of 2 kW. A fixed electrode gap setting of 165 mm was employed. Heating experiments were also conducted without rotating the sample both on inclined conveyor and on horizontal conveyor positioned at two different heights between the RF electrodes. Temperature at four different internal locations was continuously measured using fiber optic probes. Temperature at the top surface and the mid-layer was also measured using an infrared camera immediately after heating. The combined translational and rotational movement of sample was found to reduce temperature gradients within the rectangular volume allowing to reach the target temperature in a more controlled manner. The proposed approach can be easily implemented in the industry to improve uniformity of heating.

  • Closed-loop spray drying solutions for energy efficient powder production
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    S.N. Moejes, Q. Visser, J.H. Bitter, A.J.B. van Boxtel

    This paper introduces a closed-loop dryer system to reduce the energy consumption for milk powder production. The system is based on a monodisperse droplet atomizer which reduces the amount of fines in the exhaust air, and allows dehumidification and recirculation of the air over the dryer. In this way the latent and sensible heat from the dryer exhaust are recovered. Two adsorbent systems for dehumidification are discussed; a membrane contactor with a liquid desiccant, and a zeolite sorption wheel. Four configurations for closed-loop spray drying are simulated and optimized. By heat integration of the adsorber-regenerator system with the dryer and preceding concentration step, the energy consumption is significantly reduced to 4.9 MJ heat per kg milk powder. The final heat integration solutions were obtained by simultaneous optimization of the operational conditions and the heat exchanger network based on pinch analysis.Industrial relevanceDrying is an energy intensive operation in processing. To comply with the upcoming regulations that arise from the EU goals for sustainable development, the energy consumption of drying processes should be reduced drastically. Emerging technologies are the key for the next step in energy efficiency improvement. A closed-loop spray drying system for milk powder production is simulated and optimized in this work. The proposed technologies are: monodisperse droplet drying, membrane contactor and a zeolite wheel. By applying air dehumidification and heat integration the latent and sensible heat are recovered from the exhaust air. The energy consumption for milk concentration and spray drying has the potential to be lowered from 8.4 to 4.9 MJ heat per kg milk powder. Although milk powder has been considered, the proposed system is also applicable to other food products, as well as in the (bio)chemical, pharmaceutical and paper industry.

  • Valorization of pineapple waste for the extraction of bioactive compounds and glycosides using autohydrolysis
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Leonardo Sepúlveda, Aloia Romaní, Cristóbal Noé Aguilar, José Teixeira

    Autohydrolysis process, an alternative technology that uses only water as extraction solvent, was evaluated for the extraction of glycosides and polyphenols from pineapple waste. A Box-Behnken design was carried out using different temperatures (150–200 °C), solid-liquid ratio (1:40–1:10 w/v) and reaction time (15–45 min). The best condition for the production of glucose (27.6 g/L) and fructose (33.8 g/L) was 150 °C, 30 min and 1:10 w/v while the highest amount of extracted total polyphenols (1.75 g/L) was obtained at 200 °C, 30 min and 1:10 w/v solid-liquid ratio. In all treatments were detected gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, coumaric acid and caffeic acid. These results indicate autohydrolysis as a valuable alternative for the sustainable extraction of high value-added molecules for further use in industrial, food, cosmetic and health applications.

  • Pulsed Electric Fields enhances calcium infusion for improving the hardness of blanched carrots
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Sze Ying Leong, Dafu Du, Indrawati Oey

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) to facilitate calcium infusion, with the aim to improve the hardness of blanched carrots. Moreover, this study explored the relationships between carrot hardness and in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility, and between in vivo mastication effects and the in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility of different individuals. Findings showed that calcium infusion facilitated by PEF treatment at an electric field strength of 1.9 kV/cm was effective in improving the hardness of blanched carrots by 57%, leading to similar level of hardness for carrots subjected to conventional overnight soaking in calcium chloride solution followed by moderate temperature precooking (60 °C, 30 min). PEF could shorten the calcium infusion to 12.12 ms and reduce the required calcium concentration to 300 ppm. Moreover, in vivo mastication of blanched carrots preserved by new and conventional approaches revealed that the hardness perception and in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility of carrot samples were predominantly influenced by the differences in masticatory pattern between individuals. Overall, PEF would be a fast solution to enhance calcium infusion for preserving hardness of blanched carrots and the in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene was comparable between carrots with PEF-enhanced calcium infusion and conventional calcium infusion.Industrial relevanceThis study demonstrates the feasibility of using PEF to accelerate the infusion of calcium ions into carrot to preserve its hardness after blanching. It was found that overnight soaking of carrots with CaCl2 could be shortened tremendously in which the passive diffusion of calcium ions into the carrot cells can occur instantaneously during PEF at a lower concentration of CaCl2. Moreover, the application of a PEF-assisted calcium infusion pre-treatment can produce blanched carrots with similar hardness as those preserved with overnight calcium infusion followed by moderate temperature precooking at 60 °C for 30 min. This implies that PEF could replace the precooking step to achieve similar carrot hardness after blanching. More importantly, this study had gathered new information on how consumers perceived the hardness of blanched carrots preserved by PEF-assisted calcium infusion technique and on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids after an in vivo mastication to orally process the carrots.

  • Radio frequency heating uniformity evaluation for mid-high moisture food treated with cylindrical electromagnetic wave conductors
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Hankun Zhu, Dong Li, Jiwei Ma, Zhilong Du, Peigang Li, Shujun Li, Shaojin Wang

    Non-uniform heating is an important obstacle for applying radio frequency (RF) energy in food processing, especially for the material with high moisture content. To further extend wide applications of the RF heating uniformity improvement based on our previous study with cross electromagnetic wave conductor (EWC), a novel and effective method with cylindrical electromagnetic wave conductors and cylindrical containers was introduced in this study to improve the electromagnetic energy distribution inside the sample with mid-high moisture content. The associated computer simulation model with cylindrical EWC and container was also developed and validated based on RF experimental results to evaluate the heating uniformity. The results showed that the parameters of EWC (diameter and height) had a positive effect on the RF heating uniformity index. The sample treated with cylindrical EWC had better heating uniformity but lower temperature than that treated with cross EWC based on the comparison results. The improved target uniformity index (TUI) and the decreased heating time also indicated the positive effects of cylindrical EWC. A simplified structure for cylindrical EWC was developed and evaluated by computer simulation, which may provide potential applications of the cylindrical EWC to achieve the required RF heating uniformity in mid-high moisture food.

  • Effect of thermosonication batch treatment on enzyme inactivation kinetics and other quality parameters of cloudy apple juice
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-03
    A.E. Illera, M.T. Sanz, O. Benito-Román, S. Varona, S. Beltrán, R. Melgosa, A.G. Solaesa

    Cloudy apple juice has been treated by thermosonication in batch mode as an alternative processing to thermal treatment. Thermosonication was found to be effective to inactivate polyphenol oxidase; however, pectinmethylesterase was found to be more resistant. An increase of the working ultrasound amplitude and the amount of energy supplied to the juice led to lower enzyme residual activities.Enzyme inactivation kinetics were determined at different temperatures (from 44 to 67 °C). Inactivation data were described by the first order kinetic model and the Weibull model, both models yielding good fitting. Thermosonication treatment caused a homogenization effect reflected in the shifting of the particle size distribution towards smaller diameters. The effect of the nature of dissolved gases in the juice on enzyme inactivation was studied by displacing the air dissolved in the juice by bubbling nitrogen or carbon dioxide, previous to the thermosonication experiments. Higher inactivation rates were obtained by displacing the air with nitrogen.Industrial relevanceConsumers demand of natural and fresh-like products has driven the food industry to investigate alternative technologies to replace conventional food heat treatments that may affect food quality. Among these technologies, thermosonication treatment is an attractive technology that can inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. This work shows that some enzymes that cause deleterious effect on cloudy apple juice can be more effectively inactivated by thermosonication than by thermal treatment, in the same temperature range, reducing the damages caused by heating.

  • Effects of radiofrequency-assisted freezing on microstructure and quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillet
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    N. Hafezparast-Moadab, N. Hamdami, M. Dalvi-Isfahan, A. Farahnaky

    In this research, freezing was combined with radiofrequency waves (RF) as a novel method and its application was investigated on rainbow trout fish. The main purpose of this study was determination of the effect of RF waves on freezing process and quality characteristics of fish after thawing as compared to the conventional air blast freezing method. The effects of three radiofrequency pulse patterns and three electrode gaps (2, 3 and 4 cm) on the quality of frozen fish such as drip loss, colour, texture and microstructure were investigated. As compared to the control sample, RF-assisted freezing reduced drip loss, however no significant difference was observed in weight loss on freezing. Textural analysis showed that hardness, gumminess and chewiness of RF treatments were similar to the fresh sample (unfrozen) and no significant difference was found between them. The colour of frozen fillets was not significantly influenced by RF application. Histology tests conducted to investigate the microstructure of frozen fish indicated that the size of the formed ice crystals was significantly reduced under RF-assisted freezing and at the minimum electrode gap it was about 75% of the size of the ice crystals of the control sample frozen without RF.

  • Effects of e-beam irradiation on amino acids, fatty acids, and volatiles of smoked duck meat during storage
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Yunhee Jo, Kyung-A An, Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Joong-Ho Kwon

    The effects of e-beam irradiation on changes in amino acids, fatty acids, and volatiles in smoked duck meat were investigated during refrigerated storage (0, 20, and 40 days) at 4 °C. Irradiation at 1.5 to 4.5 kGy led to significant variation in hydrolyzed amino acids (HAA), free amino acids (FAA), fatty acids, and volatile profiles. HAA contents did not show significant difference with respect to the applied irradiation dose, however FAA level significantly decreased according to a dose-dependent manner and storage time. Fatty acids showed a dose-dependent decrease but there was little effect of storage periods during 40 days. Trans-fatty acids were not observed in irradiated and non-irradiated smoked duck meat. The levels of acids and sulfur compounds decreased with increasing irradiation doses and storage periods, whereas alcohols, aldehydes, and phenols increased as the storage periods increased. Thus, optimum dose of irradiation < 3 kGy may not cause the quality changes in smoked duck meat during storage.Industrial relevanceEffects of e-beam irradiation were investigated on amino acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles in smoked duck meat. E-beam irradiation applied at different doses may affect the contents of both hydrolyzed as well as free amino acids of smoked duck meat. The current research findings present the potential implications regarding effects of e-beam irradiation treatment on smoked duck meat during storage.

  • System feasibility: Designing a chlorine dioxide self-generating package label to improve fresh produce safety part II: Solution casting approach
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Carol Saade, Bassam A. Annous, Anthony J. Gualtieri, Karen M. Schaich, LinShu Liu, Kit L. Yam

    This work evaluated the ability of an innovative and practical package label made from biobased polymers impregnated with sodium chlorite and citric acid to generate and release chlorine dioxide (ClO2) at levels sufficient to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on packaged fresh produce. The concentrations of generated ClO2 by these labels were dependent on the number of layers used and the inclusion of barrier layers. Release rates decreased exponentially with number of layers, providing an additional level of control. Storage temperature had no significant effect on the release of ClO2. All labels released ClO2 at concentrations capable of complete inactivation of Salmonella cells on TSA plates. Under low-humidity conditions, the labels reduced the levels of Salmonella on inoculated mung bean seeds by up to 2.0 log CFU/g. These results indicate that these labels can be used in a wide range of storage environments for enhancing safety and shelf-life of packaged fresh produce.Industrial relevanceThe biobased packaging labels present a commercially viable solution to the problem of controlling microbial growth on fresh produce. Due to the ease of manufacture under existing commercial coating technology, they can be produced and activated simultaneously with fresh produce packaging in the plant. These labels can be adapted to different food safety requirements by modulating the number of functional biobased layers, without or with biobased barrier layers, and label surface areas for generating the required concentration of ClO2 at the optimal rate.

  • Pulsed electric fields processing of apple tissue: Spatial distribution of electroporation by means of magnetic resonance imaging and computer vision system
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Nicolò Dellarosa, Luca Laghi, Luigi Ragni, Marco Dalla Rosa, Angelo Galante, Brigida Ranieri, Tiziana Marilena Florio, Marcello Alecci

    The optimal application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology, used by food industry to assist mass transfer processes, depends on the effectiveness of the induced electroporation. The present work aimed at exploring the application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) combined with Computer Vision System (CVS) analysis to assess the spatial distribution of electroporation in apple tissue. PEF-treated apple samples were compared with Dipping (Dip) and Vacuum Impregnation (VI) to gain insight into the spatial distribution of mechanisms that lead to microstructural modifications over time.CVS showed that electroporation modified heterogeneously apple microstructure, causing enzymatic browning unevenly across the samples. MRI transverse relaxation times (T2) maps and longitudinal relaxation times (T1)-weighted images throughout apple tissue confirmed the inhomogeneous distribution and extent of the cell disruption, along with the release of intracellular content toward the external solution.Industrial relevanceThe novel applications of pulsed electric fields require fast and reliable methods to detect and estimate the breakage of the membranes integrity in order to boost their industrial adoption and optimization. The present study provided analytical tools able to monitor the spatial distribution of electroporation in plant tissue samples within minutes and consequently to speed up and improve the assessment of different PEF treatments.

  • Enzyme-assisted peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis)
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Tem Thi Dang, Nina Gringer, Flemming Jessen, Karsten Olsen, Niels Bøknæs, Pia Louise Nielsen, Vibeke Orlien

    An enzymatic method to facilitate the peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) was developed. The protease solutions were used to mature the shrimps to promote shell-loosening prior to peeling. The efficiency of peeling enzyme-treated shrimps was evaluated by a new quantitative measurement based on the tensile force, presented as a peelability profile. It was found that enzymatic maturation efficiently improved the peelability of shrimps. The factors affecting the peelability of the enzyme-matured shrimps were the type of enzyme, enzyme concentration and maturation duration, while changes in pH had no impact. Maturation of shrimps in solutions of the endoproteases Endocut-01L (180 NU/g) and Endocut-03L (60 U/g) and the exoprotease Exocut-A0 (100 U/g) resulted in better peelability compared to shrimps matured in endoprotease Tail21 (65 U/mL) and 2% NaCl. A combination of 0.25% Endocut-03L and 0.25% Exocut-A0 for 20 h resulted in the best peeling of shrimps (100% completely peeled shrimps, 3 mJ/g work and 89% meat yield). Reuse of the enzyme solution was possible due to a 95% retention rate of proteolytic activity after two 20-h cycles of maturation. The studied enzymatic maturation offered a better shrimp product with respect to texture and color in comparison with an industrial brine-matured reference, i.e., ~22% higher redness and ~31% higher hardness.Industrial relevanceEnzymatic maturation is an attempt made as a pre-treatment to facilitate the removal of the shell from meat of shrimp. This approach would benefit the shrimp processing industry by 1) enhancing peeling efficiency that includes least efforts to remove the shell, high rate of completely peeled shrimps and high meat yield; 2) shortening the duration of maturation but still sufficiently loosening the shell for machine peeling; 3) performing as a chemical-free peeling aid, which may increase the preference of consumers over chemical compounds; and 4) being environmentally friendly since disposal of enzyme waste is harmless to the environment.

  • High power ultrasound frequency for olive paste conditioning: Effect on the virgin olive oil bioactive compounds and sensorial characteristics
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Mohamed Aymen Bejaoui, Araceli Sánchez-Ortiz, Maria Paz Aguilera, Maria J. Ruiz-Moreno, Sebastian Sánchez, Antonio Jiménez, Gabriel Beltrán

    High power utrasound (HPU) treatment of olive paste is used to enhance malaxation or as alternative to malaxer. Because previous laboratory scale experiments were conducted at different frequencies, it's necessary to determine the best work frequency for future application at industrial scale. For these reasons experiment of HPU treatment applying three different frequencies 20, 40 and 80 kHz were carried out and compared with a reference without treatment. The virgin olive oil (VOO) were extracted after treatments by two procedures: HPU application and direct centrifugation and HPU application followed by malaxation and centrifugation. HPU treatment did not show alteration on the VOO fatty acid composition and phenolic compounds. The volatile compounds, related to the positive sensorial attribute, showed levels similar to those from conventional malaxation and those related to the off flavors were not observed. The HPU treatment gave Extra VOO with a more equilibrated sensorial profile.

  • High pressure induced water absorption and gelatinization kinetics of paddy
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Chandrakala Ravichandran, Soumya Ranjan Purohit, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

    The effect of high pressure on water absorption, diffusion and gelatinization Characteristics of paddy (Basmati cv.) were studied in the pressure range 350–550 MPa. Two different soaking conditions were considered, in first condition, grains were pre-soaked at 40 °C for 6 h prior to treatment, and in second condition grains were treated directly without pre-soaking. These two conditions were exposed to pressure at 350, 450 and 550 MPa; temperature of 30, 40 and 50 °C for 300, 600, 900 and 1200 s, respectively. The pressure was found to act synergistically with temperature influencing the water absorption in grains and facilitating moisture absorption up to 50% (db) in pre-soaked grains. However, the rate of water absorption was even higher in case of un-soaked grains with diffusivity values of 9.30 × 10−10 m2/s. Therefore, treatment of unsoaked grain at 450 MPa at 30 °C for 600 s was found sufficient to reach 40% moisture content (db). On the other hand, maximum gelatinization up to 25% was achieved in pre-soaked grains treated at highest pressure and temperature studied (550 MPa for 50 °C). The rate of gelatinization followed first-order kinetic model at any given pressure and temperature and the rate constant (k) was observed to be vary minimally with pressures and temperatures. The Arrhenius model and Eyring's model was used for the prediction of the activation energy (Ea) and activation volume (ΔV) for the reaction, which was indicative of restricted gelatinization of paddy starch.Industrial relevanceIn order to use high pressure as an alternative technique to thermal parboiling, a full understanding of pressure-induced water absorption, diffusion and gelatinization kinetics are necessary. Adoption of high pressure processing for water absorption by paddy can be very much promising in order to reduce the processing time.

  • A novel biodegradable film from edible mushroom (F. velutipes) by product: Microstructure, mechanical and barrier properties associated with the fiber morphology
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Wenhang Wang, Kai Zhang, Cong Li, Shan Cheng, Jingyang Zhou, Zinan Wu

    In order to efficiently utilize mushroom-processing waste discharge, insoluble fiber (FVIF) from aged Flammulina velutipes stipe was prepared with a series of wet milling steps of colloid mill (CM), PFI, low pressure homogenization (LPH) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) and formed into film by casting method. The SEM images depicted that morphology and size of FVIF varied (fibrous to spherical; 5 um to 50 nm) with a tendency of uniform and micronization as homogenization intensity increased. Accordingly, HPH-fiber film presented a smoother surface and more compact internal structure, especially a higher tensile strength (49.83 ± 3.63 MPa) and a better barrier property to water vapor (0.095 ± 0.003a g·mm/m2·h·kPa) and oxygen (9.96 ± 0.63 meq/kg). Moreover, HPH benefited the film's thermal stability, color and transparency. It confirmed that film performance is closely associated with fiber morphology and HPH provides a potential approach to develop new edible film from mushroom byproducts.

  • Changes in the shelf life stability of riboflavin, vitamin C and antioxidant properties of milk after (ultra) high pressure homogenization: Direct and indirect effects
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Sion Sharabi, Zoya Okun, Avi Shpigelman

    Changes in the stability during shelf life of riboflavin, vitamin C and the antioxidant capacity of (ultra) high pressure homogenized ((U)HPH) milk were explored. With increasing pressures, a decrease of up to 50% in the degradation rate of riboflavin was observed, likely due to an indirect effect induced by (U)HPH leading to increased scattering and absorbance of the wavelengths related to riboflavin's photosensitized oxidation. Such mechanism was also confirmed in a model system. Vitamin C presented minimal decrease in concentration immediately after (U)HPH treatment, yet it quickly degraded during shelf life. The antioxidant capacity of (U)HPH treated milk measured by ORAC showed a higher value when compared to pasteurized milk, yet no effect was observed by the ABTS method. The observed changes during shelf life, that can be related to direct and indirect processing effects suggest that (U)HPH can assist in possible improvement of milk nutritional quality.Industrial relevanceMilk is a highly consumed product worldwide due to its high nutrient content. Novel innovative methods are constantly researched to improve the nutritional qualities of foods including milk. High or Ultra high pressure homogenization ((U)HPH, depending on the maximal pressure) is a novel technology that can possibly provide microbial inactivation in addition to numerous physicochemical changes in the product. The aim of this project was to evaluate the direct and indirect effect of (ultra) high homogenization pressures on nutritional qualities of milk exposed to fluorescent light during shelf life, conditions encountered in retail stores. A better fundamental understanding of the outcomes of novel processing technologies such as (U)HPH on quality parameters such as vitamin content and antioxidant properties can promote further development and acceptance of those technologies by the industry and by the consumers.

  • Optimization of high pressure processing parameters to preserve quality attributes of a mixed fruit and vegetable smoothie
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    M.V. Fernandez, G.I. Denoya, M.V. Agüero, R.J. Jagus, S.R. Vaudagna

    Fruit & Vegetable (F&V) smoothies are rich in nutrients and other health related compounds. However, they have a short shelf-life and the traditional methods applied to preserve them generate losses in their natural flavor and nutrients. The aim of this study was to optimize the pressure level (35–650 MPa) and holding time (1–9 min) of High Pressure Processing (HPP), performed at an initial temperature of 20 °C and only modified by adiabatic heating of a F&V smoothie in order to achieve microbial and enzymatic inactivation while maintaining its natural attributes. Response surface methodology with a Doehlert design and Desirability function were employed to simultaneously optimize these quality attributes. Results showed that HPP enhances microbial quality and does not affect pH, total soluble solids, texture and total phenolic content. Moreover, the optimal HPP treatment (627.5 MPa/6.4 min) leads to reductions of 85%, 45% and 10% on PME, POD and PPO, increases antioxidant capacity by 75% and maintains or slightly improves the color of the smoothie.Industrial relevance textF&V smoothies are tasty, healthy, convenient and ready to drink, fulfilling all the current demands of consumers. This has led to an accelerated increase in their popularity. However, they have a short shelf life mainly attributed to microbial and enzymatic spoilages. HPP is proposed as a non-thermal method able to prolong shelf-life of the products by means of microbial and enzymatic inactivation, while preserving bioactive compounds and quality characteristics. An optimization assay was carried out in order to find optimal process conditions for the F&V smoothie's preservation. The promising results obtained can help to promote the use of HPP as an alternative technology for the preservation of this kind of products.

  • Inactivation of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on coriander by freeze-drying and supercritical CO2 drying
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-09
    Siméon Bourdoux, Andreja Rajkovic, Stijn De Sutter, An Vermeulen, Sara Spilimbergo, Alessandro Zambon, Gerard Hofland, Mieke Uyttendaele, Frank Devlieghere

    Coriander, either fresh or inoculated with three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, was treated with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, with and without drying) or freeze-dried. After drying in scCO2 for 150 min at 80 bar and 35 °C, the aerobic plate count, yeasts and molds, and the Enterobacteriaceae were reduced by 2.80, 5.03, and 4.61 log CFU/g, respectively. The total count of mesophilic aerobic spores was not significantly reduced by the treatment. Freeze-drying induced lower reductions with 1.23, 0.87, and 0.97 log CFU/g, respectively. After treatment at 100 bar and 40 °C without drying, inoculated strains of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes were inactivated by >7.37, >4.73 and 4.99 log CFU/g, respectively. After drying in scCO2 for 150 min at 80 bar and 35 °C, the strains were reduced by >5.18 log CFU/g. Freeze-drying resulted in lower reduction with maximum 1.53, 2.03, and 0.71 log CFU/g, respectively. This study indicated that scCO2 can be used for drying while offering a good inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes as well as most of the bacteria in the vegetative form naturally occurring on coriander.Industrial relevanceAlthough dried foods are considered microbiological stable foods and show adverse conditions to microbial growth, they may still host pathogenic microorganisms, which may proliferate upon sufficient rehydration. Highly contaminated commodities such as herbs and spices can pose a threat to consumer health if not processed carefully. There is therefore a need to develop or improve drying techniques which can provide dried foods while reducing the initial contamination to acceptable levels in a single process. CO2 is a cheap, accessible solvent, with a low critical point (31 °C, 73.8 bar). Moreover, in the supercritical region, CO2 exhibits potent microbicidal properties. Therefore, supercritical CO2 drying could be a valuable alternative non-thermal technique for conventional drying methods, such as air-drying or freeze-drying, when medium to high value-added food products with high initial contamination are involved.

  • High protein ingredients of microalgal origin: Obtainment and functional properties
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Aline Massia Pereira, Cristiane Reinaldo Lisboa, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    Protein concentrates and isolates were developed from the microalga Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass and characterized by functional aspects for food application. Proteins were solubilized at pH 11 and precipitated at pH 4.2 (protein isoelectric point determined by potentiometric titration), with the aid of a high-speed homogenizer. With this procedure, it was possible to obtain a protein concentrate with 83.9 ± 1.7 wt% of protein and a protein isolate with 91.3 ± 1.2 wt%. Protein extraction from this microalga allowed a significant increase in protein solubility and foam stability. Furthermore, proteins from both concentrate and isolate presented higher resistance to thermal denaturation than the original proteins of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 biomass. These results show the application potential of the concentrate and the protein isolate from Spirulina sp. LEB 18 in foods for protein supplementation, since they have >80 and 90% protein, respectively.Industrial relevance textUsing proteins from microalgal sources can serve as a sustainable alternative to meet world food demand. The isoelectric precipitation extraction method can be applied on a large scale, achieving high yields. Protein extracts present potential application in specific foods for protein supplementation. Protein extraction can be allied to other biocomposites extraction, such as carbohydrates and lipids for biofuels production.

  • How high pressure pre-treatments affect the function and structure of hen egg-white lysozyme
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst, Mariana Abrahão Bueno de Morais, Carolina Yumi Tominaga, Andrey Fabricio Ziem Nascimento, Mário Tyago Murakami, Marcelo Cristianini

    A comparative study between high pressure homogenization (HPH, 40–120 MPa) and high pressure processing (HPP, 300–600 MPa) with respect to their effects on lysozyme structure and functionality was carried out. The results showed that high pressure processing induced: (i) activity increase in the presence of NaCl (≤0.6 M), especially for samples processed by HPH (up to 6 times at pH 4.5), (ii) thermal resistance reduction up to 34 and 40% for HPP and HPH, respectively, (iii) higher resistance to low pH, with consequent activity increase at pH 5.5 (up to 40% for HIP samples) and at pH 4.0 (up to 110% for HPH samples) and (iv) activity recovery up to 21 days of storage at 5 °C, indicating a molecular reorganization after processing. Structurally, only discrete and transient alterations were observed by X-ray crystallography. Therefore, the results highlighted that HPP and HPH reversibly changed the lysozyme functionality in different ways and is an interesting alternative to improving lysozyme performance, if carried out immediately before enzyme usage.Industrial relevanceHPP and HPH are generally described as technologies able to increase the activity of several enzymes and are suggested as tools to improve the performance of commercial enzymes. The results showed that both processes improved lysozyme functionality, but the structural alteration was slight and probably transient, possibly indicating the need for processing the lysozyme immediately before using it to ensure functional gains.

  • Ultrasound-assisted lye peeling of peach and comparison with conventional methods
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Wenjun Wang, Lijuan Wang, Yiming Feng, Yunfeng Pu, Tian Ding, Xingqian Ye, Donghong Liu

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted lye peeling (ULP) was applied in peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and compared with other methods. Different lye concentrations, ultrasonic power density, peeling time and temperature were investigated during ULP process. To evaluate peeling effectiveness, peeled thickness, peeling loss, peach color and peeling performance score were determined. The effects of ULP on quality of peaches were also considered to determine the optimum peeling process. As a result, Lye concentration of 0.50 mol/L combined with a power density of 270 W/L for 90 s at 90 °C demonstrated the optimal peeling effectiveness. Compared with manual peeling, hot water peeling (90 °C, no lye), ultrasound-assisted hot water peeling (90 °C, no lye, 270 W/L) and lye peeling (90 °C, alkali concentration of 0.50 mol/L), ULP showed the highest peeling performance score accompanied with appropriated peeling loss and peeled thickness. The color, soluble solids and titratable acidity for ULP peaches showed slight difference from peaches peeled by other methods.Industrial relevanceTraditional peeling methods especially LP not only led to excessive loss of pulp but also damaged the environment to a great extent. Ultrasound as a green technology enhanced mass transfer and heat transfer, further promoting the efficiency of peeling process. In this study, ULP showed higher peeling performance with reduced peeling time, and the peaches quality was guaranteed, demonstrating the potential of ULP as an alternative to conventional peach peeling methods.

  • Model-based energy performance analysis of high pressure processing systems
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    James C. Atuonwu, Savvas A. Tassou

    Mathematical models are developed to simulate the behaviour of high pressure processing systems (single- and multi-cycle processes of different pulse-shapes) and predict the effects of processing parameters on their energy consumption. The validity of the models is established by comparing simulation results with experimental measurements from published works and the present study. Specific energy consumption is shown to depend mainly on holding pressure, pressure medium compressibility, equipment scale and vessel filling efficiency. Inlet temperature, compression and decompression times show negligible effects as do cycle pressure shapes. Longer compression times, however, reduce power capacity requirements, if all other conditions remain constant. The holding time has negligible effects on energy consumption, save for leakages and standby power, hence, extending it does not incur significant energy penalties. On the other hand, a drop in holding pressure leads to a more than proportionate drop in energy consumption. Hence, lower-pressure, longer-time processes are more advantageous from an energy standpoint, provided they satisfy product quality, safety and throughput requirements. Lower-compressibility fluids enable higher pressures to be established with lower energy losses. Higher equipment scales and vessel filling efficiencies reduce the proportion of wasted energy. These conditions are therefore beneficial for energy-efficient operation.Industrial relevanceThe production of clean-label, minimally-processed and microbial-safe food products with excellent nutritional, organoleptic properties and extended shelf life is becoming increasingly important. High-pressure processing HPP is a promising technology in this regard, increasingly being deployed at commercial scale. To reduce per-unit HPP product costs, which are currently higher than those of traditional thermal systems, it is important to reduce energy usage, which constitutes a significant proportion of operating costs. The modelling scheme developed in this work would help process designers and operators determine optimal processing conditions with respect to energy consumption, while satisfying product quality and safety constraints; providing a basis for improved process automation.

  • Comparative study of ohmic vacuum, ohmic, and conventional-vacuum heating methods on the quality of tomato concentrate
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-03
    Ali Fadavi, Saeed Yousefi, Hosain Darvishi, Hossein Mirsaeedghazi

    In the present research, tomato juice was concentrated via Ohmic heating with two modes of operation, namely atmospheric condition (OHAC) and vacuum condition (OHVC), and conventional vacuum heating (CVH) as the control mode. The effect of heating conditions on the quality of tomato concentration (lycopene, turbidity, pH and acidity) and electrical conductivity were evaluated. The OHVC reduced the concentration time in the range of 10–30%, compared with the OHAC. The comparison of the mean value of the heating rate indicated that the vacuum application reduced the heating rate by 0.8%. The electrical conductivity of OHAC changed from 0.68 S/m at initiate point to 1.25 S/m at the boiling point then decreased to 1.05 S/m at the end of the process, the corresponding values for OHVC was 0.7, 1.13 and 1.11 S/m. The mean percentage change of pH, acidity, lycopene, and turbidity for OHVC were 0.47, 24.03, 7.99, and −30.77 respectively which were lower to the corresponding value for OHAC and CVH. It appears that the application of vacuum condition in the ohmic heating treatment of tomato juice can preserve juice quality.Industrial relevanceDue to the high energy consumption of heating in the conventional processing methods, energy efficient systems are demanded for thermal concentration of juices. Ohmic heating is an emerging technology and a very promising in food industries. Comparing with conventional heating processes, ohmic heating can save energy and provide a rapid and uniform heating of pumpable food, resulting a product with a higher quality. The results showed that vacuum coupled with ohmic heating had a significant effect on quality. One of the keys to reducing the thermal damage to products during manufacture is the shortening of the heating time and reducing the boiling point, ohmic-vacuum heating required a lower time and boil at lower temperature, thereby is more advisable for thermal processing from the point of view of energy saving and quality aspects.

  • Heating surimi products using microwave combined with steam methods: Study on energy saving and quality
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-03
    Hongwei Cao, Daming Fan, Xidong Jiao, Jianlian Huang, Jianxin Zhao, Bowen Yan, Wenguo Zhou, Wenhai Zhang, Hao Zhang

    Moisture content plays an important role in aspects of the food processing such as energy transfer, food yield, and quality. This study investigated the effects of the moisture content of surimi on its electromagnetic characteristics. At moisture contents between 78% and 80%, both the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss increased, but gradually decreased with the increase of frequency. The strongest microwave absorption appeared at a thickness of 8 mm at 2.45 GHz. A moisture content of 0.45% was supplied to surimi using steam as an auxiliary heating method. The gel strength was obviously improved by a combination of microwave treatment (35 kW) and steam heating, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the network structure was also denser. In addition, the new heating mode with medium microwave power received the highest score on the comprehensive sensory evaluation after frying. The combination of microwave and steam preparation can save 11.68% ± 1.8% of the energy used in the conventional heating method, even when taking into account the combustion of methane produced during the wastewater treatment process.

  • High pressure processing (HPP) of aronia berry puree: Pilot scale processing and a shelf-life study
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Bo Yuan, Mary-Grace C. Danao, Mei Lu, Steven A. Weier, Jayne E. Stratton, Curtis L. Weller

    Aronia berry puree was subjected to 400 and 600 MPa, 5 min high pressure processing (HPP) and then microbial shelf-life and quality changes of aronia puree during 8-week refrigerated storage were evaluated. HPP reduced the aerobic plate counts (APC) significantly and APC changed insignificantly during the 8-week storage. HPP completely inactivated yeasts and molds, and no regrowth was observed during 8-week storage. In contrast, yeasts in untreated puree increased from 4.7 to 6.1 log CFU/g. Physicochemical properties, total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of aronia puree had insignificant changes right after HPP and during 8-week refrigerated storage. Total anthocyanin content of untreated samples and those treated at 400 MPa decreased continuously during the storage. HPP, especially processing at 600 MPa for 5 min, could be an effective preservation technique for microbial population reduction, quality retention, and shelf-life extension of aronia puree.Industrial relevanceThe growing demand for minimal processed and antioxidant-rich aronia berry products has stimulated the interest of food industry. Industrial sector demands methods to extend the microbial shelf-life and maintain its quality and nutritional values of aronia berry products during refrigerated storage. The results of this study demonstrated that HPP is effective in extending the microbial shelf-life, maintaining the quality and preserving the bioactive antioxidants of aronia berry puree during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage.

  • High pressure processing (HPP) of aronia berry purée: Effects on physicochemical properties, microbial counts, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacities
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Bo Yuan, Mary-Grace C. Danao, Jayne E. Stratton, Steven A. Weier, Curtis L. Weller, Mei Lu

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 200 to 600 MPa for 2.5 or 5 min on physicochemical properties (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids content/TSSC, pulp content, particle size distribution, and viscosity), microbial counts (aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold counts), bioactive compounds (total phenolic and anthocyanin contents), and antioxidant capacities (DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power) of aronia berry purée were investigated. All measurements were compared between HPP treated and untreated purées. TSSC and viscosity decreased significantly when pressurized above 400 MPa for 2.5 min and at all HPP conditions, respectively. Other physicochemical properties changed insignificantly after HPP. Pressurization at 400 and 600 MPa both effectively reduced yeasts and molds to below 1 log CFU/g, and reduced aerobic bacteria to <2 log CFU/g only when pressurized for 5 min. No significant reduction in phenolic contents or antioxidant capacities in pressurized purée was observed.Industrial relevancePurée is a feasible form of aronia berry used as food product, considering the astringent taste of whole aronia berry. The results of this study suggest that HPP will significantly reduce the microbial counts of aronia berry purée, while retaining antioxidant capacities and most physicochemical properties of aronia berry purée. The outcomes could help the food industry apply HPP to the commercial production of aronia berry purée-based food products to meet the quality standards with safety ensured.

  • Pulsed electric field for increasing intracellular trehalose content in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    E.M.J. Vaessen, H.M.W. den Besten, T. Patra, N.T.M. van Mossevelde, R.M. Boom, M.A.I. Schutyser

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been developed and applied in food industry for several purposes. In this study we used PEF for increasing the intracellular trehalose content in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Our results indicated that it is possible to increase intracellular trehalose content in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to ~100 mM with 75% survival when applying a PEF treatment with an electric field strength of 7.5 kV/cm. Fluorescence staining of PEF-treated cells with propidium iodide (PI) and SYTO 9 showed that at 7.5 kV/cm only a small fraction (23%) of the cells had a permeated membrane by this PEF treatment, of which approximately half had an irreversible permeated membrane. Resealing of the pores in the membrane for PI uptake was very fast, in the order of seconds. These results indicate that PEF treatment is promising for increasing intracellular trehalose, but further optimization is required to increase the trehalose content in all cells.Industrial relevanceThe market for probiotics is growing. Probiotic survival during processing steps such as spray drying is essential for their beneficial effect. We studied pulsed electric field treatment as a method to increase the intracellular trehalose content in L. plantarum WCFS1 which could enhance bacterial robustness during processing. This increased bacterial robustness may again contribute to more energy efficient processing routes of probiotic foods.

  • Effect of thermal and high-pressure treatments on the antirotaviral activity of human milk fractions
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    José Antonio Parrón, Daniel Ripollés, Sergio José Ramos, María Dolores Pérez, Miguel Calvo, Lourdes Sánchez

    Rotaviral gastroenteritis is associated with high rate of infant mortality and morbidity. Antirotaviral activity has been associated with some glycoproteins, such as immunoglobulins A (IgA), lactoferrin (LF), mucins and lactadherin of human milk. Although holder pasteurization (HoP, 63 °C for 30 min) is the treatment currently applied to human milk, it may lead to a decrease of its bioactive properties. The antirotaviral capacity of human milk showed to be mainly associated with the whey fraction, focusing on IgA and LF, with neutralizing values of 100, 100 and 62%, at 1 mg protein/mL, respectively. HoP reduced the antirotaviral activity of human whey, IgA and LF, 30, 98 and 60%, respectively. Interestingly, high temperature-short time (HTST) pasteurization at 75 °C for 20 s did not affect the antirotaviral activity of samples, while the highest HHP treatment at 600 MPa for 15 min only reduced the activity of human whey, IgA and LF, 9, 40 and 10%, respectively.

  • Mathematical approach for the Listeria monocytogenes inactivation during high hydrostatic pressure processing of a simulated meat medium
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-09
    Arícia Possas, Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez, Antonio Valero, Francisco Rincón, Rosa María García-Gimeno

    Based on a central composite experimental design, the effects of five factors: pH (4.6–6.6), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0–10%), sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0–152 ppm), pressure (P, 300–600 MPa) and pressure-holding time (t, 0–10 min) on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by high hydrostatic pressure processing on a simulated meat medium (SMM) were evaluated and quantified. Results showed that L. monocytogenes reductions during pressure treatments ranged from 0 to >6 log cfu/g. A polynomial inactivation model was developed being P, t and NaCl the only significant factors influencing HP-lethality (p ≤ 0.05). Inactivation on SMM increased with the increase in P and t, and a synergistic effect between both factors on process effectiveness was remarked. By increasing NaCl concentration (i.e. lowering aw values), a baroprotective effect on L. monocytogenes cells was evidenced. Besides the well-known effects of technological parameters, this study highlights the relevant influence of meat products formulations on the inactivation of L. monocytogenes induced by HHP processing.

  • Impact of high pressure processing in hydration and drying curves of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-10
    Ricardo Henrique Belmiro, Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst, Marcelo Cristianini

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal technology that can promotes structural changes inside the food matrix, affecting cells integrity and improving the water diffusivity and might starch gelatinization. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were processed by HHP up to 600 MPa and the process impact on hydration, drying, rehydration, cooking time and final texture were evaluated. Results showed that HPP improved the beans hydration (up to 4.7 times faster), drying (water diffusivity was 27% higher for sample processed at 600 MPa) and even rehydration (up to 2.1 times faster). Additionally, HPP reduced the cooking time of the beans in 15 min, due to the higher initial hydration. Therefore, HPP can be considered an interesting process to change the beans characteristics aiming to reduce the time of final prepare (hydration + cooking) or as a preprocessing to improve the drying efficiency.Industrial relevanceHHP, at short time, proved to be a technology capable in promoting technological improvement in bean processing, affecting both industrial (lower drying time) and consumer processing (lower hydration and cooking times) with no negative effects in the final texture of the grains.

  • Investigation of conformation change of glycated ovalbumin obtained by Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation under drying treatment
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-11
    Guang-xian Liu, Jun Liu, Zong-cai Tu, Xiao-mei Sha, Hui Wang, Zhen-xing Wang

    Irradiation can significantly improve the incorporation of glucose into protein. In this study, the efficacy on conformation change and glycation extent of ovalbumin (OVA) powder was investigated during Co-60 irradiation treatment. Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the conformation and structure change of glycation OVA under various irradiation doses condition. A dose dependent increase in UV absorbance and development of fluorescence was observed. Free amino groups content showed that up to 5 kGy irradiation could accelerate the glycation reaction between OVA and glucose, while there were inapparent differences among the other various doses. Intrinsic, synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectra showed that the glycation reaction caused the dynamic quenching of OVA and changed the polarity of the hydrophobic microenvironment (Trp and Tyr residues) of OVA with unfolding conformation change.

  • Modulation of the emulsifying properties of pea globulin soluble aggregates by dynamic high-pressure fluidization
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Bonastre Oliete, François Potin, Eliane Cases, Rémi Saurel
  • Comparison between thermal pasteurization and high pressure processing of bovine skim milk in relation to denaturation and immunogenicity of native milk proteins
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
    Dimuthu Bogahawaththa, Roman Buckow, Jayani Chandrapala, Todor Vasiljevic

    High pressure processing (HPP), conducted at 400, 500 or 600 MPa for 15 min at 30 °C, of raw skim milk was studied in comparison to high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), considering protein denaturation and immunogenicity. HTST pasteurization least impacted denaturation of native proteins leading to mostly unchanged milk immunogenicity. HPP resulted in denaturation of whey proteins, mostly β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), and disturbed structure of the casein micelle. HPP at 600 MPa caused protein aggregation, involving mainly BLG and κ-casein, through thiol disulphide interactions. α-Lactalbumin (ALA) was least denatured. The balance between expression of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 type cytokines, which is believed to regulate adverse immune response, was initially shifted toward Th1 with increasing high pressure, then the immunogenic capacity of milk proteins diminished at 600 MPa. This could be related to exposure of T cell-specific linear epitopes followed by unfolding of protein structure firstly and masking of them by protein aggregation subsequently with increasing high pressure.Industrial relevanceHPP of raw milk has been well studied as an alternative process for conventional thermal pasteurization, based on inactivation of microorganisms and extension of shelf life. However, HPP can denature native milk proteins leading to altered immunogenicity. Three recommended HPP conditions and a commercial HPP method were assessed in comparison to HTST pasteurization considering impact on denaturation of milk proteins and milk immunogenicity. Scientific findings of the current study would guide the industry to identify HPP conditions that not only achieve the required level of microbial inactivation and shelf life, but also to establish desired levels of native properties of milk and milk immunogenicity.

  • Control of Brettanomyces bruxellensis on wine grapes by post-harvest treatments with electrolyzed water, ozonated water and gaseous ozone
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-16
    Francesco Cravero, Vasileios Englezos, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Fabrizio Torchio, Simone Giacosa, Susana Río Segade, Vincenzo Gerbi, Luca Rolle, Luca Cocolin

    In this study, we investigated the possible effect of electrolyzed water (EW), aqueous ozone (WO) and gaseous ozone (GO) on Brettanomyces bruxellensis DSM 7001 strain artificially inoculated on the grape surface and on its evolution during the subsequent, inoculated must fermentation. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments against B. bruxellensis, as well as its presence during fermentation. Particularly, GO treatment of 24 h decreased its presence by about 2.1 Log, making it possible to reduce significantly the concentration of ethylphenols in the wine in relation to the control wine. EW and WO treatments caused less relevant reductions. The results showed that all the treatments reduced the presence of this yeast on grapes. However, in these experimental conditions it was not possible to achieve a complete removal of this undesirable yeast.Industrial relevanceBrettanomyces spp. is considered a wine spoilage yeast due to its ability to produce off-flavors (described as Brett character) and high levels of acetic acid. Broad disinfectant action against microorganisms, eco-friendliness and easiness of on-site application are among the main advantages of the ozone and the electrolyzed water. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the EW, WO and GO treatments against B. bruxellensis inoculated on post-harvest grapes.

  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Food engineering and food science and technology: Forward-looking journey to future new horizons
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    I. Sam Saguy, Yrjö H. Roos, Eli Cohen

    The overall objectives of this study were to assess the status of Food Engineering (FE), Food Science and Technology (FS&T) and related fields using a global web-survey and included: identifying the major challenges and opportunities; and making specific recommendations for future possible paradigm shifts. Respondents from academia, private research institutes, industry, government, consulting and others sectors participated. The most important topics selected were: ‘Innovation/open innovation,’ ‘Broad education and multidisciplinary capabilities,’ ‘Career development & prospects,’ and ‘Applied research.’ Lowest importance were ‘Basic science’ and ‘Salary.’ Highest possible impact on FE and FS&T future curricula were: ‘Food safety, waste reduction/management’ and ‘Environmental impact, food sustainability and security.’ Overwhelming majority (>68%) indicated that FE or FS&T should be integrated with other existing/evolving academic program. Principal component analysis yielded 3-new variables, offering insights on the relationships between geographical education location and sustainability, innovation and employability. The competitive landscape calls for reshaping of the domains vision.Industrial relevance•Basic research and salary were selected by the respondents to have a very low importance. Enhancing applied research, agility, attractiveness of the field and strengthen research relevance and collaboration with industry are required.•Both government/state and food industry financial support is a clear indication of the significant role they play in the innovation ecosystem collaboration.•Significant difference between North America & Canada and Europe on addressing innovation, soft skills and employability offer new insights on enhancing utilization of innovation, science, technology and impact.•Innovation and open innovation offer FE and FS&T unique new horizons for spearheading change and opportunities to alleviate typical industrial and academic conservativeness and risk aversion.

  • Characterization of β-lactoglobulin gels induced by high pressure processing
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-03-23
    Xiaoying Li, Like Mao, Xiaoye He, Peihua Ma, Yanxiang Gao, Fang Yuan

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal technology and has been widely used in the food industry. β‑lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a globular protein and susceptible to pressure. This study investigated the properties of β-Lg gels induced directly by HPP (0.1–600 MPa for 30 min, 25 °C) with different protein concentrations at different pH. Results showed that the lowest protein concentration required to form β-Lg gels was 20% (w/v) at 400 MPa for 30 min at pH 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0, while 14% (w/v) protein was required to form gels at 600 MPa. The gel strength and textural properties increased with the increase of protein concentration and pressure, the gel formed at pH 5.0 had the highest strength. Raman spectra suggested that the content of α-helix decreased and random coil increased of β-Lg in gels with the increase of pressure. β-Lg gels formed more regular and stable network under 600 MPa than that under 400 MPa.Industrial relevanceIn recent years, high pressure processing (HPP) has been used in the food industry as an innovative technology to improve gel properties of various kinds of proteins, including β‑lactoglobulin, casein, soy protein isolate, surimi, mytolin and so on. It was found that HPP could change the structure of protein, which could cause protein denaturation and aggregation and three-dimensional network structures were formed through disulfide bonds, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonds and others. β‑lactoglobulin is the main component of whey protein, which has been widely used in the food industry as gelling agents. β‑lactoglobulin gels could be used as a wall material and applied to the delivery system of functional components such as riboflavin. The objective of the current study was to investigate the properties of β-Lg gels formed through HPP directly, focusing on the effects of pressure, protein concentration and pH on the rheological properties, texture profile, protein secondary structure and microstructure of β-Lg gels.

  • The application of ohmic heating for inulin extraction from the wet-milled and dry-milled powders of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Pitchayakarn Termrittikul, Weerachet Jittanit, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul

    In this study, ohmic heating was applied for inulin extraction from the Jerusalem artichoke tuber (JAT). Raw materials for extraction were prepared by two different schemes comprising milling the blanched JAT slices and water mixture (wet milling) and grinding the dried JAT to be powder before mixing water (dry milling). Also, the inulin extracts were evaporated using a rotary evaporator and then spray-dried to be inulin powder. The main objectives were (1) to investigate the effects of applying ohmic heating on the extraction yield and quality of inulin extracts in comparison with conventional method and (2) to determine the suitable preparation method by comparing between wet and dry milling. The results indicated that the electrical conductivities of JAT solutions prepared from the wet-milled and dry-milled powders were 0.121–0.200 and 0.123–0.247 S/m respectively. The inulin extraction applying ohmic heating resulted in the significantly higher yield than conventional heating. Furthermore, the sample preparation using dry milling provided the higher extraction yield and inulin purity than that of wet milling. The scanning electron micrographs illustrated that in overall the dry-milled JAT samples were more porous and finer than the wet-mill samples. The inulin purity of the powder product obtained from the production with dry milling and ohmic method was about 57.29 g/100 gdry mass while its production yield was 17.59% which was rather low due to the loss of solids occurring in the blanching, extraction and spray drying processes. Industrial relevance Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has been widely cultivated in many countries. Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) accumulates inulin as a main carbohydrate reserve; hence, it has high potential to be raw material for inulin powder production. Nowadays, inulin is generally used by the food and beverage industries as a soluble dietary fiber, prebiotic and fat or sugar replacer. The extraction is a crucial process for producing inulin powder from JAT. The result of this work revealed that ohmic heating method provided higher inulin extraction yield than conventional heating method. Furthermore, the sample preparation using dry milling provided the higher extraction yield and inulin purity than that of wet milling. This information is vital for the inulin powder manufacturers to make a decision for their production facility concept and design.

  • Development of amino-functionalized membranes for removal of microorganism
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Nataly Peña-Gómez, María Ruiz-Rico, Isabel Fernández-Segovia, José M. Barat

    Treatments to ensure water supply of an acceptable hygienic-sanitary quality is of vast importance. Among unconventional treatments, membrane technologies have recently stood out. Immobilization of antimicrobial compounds onto membranes can prevent fouling and lead to self-cleaning matrices. In this study, cellulose membranes functionalized with amines were developed to assess their capability to remove microbial contamination. Water samples with several levels of Escherichia coli inoculum were filtered through membranes, and different trials were run to check the system's effectiveness. The amino-functionalized membranes were able to filter water samples in a few seconds, and partially or completely remove the inoculated microorganism depending on the inoculum level. The amine-functionalized membranes displayed significant retention capacity in samples with high bacterial concentrations and were able to decontaminate water with low microbial load. Membranes can be reused with no apparent loss of efficiency. Hence, this study demonstrates the high potential of amine-functionalized membranes in drinking water treatments. Industrial relevance Filtration represents an important non-thermal process used for clarification, concentration and microbial stabilization of liquid fluids. However, membrane fouling and related cleaning requirements are critical factors determining the extensive application of this technology. This work represents an important starting point to the development of new antimicrobial surfaces due to the demonstrated advantages associated to the covalent immobilization for the development of novel filtration treatment methodologies.

  • Effect of UV–Vis processing on enzymatic activity and the physicochemical properties of peach juices from different varieties
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Karla Aguilar, Alfonso Garvín, Albert Ibarz

    This work evaluated the effect of ultraviolet and visible light (UV–Vis) processing on the enzymatic activity (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and physicochemical characteristics (pH, °Brix, acidity, formol index, phenolics, ascorbic acid, sugars and colour) of peach juices from three different varieties (Baby Gold, Calanda and Planet Top). Irradiation was performed for 120 min, at 25 and 45 °C, using a multi-wavelength emission lamp which provided a radiation power of 4.49 · 10−2 W·cm−2 at the liquid surface. After the treatments, no significant changes were observed in the pH value, acidity, vitamin C content, sugar content, or lightness. The phenolic content was reduced for the Planet Top juices, while the formol index decreased for the Calanda variety. a* and b* CIELab parameters decreased with processing time, contrary to that reported for thermal treatments. In most cases, UV–Vis irradiation was effective at inactivating polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), although sometimes an initial activation was observed. The inactivation stage was described by a first-order model. At 45 °C, PPO was almost totally inactivated for the three juices studied, while reductions in POD of up to 60% were registered. Further experiments are suggested to improve the effectiveness of this technology for inactivating enzymes in peach juices.

  • Microwave-freeze drying of lactic acid bacteria: Influence of process parameters on drying behavior and viability
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    S. Ambros, R. Mayer, B. Schumann, U. Kulozik

    Microwave-freeze drying was investigated as an alternative to conventional lyophilization to preserve the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (Lb. paracasei) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis INL1 (B. lactis). The process parameters microwave power input (1.5–3 W∗g−1) and chamber pressure (0.6, 1, 2 mbar) were varied. Drying kinetics, overall drying time, process stability and energy demand were assessed. Survival rate and cell membrane integrity were evaluated. Survival rate and membrane integrity after microwave-freeze drying were comparable to the standard lyophilization process for both cultures. For Lb. paracasei, survival could almost be maintained at all microwave-freeze drying process conditions. Best results in terms of process stability were achieved at 1 mbar and 1.5 W∗g−1. For B. lactis, the highest survival of more than 90% was measured at 0.6 mbar and 1.5 W∗g−1 microwave input. These conditions led to a drying time of 5 h, whereas conventional freeze drying lasted 24 h. A potential reduction of drying time compared to freeze drying of bacterial cultures of up to 80% renders microwave-freeze drying an alternative with comparable survival rates but higher efficiency.

  • Radio-frequency treatment for stabilization of wheat germ: Dielectric properties and heating uniformity
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Bo Ling, James G. Lyng, Shaojin Wang

    Wheat germ (WG) is a valuable by-product of wheat milling but is highly susceptible to lipid rancidity induced by lipase (LA) activity. Therefore a stabilization step is required to reduce LA activity. Radio-frequency (RF) heating is an alternative thermal technology suitable for processing food and has great potential for WG stabilization. However, in order to develop effective RF stabilization treatments, a knowledge of the dielectric properties (DPs) (i.e. dielectric constant (ε″) and dielectric loss factor (ε″)) of WG at frequencies used for heating is required. Furthermore, an understanding of the influence of RF processing conditions on heating uniformity and LA inactivation is needed. Findings in the present study show that ε′ and ε″of WG increased with increasing temperature and moisture content (MC). Furthermore, the relationship between DPs and temperature/MC can be described by quadratic order models. RF heating uniformity in WG gradually improved with decreasing heating rate from 19.6 to 6.3 °C/min and MC from 15.96 to 7.05% (wet basis, w.b.). Placing the WG on a moving conveyor at 4 m/h slightly improved RF heating uniformity in the interior layers of the WG. Placing a pair of rectangular polyetherimide plates (12 × 8 cm) above and below the container during RF heating at 6.3 °C/min further improved temperature distribution leading to a more uniform LA inactivation in WG. Overall, the results obtained from this study are useful in computer simulation and optimizing process parameters for WG stabilization by RF heating.

  • Use of pomegranate peel extract incorporated zein film with improved properties for prolonged shelf life of fresh Himalayan cheese (Kalari/kradi)
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-01
    Mehvesh Mushtaq, Asir Gani, Adil Gani, Hilal Ahmed Punoo, F.A. Masoodi

    Zein films added with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, & 75 mg/ml of film forming solution) of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) were designed and characterized as a novel packaging material for Himalayan cheese (kalari). With increase in PPE concentration, tensile strength, elongation at break, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of zein films increased whereas film solubility, water vapor transmission rate decreased and thickness remained constant. PPE containing films exhibited inhibitory activity against all tested pathogenic strains (Escherchia coli, Pseudomonas perfringens, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococci faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhii). ATR-FTIR spectra showed interactions between PPE polyphenols and zein film. Kalari wrapped in PPE containing zein films were found to have low protein and lipid oxidation products during storage when compared to film without PPE. Films were also found to inhibit spoilage microorganisms in kalari whereas number of Lactic acid bacteria was enhanced. The study validated that incorporation of fruit waste (pomegranate peel in this case) which are rich in polyphenols, in zein film offers a promising source for inducing it the ability to control cheese spoilage caused either by the bacterial contamination or protein and fat oxidation, without affecting its overall sensory characteristics.

  • Ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation of citronella oil from Taiwanese citronella grass: Impacts on the essential oil and extraction medium
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Mohsen Gavahian, Yu-Tsung Lee, Yan-Hwa Chu

    Citronella oil was extracted from Cymbopogon nardus by ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (OAHD) and hydrodistillation (HD) and its specifications were studied by DPPH assay and chromatography-mass spectrometry. The changes in extraction media were also studied by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. HD and OAHD yielded the same amount of essential oil (1.5% w/w), with similar physical properties. Conversely, OAHD yielded a higher value essential oil, considering the stronger antioxidant activity (IC50 of 326 vs. 428 μg/mL) and the enhanced concentration of valuable compounds such as citronellal (77.5 ± 0.2 vs. 74.8 ± 0.2) and d-limonene (3.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.0). OAHD also saved 46% and 79% of the process time and energy, respectively. However, electrode corrosion was observed in OAHD and metal ions were transferred from titanium electrodes into the extraction medium (Ti concentration: 0.05 mg/L). Precautions to minimize electrode corrosion should be considered for industrial adaptation of OAHD.Industrial relevanceOhmic-assisted hydrodistillation is a promising extraction technique to enhance the product quality and to reduce the production time and consumed energy. This innovative technique has the potential of increasing the production capacity and decreasing the production cost for essential oil and distillatory industries. However, this study revealed the occurrence of electrochemical reactions between electrodes and extraction media which resulted in metal ion migration and residue pollution. Therefore, selecting appropriate materials as the OAHD electrodes, optimizing the process parameters and careful handling of the production waste should be considered for industrial application of this emerging method.

  • Radio frequency tempering uniformity investigation of frozen beef with various shapes and sizes
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Yulin Li, Feng Li, Juming Tang, Ruyi Zhang, Yifen Wang, Tony Koral, Yang Jiao

    Radio frequency (RF) energy generates fast and volumetric heating as it penetrates food materials and converts electromagnetic energy to heat. With these advantages, RF heating is considered as a promising technology for tempering and thawing processes in the meat and fishery products industry. However, non-uniform heating problems hinder its further application to meat products due to their various sizes and irregular shapes. This study utilized representative frozen beef samples to investigate the parameters of varying sample thickness (40 mm; 50 mm; 60 mm), base area (small:160 × 102 × 60 mm3; medium: 220 × 140 × 60 mm3; large: 285 × 190 × 60 mm3) and shape (cuboid; trapezoidal prism; step) and their influence on tempering uniformity in a parallel-plate RF system. A computer simulation model was established, verified by experiments and then was utilized to evaluate the volumetric temperature distribution in food samples. Results show that the heating rate increases and heating uniformity decreases with increasing sample thickness and decreasing sample base area. As sample thickness increased from 4 cm, 5 cm to 6 cm, the simulated temperature uniformity index (STUI) increased from 0.093, 0.117 to 0.194. Sample base area increases from small to large decreased the STUI from 0.229 to 0.194 and 0.090. Among all three shapes, the cuboid shape has the best heating uniformity (STUI 0.194), followed by the trapezoidal prism (STUI 0.209) and the step shape (STUI 0.282). The step shape has the worst tempering uniformity because the RF energy focuses mainly on the vertical section and results in severe regional heating. Strategies to improve the step-shape frozen beef tempering uniformity by decreasing the input power to 1/3 and enlarging the electrode gap by 40 mm only reduced the hot spot temperature from 88 to 78 °C. Further research is needed in order to develop methodologies or suitable equipment for irregular shape food RF tempering in the future.Industrial relevanceIn industrial radio frequency thawing/tempering, the raw materials are usually presented in various irregular shapes and sizes. Thus, analyzing the non-uniformity severity influenced by sample size, shape and thickness to determine the capability and throughput of the equipment is necessary. Results in this study could be utilized in pre-evaluation of a protocol design and process optimization for irregular-shape food tempering.

  • Effect of the high pressure treatments on the physicochemical properties of the young red wines supplemented with pyruvic acid
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Yue Liu, Fei He, Ying Shi, Bo Zhang, Chang-Qing Duan

    The formation of vitisin A and physicochemical properties of a young red wine with pyruvic acid addition (500 mg/L) during high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at various conditions were studied. Response surface methodology was used to interpret the interaction effects of pressure (350–550 MPa), pressure holding time (30–90 min) and temperature (25–55 °C) on the determined wine physicochemical parameters. The results showed that the pyruvic acid addition led to a higher vitisin A yield, and its greater formation was induced by HHP treatment. On the other hand, HHP at applied extremely high conditions significantly increased wine anthocyanins polymerization, its ‘chemical age’, and its chromatic parameters, such as yellowness, and saturation also increased accordingly. At the same time, relatively lower contents of total anthocyanins, total flavonols and total tartaric esters were also observed. Moreover, the application of medium HHP conditions was beneficial for the total phenolics retained.Industrial relevanceHHP is an important technology for food processing. This work shows that HHP can promote the formation of complex anthocyanin pyruvic adducts and physicochemical properties of a young red wine containing additional pyruvic acid. Therefore, HHP can be potentially used to initiate the condensation reactions between anthocyanins and other compounds in wine rapidly, thus stabilizing the wine color and accelerating the wine aging process.

  • Pulsed electric field-assisted extraction of carotenoids from fresh biomass of Rhodotorula glutinis
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Juan M. Martínez, Carlota Delso, Javier Angulo, Ignacio Álvarez, Javier Raso

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of PEF for inducing autolysis of R. glutinis, with the purpose of designing a more efficient and ecofriendly carotenoid extraction process: an extraction from fresh biomass, using cheaper, non-toxic, environmental-friendly solvents. Propidium iodide uptake and release of intracellular components revealed the irreversible electroporation of R. glutinis by PEF. Flow cytometry measurements detected morphological changes in PEF-treated R. glutinis cells during incubation caused by the autolysis triggering effect of electroporation. After submitting the fresh biomass to a PEF treatment (15 kV/cm, 150 μs) that irreversibly electroporated more than the 90% of the cells, ethanol proved ineffective for extracting carotenoids from fresh biomass of R. glutinis. However, after incubating the PEF-treated fresh biomass for 24 h at 20 °C in a pH 7 buffer, ca. 240 μg/g d.w. of carotenoids were recovered after 1 h of extraction in ethanol. The highest amount of carotenoids extracted (375 μg/g d.w.) from the PEF-treated cells of R. glutinis was obtained after having incubated them at 25 °C for 24 h in a medium of pH 8.0. The improvement in carotenoid extraction by incubating the R. glutinis cells after PEF treatment seems to be caused by PEF-triggered autolysis, which tends to disrupt the association of carotenoids with other molecules present in the cytoplasm, and causes a degradation of the cell wall.

  • Influence of different sterilization treatments on the color and anthocyanin contents of mulberry juice during refrigerated storage
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-12
    Yilin You, Na Li, Xue Han, Jielong Guo, Yu Zhao, Guojie Liu, Weidong Huang, Jicheng Zhan

    The color stability of mulberry juice is affected during its processing and storage. This study investigates changes in the color of mulberry juice processed by four different sterilization treatments during 30 days of storage at 4 °C: high pressure processing (HPP at 400 MPa/5 min, 400 MPa/10 min, 500 MPa/5 min, and 500 MPa/10 min), thermal processing (TP at 70 °C/10 min, and 75 °C/10 min), high temperature short time (HTST), and membrane filtration (MF). After 30 days of storage, the retention rates of total anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside in juice samples treated by different sterilization methods were found to be significantly higher than those of the control group. Among these treatments, the retention rates of total anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were highest in HPP (400 MPa/5 min) at 84.70%, 80.20% and 98.61%, respectively. Both TP (70 °C/10 min) and HTST treatments also showed significantly higher anthocyanin retention rates, at 83.19% and 84.27%, respectively. These results indicate that HPP (400 MPa/5 min), TP (70 °C/10 min) and HTST treatments are most suitable for the sterilization of mulberry juice. Industrial relevance The distinct color of mulberry juice is one of the foremost qualities that imprints on consumers' senses, but it is extremely unstable in processing and storage. However, the color protection of mulberry juice was not studied previously. In this study, the protective effects of different sterilization treatments on the color-preservation and anthocyanin contents of mulberry juice were investigated for the first time. We found that the high-pressure processing treatment (HPP, 400 MPa/5 min) had the most powerful color-preserving effect. The study is of great significance as a guide to improving the color stability of mulberry juice, thereby also improving and promoting the development of the mulberry deep processing industry.

  • Towards realizing robotic potential in future intelligent food manufacturing systems
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-19
    Zeashan Hameed Khan, Azfar Khalid, Jamshed Iqbal

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the robotic potential that is foreseen by researchers in designing future food manufacturing plant. The present day food handling and packaging setup is limited in capacity and output due to manual processing. An optimized protocol to fetch various ingredients and shape them in a final product by passing through various stages in an automated processing plant while simultaneously ensuring high quality and hygienic environment is merely possible by using robotized processing. The review also highlights the possibilities and limitations of introducing these high technology robots in the food sector. A comparison of several robots from different classes is listed with major technical parameters. However, as predicted, a food cyber-physical production system (CPPS) visualizes a closed loop system for the desired output keeping in view various constraints and risks. Human machine interface (HMI) for these machines complies with the industrial safety standards to provide a fail safe production cycle. Various new horizons in research and development of food robots are also highlighted in the upcoming industrial paradigm.

  • Spatial and temporal temperature distributions in fixed beds undergoing supercritical fluid extraction
    Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. (IF 2.573) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Pedro I.N. Carvalho, Juan F. Osorio-Tobón, Giovani L. Zabot, M. Angela A. Meireles
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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