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  • Career-related instruction promoting students’ career awareness and interest towards science learning
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-20
    Anssi Salonen, Sirpa Kärkkäinen, Tuula Keinonen

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the career-related instruction implemented in secondary school chemistry education concerning water issues influence students’ career awareness and interest towards science learning. This case study is part of a larger design-based research of the EU-MultiCO project that focuses on promoting students’ scientific career awareness and attractiveness by introducing them career-based scenarios at the beginning of the instruction unit. The participants in this study were three eight-grade classes with 46 students in total, and 2 science teachers. Data consisted of observations through the intervention and a questionnaire the students answered afterwards. Descriptive statistics of the questionnaire were used together with the content analysis of open questions and observation notes. The results reveal that students acquired knowledge about science, science-related careers and working life skills and they enjoyed studying chemistry and engaged in learning during the intervention. The students recognized the need for professionals and their responsibilities as well as the importance of water-related issues as global and local problems, but the issue was not personally important or valuable for students. The type of career-related instruction discussed in this paper can give guidelines for how to develop teaching to promote students’ science career awareness, trigger students’ interest and engage them in science learning.

    更新日期:2018-01-20
  • ‘What do you think the aims of doing a practical chemistry course are?’ A comparison of the views of students and teaching staff across three universities.
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Stephen Robert George-Williams, Angela L Ziebell, Chris D Thompson, Tina Lyn Overton

    The aims of teaching laboratories is an important topic of discussion amongst teaching staff in universities. It is often assumed that both teaching staff and students are implicitly aware of these aims, although this is rarely tested or measured. This assumption can lead to mismatched beliefs between students and teaching staff and, if not corrected, could lead to negative learning experiences for students and become a source of frustration for teaching staff. In order to measure and identify this potential gap in a manner that could be readily generalised to other institutions, a single open question - ‘What do you think the aims of doing a practical chemistry course are?’ – was distributed to students and teaching staff at two Australian universities and one UK university. Qualitative analysis of the responses revealed that students, teaching associates and academics held relatively narrow views of the aims of teaching laboratories, particularly focusing on aims aligned with expository experiences (e.g. development of practical skills or enhancing understanding of theory). Whilst some minor differences were noted between students at the three institutions, the overwhelming similarities in their responses indicated a fairly common perception of the aims of teaching laboratories. Of the three groups, academics held the narrowest view of teaching laboratories, typically neglecting the preparation of students for the workforce or the simple increase in laboratory experience the students could gain. This study highlights gaps between the perceptions of students and teaching staff with regards to laboratory aims and reveals that all three groups held relatively simplistic views of teaching laboratories.

    更新日期:2018-01-19
  • An Experienced Chemistry Teacher’s Practical Knowledge of Teaching with Practical Work: The PCK Perspective
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Bing Wei, Hao Liu

    We have examined an experienced chemistry teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of teaching with practical work in China. Based on the well-known PCK model by Magnusson, Krajcik and Borko (1999), we focused on how the participant’s teaching orientations and relevant contextual factors shaped his practical knowledge of teaching with practical work. Data from multiple sources were collected and analysed over one semester (four months), including interviews, direct classroom observation, textbooks and lesson plans. Three conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) the participant held multidimensional and mixed science teaching orientations, (2) the participant’s science teaching orientations shaped his knowledge and beliefs about the curriculum, students’ learning difficulties, instructional strategies and assessment related to practical work, and (3) contextual factors exerted great influences on his PCK.

    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • A novel qualitative method to improve access, elicitation, and sample diversification for enhanced transferability applied to studying chemistry outreach
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Justin M. Pratt, Ellen J. Yezierski

    Conducting qualitative research in any discipline warrants two actions: accessing participants and eliciting their ideas. In chemistry education research, survey techniques have been used to increase access to participants and diversify samples. Interview tasks (such as card sorting, using demonstrations, and using simulations) have been used to elicit participant ideas. While surveys can increase participation and remove geographic barriers from studies, they typically lack the ability to obtain detailed, thick description of participant ideas, which are possible from in-person interviews. Minimal research in CER has examined how to harness technology to synthesize traditionally diverse research approaches to advance the field. This paper presents a novel method for interviewing research participants employing freely available technology to investigate student ideas about the purposes of conducting chemistry outreach, how success of an outreach event is evaluated, and student understanding of the chemistry content embedded in activities facilitated at events. As the outreach practitioner population comes from numerous institutions and is therefore geographically diverse, technology is necessary in order to gain access to these students. To elicit their ideas and remove barriers associated with rapport, interview tasks are adapted and implemented electronically. The description of a novel set of methods is coupled with evidence from the interviews to illustrate the trustworthiness of the data obtained and to support the method as a means to improve qualitative data collection in chemistry education research. These methods create a unique data collection environment for off-site investigations and are applicable to all disciplines, as they shed light on how qualitative research in the 21st century can increase the diversity of samples and improve the transferability of findings.

    更新日期:2018-01-17
  • Student perceptions of immediate feedback testing in student centered chemistry classes
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Jamie L. Schneider, Suzanne M. Ruder, Christopher F. Bauer

    Feedback is an important aspect of the learning process. The immediate feedback assessment technique (IF-AT®) form allows students to receive feedback on their answers during a testing event. Studies with introductory psychology students supported both perceived and real student learning gains when this form was used with testing. Knowing that negative student perceptions of innovative classroom techniques can create roadblocks, this research focused on gathering student responses to using IF-AT® forms for testing in general chemistry 1 and organic chemistry 2 classes at several institutions. Students’ perceptions on using the IF-AT® forms and how it influenced their thinking were gathered from a 16-item survey. The results of the student surveys are detailed and implementation strategies for using IF-AT® forms for chemistry testing are also outlined in this article.

    更新日期:2018-01-16
  • Evaluating students' abilities to construct mathematical models from data using latent class analysis
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Alexandra Brandriet, Charlie A. Rupp, Katherine Lazenby, Nicole M. Becker

    Analyzing and interpreting data is an important science practice that contributes toward the construction of models from data; yet, there is evidence that students may struggle with making meaning of data. The study reported here focused on characterizing students’ approaches to analyzing rate and concentration data in the context of method of initial rates tasks, a type of task used to construct a rate law, which is a mathematical model that relates the reactant concentration to the rate. Here, we present a large-scale analysis (n = 768) of second-semester introductory chemistry students’ responses to three open-ended questions about how to construct rate laws from initial concentration and rate data. Students’ responses were coded based on the level of sophistication in their responses, and latent class analysis was then used to identify groups (i.e. classes) of students with similar response patterns across tasks. Here, we present evidence for a five-class model that included qualitatively distinct and increasingly sophisticated approaches to reasoning about the data. We compared the results from our latent class model to the correctness of students’ answers (i.e. reaction orders) and to a less familiar task, in which students were unable to use the control of variables strategy. The results showed that many students struggled to engage meaningfully with the data when constructing their rate laws. The students’ strategies may provide insight into how to scaffold students’ abilities to analyze data.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • A comparison of online and traditional chemistry lecture and lab
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    E. K. Faulconer, J. C. Griffith, B. L. Wood, S. Acharyya, D. L. Roberts

    While the equivalence between online and traditional classrooms has been well researched, very little effort has been expended to do such comparisons for college level introductory chemistry. The existing literature has only one study that investigated chemistry lectures at an entire course level as opposed to particular course components such as individual topics or exams. Regarding lab courses, only one study is available and it involves moderating variables that are largely uncontrolled. In this work, we compared the student pass rates, withdrawal rates, and grade distributions between asynchronous online and traditional formats of an introductory chemistry lecture as well as its associated lab course. The study was based on the 823 university records available for the 2015–2016 academic year. Student pass and withdrawal rates between the two modes were quite similar and did not appear to be statistically significant. However, grade distributions for both the lecture and lab differed between the two learning modes, showing significant statistical associations. Online students were more likely to earn As in both lecture and lab while traditional in-person students were more likely to earn Cs or Ds. Further research should include replication of this study with a larger data set. Additionally, this study should be repeated in three to five years to determine if advances in course design, standardization and delivery platforms further reduce or eliminate differences between learning modes. Future studies should also use qualitative tools for a better understanding of why students fail or withdraw from courses.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • A new multimedia application for teaching and learning chemical equilibrium
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Mario Ollino, Jenny Aldoney, Ana M. Domínguez, Cristian Merino

    This study presents a method for teaching the subject of chemical equilibrium in which students engage in self-learning mediated by the use of a new multimedia animation (SEQ-alfa©). This method is presented together with evidence supporting its advantages. At a microscopic level, the simulator shows the mutual transformation of A molecules into B molecules and vice versa for the reversible one-step chemical reaction, A(g) ⇔ B(g). The user defines the reaction as endothermic or exothermic and sets a given reaction temperature; SEQ-alfa© then calculates the kinetic constants of the forward and reverse reactions. Based on initial given concentrations, the animation then evaluates the respective rates and concentrations, as well as the concentration quotient value, as the reaction progresses towards its equilibrium state. SEQ-alfa© also demonstrates the effects of concentration and temperature alterations on the reaction's progress and the value of the reaction quotient until equilibrium is reached, thus giving the equilibrium constant. In addition, a validation of this new approach was carried out with 27 teachers. A pre-test and post-test of students’ understanding of the basic concepts of chemical equilibrium were conducted. Tested groups attained a 50% average learning gain (nexp = 130, nctrl = 26). Those students with little or no previous knowledge acquired a better understanding of chemical equilibrium. In addition, 80% of teachers agreed that the multimedia resource and its complementary activities had positive effects.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The role of teacher questions in the chemistry classroom
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Sofie Weiss Dohrn, Niels Bonderup Dohn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how a chemistry teacher's questions influence the classroom discourse. It presents a fine-grained analysis of the rich variety of one teacher's questions and the roles they play in an upper secondary chemistry classroom. The study identifies six different functions for the teacher's questions: Student Knowledge, Request, Monologic Discourse, Clarification, Relations and Interaction of Contexts. Overall, these questions create a safe and interactive learning environment. However, the questions are predominantly closed in form. As a result, the students become highly accomplished in recalling facts but have difficulties when higher order thinking is required. The findings suggest that an interactive classroom can be created by using many engaging teacher questions. The six different categories of questions promote the students’ learning process as it gives them authority and entitles them to speak and learn.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The effect of math SAT on women's chemistry competency beliefs
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Paulette Vincent-Ruz, Kevin Binning, Christian D. Schunn, Joe Grabowski

    In chemistry, lack of academic preparation and math ability have been offered as explanations as to why women seem to enroll, perform, and graduate at lower levels than men. In this paper, we explore the alternative possibility that the gender gap in chemistry instead originates from differential gender effects of academic factors on students’ motivation. Using a sample of approximately 670 students enrolled in a mid-sized university in the United States we conducted: (1) t-tests to understand incoming academic differences between freshman students by gender, (2) regression analysis to determine which academic and attitudinal factors predict success in General Chemistry 1, and (3) a mediation analysis to understand the underlying mechanisms of how academic performance affects students’ beliefs about their competency in chemistry, which in turn has an effect on chemistry achievement. We demonstrate the importance of math ability as a contributor to chemistry achievement, but further that ability differences in math are important because they affect students’ chemistry competency beliefs. Critically, this link between ability and competency beliefs is stronger for women than men. These results suggest that interventions geared towards improving women's chemistry competency beliefs could have an important influence in improving their achievement in the classroom, and in consequence reduce the gender gap in chemistry.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Relating motivation and student outcomes in general organic chemistry
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-25
    Ara C. Austin, Nicholas B. Hammond, Nathan Barrows, Deena L. Gould, Ian R. Gould

    A central tenet of self-regulated learning theories is that students are motivated towards learning in order to self-regulate. It is thus important to identify student motivations in order to inform efforts to improve instructional strategies that encourage self-regulation. Here we describe a study aimed at characterizing the important motivation factors for students taking general organic chemistry, and how they connect to, and correlate with student performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 2648 undergraduate student participants at two institutions over five semesters and four instructors. Motivation was measured using the Organic Chemistry Motivation Survey (OCMS), a modified form of Glynn et al. (2011)'s Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). The results suggest that the students were highly motivated towards earning a high grade, but that this grade motivation correlated only weakly with performance. Other intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors were found to be low, suggesting that the students perceived organic chemistry to have little relevance to their interests and careers. However, student performance was strongly correlated with self-efficacy, and, to a lesser extent, self-determination. This finding implies that high-performing students tended to be self-regulated learners who are not motivated primarily by the relevance of the course content. Alternate sources of motivation that can drive self-regulation are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Peer learning as a tool to strengthen math skills in introductory chemistry laboratories
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Melissa C. Srougi, Heather B. Miller

    Math skills vary greatly among students enrolled in introductory chemistry courses. Students with weak math skills (algebra and below) tend to perform poorly in introductory chemistry courses, which is correlated with increased attrition rates. Previous research has shown that retention of main ideas in a peer learning environment is greater when partners have dissimilar abilities. Therefore, in an effort to improve student learning outcomes, we implemented peer learning interventions in our introductory chemistry laboratories to determine if math skills were enhanced when partners differed in math ability. Student performance and attitudes were analyzed in laboratory sections consisting of instructor-assigned partners who differed in math ability, compared to sections where students self-selected a partner. Students who were assigned math partners of different ability showed an 8% improvement in chemistry math concepts compared to no improvement among those who self-selected a partner, as assessed using pre- and post-math tests. Mathematical learning gains were particularly large (16%) for those students in the 50th percentile of math performance. Students also reported a significantly more positive attitude change about working with others compared to students who self-selected a partner. In addition, assigned students demonstrated a more positive shift in self-concepts such as chemistry knowledge and laboratory skills. This study illustrates that peer learning can serve as a useful and easy-to-implement tool to strengthen math skills and improve student attitudes in introductory chemistry laboratories.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Evaluating student motivation in organic chemistry courses: moving from a lecture-based to a flipped approach with peer-led team learning
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Yujuan Liu, Jeffrey R. Raker, Jennifer E. Lewis

    Academic Motivation Scale-Chemistry (AMS-Chemistry), an instrument based on the self-determination theory, was used to evaluate students’ motivation in two organic chemistry courses, where one course was primarily lecture-based and the other implemented flipped classroom and peer-led team learning (Flip–PLTL) pedagogies. Descriptive statistics showed that students in both courses were more extrinsically motivated and their motivation moved in negative directions across the semester. Factorial multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a main effect of pedagogical approach. Students in the Flip–PLTL environment were significantly more motivated toward chemistry at the end of the semester while controlling for the motivation pre-test scores; however, there was no evidence for a sex main effect or an interaction effect between sex and pedagogical approach. Correlation results revealed variable relationships between motivation subscales and academic achievement at different time points. In general, intrinsic motivation subscales were significantly and positively correlated with student academic achievement; Amotivation was negatively correlated with academic achievement. The findings in this study showed the importance of Flip–PLTL pedagogies in improving student motivation toward chemistry.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Diagnosing the quality of high school students’ and pre-service chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in organic chemistry by using students’ generated systemic synthesis questions
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Tamara Hrin, Dušica Milenković, Mirjana Segedinac

    The importance of well elaborated cognitive structures in a science knowledge domain has been noted in many studies. Therefore, the main aim of this particular study was to employ a new diagrammatic assessment approach, students’ generated systemic synthesis questions (SSynQs), to evaluate and compare the quality of high school students’ and pre-service chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in the organic chemistry domain. We used a mixed research sample (N = 83), and SSynQs were constructed following the high school chemical curriculum in the Republic of Serbia. Besides the overall quality of the cognitive structures, the size (extent) and strength (complexity) of the conceptual structures, as external representations of cognitive structures, were also analysed. It was found that both high school students and pre-service chemistry teachers had a substantial size of the conceptual structures, showing relatively good knowledge about IUPAC naming and structures of organic compounds, except for ethers. However, the strength of the conceptual structures, or inter-correlations between organic chemistry concepts, was evaluated as weak within high school students, and medium within pre-service chemistry teachers. This resulted in the identification of three main learning difficulties (LDs), accompanied by a lack of understanding (LU) about the chemical properties and relations of organic compounds. It was surprising to find that all identified LDs and LUs within high school students also appeared within pre-service chemistry teachers. What is more, the most desired and expected cognitive structures (distinguished multidimensional cognitive structures) without LDs and LUs appeared within high school students.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Using a multi-tier diagnostic test to explore the nature of students’ alternative conceptions on reaction kinetics
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Yaw Kai Yan, R. Subramaniam

    This study focused on grade 12 students’ understanding of reaction kinetics. A 4-tier diagnostic instrument was developed for this purpose and administered to 137 students in the main study. Findings showed that reaction kinetics is a difficult topic for these students, with a total of 25 alternative conceptions (ACs) being uncovered. Except for one AC, the other ACs uncovered have not been reported before in the literature. An interesting point emerging from this study is that nearly 70% of the ACs were obtained from questions that featured graphs. Overall, the 4-tier format for the diagnostic instrument demonstrates good utility for probing students’ understanding of reaction kinetics as well as uncovering their ACs. The confidence-related measures, which are more commonly used in the educational psychology literature, have also permitted further insights to be gained into how the students performed in the test as well as the classification of the ACs.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Using self-efficacy beliefs to understand how students in a general chemistry course approach the exam process
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Angela Willson-Conrad, Megan Grunert Kowalske

    Retention of students who major in STEM continues to be a major concern for universities. Many students cite poor teaching and disappointing grades as reasons for dropping out of STEM courses. Current college chemistry courses often assess what a student has learned through summative exams. To understand students' experiences of the exam process, including how students prepare for an exam, take an exam, and respond to feedback from an exam, data was collected through interviews with students in an introductory college chemistry course. The interview data was analyzed using emergent coding to describe students' experiences of the exam process using phenomenography. Data indicated that students' experiences with the exam process could be categorized based on their reported exam performance. Overall, differences could be seen between these students' self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive skills based on the grade each student reported receiving on the exam. The students who performed highest on the exam had self-efficacy beliefs primarily from their mastery experience, and middle performing students' self-efficacy beliefs came from vicarious experience. The lowest performing student had low self-efficacy beliefs. Students who received the highest grades on the exam viewed learning as making meaningful connections between topics, and students who received lower grades viewed learning as memorization. By further understanding students study habits, their views on the exam process, and the development of their self-efficacy beliefs, instructors may be better able to assist low and middle performing students in our general chemistry courses. The findings from this study suggest several ways instructors could facilitate more effective studying and promote higher self-efficacy beliefs, including promoting group work, talking with students about study skills, and encouraging attendance at office hours to review exam responses.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The relationship between subject matter knowledge and teaching effectiveness of undergraduate chemistry peer facilitators
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    J. R. Boothe, R. A. Barnard, L. J. Peterson, B. P. Coppola

    Use of peer instruction and facilitation has surged in undergraduate education at large colleges and universities in recent years. Studies on peer instruction have been directed primarily at student learning gains and affective outcomes among the facilitators. For peer instructors, the relationship between their teaching effectiveness and their foundational content knowledge is assumed but understudied. In an effort to promote instructional coherence (i.e., instructional same-pageness) in the introductory organic chemistry program at the University of Michigan, we observed peer-led study group facilitators’ involvement in their study groups (as teachers of groups of 6–12 students) and in a companion course (as learners) designed to reinforce and enhance their content knowledge. Audiovisual recordings of the facilitators in both the companion course and, for ten of them, leading their study groups, were captured over each of the two week periods covering the topics of stereochemistry and also conformational analysis. Recordings were subsequently coded for topic and correctness in presentation of subject matter. Errors made in either study group or the companion course were investigated for error resolution (corrected or uncorrected), source of error, and propagation of corrected errors. Analysis of recordings revealed that facilitators who have their own errors corrected in the companion course, or observe their peers’ errors corrected in the companion course, correctly describe these concepts in study groups. On examining errors made by facilitators when they are leading study group sessions, a backwards analysis showed consistently that either the topics had not been addressed in the antecedent companion course, or the facilitator was not actively engaged with the discussion when the topics were being discussed. These findings have implications to inform not only our own implementation of peer-led study groups, but also those interested in designing subject matter companion courses for peer leaders in other instructional settings.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • #IHeartChemistryNCSU: free choice, content, and elements of science communication as the framework for an introductory organic chemistry project
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Bram H. Frohock, Samantha T. Winterrowd, Maria T. Gallardo-Williams

    Students in a large introductory organic chemistry class were given the freedom to choose an organic compound of interest and were challenged to develop an educational object (physical or digital) designed to be shared with the broader public via social media. Analysis of the project results shows that most students appreciated the open nature of the assignment, and engaged in self-regulated learning by reflecting and improving on their educational object design along each step of the project. Subjects varied widely depending on the students’ personal interests, and many different educational objects were produced and shared using diverse social media outlets. As a result of this project, students reported positive outcomes including increased interest in organic chemistry and science in general as well as the acquisition of practical skills such as science communication and visual representation of science. These skills were perceived by students as being beneficial for future professional endeavors. This report describes the design and outcomes of the project, including the choice of subjects, representations, and social media channels.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Exploring different types of assessment items to measure linguistically diverse students’ understanding of energy and matter in chemistry
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Kihyun Ryoo, Emily Toutkoushian, Kristin Bedell

    Energy and matter are fundamental, yet challenging concepts in middle school chemistry due to their abstract, unobservable nature. Although it is important for science teachers to elicit a range of students’ ideas to design and revise their instruction, capturing such varied ideas using traditional assessments consisting of multiple-choice items can be difficult. In particular, the linguistic complexity of these items may hinder English learners (ELs) who speak English as a second language from understanding and representing their ideas. This study explores how multi-modal assessments using different types of open-ended items can document ELs’ and English-dominant students’ (EDSs) understanding of energy and matter in chemistry. 38 eighth-grade, linguistically diverse students taught by one teacher at a low-income middle school completed an assessment designed to elicit their ideas about properties of matter and chemical reactions through arguing from evidence, writing explanations, and developing models of chemical phenomena. The results show that the three types of assessment items captured different correct and alternative ideas that ELs and EDSs held. In particular, modeling appears promising as a tool to assess what ELs know about properties of matter and chemical reactions in middle school chemistry, compared to other written items. The findings of this study provide insights into how different types of assessment items can be used to better understand the range of ideas held by linguistically diverse students.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Students' visualisation of chemical reactions – insights into the particle model and the atomic model
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Maurice M. W. Cheng

    This paper reports on an interview study of 18 Grade 10–12 students’ model-based reasoning of a chemical reaction: the reaction of magnesium and oxygen at the submicro level. It has been proposed that chemical reactions can be conceptualised using two models: (i) the particle model, in which a reaction is regarded as the simple combination and rearrangement of reactant particles and does not involve any change in the identity of the reactants, and (ii) the atomic model, wherein a reaction involves the transformation of one chemical species into another. This paper suggests that although the particle model looks simpler than the atomic model, it can help to support the learning of some advanced chemical concepts such as energetics and collision theory. Therefore, it is postulated that students who reason using the particle model are able to demonstrate some advanced ideas about chemical reactions. The conceptualisation of reactions in terms of the atomic model and the particle model allows a flexible understanding of students’ learning. Students’ representations of the reaction between magnesium and oxygen were analysed with reference to the two models. The models were found to be useful in assessing the students’ understanding of the reaction and revealing the novel ways that the students reasoned the chemical reaction. In addition, a student who used the particle model to represent the reaction was found to explain the reaction in terms of some energetics and kinetics concepts. The study offers insights for curriculum planners and teachers into the potential of these two models to help students understand chemical reactions.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Evaluation of the influence of wording changes and course type on motivation instrument functioning in chemistry
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Regis Komperda, Kathryn N. Hosbein, Jack Barbera

    Increased understanding of the importance of the affective domain in chemistry education research has led to the development and adaptation of instruments to measure chemistry-specific affective traits, including motivation. Many of these instruments are adapted from other fields by using the word ‘chemistry’ in place of other disciplines or more general ‘science’ wording. Psychometric evidence is then provided for the functioning of the new adapted instrument. When an instrument is adapted from general language to specific (e.g. replacing ‘science’ with ‘chemistry’), an opportunity exists to compare the functioning of the original instrument in the same context as the adapted instrument. This information is important for understanding which types of modifications may have small or large impacts on instrument functioning and in which contexts these modifications may have more or less influence. In this study, data were collected from the online administration of scales from two science motivation instruments in chemistry courses for science majors and for non-science majors. Participants in each course were randomly assigned to view either the science version or chemistry version of the items. Response patterns indicated that students respond differently to different wordings of the items, with generally more favorable response to the science wording of items. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate the internal structure of each instrument, however acceptable data-model fit was not obtained under any administration conditions. Additionally, no discernable pattern could be detected regarding the conditions showing better data-model fit. These results suggest that even seemingly small changes to item wording and administration context can affect instrument functioning, especially if the change in wording affects the construct measured by the instrument. This research further supports the need to provide psychometric evidence of instrument functioning each time an instrument is used and before any comparisons are made of responses to different versions of the instrument.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Goal orientations of general chemistry students via the achievement goal framework
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Scott E. Lewis

    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students’ goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success in a range of educational settings, but have not been used in post-secondary chemistry. This study describes the goal orientations of General Chemistry students and explores the relationship of goal orientations to success in the course. On average, students report higher task and self orientations than other orientation. Task orientation had a positive relationship with exam performance and self orientation had a negative relationship with exam performance. Clustering students showed that for the majority of students task and self orientations moved concurrently and students with low preference across the three orientations also performed lowest on exams. Finally, students in classes using Flipped-Peer Led Team Learning, a pedagogy designed to bring active learning to a large lecture class, showed higher task orientation than those in classes with lecture-based instruction.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Development of pre-service chemistry teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Ayla Cetin-Dindar, Yezdan Boz, Demet Yildiran Sonmez, Nilgun Demirci Celep

    In this study, a mixed-method design was employed to investigate pre-service chemistry teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) development. For effective technology integration in instruction, knowledge about technology is not enough; teachers should have different knowledge types which are content, pedagogical, and technological. The 17 pre-service chemistry teachers who enrolled in the Instructional Technology and Material Development course participated in the study for one semester. The purpose of this course was to learn how to integrate simulations, animations, instructional games, data-logging, virtual labs and virtual field trips into chemistry instruction considering factors such as chemistry subjects and students’ possible alternative conceptions or their previous chemistry knowledge. A survey and interviews were used to gather data on the pre-service chemistry teachers’ TPACK framework both before and after the semester. A mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance was conducted to examine the differences in the pre-service teachers’ TPACK at two time periods considering also the gender factor. For the qualitative data, deductive analysis based on existing codes and categories was applied. The quantitative and qualitative findings of this study revealed that the pre-service chemistry teachers’ TPACK improved partially on some components. In addition, based on these findings, gender was not found to be a significant variable in technology integration. For further development in the TPACK framework, more context related technology applications in a learning and teaching environment are needed.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Secondary school chemistry teacher's current use of laboratory activities and the impact of expense on their laboratory choices
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Sarah B. Boesdorfer, Robin A. Livermore

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools must deal with if laboratory activities are part of the chemistry curriculum. While other barriers impacting teachers' use of laboratory activities have been researched, the impact of expense on teachers' choices is not as clear. This study sought to understand secondary school chemistry teachers' current laboratory practices and the impact expense has on their use of laboratory activities in their classroom. Using an online survey and follow-up interviews, the study found that a majority of secondary chemistry teachers surveyed use laboratory activities, though not always including scientific practices advocated by NGSS. The frequency of laboratory activities used by teachers was not statistically impacted by school type, available funds for materials, or processes to obtain funds, but was impacted by teachers' personal ideas. Interviews provided more information about the teachers using laboratory activities regularly and those not. While most teachers are using laboratory activities regularly at the current funding levels, expense, in terms of monetary and time expenses, was shown to impact the specific choice of laboratory activity. Implications for chemistry curriculum reform including the usage of laboratory activities in chemistry courses are discussed along with implications for chemistry teacher professional development.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Interactions of chemistry teachers with gifted students in a regular high-school chemistry classroom
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Naama Benny, Ron Blonder

    Regular high-school chemistry teachers view gifted students as one of several types of students in a regular (mixed-ability) classroom. Gifted students have a range of unique abilities that characterize their learning process: mostly they differ in three key learning aspects: their faster learning pace, increased depth of understanding, and special interests. If gifted students are to develop their abilities and potential, and learn optimally in a regular classroom, the teaching must be adjusted to meet their special needs. Chemistry high-school curricula have built-in potential to cater to the special needs of gifted students. Chemistry learning entails laboratory work and comprehension of abstract concepts. In the classroom, the interactions between teachers and students are core events that trigger other class events. In the present study the interactions between teachers and gifted students in a regular classroom, which are specific for chemistry teaching, were studied. Two general categories of interactions with gifted students were found to be unique to the chemistry classroom: (1) interactions involving laboratory work and (2) interactions involving the challenge of teaching chemistry content. We found that since gifted students master abstract chemistry concepts quickly and with minimum scaffolding, no interactions regarding this aspect were reported. Gifted students do not need all the instruction time teachers usually devote to explaining abstract concepts in chemistry, concepts that are considered difficult for other students. The present study indicates the essential need of enhancing chemistry teachers’ knowledge regarding teaching gifted students in the chemistry classroom. This includes knowledge about how gifted students learn in general, and its adaptation to the chemistry classroom and the chemistry laboratory according to academic and curricular needs of the gifted students.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • We don’t get any training: the impact of a professional development model on teaching practices of chemistry and biology graduate teaching assistants
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Jacinta M. Mutambuki, Renee Schwartz

    This study investigated the implementation of best teaching practices by science graduate teaching assistants [GTAs] (3 chemists and 2 biologists) in five inquiry-based, interdisciplinary chemistry-biology experiments during a six-week professional development (PD) program, Engage PD. Additionally, we examined GTAs’ experiences in implementing specific PD aspects. The PD program took place as the GTAs taught sections of biology and chemistry laboratory courses, each comprising five interdisciplinary experiments. The PD aspects included defining expected learning outcomes, subject-matter knowledge, relevance to real-world and chemistry-biology connections, and other active classroom teaching practices. Data were collected through classroom observations, reflection questionnaires, and individual interviews. Findings indicated that 57% of the PD aspects investigated were implemented in the five interdisciplinary experiments. Results also revealed GTAs’ initial areas of struggle in implementing specific PD aspects. Perceived implementation difficulties were attributed to individual perceptions and beliefs, and contextual factors. Through practice, continuous feedback, and reflections, most GTAs overcame the hurdles and refined their teaching. Findings imply the need to design training PD programs that offer mentoring and support to GTAs and future faculty in implementing teaching innovations. The teaching context and reflection prompts are helpful in identifying areas of difficulties and how to improve.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The nature of the interplay among components of pedagogical content knowledge in reaction rate and chemical equilibrium topics of novice and experienced chemistry teachers
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Fatma Nur Akın, Esen Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci

    We examined the interactions among pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) components of novice and experienced chemistry teachers in teaching reaction rate and chemical equilibrium topics in this qualitative multiple-case design study. For this aim, three chemistry teachers who had different levels of teaching experience in chemistry teaching were selected through a process of purposeful sampling. Multiple types of data were gathered through more than two months. In order to collect and triangulate data, a card-sorting activity, a Content Representation (CoRe) tool, semi-structured interviews, observation of instruction, and field notes were utilized. Data were analyzed through three approaches: in-depth analysis of explicit PCK, the enumerative approach, and constant comparative methods. The results revealed eight characteristics of the interactions of the PCK components: (a) the novice teacher's orientations towards science, in contrast to the experienced teachers’, were more broad and non-specific, which impeded the interactions among the components, (b) the interplay of the PCK components was idiosyncratic and topic specific, (c) the novice teacher's PCK maps were fragmented while the experienced teachers’ PCK maps were integrated, (d) the experienced teachers, in contrast to the novice teacher, interacted more than two PCK components in most of their teaching fragments, (e) knowledge of learner, knowledge of curriculum and knowledge of instructional strategies were central in the interplays of all teacher maps, (f) the experienced teachers were more successful than the novice teacher in translating their knowledge into practice in terms of the integration among PCK components, (g) teacher self-efficacy appeared to play a role in their use of PCK components and constructing interactions among them, and (h) all teachers taught the same topics with similar lesson plans and the same instructional materials; however, they differed in terms of how they connect the PCK components. Implications and suggestions for teacher education and science education research are presented.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Blending problem-based learning and peer-led team learning, in an open ended ‘home-grown’ pharmaceutical chemistry case study
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    Clinton G. L. Veale, Rui W. M. Krause, Joyce D. Sewry

    Pharmaceutical chemistry, medicinal chemistry and the drug discovery process require experienced practitioners to employ reasoned speculation in generating creative ideas, which can be used to evolve promising molecules into drugs. The ever-evolving world of pharmaceutical chemistry requires university curricula that prepare graduates for their role as designers with the capability of applying complex concepts in pharmaceutical chemistry, thereby improving the decision-making process. Common methods of teaching drug discovery, including the linear nature of the traditional case study model, do not provide a realistic picture of the underlying complexity of the process, nor do they equip students with the appropriate tools for personal sense making and abstraction. In this work, we discuss the creation of an open-ended, nonlinear case study for 3rd year pharmaceutical chemistry students, developed from drug discovery research conducted at Rhodes University. Furthermore, we discuss blending problem based learning (PBL) with peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the context of curriculum transformation, underpinned by the theory of semantic waves, to assist students in the early attainment of abstract concepts and answer questions of contextualisation, personal sense making, relatability, relevance and ultimately the skills for lifelong learning.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • The relationship between chemistry self-efficacy of South African first year university students and their academic performance
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-05
    Umesh Ramnarain, Sam Ramaila

    This study investigated the self-efficacy of first-year Chemistry students at a South African university. The research involved a quantitative survey of 333 students using the College Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSS) developed by Uzuntiryaki and Capa Aydin (2009). Descriptive statistics on data for the CCSS scales suggested that students have positive beliefs in their capability to accomplish chemistry tasks. The students scored more strongly on the self-efficacy constructs of cognitive and psychomotor skills than on everyday application. There was a significant difference between students of different professional orientations for cognitive skills and everyday applications, with students enrolled for Chemical Engineering having the highest mean scores for these constructs. A multiple regression analysis was run in order to explore the relationship between chemistry self-efficacy and performance in a chemistry examination. The analysis indicated that cognitive skills significantly predicted chemistry performance, while psychomotor skills and everyday applications had no significant impact. The implications for research and instruction are discussed in terms of the relationship between chemistry self-efficacy and performance.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • This mechanistic step is “productive”: organic chemistry students' backward-oriented reasoning
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-02
    I. Caspari, M. L. Weinrich, H. Sevian, N. Graulich

    If an organic chemistry student explains that she represents a mechanistic step because “it's a productive part of the mechanism,” what meaning could the professor teaching the class attribute to this statement, what is actually communicated, and what does it mean for the student? The professor might think that the explanation is based on knowledge of equilibria of alternative steps. The professor might also assume that the student implies information about how one of the alternatives influences the energetics of subsequent steps or how subsequent steps influence the equilibria of the alternatives. Meanwhile, the student might literally mean that the step is represented simply because it leads to the product. Reasoning about energetic influences has much greater explanatory power than teleological reasoning taking the consequence of mechanistic steps as the reason for their prediction. In both cases, however, the same backward-oriented reasoning is applied. Information about subsequent parts in the mechanism is used to make a decision about prior parts. To qualitatively compare the reasoning patterns and the causality employed by students and expected by their professor, we used a mechanistic approach from philosophy of science that mirrors the directionality of a mechanism and its components: activities, entities, and their properties. Our analysis led to the identification of different reasoning patterns involving backward-oriented reasoning. Participants' use of properties gave additional insight into the students' reasoning and their professor's expectations, which supports the necessity for clear expectations in mechanistic reasoning in organic chemistry classrooms. We present a framework that offers a lens to clarify these expectations and discuss implications of the framework for improving student mechanistic reasoning in organic chemistry.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Approaching gender equity in academic chemistry: lessons learned from successful female chemists in the UK
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Jaimie Miller-Friedmann, Ann Childs, Judith Hillier

    The internationally acknowledged gender gap in science continues to be an unrelenting concern to science educators; aggregate data in the UK show that both recruitment and retention of women in academic science remain relatively low. Most published research focuses on women in the broad field of science, generates correlations or predictions, or examines the reasons why women do not participate in fields like physics or engineering. Previous work has not yet addressed how women have found ways to succeed in particular fields, such as chemistry, or how successful pathways may be applied to recruitment and retention efforts in those fields. This study investigated the experiences of successful British female chemists, in order to uncover coping mechanisms and commonalities that may illuminate obstacles and solutions particular to women in chemistry. Four case study semi-structured life history interviews with highly successful British female chemists revealed common experiences that helped the women in the study to succeed. Of these, two resonated with the literature: having an integrated support network, and the ability to cope with financial and career instability; choice of subfield and adaptation of (unconscious) bias are offered as new insights. The findings suggest changes in policy and practice that would provide particular kinds of support for women in chemistry at school and university level. Implementing these changes may be the impetus needed to approach gender parity in UK academic chemistry from undergraduate to Professor.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • “Are chemistry educational apps useful?” – a quantitative study with three in-house apps
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Grace Lee Yuan Ping, Chang Lok, Tan Wei Yeat, Tan Jie Ying Cherynn, Emelyn Sue Qing Tan

    Three internally developed mobile apps, “3D Sym Op”, “SM2 Chem” and “ARMolVis”, available for free on both the Apple App Store and Google Play Store were evaluated in seven studies. Each study was a systematic process of Pre-Test, In-lecture App Demo, App Assisted Interactive Tutorials (AAITs) and/or Independent App Usage (IAU), followed by a Survey and Post-Test. Overall, the mobile apps were effective evident by the higher Post-Test vs. Pre-Test % increase for those who used the app more frequently compared to those who used the app rarely. Apps were most effective when used in AAITs with the Blended Learning approach. This approach requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, but with some element of student free play such as using the app to complete worksheets in pairs or groups.

    更新日期:2018-01-15
  • Low-achieving students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry and its teaching methods
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Päivi Kousa, Rajka Kavonius, Maija Katariina Aksela

    The aims of this study were to determine the low-achieving students’ attitudes towards chemistry and how the attitudes differ within a low achieving group. The most preferred teaching methods was also defined. The empirical data (n = 2949) was collected by stratified sampling from fifteen-year-old Finnish lower-secondary school students as a part of a Finnish National Board of Education assessment. The students were divided into five groups according to their achievement in the chemistry-exam. 159 of the students who had deficient exam results were defined as low-achieving (LA) students and within that group non-native speakers, students with special needs and gender were selected as the background variables. Boys, non-native speakers and those who had special support had more positive attitudes towards chemistry within the LA group. The most preferred teaching methods in the low-achieving group were; (i) visiting companies, institutes, museums and exhibitions, (ii) using the internet, videos, magazines and books for studying and (iii) small group working. According to the LA students their teachers should take more into account their wishes for teaching methods. This study suggests that more positive attitudes could lead to a better achievement when the teaching methods are preferred by most of the students. This paper proposes some ideas both for the teachers and teacher training.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Peer learning as a tool to strengthen math skills in introductory chemistry laboratories
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Melissa C. Srougi, Heather B. Miller

    Math skills vary greatly among students enrolled in introductory chemistry courses. Students with weak math skills (algebra and below) tend to perform poorly in introductory chemistry courses, which is correlated with increased attrition rates. Previous research has shown that retention of main ideas in a peer learning environment is greater when partners have dissimilar abilities. Therefore, in an effort to improve student learning outcomes, we implemented peer learning interventions in our introductory chemistry laboratories to determine if math skills were enhanced when partners differed in math ability. Student performance and attitudes were analyzed in laboratory sections consisting of instructor-assigned partners who differed in math ability, compared to sections where students self-selected a partner. Students who were assigned math partners of different ability showed an 8% improvement in chemistry math concepts compared to no improvement among those who self-selected a partner, as assessed using pre- and post-math tests. Mathematical learning gains were particularly large (16%) for those students in the 50th percentile of math performance. Students also reported a significantly more positive attitude change about working with others compared to students who self-selected a partner. In addition, assigned students demonstrated a more positive shift in self-concepts such as chemistry knowledge and laboratory skills. This study illustrates that peer learning can serve as a useful and easy-to-implement tool to strengthen math skills and improve student attitudes in introductory chemistry laboratories.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Diagnosing the quality of high school students’ and pre-service chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in organic chemistry by using students’ generated systemic synthesis questions
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Tamara Hrin, Dušica Milenković, Mirjana Segedinac

    The importance of well elaborated cognitive structures in a science knowledge domain has been noted in many studies. Therefore, the main aim of this particular study was to employ a new diagrammatic assessment approach, students’ generated systemic synthesis questions (SSynQs), to evaluate and compare the quality of high school students’ and pre-service chemistry teachers’ cognitive structures in the organic chemistry domain. We used a mixed research sample (N = 83), and SSynQs were constructed following the high school chemical curriculum in the Republic of Serbia. Besides the overall quality of the cognitive structures, the size (extent) and strength (complexity) of the conceptual structures, as external representations of cognitive structures, were also analysed. It was found that both high school students and pre-service chemistry teachers had a substantial size of the conceptual structures, showing relatively good knowledge about IUPAC naming and structures of organic compounds, except for ethers. However, the strength of the conceptual structures, or inter-correlations between organic chemistry concepts, was evaluated as weak within high school students, and medium within pre-service chemistry teachers. This resulted in the identification of three main learning difficulties (LDs), accompanied by a lack of understanding (LU) about the chemical properties and relations of organic compounds. It was surprising to find that all identified LDs and LUs within high school students also appeared within pre-service chemistry teachers. What is more, the most desired and expected cognitive structures (distinguished multidimensional cognitive structures) without LDs and LUs appeared within high school students.

    更新日期:2017-11-27
  • The relationship between subject matter knowledge and teaching effectiveness of undergraduate chemistry peer facilitators
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    J. R. Boothe, R. A. Barnard, L. J. Peterson, B. P. Coppola

    Use of peer instruction and facilitation has surged in undergraduate education at large colleges and universities in recent years. Studies on peer instruction have been directed primarily at student learning gains and affective outcomes among the facilitators. For peer instructors, the relationship between their teaching effectiveness and their foundational content knowledge is assumed but understudied. In an effort to promote instructional coherence (i.e., instructional same-pageness) in the introductory organic chemistry program at the University of Michigan, we observed peer-led study group facilitators’ involvement in their study groups (as teachers of groups of 6–12 students) and in a companion course (as learners) designed to reinforce and enhance their content knowledge. Audiovisual recordings of the facilitators in both the companion course and, for ten of them, leading their study groups, were captured over each of the two week periods covering the topics of stereochemistry and also conformational analysis. Recordings were subsequently coded for topic and correctness in presentation of subject matter. Errors made in either study group or the companion course were investigated for error resolution (corrected or uncorrected), source of error, and propagation of corrected errors. Analysis of recordings revealed that facilitators who have their own errors corrected in the companion course, or observe their peers’ errors corrected in the companion course, correctly describe these concepts in study groups. On examining errors made by facilitators when they are leading study group sessions, a backwards analysis showed consistently that either the topics had not been addressed in the antecedent companion course, or the facilitator was not actively engaged with the discussion when the topics were being discussed. These findings have implications to inform not only our own implementation of peer-led study groups, but also those interested in designing subject matter companion courses for peer leaders in other instructional settings.

    更新日期:2017-11-27
  • Using self-efficacy beliefs to understand how students in a general chemistry course approach the exam process
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Angela Willson-Conrad, Megan Grunert Kowalske

    Retention of students who major in STEM continues to be a major concern for universities. Many students cite poor teaching and disappointing grades as reasons for dropping out of STEM courses. Current college chemistry courses often assess what a student has learned through summative exams. To understand students' experiences of the exam process, including how students prepare for an exam, take an exam, and respond to feedback from an exam, data was collected through interviews with students in an introductory college chemistry course. The interview data was analyzed using emergent coding to describe students' experiences of the exam process using phenomenography. Data indicated that students' experiences with the exam process could be categorized based on their reported exam performance. Overall, differences could be seen between these students' self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive skills based on the grade each student reported receiving on the exam. The students who performed highest on the exam had self-efficacy beliefs primarily from their mastery experience, and middle performing students' self-efficacy beliefs came from vicarious experience. The lowest performing student had low self-efficacy beliefs. Students who received the highest grades on the exam viewed learning as making meaningful connections between topics, and students who received lower grades viewed learning as memorization. By further understanding students study habits, their views on the exam process, and the development of their self-efficacy beliefs, instructors may be better able to assist low and middle performing students in our general chemistry courses. The findings from this study suggest several ways instructors could facilitate more effective studying and promote higher self-efficacy beliefs, including promoting group work, talking with students about study skills, and encouraging attendance at office hours to review exam responses.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • Students' visualisation of chemical reactions – insights into the particle model and the atomic model
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Maurice M. W. Cheng

    This paper reports on an interview study of 18 Grade 10–12 students’ model-based reasoning of a chemical reaction: the reaction of magnesium and oxygen at the submicro level. It has been proposed that chemical reactions can be conceptualised using two models: (i) the particle model, in which a reaction is regarded as the simple combination and rearrangement of reactant particles and does not involve any change in the identity of the reactants, and (ii) the atomic model, wherein a reaction involves the transformation of one chemical species into another. This paper suggests that although the particle model looks simpler than the atomic model, it can help to support the learning of some advanced chemical concepts such as energetics and collision theory. Therefore, it is postulated that students who reason using the particle model are able to demonstrate some advanced ideas about chemical reactions. The conceptualisation of reactions in terms of the atomic model and the particle model allows a flexible understanding of students’ learning. Students’ representations of the reaction between magnesium and oxygen were analysed with reference to the two models. The models were found to be useful in assessing the students’ understanding of the reaction and revealing the novel ways that the students reasoned the chemical reaction. In addition, a student who used the particle model to represent the reaction was found to explain the reaction in terms of some energetics and kinetics concepts. The study offers insights for curriculum planners and teachers into the potential of these two models to help students understand chemical reactions.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • #IHeartChemistryNCSU: free choice, content, and elements of science communication as the framework for an introductory organic chemistry project
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Bram H. Frohock, Samantha T. Winterrowd, Maria T. Gallardo-Williams

    Students in a large introductory organic chemistry class were given the freedom to choose an organic compound of interest and were challenged to develop an educational object (physical or digital) designed to be shared with the broader public via social media. Analysis of the project results shows that most students appreciated the open nature of the assignment, and engaged in self-regulated learning by reflecting and improving on their educational object design along each step of the project. Subjects varied widely depending on the students’ personal interests, and many different educational objects were produced and shared using diverse social media outlets. As a result of this project, students reported positive outcomes including increased interest in organic chemistry and science in general as well as the acquisition of practical skills such as science communication and visual representation of science. These skills were perceived by students as being beneficial for future professional endeavors. This report describes the design and outcomes of the project, including the choice of subjects, representations, and social media channels.

    更新日期:2017-11-09
  • Interactions of chemistry teachers with gifted students in a regular high-school chemistry classroom
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Naama Benny, Ron Blonder

    Regular high-school chemistry teachers view gifted students as one of several types of students in a regular (mixed-ability) classroom. Gifted students have a range of unique abilities that characterize their learning process: mostly they differ in three key learning aspects: their faster learning pace, increased depth of understanding, and special interests. If gifted students are to develop their abilities and potential, and learn optimally in a regular classroom, the teaching must be adjusted to meet their special needs. Chemistry high-school curricula have built-in potential to cater to the special needs of gifted students. Chemistry learning entails laboratory work and comprehension of abstract concepts. In the classroom, the interactions between teachers and students are core events that trigger other class events. In the present study the interactions between teachers and gifted students in a regular classroom, which are specific for chemistry teaching, were studied. Two general categories of interactions with gifted students were found to be unique to the chemistry classroom: (1) interactions involving laboratory work and (2) interactions involving the challenge of teaching chemistry content. We found that since gifted students master abstract chemistry concepts quickly and with minimum scaffolding, no interactions regarding this aspect were reported. Gifted students do not need all the instruction time teachers usually devote to explaining abstract concepts in chemistry, concepts that are considered difficult for other students. The present study indicates the essential need of enhancing chemistry teachers’ knowledge regarding teaching gifted students in the chemistry classroom. This includes knowledge about how gifted students learn in general, and its adaptation to the chemistry classroom and the chemistry laboratory according to academic and curricular needs of the gifted students.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The nature of the interplay among components of pedagogical content knowledge in reaction rate and chemical equilibrium topics of novice and experienced chemistry teachers
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Fatma Nur Akın, Esen Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci

    We examined the interactions among pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) components of novice and experienced chemistry teachers in teaching reaction rate and chemical equilibrium topics in this qualitative multiple-case design study. For this aim, three chemistry teachers who had different levels of teaching experience in chemistry teaching were selected through a process of purposeful sampling. Multiple types of data were gathered through more than two months. In order to collect and triangulate data, a card-sorting activity, a Content Representation (CoRe) tool, semi-structured interviews, observation of instruction, and field notes were utilized. Data were analyzed through three approaches: in-depth analysis of explicit PCK, the enumerative approach, and constant comparative methods. The results revealed eight characteristics of the interactions of the PCK components: (a) the novice teacher's orientations towards science, in contrast to the experienced teachers’, were more broad and non-specific, which impeded the interactions among the components, (b) the interplay of the PCK components was idiosyncratic and topic specific, (c) the novice teacher's PCK maps were fragmented while the experienced teachers’ PCK maps were integrated, (d) the experienced teachers, in contrast to the novice teacher, interacted more than two PCK components in most of their teaching fragments, (e) knowledge of learner, knowledge of curriculum and knowledge of instructional strategies were central in the interplays of all teacher maps, (f) the experienced teachers were more successful than the novice teacher in translating their knowledge into practice in terms of the integration among PCK components, (g) teacher self-efficacy appeared to play a role in their use of PCK components and constructing interactions among them, and (h) all teachers taught the same topics with similar lesson plans and the same instructional materials; however, they differed in terms of how they connect the PCK components. Implications and suggestions for teacher education and science education research are presented.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Evaluation of the influence of wording changes and course type on motivation instrument functioning in chemistry
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Regis Komperda, Kathryn N. Hosbein, Jack Barbera

    Increased understanding of the importance of the affective domain in chemistry education research has led to the development and adaptation of instruments to measure chemistry-specific affective traits, including motivation. Many of these instruments are adapted from other fields by using the word ‘chemistry’ in place of other disciplines or more general ‘science’ wording. Psychometric evidence is then provided for the functioning of the new adapted instrument. When an instrument is adapted from general language to specific (e.g. replacing ‘science’ with ‘chemistry’), an opportunity exists to compare the functioning of the original instrument in the same context as the adapted instrument. This information is important for understanding which types of modifications may have small or large impacts on instrument functioning and in which contexts these modifications may have more or less influence. In this study, data were collected from the online administration of scales from two science motivation instruments in chemistry courses for science majors and for non-science majors. Participants in each course were randomly assigned to view either the science version or chemistry version of the items. Response patterns indicated that students respond differently to different wordings of the items, with generally more favorable response to the science wording of items. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate the internal structure of each instrument, however acceptable data-model fit was not obtained under any administration conditions. Additionally, no discernable pattern could be detected regarding the conditions showing better data-model fit. These results suggest that even seemingly small changes to item wording and administration context can affect instrument functioning, especially if the change in wording affects the construct measured by the instrument. This research further supports the need to provide psychometric evidence of instrument functioning each time an instrument is used and before any comparisons are made of responses to different versions of the instrument.

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Goal orientations of general chemistry students via the achievement goal framework
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Scott E. Lewis

    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students’ goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success in a range of educational settings, but have not been used in post-secondary chemistry. This study describes the goal orientations of General Chemistry students and explores the relationship of goal orientations to success in the course. On average, students report higher task and self orientations than other orientation. Task orientation had a positive relationship with exam performance and self orientation had a negative relationship with exam performance. Clustering students showed that for the majority of students task and self orientations moved concurrently and students with low preference across the three orientations also performed lowest on exams. Finally, students in classes using Flipped-Peer Led Team Learning, a pedagogy designed to bring active learning to a large lecture class, showed higher task orientation than those in classes with lecture-based instruction.

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Development of pre-service chemistry teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Ayla Cetin-Dindar, Yezdan Boz, Demet Yildiran Sonmez, Nilgun Demirci Celep

    In this study, a mixed-method design was employed to investigate pre-service chemistry teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) development. For effective technology integration in instruction, knowledge about technology is not enough; teachers should have different knowledge types which are content, pedagogical, and technological. The 17 pre-service chemistry teachers who enrolled in the Instructional Technology and Material Development course participated in the study for one semester. The purpose of this course was to learn how to integrate simulations, animations, instructional games, data-logging, virtual labs and virtual field trips into chemistry instruction considering factors such as chemistry subjects and students’ possible alternative conceptions or their previous chemistry knowledge. A survey and interviews were used to gather data on the pre-service chemistry teachers’ TPACK framework both before and after the semester. A mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance was conducted to examine the differences in the pre-service teachers’ TPACK at two time periods considering also the gender factor. For the qualitative data, deductive analysis based on existing codes and categories was applied. The quantitative and qualitative findings of this study revealed that the pre-service chemistry teachers’ TPACK improved partially on some components. In addition, based on these findings, gender was not found to be a significant variable in technology integration. For further development in the TPACK framework, more context related technology applications in a learning and teaching environment are needed.

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Secondary school chemistry teacher's current use of laboratory activities and the impact of expense on their laboratory choices
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Sarah B. Boesdorfer, Robin A. Livermore

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools must deal with if laboratory activities are part of the chemistry curriculum. While other barriers impacting teachers' use of laboratory activities have been researched, the impact of expense on teachers' choices is not as clear. This study sought to understand secondary school chemistry teachers' current laboratory practices and the impact expense has on their use of laboratory activities in their classroom. Using an online survey and follow-up interviews, the study found that a majority of secondary chemistry teachers surveyed use laboratory activities, though not always including scientific practices advocated by NGSS. The frequency of laboratory activities used by teachers was not statistically impacted by school type, available funds for materials, or processes to obtain funds, but was impacted by teachers' personal ideas. Interviews provided more information about the teachers using laboratory activities regularly and those not. While most teachers are using laboratory activities regularly at the current funding levels, expense, in terms of monetary and time expenses, was shown to impact the specific choice of laboratory activity. Implications for chemistry curriculum reform including the usage of laboratory activities in chemistry courses are discussed along with implications for chemistry teacher professional development.

    更新日期:2017-10-26
  • We don’t get any training: the impact of a professional development model on teaching practices of chemistry and biology graduate teaching assistants
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Jacinta M. Mutambuki, Renee Schwartz

    This study investigated the implementation of best teaching practices by science graduate teaching assistants [GTAs] (3 chemists and 2 biologists) in five inquiry-based, interdisciplinary chemistry-biology experiments during a six-week professional development (PD) program, Engage PD. Additionally, we examined GTAs’ experiences in implementing specific PD aspects. The PD program took place as the GTAs taught sections of biology and chemistry laboratory courses, each comprising five interdisciplinary experiments. The PD aspects included defining expected learning outcomes, subject-matter knowledge, relevance to real-world and chemistry-biology connections, and other active classroom teaching practices. Data were collected through classroom observations, reflection questionnaires, and individual interviews. Findings indicated that 57% of the PD aspects investigated were implemented in the five interdisciplinary experiments. Results also revealed GTAs’ initial areas of struggle in implementing specific PD aspects. Perceived implementation difficulties were attributed to individual perceptions and beliefs, and contextual factors. Through practice, continuous feedback, and reflections, most GTAs overcame the hurdles and refined their teaching. Findings imply the need to design training PD programs that offer mentoring and support to GTAs and future faculty in implementing teaching innovations. The teaching context and reflection prompts are helpful in identifying areas of difficulties and how to improve.

    更新日期:2017-10-23
  • Progressions in reasoning about structure–property relationships
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Vicente Talanquer

    In this essay, findings from research in science and chemistry education are used to describe and discuss progression in students' structure–property reasoning through schooling. This work provides insights into the challenges that students face to master this important component of chemical thinking. The analysis reveals that student reasoning is often guided by nonnormative implicit schemas that are little affected by traditional instruction. These schemas prioritize chemical composition over molecular structure, and centralized causality over emergence in the explanation and prediction of the properties of substances. The types of components that students invoke to make sense of properties and phenomena may change with schooling, but the underlying reasoning persists. In general, learners assume that observed properties and behaviors are directly related to the types of atoms present in a system and determined by these individual atoms' inherent characteristics.

    更新日期:2017-10-20
  • Blending problem-based learning and peer-led team learning, in an open ended ‘home-grown’ pharmaceutical chemistry case study
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    Clinton G. L. Veale, Rui W. M. Krause, Joyce D. Sewry

    Pharmaceutical chemistry, medicinal chemistry and the drug discovery process require experienced practitioners to employ reasoned speculation in generating creative ideas, which can be used to evolve promising molecules into drugs. The ever-evolving world of pharmaceutical chemistry requires university curricula that prepare graduates for their role as designers with the capability of applying complex concepts in pharmaceutical chemistry, thereby improving the decision-making process. Common methods of teaching drug discovery, including the linear nature of the traditional case study model, do not provide a realistic picture of the underlying complexity of the process, nor do they equip students with the appropriate tools for personal sense making and abstraction. In this work, we discuss the creation of an open-ended, nonlinear case study for 3rd year pharmaceutical chemistry students, developed from drug discovery research conducted at Rhodes University. Furthermore, we discuss blending problem based learning (PBL) with peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the context of curriculum transformation, underpinned by the theory of semantic waves, to assist students in the early attainment of abstract concepts and answer questions of contextualisation, personal sense making, relatability, relevance and ultimately the skills for lifelong learning.

    更新日期:2017-10-20
  • The relationship between chemistry self-efficacy of South African first year university students and their academic performance
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-05
    Umesh Ramnarain, Sam Ramaila

    This study investigated the self-efficacy of first-year Chemistry students at a South African university. The research involved a quantitative survey of 333 students using the College Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSS) developed by Uzuntiryaki and Capa Aydin (2009). Descriptive statistics on data for the CCSS scales suggested that students have positive beliefs in their capability to accomplish chemistry tasks. The students scored more strongly on the self-efficacy constructs of cognitive and psychomotor skills than on everyday application. There was a significant difference between students of different professional orientations for cognitive skills and everyday applications, with students enrolled for Chemical Engineering having the highest mean scores for these constructs. A multiple regression analysis was run in order to explore the relationship between chemistry self-efficacy and performance in a chemistry examination. The analysis indicated that cognitive skills significantly predicted chemistry performance, while psychomotor skills and everyday applications had no significant impact. The implications for research and instruction are discussed in terms of the relationship between chemistry self-efficacy and performance.

    更新日期:2017-10-19
  • This mechanistic step is “productive”: organic chemistry students' backward-oriented reasoning
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-02
    I. Caspari, M. L. Weinrich, H. Sevian, N. Graulich

    If an organic chemistry student explains that she represents a mechanistic step because “it's a productive part of the mechanism,” what meaning could the professor teaching the class attribute to this statement, what is actually communicated, and what does it mean for the student? The professor might think that the explanation is based on knowledge of equilibria of alternative steps. The professor might also assume that the student implies information about how one of the alternatives influences the energetics of subsequent steps or how subsequent steps influence the equilibria of the alternatives. Meanwhile, the student might literally mean that the step is represented simply because it leads to the product. Reasoning about energetic influences has much greater explanatory power than teleological reasoning taking the consequence of mechanistic steps as the reason for their prediction. In both cases, however, the same backward-oriented reasoning is applied. Information about subsequent parts in the mechanism is used to make a decision about prior parts. To qualitatively compare the reasoning patterns and the causality employed by students and expected by their professor, we used a mechanistic approach from philosophy of science that mirrors the directionality of a mechanism and its components: activities, entities, and their properties. Our analysis led to the identification of different reasoning patterns involving backward-oriented reasoning. Participants' use of properties gave additional insight into the students' reasoning and their professor's expectations, which supports the necessity for clear expectations in mechanistic reasoning in organic chemistry classrooms. We present a framework that offers a lens to clarify these expectations and discuss implications of the framework for improving student mechanistic reasoning in organic chemistry.

    更新日期:2017-10-19
  • Progressions in reasoning about structure-property relationships
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Vicente Talanquer

    In this essay, findings from research in science and chemistry education are used to describe and discuss progression in students' structure-property reasoning through schooling. This work provides insights into the challenges that students face to master this important component of chemical thinking. The analysis reveals that student reasoning is often guided by nonnormative implicit schemas that are little affected by traditional instruction. These schemas prioritize chemical composition over molecular structure, and centralized causality over emergence in the explanation and prediction of the properties of substances. The types of components that students invoke to make sense of properties and phenomena may change with schooling, but the underlying reasoning persists. In general, learners assume that observed properties and behaviors are directly related to the types of atoms present in a system and determined by these individual atoms' inherent characteristics.

    更新日期:2017-10-14
  • Approaching gender equity in academic chemistry: lessons learned from successful female chemists in the UK
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Jaimie Miller-Friedmann, Ann Childs, Judith Hillier

    The internationally acknowledged gender gap in science continues to be an unrelenting concern to science educators; aggregate data in the UK show that both recruitment and retention of women in academic science remain relatively low. Most published research focuses on women in the broad field of science, generates correlations or predictions, or examines the reasons why women do not participate in fields like physics or engineering. Previous work has not yet addressed how women have found ways to succeed in particular fields, such as chemistry, or how successful pathways may be applied to recruitment and retention efforts in those fields. This study investigated the experiences of successful British female chemists, in order to uncover coping mechanisms and commonalities that may illuminate obstacles and solutions particular to women in chemistry. Four case study semi-structured life history interviews with highly successful British female chemists revealed common experiences that helped the women in the study to succeed. Of these, two resonated with the literature: having an integrated support network, and the ability to cope with financial and career instability; choice of subfield and adaptation of (unconscious) bias are offered as new insights. The findings suggest changes in policy and practice that would provide particular kinds of support for women in chemistry at school and university level. Implementing these changes may be the impetus needed to approach gender parity in UK academic chemistry from undergraduate to Professor.

    更新日期:2017-10-06
  • Studying the consistency between and within the student mental models for atomic structure
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-09-02
    Nikolaos Zarkadis, George Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Stamovlasis

    Science education research has revealed a number of student mental models for atomic structure, among which, the one based on Bohr's model seems to be the most dominant. The aim of the current study is to investigate the coherence of these models when students apply them for the explanation of a variety of situations. For this purpose, a set of six tasks describing different everyday situations was given to 225 students of the 10th and 11th grades of secondary schools from Northern Greece. Quantitative analysis of the students’ responses using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) showed that there is no consistency between models across the tasks and that the context of the task affects the distribution of students’ responses across models. Qualitative analysis showed a variety of pieces of knowledge from different models that students combine when manipulating the tasks, which possibly causes a lack of consistency within each one of the models. The findings are discussed in terms of between and within model consistency, and the conclusions contribute to the debate concerning the coherent vs. fragmented knowledge hypotheses. The empirical evidence provided by the analysis clearly demonstrates that student mental models for atomic structure were not coherent when applied in different everyday situations. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • Finding the connections between a high-school chemistry curriculum and nano-scale science and technology
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-09-02
    Ron Blonder, Sohair Sakhnini

    The high-school chemistry curriculum is loaded with many important chemical concepts that are taught at the high-school level and it is therefore very difficult to add modern contents to the existing curriculum. However, many studies have underscored the importance of integrating modern chemistry contents such as nanotechnology into a high-school curriculum. When students are exposed to nanotechnology, they perceive chemistry as more relevant to their life, and more modern than the chemistry they usually study at school, and consequently, their continuous motivation to study chemistry and related subjects increases. In the current study we identified topics in the high-school chemistry curriculum in Israel into which the essential nano-scale science and technology (NST) concepts can be integrated. Insertion points for all 8 NST essential concepts were found. We discuss the importance of ways in which chemistry educators can implement the results for updating the chemistry curriculum, thus making it more modern and relevant to the actual chemistry research that is conducted.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • Development of an instrument to evaluate high school students' chemical symbol representation abilities
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Zuhao Wang, Shaohui Chi, Ma Luo, Yuqin Yang, Min Huang

    Chemical symbol representation is a medium for transformations between the actual phenomena of the macroscopic world and those of the sub-microscopic world. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument to evaluate high school students' chemical symbol representation abilities (CSRA). Based on the current literature, we defined CSRA and constructed a four-level measurement framework validated by expert review. After that, an initial measurement instrument was developed based on the framework. Then, 52 students of Grade 10 and 56 students of Grade 11 were selected from school A to participate in the first round of testing. During the data analysis, Rasch measurement was used to investigate and improve the quality of the instrument. After that, 55 Grade 10 students and 57 Grade 11 students from school B participated in the second-round of testing, and the Rasch analysis results demonstrated good reliability and validity of measures based on the CSRA framework.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • Reasserting the role of pre-laboratory activities in chemistry education: a proposed framework for their design
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-08-28
    Hendra Y. Agustian, Michael K. Seery

    In this article we summarise over 60 reports and research articles on pre-laboratory activities in higher education chemistry. In the first section of the review, we categorise these activities as follows. First are those intending to introduce chemical concepts, that typically take the form of a pre-laboratory lecture, pre-laboratory quizzes, and pre-laboratory discussion. Second are those intending to introduce laboratory techniques, that typically take the form of interactive simulations, technique videos, mental preparation, and safety information. Finally, a small number of activities intended to prepare students for affective aspects of laboratory work, in the form of enabling confidence and generating motivation are described. In the second section of the review, we consider a framework for design of pre-laboratory activities that aligns with the principles of cognitive load theory. We propose how the two tenets of such a framework – supporting learners in complex scenarios and provision of information necessary to complete tasks – can be considered for the case of preparing for laboratory learning. Of particular relevance is the nature of information provided in advance and that provided just in time, characterised as supportive and procedural information respectively. Finally, in the concluding section, we draw together the principles outlined in the framework and findings from reports of pre-laboratory work in chemistry to propose five guidelines for those wishing to incorporate pre-laboratory activities into their laboratory curriculum; an activity we argue has a significant literature basis for us to encourage.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • Enhancing students' HOTS in laboratory educational activity by using concept map as an alternative assessment tool
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-08-22
    I. B. A. Ghani, N. H. Ibrahim, N. A. Yahaya, J. Surif

    Educational transformation in the 21st century demands in-depth knowledge and understanding in order to promote the development of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). However, the most commonly reported problem with respect to developing a knowledge of chemistry is poor mastery of basic concepts. Chemistry laboratory educational activities are shown to be less effective in developing an optimum conceptual understanding and HOTS among students. One factor is a lack of effective assessment and evaluation tools. Therefore, the primary focus of this study is to explore concept maps as an assessment tool in order to move students' thinking skills to a higher level during laboratory learning activities. An embedded mixed method design is used in this study, which has also employed a pre-experimental research design. This design triangulates quantitative and qualitative data, which are combined to strengthen the findings. A low-directed concept mapping technique, convergence scoring method, and pre-post laboratory concept map were used in this study. An electrolysis HOTS test was used as the research instrument in order to measure the level of student achievement with respect to high-level questions. In addition, the thought process that is involved when students construct concept maps has been explored and studied in detail by utilising a think-aloud protocol. Results showed a positive development towards understanding and higher level thinking skills in students with respect to electrolysis concepts learned through chemistry laboratory activities. An investigation of the students' thinking processes showed that high-achieving students were more capable of giving a content-based explanation of electrolysis and engaged in monitoring activities more often while building a concept map. Nonetheless, all categories of students managed to show a positive increase in the activities of explanation and monitoring during the construction of concept maps after they were exposed to the assessment tool in the laboratory learning activities. In conclusion, the assessment activity using concept maps in laboratory learning activities has a positive impact on students' understanding and stimulates students to increase their HOTS.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • Performance of underprepared students in traditional versus animation-based flipped-classroom settings
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    R. Ma. Gregorius

    Student performance in a flipped classroom with an animation-based content knowledge development system for the bottom third of the incoming first year college students was compared to that in a traditional lecture-based teaching method. 52% of these students withdrew from the traditionally taught General Chemistry course, compared to 22% in a similar course taught in a flipped classroom teaching method. Of the students who persisted in the course and obtained a grade, there was an increase in A's and B's as well as an increase in D's and F's for students taught in a flipped classroom teaching method when compared to those in the traditional setting. When the course that was initially taught in a flipped classroom method reverted to a traditional teaching method, students in that course generally performed worse than students who were in a traditionally taught course all throughout.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • A quantitative method to determine preservice chemistry teachers' perceptions of chemical representations
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    M. L. Head, K. Yoder, E. Genton, J. Sumperl

    Chemical representations serve as a cornerstone to guide the teaching of chemistry concepts. The influence that a chemical representation has on instruction is largely dependent on how well the viewer interprets the information in the representation. Teachers serve as a guide to the students as they point out and make connections between the features present in a chemical representation. To influence how well the teacher serves as a guide it is important to develop teachers' pedagogical content knowledge as it relates to visualizations. As a first step towards developing this area of teaching expertise it is crucial to develop an understanding of how preservice chemistry teachers perceive a variety of chemical representations. To this end, this paper presents a novel card-sorting methodology that utilizes Johnstone's triangle as a continuum to determine how chemistry preservice teachers perceive representations relative to the presence of each of the three representational levels: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. This study has determined that this methodology is both valid and reliable among a group of chemistry preservice teachers. The participants were able to effectively detect the presence or absence of the macroscopic domain. However, there was greater variance when the symbolic and submicroscopic levels were present. In addition, variance among the participants’ responses also increased dramatically when multiple levels were present in one representation. This was largely a result of what key features the participant focused on while viewing the card. The variance results of this study, along with the accompanying rationales for the placement of the cards, serve to inform the development of practices to further foster preservice chemistry teachers’ pedagogical-visual-content-knowledge (PVCK).

    更新日期:2017-10-03
  • Students’ perceptions of a project-based Organic Chemistry laboratory environment: a phenomenographic approach
    Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. (IF 1.906) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Nikita L. Burrows, Montana K. Nowak, Suazette R. Mooring

    Students can perceive the laboratory environment in a variety of ways that can affect what they take away from the laboratory course. This qualitative study characterizes undergraduate students’ perspectives of a project-based Organic Chemistry laboratory using the theoretical framework of phenomenography. Eighteen participants were interviewed in a semi-structured format to collect their perspectives of the Organic Chemistry lab. Eight qualitatively different ways in which students perceived the lab were uncovered and an outcome space was derived. The findings of this work are intended to inform the design of the undergraduate laboratory curriculum in chemistry that facilitate better student learning. Implications and suggestions for design of laboratory courses based on the results of this work are also presented.

    更新日期:2017-10-03
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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