An ancient winemaking technology: Exploring the volatile composition of amphora wines LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Nuno Martins, Raquel Garcia, Davide Mendes, Ana Maria Costa Freitas, Marco Gomes da Silva, Maria João Cabrita
Amphora wines are known in Portugal as Vinhos de Talha. In this ancient technology, alcoholic fermentation takes place in clay vessels in the shape of amphoras.Traditionally, the clay vessels are pitched inside using pine pitch and red, white or a mixture of both grapes can be fermented giving raise to red, white or palhete wines, respectively. The traditional technology associated with these wines is quite different from the modern technology of winemaking. Thus, Vinhos de Talha have a unique sensorial profile, due to the ancestral technique of vinification that originates distinctive wines, full of character and identity. The present research aims to evaluate the volatile profile of amphora wines (red, white and palhete wines). The volatile fraction of the different types of amphora wines was analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 117 volatile compounds in the different wines analyzed were tentatively identified and principal component analysis showed a clear separation among the different types of wine based on their volatile composition.
Structure-fracture relationships in chocolate systems LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Huanhuan Zhao, Bing Li, Bryony J. James
The fracture properties of model and real chocolates were investigated using a three-point bend test. Chocolate bars were stored under cycling temperatures between 20 °C and 29 °C for 60 d, during which V-to-VI polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter was examined by X-ray diffraction. Prior to storage, the Young's modulus and fracture stress of both model and real chocolate bars increased with a reduction in fat ratio, owning to decreasing particle-particle or particle-fat interactions. In addition, the model chocolate bars with larger particle size had lower Young's modulus and fracture stress due to the lower free fat ratio and higher void ratio of the matrix. After storage, the Young's modulus of bloomed chocolate bars increased due to the decrease in liquid fat ratio, while the fracture stress decreased as a result of the growth in void space as fat bloom developed. However, no significant (P < 0.05) interactions between storage time and fat ratio or particle size were found.
Effects of high pressure processing on the physical properties of fish ham prepared with farmed meagre (Argyrosomus regius) with reduced use of microbial transglutaminase LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Ana Teresa Ribeiro, Miguel Elias, Bárbara Teixeira, Carla Pires, Ricardo Duarte, Jorge Alexandre Saraiva, Rogério Mendes
Marketing issues of small-sized meagre can be overcome with the development of fish hams. This study aimed to test high pressure processing (HPP) to promote gelation of meagre hams, as an alternative to the heat processing. It was also aimed to reduce microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) from the formulation of HPP hams. Meagre hams were subjected to HPP varying different pressure parameters. The water holding capacity (WHC) and folding properties of hams were not affected by HPP, compared with heat processed hams. Whiteness was lower in HPP hams, and values increased with pressure level. The best results were obtained at 350 and 500 MPa at 30 °C, which also enhanced the textural properties of hams. Meagre hams prepared with different contents of MTGase (0–5.0 g/kg) were subjected to HPP. This enzyme did not affect the WHC and the folding properties of hams within each condition tested. HPP hams can be prepared with lower levels of MTGase (2.5 g/kg), without compromising the textural properties of hams. The results showed that it is possible to produce meagre hams with good textural properties and to reduce the MTGase content using HPP, validating the use of this technology as an alternative to the heat-induced gelation.
Formulation and storage effects on pomegranate smoothie phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and color LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 M. Cano-Lamadrid, F. Hernández, P. Nowicka, A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina, A. Wojdyło
Smoothies are an increasingly popular way of consuming fruits and the industry is focusing on the increment of shelf life and the maintenance original color and the content of bioactive compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how formulation and storage conditions (6 months at 4 or 20 °C) of different pomegranate smoothies affected on functional compounds. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, FRAP) and color of 12 different smoothies were studied. The study was completed evaluating the effect of ratio purée:juice (60:40 or 40:60), pomegranate cultivar (Mollar de Elche or Wonderful) and fruit purée (quince, jujube, or fig) on studied smoothies. The smoothies before storage presented high values of total polyphenolic content (TPC): 247–314 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw), 2939–3920 mg/100 g fw, and 3809–5324 mg/100 g fw, in fig, jujube and quinces pomegranate smoothies, respectively. A positive effect of the 40:60 ratio purée:juice, the Wonderful pomegranate juice storing at 4 °C was found on total polyphenolic content [sum of anthocyanins, flavanols, flavan-3-ols (as monomeric and dimeric), polymeric procyanidins and phenolic acids] and quality of smoothies (a* coordinate) being only a reduction of 30.1%, 13.1% and 9.5% in fig, jujube and quinces smoothies, respectively.
Potential application of monoglyceride structured emulsions as delivery systems of probiotic bacteria in reduced saturated fat ice cream LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 Calligaris Sonia, Marino Marilena, Maifreni Michela, Innocente Nadia
This study investigated the potentialities of saturated monoglyceride structured emulsions (MSEs) as delivery systems of probiotics in ice cream. MSEs containing a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain were prepared using anhydrous milk fat (AMF-MSE) or sunflower oil (Oil-MSE) as lipid phase and were added to the ice cream mix in substitution to milk cream just before freezing. Results highlighted the good capacity of MSEs to protect probiotic bacteria cells against stresses suffered during processing and storage. The physical state of the lipid phase included in the emulsion did not affect the survival of microorganisms. At the same time, the use of MSEs as fat phase allowed to obtain ice cream with minor modifications in terms of quality characteristics in comparison to control sample. In particular, Oil-MSE demonstrated the ability to create a melt-resistant fat network structure in ice cream when milk fat was replaced with sunflower oil. It was concluded that the monoglyceride crystalline structures formed in the MSE played both probiotic protective and structuring role. This approach allowed obtaining a low-saturated fat ice cream functionalized with probiotic bacteria.
Formation of capsaicin loaded nanoemulsions with high pressure homogenization and ultrasonication LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Elif Akbas, Betul Soyler, Mecit Halil Oztop
Nanoemulsions could increase the bioavailability of lipophilic compounds. In this study, nanoemulsions were obtained by high pressure homogenization and ultrasonication using capsaicin (oleoresin capsicum) (2 g/100g) in the oil phase and Tween 80 (2 g/100g), glycerol (0-50 g/100g) in the aqueous phase at pH 7.4 and 3.8. Mean droplet sizes below 65 nm were obtained with ultrasonication. Translucent nanoemulsions with minimum 79% efficiencies were obtained with high pressure homogenization. Pressurized nanoemulsions reduced Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli population up to 5.89 and 2.79 log respectively at pH 7.4. The addition of glycerol resulted in almost transparent, bright red colored nanoemulsions. Therefore, capsaicin nanoemulsions showing good antimicrobial activity could be obtained by high pressure homogenization, whereas ultrasonication mostly helped to improve physical properties such as particle size and color.
Use of succinyl chitosan as fat replacer on cake formulations LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Raquel V. Rios, Raquel Garzón, Suzana C.S. Lannes, Cristina M. Rosell
Chitosan derivatives have been used in bakeries as dietary fiber source for obtaining healthy breads, but no other application has been suggested. This research was focused on exploring the ability of a chitosan derivative (succinyl chitosan, SC) as fat replacer in cakes. SC suspensions were used to replace different levels of fat (up to absence of fat) and the effect on batters’ consistency and cakes features (color, morphogeometrics properties, texture, moisture and water activity) were evaluated. SC suspensions (2 g/100 g) were used to replace different levels of fat in cakes. By adapting batter consistencies, it was possible to obtain fat reduced batters with the same density, and cakes with high 2D area and lower ratio (width/height) containing half of the fat present in the reference cake. Crumb structure and texture features of fat reduced cakes containing SC was similar to that of full fat cakes. During staling, SC reduced hardening rate of cakes containing half fat, although drying rate was accelerated. The results indicated that succinyl chitosan has a great potential to be used as partial fat replacer on cakes, even reducing hardening rate during storage.
Culture-dependent and -independent analysis of bacterial community structure in Jiangshui, a traditional Chinese fermented vegetable food LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Zhang Jun, Wu Shuaishuai, Zhao Lihua, Ma Qilong, Li Xi, Ni Mengyang, Zhou Tong, Zhu Hongli
The bacterial community structure of Jiangshui, a traditional Chinese fermented vegetable food, was investigated using a culture-dependent method combined with culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from Jiangshui were closely related (>99% 16S rDNA sequence similarity) to three Lactobacillus species—L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. parabuchneri. DGGE analysis revealed that diverse LAB species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella are the dominant bacteria involved in Jiangshui fermentation and that the bacterial community varied between Jiangshui samples fermented with or without starter culture at different locations. Potential pathogenic species were detected in Jiangshui samples fermented without starter culture, suggesting the necessary of using starter culture for Jiangshui fermentation to improve food safety. Furthermore, the Jiangshui bacterial community was clearly distinct from that of Suancai and Paocai, showing that unique bacterial community is involved in Jiangshui fermentation. The study identified diverse, previously undetected species in Jiangshui. These findings advance the current understanding of the microorganisms present in Jiangshui and provide a theoretical basis for improving the safety and quality of Jiangshui fermentation.
Optimization of Roba1 extrusion conditions and bean extrudate properties using response surface methodology and multi-response desirability function LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Hedwig Natabirwa, Dorothy Nakimbugwe, Mercy Lungaho, John H. Muyonga
Effects of extruder die temperature, screw speed and ingredient feed moisture on Roba1 bean extrudate nutritional and physicochemical properties were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) and extrusion processing conditions optimized for optimal extrudate attributes by multi-response desirability function. Responses taken were protein content, protein digestibility, polyphenols, phytates, extrudate expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, and texture. Feed moisture, die temperature and screw speed significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the physicochemical properties of Roba1 extrudates. Increase in feed moisture at low die temperatures resulted in decrease in extrudate expansion ratio (∼3.96%) and water solubility (∼10%). Increases in expansion, and reduction in bulk density and water absorption index due to increase in screw speed and die temperature were also observed. Predictive desirability optimization generated optimal attributes (expansion ratio, 2.59; bulk density, 1.32; protein digestibility, 81.58%; and hardness, 24.4 N) for snack with desirability index of 0.75. Information from this study can be useful for optimization of bean snack extrusion process and product in the food industry.
Development and application of biopolymer coatings to specialty green coffee beans: Influence on water content, color and sensory quality LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-15 Laura Fonseca Ferreira, Giselle Figueiredo de Abreu, Amanda Maria Teixeira Lago, Luisa Pereira Figueiredo, Flávio Meira Borém, Maria Alice Martins, Soraia Vilela Borges, Marali Vilela Dias
Edible biopolymers are used as barrier coatings to preserve food products quality, but they have never been studied for use with green coffee beans. In the present work, biopolymeric coatings were developed and characterized in order to determine the treatment that would best retain the physical and sensorial properties of green coffee beans. The factors investigated were the type of biopolymer (starch and chitosan), pre-drying time (1 and 3 h) of the suspensions in an oven, and the number of immersions (1 and 2) of the green coffee beans in the suspensions. Tests were performed on coated beans (color and water content), films (contact angle with water and moisture), suspensions (rheological behavior after pre-drying), and beverages obtained from coated and roasted coffee beans (sensory quality). Contact angle and moisture analyses revealed that starch resulted in higher resistance to moisture than did chitosan treatments. Pre-drying for 3 h changed only the viscosity resulting from starch-based treatment. The treatment that entailed the use of starch, 3 h of pre-drying, and one immersion was the one that best retained color and water content characteristics of coated green coffee beans compared to control (uncoated green coffee beans). Moreover, neither biopolymer altered the sensory quality.
Enhancing wheat muffin aroma through addition of germinated and fermented Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) flour LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-15 Kornelia, T. Kaczmarska, Maria V. Chandra-Hioe, Damian Frank, Jayashree Arcot
Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) are excellent plant protein sources, however undesirable legume flavor can be a barrier to greater consumption. The impact of germination and fermentation on the concentration of free amino acids and free fatty acids in lupin and soybean flour and on the aroma profiles of baked muffins containing germinated and fermented lupin and soybean flour (40% w/w) were evaluated by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry and olfactometry. Muffins incorporating germinated lupin and soybean flours had a higher concentration of selected free amino acids and most volatiles, followed by muffins enriched with fermented lupin and soybean, compared to wheat muffins. Based on olfactometry and semi-quantitative volatile data, muffins baked with the addition of germinated and fermented lupin and soybean flour were characterized by a higher concentration of odor-active volatiles and more intense aroma.
Effect of adding potato maltodextrins on baking properties of triticale flour and quality of bread LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-14 Karolina Pycia, Grażyna Jaworska, Joanna Telega, Iwona Sudoł, Piotr Kuźniar
This work investigates the effect of the addition of potato maltodextrins saccharified to various degrees on the baking properties of triticale flour and the quality of the obtained bread. The experimental material was triticale flour and commercial potato maltodextrin preparations with a low and average degree of saccharification. The proportions of maltodextrins in the studied systems were 2, 4, 6 and 8% with regard to the flour content. The results showed that the falling number and water absorption of triticale flour was decreasing with the increasing proportion of potato maltodextrins. The dough was more stable along with an increase in maltodextrin content in the investigated systems and a rise in DE values, while a fall was observed in its resistance to mixing. Loaf volume and crumb colour depended on the proportion and type of added maltodextrins. Bread containing 8% of medium-saccharified maltodextrins had the largest volume. In turn, crumb brightness was decreasing as the DE value of hydrolysates was increasing. The addition of maltodextrins to triticale flour also significantly determined the texture parameters of bread. The crumb hardness and chewiness were decreasing with increasing content of the DE of hydrolysates and their proportion in the flour blends.
Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of catuaba, galangal, roseroot, maca root, guarana and polyfloral honey in sausages during storage LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-14 A. Półtorak, M. Marcinkowska-Lesiak, K. Lendzion, M. Moczkowska, A. Onopiuk, I. Wojtasik-Kalinowska, A. Wierzbicka
The antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of catuaba, galangal, roseroot, maca root, guarana and honey in sausages were investigated during storage at 2 °C for 20 days. Three independent replications of sausages were manufactured to compare groups: the control group (C) and groups where various levels of bioactive components were added (E1, E2, and E3). Each group was examined for chemical composition, total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA), anti-inflammatory activity (AA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), fatty acid profile and total aerobic bacterial plate count (TAPC). Increased levels of TBARS and TAPC values were noticed in all the samples during storage. In the groups where bioactive components were used, improved antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects were observed. The best results at the end of storage were obtained for the sausages where the highest dose of the components was used (17.34 g/kg of catuaba bark, 0.22 g/kg of ground great galangal root, 4.58 g/kg of ground roseroot, 6.14 g/kg of maca root extract, 6.00 g/kg of ground guarana and 11.46 g/kg of polyfloral honey). In the examined sausages, strong correlations between TPC and TAA (r2 = 0.82; P < 0.05), TPC and AA (r2 = 0.88; P < 0.05), and TPC and TBARS values (r2 = −0.67; P < 0.05) were obtained.
Application of osmotic pressure in modification of Amaranthus viridis starch LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-15 Temitope Omolayo Fasuan, Charles Taiwo Akanbi
The modification of Amaranthus viridis starch by osmotic pressure using central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN) was studied. The amount of starch, saturated sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution and reaction time were established as significant (p < 0.05) factors. The extent of involvement of process variables were identified as 37.89%, 35.67% and 26.45% for saturated Na2SO4 solution, reaction time and starch solids, respectively. Optimal condition of starch (150 g), saturated Na2SO4 solution (250 mL) and time of 20 min with corresponding total amylose (36.77%), free amylose (27.31%) and lipid-complexed amylose (9.46%) were established for CCD. The ANN gave optimal condition of 149.04 g (starch), 248.40 mL (saturated Na2SO4 solution) and time (19.41 min) with corresponding total amylose, free amylose and lipid-complexed amylose of 36.38%, 28.01% and 8.37%, respectively. The high amylose content of the starch indicated that it has high degree of flakiness. The presence of lipid-complexed amylose showed its potential in improving colonic health microflora and lower glycemic index. Pareto charts showed that the most significant (p < 0.05) term was starch solids x reaction time for total amylose. The results itemized basic information on development of thrifty and efficient process for derivation of osmotic pressured starch from A. viridis grain.
Oxidation kinetics of sardine oil in the presence of commercial immobilized lipases commonly used as biocatalyst LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-14 Ángela García Solaesa, María Teresa Sanz, Rodrigo Melgosa, Sagrario Beltrán
Oxidation kinetics of sardine oil have been determined at 40, 65 and 90 °C by measuring concentration of primary and secondary oxidation products in the presence of commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme 435, Lipozyme RM and Lipozyme TL) commonly used as biocatalyst in lipid modification reactions. Oxidation products concentration was found to be lower when the immobilized lipases were added at the highest temperatures studied. The lowest oxidation indices were observed in the presence of Lipozyme RM. Although the mechanism to explain this decrease in the oxidation products is not still clear, these results might indicate that the use of these immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed reactions of fish oils at high temperature (90 °C) will yield higher reaction rates but also a reduction of the oxidation products formed due to oxidation of polyunsatured fatty acids.
Antioxidative effect of phenolic acids octyl esters on rapeseed oil stability LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-14 Aleksandra Szydłowska-Czerniak, Dobrochna Rabiej, Jan Kyselka, Miroslav Dragoun, Vladimír Filip
Octyl esters of sinapic, ferulic and caffeic acids added to refined rapeseed oil in the concentration range between 0.005 and 0.9% were studied as a potential antioxidants soluble in fats. The effect of octyl esters addition on oxidative stability of rapeseed oil was evaluated by the Rancimat method, and a positive linear correlations (r = 0.8993–0.9546) between the induction times (IP) and phenolipids concentrations were found. Moreover, radical-scavenging capacity of oils with lipophilized phenolic acids was evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The fortified rapeseed oils revealed higher antioxidant capacity (DPPH = 361–15191 μmol Trolox (TE)/100 g) and an increase in oxidative stability (IP = 4.0–12.5 h) in comparison with the refined rapeseed oil (DPPH = 334 μmol TE/100 g and IP = 3.9 h). Protection factors (1.03–3.21) for the enriched rapeseed oils indicate an antioxidant activity of the synthesized phenolipids. Moreover, a new antioxidant - octyl sinapate inhibits the growth of yeast, Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas this ester has not anti-mould properties.
Efficacy of starter culture application using immersion technique on the characteristics of cooked-curd cheeses: Kashar cheese sample LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-14 Omer Faruk Celik, Sertap Kurt, Busra Tufenk, Zekai Tarakci
Kashar is a cooked-curd cheese and traditionally produced without using any starter cultures. Three different types of commercial starter cultures Choozit ™ MA 11 (MA), BT 01 (BT) and Feta A (Feta) applied to the Kashar cheeses after the cooking stage using an immersion technique to eliminate the negative effect of heat on the viability of starter cultures and their activities. Compositional, sensory and ripening characteristics including electrophoresis were determined. MA-culture showed the highest acid production capability while BT-culture possessed the highest proteolytic activity and sensory scores. The results suggest that the immersion technique has a potential use in the production of cooked-curd cheeses.
Impact of a thermisation treatment on oxytetracycline spiked ovine milk: Fate of the molecule and technological implications LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Roberto Cabizza, Nicolino Rubattu, Severyn Salis, Massimo Pes, Roberta Comunian, Antonio Paba, Elisabetta Daga, Margherita Addis, M. Cecilia Testa, P. Paolo Urgeghe
A few studies have been published on the distribution of oxytetracyline (OTC) residues present in milk among cheese, whey, and milk protein fractions, throughout cheese-making, most of them, focused on the effect of pasteurization and Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treatments, and carried out on cow milk. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a thermisation treatment of ovine milk spiked with oxytetracycline at MRL (maximum residue limit) and half MRL, on the fate of the molecule, and the effect of OTC residues on starter culture development and cheese composition. The antibiotic recovery and partition from milk into whey and cheese were assessed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Starter and non-starter microflora development was monitored by viable plate counts. Milk thermisation did not affect OTC recovery, partition and cheese chemical composition. On a dry matter basis, an OTC reduction between 15 and 19% was calculated in 60-day cheese, at MRL and half MRL, respectively. OTC caused a dose-dependent difference in the time required to reach pH 5.60, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at MRL level compared to half MRL and control, allowing coliform bacteria to reach 6 log CFU g−1 in 1-day MRL OTC cheeses.
Effect of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell) O. Berg) and jamelão (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) peel powders as colorants on color-flavor congruence and acceptability of yogurts LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas-Sá, Raquel Claverie de Souza, Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araujo, Renata Galhardo Borguini, Luzimar da Silva de Mattos, Sidney Pacheco, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy
Jabuticaba and jamelão are fruits native to Brazil whose peels are rich in anthocyanins being a potential source of natural pigments for food industry. This study investigated the cross-modal interactions of color on flavor's perception and consumer acceptability of yogurts colored with jabuticaba and jamelão peel powders. First, 106 consumers performed a color-matching task with four fruit flavors variants and eight colors including non-colored and synthetic colorants. Subsequently, 95 consumers tasted samples and rated on a 9-point hedonic scale how much they liked each sample, besides to mark, among seven flavor variants, the one that most corresponded to the taste of each yogurt. Results revealed that use of jabuticaba and jamelão peel powders in yogurt added a positively valence confirmation of consumer expectation for fruit flavors such as berries, plum, strawberry, jabuticaba and grape. The resulting color of yogurts added of synthetic and peel powders colorants were differentiated by consumers who matching fruits that comprise, respectively, red-pink and blue-purple hue values separately. Consumers also used their popular knowledge about the way of consumption of jabuticaba to make their flavor associations. The expectation generated by yogurts' colors affected directly consumers' hedonic responses.
Using brewer's spent grain to formulate culture media for the production of bacteriocins using Patagonian strains LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Alicia Paz, Sabrina da Silva Sabo, Marisol Vallejo, Emilio Marguet, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, José Manuel Domínguez
This study evaluates the use of hemicellulosic hydrolyzates, derived from brewer's spent grain (BSG), as a means of generating bacteriocins. The producer strains, Lactococcus lactis Tw11 and Enterococcus mundtii Tw492, were isolated from animals of Argentine Patagonia. Different culture formulations were tested, and antimicrobial activity was determined against Listeria monocytogenes CECT-934. The presence of Tween 80 allowed the release of bacteriocins produced by both strains, with inhibition halos of 15.46 mm ± 0.05 using L. lactis Tw11, and 24.47 mm ± 0.09 using E. mundtii Tw492. Also, under these conditions the concentration of lactic acid was seen to increase to 3.21 g L−1 ± 0.12 using L. lactis Tw11, yet remained very similar (2.45 g L−1 ± 0.01) with E. mundtii Tw492. The activity of the bacteriocins was scarcely affected by additional supplementation with salts. This research suggests that BSG and other similar materials can be used in the production of bacteriocins employing ecofriendly methods.
Fermentation process of apple juice investigated by NMR spectroscopy LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Erica Cusano, Barbara Simonato, Roberto Consonni
Cider is a slightly alcoholic beverage and is an important and promising segment of the fruit industry. In this study, a still cider produced by fermentation of apples juice was investigated. A simultaneous characterization of bioactive compounds in apple juice and the intermediate products of the cidermaking process was performed for the first time using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.Alongside sugar consumption, a progressive increase in trigonelline, chalcone, fumarate, caffeic acid, uracil, tyrosol and xanthine content was detected during the alcoholic fermentation process. Of note was the relatively high tyrosol content which imparts health benefits in the cider.The concomitant changes in phenol, amino acid and organic acid (malic, lactic, quinic, pyruvic, citric and succinic) content, was important when monitoring the fermentation process and assessing quality control of the final product.
Potential of polymer stabilized nano-liposomes to enhance antimicrobial activity of nisin Z against foodborne pathogens LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Taskeen Niaz, Saima Shabbir, Tayyaba Noor, Abdur Rahman, Habib Bokhari, Muhammad Imran
The scientific and industrial interest in antimicrobial nano-carriers has significantly increased in recent years due to post-processing contamination. Liposomes are considered as promising food-grade carrier systems for bioactive-agents. However, due to relatively low stability of liposomes, surface modification or coating is required to improve its efficiency. The purpose of this study was to fabricate chitosan (CA) stabilized nano-liposomes (chitosomes) to enhance the controlled release and antimicrobial effect of nisin-Z against multidrug resistant (MDR) foodborne pathogens. Chitosome characteristics including encapsulation efficiency (EE %), SEM, thermal stability (TGA, DSC), FTIR analysis, antimicrobial potential and in vitro controlled release were investigated. Overall, chitosomes (CS) were thermally more stable, showed higher EE% (86 ± 1%) as compared to liposomes (56 ± 2%) and controlled S. aureus, E. faecalis and L. monocytogenes growth better than free or liposomal-nisin. SEM confirmed the size of liposomes from 54 to 108 nm, which increased after coating with chitosan. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction between CA and liposomes by merger of amide I and II peaks. Thus, CA-stabilized liposomes not only improve physico-chemical attributes while ensuring sustained release of nisin but also provide a potential approach to control bacterial contamination in food products for enhanced food safety.
Bacterial diversity in traditional sourdough from different regions in China LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Xiaojiao Liu, Man Zhou, Chen Jiaxin, Ying Luo, Fuzhou Ye, Shuo Jiao, Xinzhong Hu, Jiachao Zhang, Xin Lü
Sourdough is widely used for the preparation of traditional sourdough breads in Europe and as an important inoculum for steamed buns prepared in Asian countries, especially China. This study aims to characterize Chinese traditional sourdoughs in terms of their taxonomic compositions, physicochemical characteristics, bacterial diversity and functional features. Thirty geographically diverse sourdoughs were collected from three regions across China. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics were used to characterize the bacterial diversity of the sourdoughs from the different sampling sites. The results showed that the West group was significantly different from the North and South groups in the dominant genera (mainly Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc) and metabolic pathways (metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, MTP, and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, XBM), whereas samples from the North and South groups were not significantly different from each other. This is the first report of the genus Clostridium in sourdough and the first report of metabolic pathways related to MTP and XBM in sourdough. This research provides a thorough description and analysis of the relationship between bacterial diversity and geographic region in sourdough.
Effect of long-term storage on viability and acceptability of lyophilized and spray-dried synbiotic microcapsules in dry functional food formulations LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Sahoo Moumita, Bhaskar Das, Uzma Hasan, R. Jayabalan
The use of microfluidization for the production of xanthan and citrus fiber-based gluten-free corn breads LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Oguz Kaan Ozturk, Behic Mert
Corn gluten meal is an underutilized byproduct due to its hydrophobic nature although it contains high amount of protein. The primary objectives of this study were to enhance the water holding capacity of this protein-rich byproduct with microfluidization technique and use it in bread-making formulations instead of gluten with the addition of different supplements. The increase in stability, surface area, and consequently water holding capacity with microfluidization resulted in the formation of compatible and homogeneous dough structure for gluten-free bread formulations. The dough exhibited linear viscoelastic behavior at strains lower than 0.5%. Elastic moduli were higher than viscous moduli for all formulations, meaning solid-like behavior. The addition of xanthan and citrus fiber resulted in higher moduli values. The decrease in particle size and the emergence of new tissues resulted in revealing of carotenoids like lutein and zeaxanthin, responsible for the yellow color of corn gluten meal. The breads produced from microfluidized samples had 1.19–1.27 times higher specific volumes than untreated samples of the same formulation. Similar improvements (1.03–1.22) were obtained with the addition of xanthan and citrus fiber. Both microfluidization treatment and the addition of supplements led to lower hardness, and higher cohesiveness and springiness values.
Enhanced cross-category models for predicting the total polyphenols, caffeine and free amino acids contents in Chinese tea using NIR spectroscopy LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Jiahua Wang, Yifang Wang, Jingjing Cheng, Jun Wang, Xudong Sun, Shuang Sun, Zhenya Zhang
Total polyphenols (TP), caffeine, and free amino acids (FAA) constitute tea taste. The feasibility of developing a cross-category model for predicting TP, caffeine and FAA contents in Chinese black, dark, oolong, and green teas, was investigated. Diffuse reflectance spectra (4000–10,000 cm−1) of tea were collected using Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and a hybrid method was applied to enhance characteristic signals. Random frog and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) were used to select key variables for partial least squares (PLS) calculation. For calibration, the best predictive performance was achieved by the CARS-PLS models. The coefficients of determination and root mean squared errors in the prediction set were 0.994 and 0.595 for TP, 0.986 and 0.070 for caffeine, and 0.993 and 0.063 for FAA, respectively. The results highlight the potential of NIR coupled with chemometrics for the simultaneous testing of TP, caffeine and FAA contents in Chinese tea from different categories.
Synergistic effect of low power ultrasonication on antimicrobial activity of cecropin P1 against E. coli in food systems LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Maya Fitriyanti, Ganesan Narsimhan
Recent studies have shown that both low frequency (20–100 kHz) ultrasonication and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) treatment processes have a significant advantage in inactivating bacterial cells than the conventional heat treatment due to higher food texture quality of the final product. However, the effect of the combined process has not been fully investigated in complex matrices such as food. In this study, deactivation of Escherichia coli in different concentrations of milk and orange juice were performed using three different treatments: low frequency ultrasonication (20 kHz) at different power levels, antimicrobial peptide Cecropin P1 at different concentrations, and combination of both. The results of all samples showed that the combined treatment is more efficient, reducing the cell density of E. coli up to four orders of magnitude, compared to individual treatments. However, the milk concentration results in lower synergistic effect. This is believed to be due to complexation of milk proteins with Cecropin P1 thus resulting in less availability of the latter for antimicrobial action. This dependence was not observed in orange juice samples. Ultrasonication resulted in insignificant decrease in viscosity, color and vitamin C for both milk and orange juice except at higher power level of 160W at longer exposure time.
Improving functional properties of “Piel de Sapo” melon juice by addition of a Lippia citriodora natural extract and probiotic-type lactic acid bacteria LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Javier Rúa, Iván López-Rodríguez, Javier Sanz, María Camino García-Fernández, María Pilar del Valle, María Rosario García-Armesto
Six selected lactic-acid probiotic-type (PT-LAB) bacteria were screened for sensitivity towards a Lippia citrodora extract with reported functional properties (PLX®). The effect of pH (6.7 and 5.5) and temperature (35 °C and 4 °C) on the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. PLX® MIC values at 4 °C were lower than those at 35 °C, and at pH 5.5 were generally higher than those at pH 6.7. After storage at 4 ºC-4 days, both plain “Piel de Sapo” melon juice (MJ) and fortified with PLX® (PLX®FMJ) at 2500 μg/mL (maximum sensorial acceptable limit in MJ), maintained the viability of the six PT-LAB bacteria. Additionally, four of these bacteria showed growth potential (δ > 0.5) in MJ and only one of them (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) in PLX®FMJ. PLX® synergistically increased the antioxidant activity of MJ. PLX® and PT-LAB are promising ingredients to increase the functional properties of “Piel de Sapo” MJ.
A novel process for peanut tofu gel: Its texture, microstructure and protein behavioral changes affected by processing conditions LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Yalong Guo, Hui Hu, Qiang Wang, Hongzhi Liu
How extraction method affects the physicochemical and functional properties of chia proteins LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Michele Silveira Coelho, Myriam de las Mercedes Salas-Mellado
Partially defatted chia flour (CF) is a by-product of chia oil production. Here we aimed to determine how the choice of extraction method affects the physicochemical and functional properties of chia proteins. Chemical (chia protein concentrates [CPC1 and CPC2]) and dry fractionation (producing a protein-rich fraction [PRF]) methods were used, and the physicochemical and functional properties of the extracted proteins were tested. The protein content of the tested CF was 36.6%. The protein content of the PRF, CPC1, and CPC2 extracts were 49.7, 70.9 and 74.1% respectively. The chia protein extracts mostly consisted of glutelins. Although the PRF had the lowest protein content of the extracts, it presented good functional properties. The dry fractionation method is simpler than the tested chemical methods. Based on our findings, we propose that the optimal choice of chia extraction method is dependent on the desired product.
Optimization of palm oil in water nano-emulsion with curcumin using microfluidizer and response surface methodology LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Revathi Raviadaran, Davannendran Chandran, Liew Huey Shin, Sivakumar Manickam
This study aims to produce and optimise palm oil-based nano-emulsion to encapsulate curcumin using microfluidizer and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Encapsulation of curcumin is essential to overcome curcumin's poor bioavailability through the formation of nano-sized droplets in order to harvest its outstanding anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer medicinal properties. Among the parameters of concern are microfluidizer's pressure, number of cycles and surfactant concentration (Tween 80). Optimisations were performed by employing RSM. Characterisations were conducted for the droplet size, poly-dispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and viscosity. Stable palm oil-based oil in water nano-emulsion encapsulating curcumin was achieved at a droplet size of 275.5 nm, PDI of 0.257, ZP of −36.2 and viscosity of 446 cP using microfluidizer. The optimized conditions were at 350 bar, 5 cycles and 1 wt% surfactant. Optimized microfluidizer with the aid of RSM is deemed capable to produce palm oil-based oil in water nano-emulsion encapsulating curcumin with small droplet size using low surfactant concentration and under optimum energy consumption.
Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds in Chinese purple yam and evaluation of antioxidant activity LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Junhong Zhang, Honglei Tian, Ping Zhan, Fangling Du, Aizhen Zong, Tongcheng Xu
Curcuma longa L.- and Piper nigrum-based hydrolysate, with high dextrose content, shows antioxidant and antimicrobial properties LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Mariana Assis de Queiroz Cancian, Fernanda Garcia de Almeida, Marcela Moreira Terhaag, Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira, Thais de Souza Rocha, Wilma Aparecida Spinosa
A turmeric-and-black-pepper-based hydrolysate (HTBP) was developed. The polyphenolic compounds content, antioxidant activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] and antimicrobial activity [minimal inhibitory concentration (macro-dilution method) and minimum bactericidal concentration (inoculating the surfaces of agar plates)] were evaluated. Furthermore, the best solvent for extraction of the polyphenolic compounds and curcumin, the main bioactive in turmeric flour (TF), was established. In addition, the tautomeric conformation of curcumin (present in TF and HTBP) was determined by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The HTBP was obtained by complete hydrolysis of the starch to dextrose and showed the same curcumin content as TF, suggesting that the starch hydrolysis allowed the release of curcumin from the starch matrix. The antioxidant results indicated that curcumin was responsible for reducing the ferric ion, in the FRAP assay. The presence of piperine in HTBP was confirmed by FT-IR. The ethanol extracts of TF and HTBP showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Quantification and visualization of α-tocopherol in oil-in-water emulsion based delivery systems by Raman microspectroscopy LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Kaiqiang Wang, Da-Wen Sun, Qingyi Wei, Hongbin Pu
Emulsion is a commonly investigated bioactive loaded delivery system. The bioactive content and its location in oil phase primarily determine the quality and chemical stability of emulsion. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy was used to quantify α-tocopherol and to visualize its distribution in oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by whey protein isolates. Results suggested that α-tocopherol contents (25–300 g/kg) in corn oil with the integrating Raman intensity at 481.9 and 588.6 cm−1 showed determination coefficient (R2) of 0.98 and 0.99, and limit of detection of 5.1 and 21.2 g/kg, respectively. For detecting α-tocopherol in emulsions, the relative standard deviation values from Raman method using intensities at 481.9 cm−1 and 588.6 cm−1 were in the ranges of 4%–16% and 2%–6%, respectively. The developed Raman method provided correlative results with those of HPLC method (R2 = 0.99). Moreover, Raman chemical imaging depicted the non-homogeneous TOC distribution within oil droplets, where TOC had the trend of migrating to the interface of oil and water. This study provided a novel approach for functional emulsion analysis, which may serve the basis for designing stable and controllable release of emulsion systems in future.
Enzymatic modification of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil aimig to obtain dietary triacylglycerols in a batch reactor LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Natalia Bassan, Rafael Hatanaka Rodrigues, Rubens Monti, Carla Tecelão, Suzana Ferreira-Dias, Ariela V. Paula
Structured lipids (SL) are chemically or enzymatically modified oils and fats with respect to their original fatty acid composition or position in acylglycerols. These compounds present improved functional or nutraceutical properties. The present work aimed at the enzymatic synthesis of SL, MLM-type dietary triacylglycerols, that is, those with medium chain fatty acids (M) at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, and (L), in the internal position of the triacylglycerol. Grape seed oil was selected based on its composition rich in unsaturated fatty acids, principally linoleic acid. This oil was submitted to batch acidolysis with medium chain fatty acids (caprylic or capric) in solvent-free media. Reactions were catalyzed by different immobilized commercial lipases, namely: Lipozyme TL IM® (Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase), Lipozyme RM IM® (Rhizomucor miehei lipase) and Novozym 435® (Candida antarctica lipase). The incorporation degree (ID) ranged from 23.62 ± 1.34 to 34.53 ± 0.05%, after 24 h reaction at 45 °C, using a molar ratio (MR) acid:oil of 2:1. The best results were obtained using caprylic acid and Lipozyme RM IM® lipase (34.53 ± 0.05%). In the experimental design, the influence of MR and temperature on ID were evaluated. ID increased with MR and T and was fitted to a saddle-like surface.
Antistaling effects of hydrocolloids and modified starch on bread during cold storage LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Nayoung Kang, Chagam Koteswara Reddy, Eun Young Park, Hee-Don Choi, Seung-Taik Lim
Antistaling effects of some hydrocolloids (guar gum, xanthan, and sodium alginate; 0.3 g/100 g flour) and modified starches (acetylated, oxidized and hydroxypropylated corn starches; 10 g replacing flour) on bread during cold storage (4 °C for 10 d) were investigated. Loaf volume, moisture content, texture, and the degree of starch recrystallization of the bread crumb were analyzed. The minor addition of hydrocolloids improved the loaf volume of fresh bread and retarded textural changes of crumb induced by cold storage. The partial replacement (10%) of flour with modified starches induced antistaling effects similar to those obtained by hydrocolloid addition. In particular, acetylated or hydroxypropylated starches were more effective than oxidized starch. Crystallinity analysis of bread crumb using X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the effects of hydrocolloids and modified starches on the starch recrystallization were not substantial. Amorphous rearrangements in starch were responsible for changes in crumb texture during storage, and the minor addition of hydrocolloids and the partial replacement of flour with modified starches retarded the rearrangement induced by the storage.
Modelling the effect of betel leaf essential oil on germination time of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum spore population LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Suradeep Basak
The objective of this study was to model the efficacy of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) essential oil (BLEO) on germination of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum spore population. Experimental data of rate of spore germination under the influence of the range (0.1–1.5 μl/ml) of BLEO concentration were fitted to the asymmetric model, and the germination time parameter was estimated with satisfactory statistical indices (RMSE and R2). The secondary modelling of germination time as a function of BLEO using the reciprocal of re-parameterized Monod-type equation estimated minimum inhibitory concentration 0.65 and 0.54 μl/ml of BLEO for spore germination of A. flavus and P. expansum, respectively. The accuracy and bias factor of the fitted secondary model suggested good similarity between observed and estimated germination time values under the influence of BLEO for both selected moulds. It can be concluded that the asymmetric model and the re-parameterized Monod-type model could describe the inhibitory pattern of the essential oil against two selected predominant food spoilage moulds. The antifungal activity also suggests the potential of BLEO as natural antimicrobials.
Corn snack with high fiber content: Effects of different fiber types on the product quality LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Yang Jin Han, Thi Thu Tra Tran, Van Viet Man Le
Snack food with high fiber content has attracted attention due to various health benefits. In this study, six dietary fiber materials were mixed with corn meal and subsequently co-extruded for snack production. With the same ratio of fiber material to corn meal, the highest fiber level of the extrudate was observed when xanthan gum, gum acacia or inulin was added to the blend. Use of these fiber materials also resulted in reduced radial expansion ratio, increased bulk density and enhanced hardness of the product. Smaller increase in fiber content of the extruded snack was reported for polydextrose, resistant starch or resistant maltodextrin. Addition of resistant starch to the blend also reduced radial expansion and increased bulk density of the extruded snack while the obtained product samples with polydextrose or resistant maltodextrin had comparable physical and sensory quality to the control sample. Among the tested fiber materials, polydextrose and resistant maltodextrin were potential for the production of snack with high fiber content.
Evaluation of mechanical-pressed essential oil from Nanfeng mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni) as a food preservative based on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-06 Fengping Yi, Ruyue Jin, Jing Sun, Baodi Ma, Xiaoli Bao
An optimum condition for extraction of essential oil from Nanfeng mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinokuni) was obtained by mechanical pressing with an aid of a three-factor, three-level rotatable experiment central composite design (CCD) based on the response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized condition, the actual oil yield was obtained by 0.689 ± 0.01%, which well matched the predicted value. Furthermore, sixty-four components, representing 96.34% of the total oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil revealed broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects against the tested microorganisms with the inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the ranges of 9.24–16.35 mm and 7.5–60 mg/mL, respectively. The oil also exhibited moderate antioxidant activities in the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 3-(N-morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (ABTS) as well as the reducing power assays. Meanwhile, the potential active components in the essential oil were characterized according to the subsequent evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seventeen constituent compounds. Results demonstrated that this essential oil has the potential to act as a plant-derived natural additive for food preservation.
Comparative assessment of phytochemical profile, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity in different varieties of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Yue Gao, Xinbo Guo, Yu Liu, Mingwei Zhang, Ruifen Zhang, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Lijun You, Tong Li, Rui Hai Liu
Consumption of brown rice is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, which might be attributed to the presence of unique phytochemicals. This study aimed to evaluate phytochemicals profile, cellular antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities in glutinous and non-glutinous brown rice varieties of indica and japonica subspecies. In general, bound fractions of brown rice depicted significant variation levels of phytochemicals, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Anti-proliferative activity of bound fraction, total antioxidant capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of non-glutinous type were significantly higher than glutinous type (p < 0.05). Present investigation could be significant to introduce brown rice as functional foods and to increase awareness about health benefits of whole grain.
Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nylon-6 nanofibrous membranes for grape juice fermentation LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Mariachiara Armani, Ksenia Morozova, Matteo Scampicchio
Nylon-6 nanofibrous membranes (NFM) prepared by electrospinning have been used as solid state support for the immobilization of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then applied for the fermentation of grape juice. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The resulting metabolic activity was characterized by microcalorimetry. Sugar and ethanol changes during fermentation was monitored by HPLC. The results showed that the fermentation performance of immobilized yeasts on NFM is equal or even superior to the traditional fermentation process with yeasts freely dispersed in the medium. From calorimetry, free and immobilized yeasts showed the same enthalpy value in model solution, regardless to the amount of yeast loaded (52.2 ± 5.9 kJ mol−1 of glucose). Instead, immobilization of yeasts resulted in shorter lag time. Moreover, the maximum growth rate of immobilized yeasts was the same as with free yeasts in model solutions. However, the growth rate of immobilized yeasts was even higher, when performed in grape juice. In addition, the immobilization of yeasts on NFM exhibits the evident possibility of multiple reuse. Three consecutive fermentations were performed without significant loss of the overall performance. These findings support the development of nanostructured solid support for biocatalytic processes like fermentation of alcoholic beverages.
Efficacy of chlorine, peroxyacetic acid and mild-heat treatment on the reduction of natural microflora and maintenance of quality of fresh-cut calçots (Allium cepa L.) LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Lorena Zudaire, Inmaculada Viñas, Maribel Abadias, Joan Simó, Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo
Calçots are the immature floral stems of the second-year onion (Allium cepa L.) resprouts with economic importance in Spain. The effect of sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid and mild heat treatment on the microbiological, physicochemical and visual quality of calçots after disinfection and for 15-day storage period at 4 °C was studied. Previous minimal processing operations for the disinfection helped to reduce the population of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and moulds compared to the harvest product. Calçots subjected to a mild-heat treatment (55 °C for 60 s) presented the highest reduction of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Despite being mildly thermally-treated they showed higher fresh weight loss (around 3%) than the rest of the disinfected calçots during storage and they obtained the highest quality visual scores after 15 days of storage with a good acceptance of the product. Microbial reductions obtained after peroxyacetic acid treatment were in the same range as those obtained after the sodium hypochlorite treatment. In addition, the quality of both treated samples was maintained with no differences during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that mild-heat or peroxyacetic acid decontamination treatments resulted in a good strategy for obtaining a clean and high quality fresh-cut calçot product.
Cytotoxicity, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of solid-state fermented lupin, quinoa and wheat by Bifidobacterium species: In-vitro investigations LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-02 Mutamed Ayyash, Stuart K. Johnson, Shao-Quan Liu, Aysha Al Mheiri, Aisha Abushelaibi
This study aimed to investigate the in-vitro cytotoxicity activity against two cancer cell lines, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitions, ACE-inhibition, antioxidant and proteolytic activities of whole-grain lupin, quinoa and wheat fermented by three species of Bifidobacterium spp. B. animalis, B. breve and B. longum were employed in solid-state fermentation (SSF) 37 °C for 72 h. The ranges of total phenolic contents in fermented lupin (FL), quinoa (FQ) and wheat (FW) were ∼17.0 to 44.0, ∼11.0 to 36.0, ∼5.0–29.0 mg GAE/g, respectively, relative to the unfermented control. α-Glucosidase inhibition increased significantly (p < 0.05) in FL and FQ after 24 h of fermentation. The cereals fermented by B. breve and B. longum had markedly increased ACE-inhibition activities. The magnitude of the cytotoxicity activities in FL was greater (p < 0.05) by approximately 5-fold and 3-fold against colon cancer cell (Caco-2) and breast cancer cell (MCF-7), respectively than in FQ and FW. The findings suggest that health properties of grains could be enhanced by probiotic fermentation and such enhancements depend on grain type and probiotic species. The inclusion of grains fermented by probiotics into foods could improve health benefits of these product.
Kinetic of induced honey crystallization and related evolution of structural and physical properties LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-02 Amanda Dettori, Silvia Tappi, Lucia Piana, Marco Dalla Rosa, Pietro Rocculi
Induced crystallization is carried out by adding fine crystals to the liquid honey in order to increase the rate of the process and to obtain a uniform and stable product. The aim of this research was to describe the kinetic of crystallization of honey and the evolution of its physical properties on the basis of different fructose/glucose ratio. To three honey samples selected on the basis of increasing fructose/glucose ratios, 5% of fine crystals have been added, before storage at 14 °C until complete crystallization. During storage, kinetic of crystallization were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and microstructure by a polarising microscope. Moreover, variations of water activity, colour and texture parameters were evaluated during storage. The Avrami equation was found to well describe the crystallization kinetic, although the relation of the Avrami parameters with the nucleation and crystal growth is not entirely clear. The composition of honey was found to influence not only the rate of crystallization, but also the qualitative parameters of sample texture and colour, leading to more pronounced changes during honey storage as the amount of crystallized glucose increased.
Effects of pulsed electric fields treatment on vacuum drying of potato tissue LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-02 Caiyun Liu, Nabil Grimi, Nikolai Lebovka, Eugene Vorobiev
Effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on vacuum drying of potato tissue were studied. PEF treatment was done using electric field strength of E = 600 V/cm and total treatment time of tPEF = 0.1 s to reach a high level of potato tissue disintegration. The vacuum drying was performed at sub-atmospheric pressure, p = 30 kPa (that corresponds to the boiling temperature of water ≈ 70 °C), and different temperatures, Td = 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The evolution of temperature inside the sample and moisture content were compared for the PEF treated and untreated samples. The dried samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, textural, and capillary impregnation tests. At all drying temperatures the most significant part of free water was evaporated at relatively low temperatures inside samples (18–27 °C) and the effects of starch gelatinisation were excluded. The PEF treatment allowed noticeable decreasing of drying time (by 22–27% at Td = 40–70 °C). The significant effects of PEF on texture and microstructure of dried potato tissue were revealed.
Fingerprint targeted compounds in authenticity of sugarcane honey - An approach based on chromatographic and statistical data LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Pedro Silva, Catarina L. Silva, Rosa Perestrelo, Fernando M. Nunes, José S. Câmara
Sugarcane honey (SCH) is a black syrup recognized by its excellent quality, being produced in Madeira Island using the regional sugarcane cultivars and following a traditional and peculiar manufacturing and storage processes. However, some low-quality commercial products have been labeled as SCH but do not respect its criteria, revealing the need of develop powerful strategies in order to detect and prevent adulterations. The knowledge of furanic derivatives (FDs) profile, produced during browning reactions that occurs during food processing and storage, emerged as a promising strategy in food quality and fraud prevention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the FDs profiling of typical SCH produced by certified and non-certified producers, in different geographical regions (Madeira and Brazil), based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) as a useful approach to define its typicality and authenticity. These parameters are defined through the differentiation and discrimination of FDs profiles among other sugarcane-derived products using multivariate statistical analysis (ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey, principal components analysis, partial least square, linear discriminant analysis and hierarchical clustering). The results demonstrated that SCH samples from non-certified producers present the highest levels of FDs. In addition, SCH samples from Brazil present higher levels of FDs than samples from Madeira region. The obtained results revealed that the proposed approach is a valuable strategy to establish the typicality of SCH, ensuring its quality, authenticity, safety control and a useful support regarding the application of SCH from Madeira Island to EU certification.
Profiling of Turkish propolis subtypes: Comparative evaluation of their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Petar Ristivojević, Ivica Dimkić, Etil Guzelmeric, Jelena Trifković, Magdalena Knežević, Tanja Berić, Erdem Yesilada, Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica, Slaviša Stanković
Comprehensive analysis of phenolic profiles of botanically different subtypes of Turkish propolis samples were performed using UHPLC–LTQ/Orbitrap/MS/MS method, and additionally total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) as well as their antioxidative activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Antimicrobial activity of Turkish propolis against oral cavity bacteria from the genus Streptococcus (S. pyogenes, S. sanguinis, S. mutans) and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was determined by diffusion and microdilution methods. Extensive fingerprint analysis of Turkish propolis revealed the presence of fifty one phenolic compounds, with fifteen quantified which confirm their affiliation to the two subtypes of the European propolis. All analysed samples have shown antimicrobial potential against all tested bacteria, with S. pyogenes being the most sensitive one. Turkish propolis, especially its orange subtype, can be considered as the high-quality product due to its rich phenolic and flavonoid content, strong antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. Turkish propolis could be, therefore, a good raw material for food and pharmaceutical industry.
Comparison between triacylglycerol analysis by MALDI-TOF/MS, fatty acid analysis by GC-MS and NIRS combined with chemometrics in determination of extra virgin olive oil geographical origin. A case study LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Željka Peršurić, Lara Saftić, Tomislav Mašek, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić
Synergy of analytical methods based on chromatography, mass spectrometry and spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was tested in the herein presented pilot authentication study of Croatian extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Fatty acid (FA) composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), and non-selective analysis was done by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Chemometric methods were applied on measured data where TAG and NIR spectra showed the highest potential for geographical origin discrimination. TAG profiling data had the best classification power for EVOOs in the PCA, whereas PLS-DA models with high classification accuracy were based on NIRS significant variables or TAG data. Furthermore, NIRS data proved valuable in prediction of quality parameters. Therefore, we presented NIRS as quick, cheap and reliable technique for authenticity study of EVOOs, but for complete characterization of olive oils MALDI-TOF/MS was indispensable.
The effects of two essential oil and UV-light irradiation treatments on the formation of biogenic amines in vacuum packed fillets of carp (Cyprinus carpio) LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Martin Křížek, Eva Dadáková, František Vácha, Tamara Pelikánová, Kateřina Matějková
Fillets of carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated either by an application of an essential oil (thyme, oregano) or by UV-C irradiation (two different doses: 121 and 243 mJ/cm2). All the control and treated vacuum packs were stored at 3.5 °C for up to 49 days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined after storage. Thyme oil and, especially, oregano oil were found to be effective in suppressing the formation of putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and phenylethylamine. UV irradiation at the selected doses was shown to be less effective. Samples rated as being of good quality contained less than 10 mg/kg of each of these four amines. The polyamines spermidine and spermine in treated samples did not show statistically significant changes during storage of samples. Tryptamine was not detected in samples treated with essential oils, histamine was not detected in any of the samples. The application of thyme and oregano oils prolonged the shelf-life of samples by 5 and 6 times respectively.
Feasibility of using sequential infrared and hot air for almond drying and inactivation of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Chandrasekar Venkitasamy, Caiping Zhu, Maria T. Brandl, Franz J.A. Niederholzer, Ruihong Zhang, Tara H. McHugh, Zhongli Pan
This study was aimed to develop a sequential infrared and hot air (SIRHA) drying method for whole almonds and evaluate its effectiveness on decontamination of almonds. Wet almonds with hull and shell were dried using different time-combinations of infrared (IR) radiation and hot air (HA) to determine the optimum drying conditions. Almonds were inoculated with Enterococcus faecium, a surrogate for Salmonella enterica. The SIRHA drying (1h IR at 70 °C and 2h HA) reduced the moisture content of almonds to 7% in 3 h, with a saving of 2 h (40%) of drying time compared with HA drying alone. The population sizes of E. faecium showed the largest size reductions of 4.69 ± 0.71, 1.82 ± 0.39, 1.52 ± 0.31 log CFU/nut on hulls, shells and kernels, respectively, after SIRHA drying combined with tempering (T) (2h IR with 2h T and 1h HA). The peroxide value and free fatty acids content of almond oil samples from all drying treatments were within accepted level for the almond industry.
Changes in anthocyanin profile, color, and antioxidant capacity of hawthorn wine (Crataegus pinnatifida) during storage by pretreatments LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Suwen Liu, Xuan Zhang, Lu You, Zhaoyuan Guo, Xuedong Chang
The effects of microwave and heating pretreatments on the content and composition of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid content, and total phenol content, along with the color density and antioxidant capacity of “Xinglongzirou” hawthorn wine during storage were investigated. Ten anthocyanins were identified in the hawthorn fruit using HPLC-ESI/MS2 analysis. After fermentation, only six anthocyanins were detected. Pretreatment significantly increased the total amount of anthocyanin in the stored hawthorn wine (p < 0.05). The total phenol content decreased during storage and the total anthocyanin content showed a similar trend. The content of oligocyanogen in microwave- and heat-pretreated samples was higher than that in the control, especially the microwave-treated group, in which the amount of oligocyanogen was higher than that in the control group by 24.6% after 180 days (p < 0.05). During storage, the color tonality of hawthorn wine increased. Three methods (DPPH scavenging ability, ORACFL assay, and T-AOC assay) were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the hawthorn wine during storage. The antioxidant capacities of the microwave- and heat-pretreated groups were higher than those of the control group.
Isomalto-oligosaccharides: Recent insights in production technology and their use for food and medical applications LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-05-01 Waraporn Sorndech, Kuenchan Na Nakorn, Sunanta Tongta, Andreas Blennow
The production of functional food ingredients has been promoted in recent years in response to the consumer attention on personal health and well-being demand. Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) are derived from starch and are a mixture of oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (DP) ranging 2–10. IMOs exhibit low glycemic index and are classified as prebiotics. Increasing consumer demand for low glycemic foods has recently advanced both academic research industrial developments in the IMOs area. An increasing number of scientific studies highlight enzymatic modification of starch, digestibility and prebiotics fermentability. Additionally, recent studies point at IMOs versatile functionality as food ingredient, pharmaceutical- and cosmetic precursor, all of which are effects of their small molecular size resulting in high solubility and low viscosity. As a result, the numbers of IMOs-related patent classifications for food, foodstuff, ingredient, medical and veterinary purposes, as listed by the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) and International Patent Classification (IPC), have steadily increased over the past 26 years. Interestingly, IMOs have been commercially available for decades in Japan but only recently, IMOs products were launched for the US, European and Canadian markets. The IMOs selling rate is now strongly growing with significant revenues taking off in 2017. In this review, we will give a brief overview and identify some main challenges for IMOs product development from both academic and commercial points of view focusing on their wide variation in chemical and physical properties, functionality in foods, production technology, digestibility, prebiotics fermentability and health-associated functions. Finally, we will project from the current IMOs market situation and discuss potentials for an emerging multi-niche IMOs market as directed by consumer trends and intellectual property right (IPR) situations. This short review is widely intended for scientists, traders and the general public who have interest in prospects of IMOs.
Interactions and emulsifying properties of ovalbumin with tannic acid LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Yang Chen, Jie Hu, Xiangzhou Yi, Baomiao Ding, Weiqing Sun, Fengwei Yan, Shudong Wei, Zhenshun Li
Ovalbumin (OVA) is a good emulsifier; however, its emulsifying properties are easily affected by food components. In this study, tannic acid (TA) was used as a model polyphenol to interact with OVA. The OVA-TA complexes were characterized with circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and interfacial tension measurements. The emulsions stabilized by OVA and OVA-TA were analysed by droplet size measurements. The results indicated that TA could bind well with OVA. Generally, the surface activity of OVA decreased after binding with TA due to the sheltering of the hydrophobic groups of OVA, decreasing the emulsion capacity of OVA. However, the particle size and interfacial tension of the OVA-TA complexes at pH 5.0 were significantly smaller than those of free OVA due to reduced aggregation from increased electrostatic repulsions. Therefore, the stabilities of the emulsions containing TA were improved at pH values near the isoelectric point (pH 4.75) of OVA. Heat treatment decreased the particle sizes of OVA-TA. On the other hand, heating could increase the interfacial tension, decreasing the emulsifying properties of OVA. Our work provides new insights into the influence of polyphenols on the emulsion efficiency of OVA.
Application of chemometric methods in the evaluation of antioxidants activity from degreased chia seeds extracts LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Mirian S. Laczkowski, Thays R. Gonçalves, Sandra T.M. Gomes, Paulo Henrique Março, Patrícia Valderrama, Makoto Matsushita
Samples of chia seeds (Salvia hispánica L.) were degreased by cold pressing and the residue obtained named degreased chia seeds (DCS) had the antioxidants extract obtained. A 22 experimental design was employed in order to evaluate the factors ethanol concentration and extraction time. The optimized conditions were extraction time 15 min with ethanol 70% where the activity (RSA), evaluated by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) method was 94.76%. For this extract, the total phenolics content was 359.64 mg EGA/100 g. A pseudo-univariate calibration model is proposed as an alternative methodology to determine the %RSA by using the relative concentration from multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) from near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the antioxidant extract from DCS. The results suggest the possibility of %RSA determination directly from NIR spectra from extracts from DCS by using the multivariate resolution method MCR-ALS.
Inactivation of foodborne pathogens influenced by dielectric properties, relevant to sugar contents, in chili sauce by 915 MHz microwaves LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Woo-Ju Kim, Sang-Hyun Park, Dong-Hyun Kang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sugar content on dielectric properties of chili sauce, and inactivation efficiency when exposed to microwave energy. Heating history showed sugar content was an important factor influencing heating rate when chili sauce was exposed to microwave energy. Also, chili sauce of lower sugar content had a higher dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor. This trend was linked to inactivation efficiency of chili sauce inoculated with foodborne pathogens. As sugar content decreased, the time required to inactivate foodborne pathogen was reduced. Also, the inactivation efficiency of microwave heating was better since conventional heating took much longer to inactivate foodborne pathogens to under the detection limit. Also, our results showed that there was no significant difference in color, except for 25% and 40% sugar content exposed to 915 MHz microwave at 3.0 kW. Even though decreased water activity was observed, there was no significant difference between conventional heating and microwave heating at 1.5 kW and 3.0 kW. These results show not only that microwave heating can inactivate foodborne pathogens without generating significant quality change but also that the effect relies on dielectric properties associated with the sugar content of chili sauce.
Cold maceration application in red wine production and its effects on phenolic compounds: A review LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Jose Luis Aleixandre-Tudo, Wessel du Toit
An increasing number of winemaking practices are currently being used by winemakers worldwide. However, the impact of these techniques on wine composition and quality is often not clear. One of these techniques is the use of cold maceration before the fermentation process. Cold maceration, often used in the red winemaking process, have some important logistic, economic and quality implications. The rationale behind the technique is that during this period, while kept at a low temperature to avoid the start of the fermentation process, an increased extraction of compounds from the solid parts of the berries takes place. Theoretically phenolic compounds, mainly coloured compounds such us anthocyanins, among others, are extracted during this pre-fermentative period, thus increasing its final content in the resulting wines. However, contradictory results have been observed in the literature, probably due to the number of factors that might influence the effectiveness of the cold maceration contact process. Cultivar, the grape's ripening status, temperature, length and the combination of cold maceration with enzyme or dry ice additions seems to play a major role in the efficacy of this practice. As the last publication that reviewed the effect of cold maceration practices in red wines dates from 2005, this manuscript focusses on the literature reported during the 2006–2017 period.
The description of oil absorption behavior of potato chips during the frying LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Yang Zhang, Tingting Zhang, Daming Fan, Jinwei Li, Liuping Fan
The oil absorption during frying is a complex phenomenon and how the oil permeated into the sample is still not clear. The oil absorption behavior of potato chips was investigated by combined the dyed oil methods, digital photo analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, low field nuclear magnetic resonance imager and mercury porosimeter. The relationship between the oil absorption with frying time, microstructure and pore formation was discussed. The results showed that the content of total oil and structural oil of potato chips increased with the increasing of frying time, and it reached 40.44% and 6.44% at 2 min, respectively. Penetrated surface oil reached the maximum at 2 min and then decreased. The oil infiltration was in accordance with the sequence from outside to inside of potato chips and the oil was distributed along the contours of the cells and filling cell interstitial. The oil absorption was closely related to the pore properties, and the total pore volume and porosity of potato chips increased but bulk density decreased during the first 8 min, which remained constant at 1.63 mL g−1, 0.42 g mL−1 and 68.7% during 8–12 min. The results could provide scientific guidance for the production of low-fat and healthy fried food.
Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma: Microencapsulation with carboxymethyl cellulose sodium and microcrystalline cellulose and effects of microencapsulated astaxanthin on yogurt properties LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Zhao-Zhao Feng, Ming-Yuan Li, Yu-Tao Wang, Ming-Jun Zhu
In this study, the astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma was encapsulated with carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC-Na) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by freeze-drying and used in yogurt. The encapsulation improved the stability, solubility, and antioxidation activity of the astaxanthin and increased the extent of its potential industrial application. The encapsulated efficiency and solubility of the microencapsulated astaxanthin were 58.76% and 52.88%, respectively. In comparison with non-encapsulated astaxanthin, the microencapsulation did prevent the astaxanthin from dramatic degradation, with an astaxanthin retention value of 80.86% in the microencapsulated astaxanthin at 55 °C in 16 h. Non-encapsulated astaxanthin was much more stable in acid than in neutral phase, but the microencapsulated astaxanthin showed no significant difference in stability under both conditions. The astaxanthin yogurt showed an attractive orange-red color as well as a significantly higher DPPH-scavenging activity and stability than the plain yogurt.
Hot water dips elicit disease resistance against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae in organic bananas (Musa acuminata) LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Rosa Vilaplana, Grecia Hurtado, Silvia Valencia-Chamorro
Anthracnose of banana is an aggressive disease, difficult to control during export. Moreover, in organic banana the incidence of this pathogen is higher than in traditional crops due to the lack of use of synthetic fungicide during the pre-harvest period. The effectiveness of hot water dips has been studied in order to reduce C. musae growth and to determine their effect on postharvest and shelf-life physicochemical and sensory quality, with the goal to incorporate them into integrated pest management, and to reduce the use of chemicals. Hot water treatment at 40 °C for 20 min elicited a C. musae severity inhibition (49.5%) significantly higher (p < 0.05) than with other hot water dips. Organic bananas dipped at 40 °C for 20 min had lower (p < 0.05) weight, green color, and firmness loss than with other hot water treatments. Global appearance and flavor, were better (p < 0.05) scored in fruit treated with a 40 °C for 20 min than in non-treated fruit during cold storage and shelf-life period. These results suggest that hot water dip may be potentially useful for controlling anthracnose in organic bananas during the postharvest period without negative effect on their physicochemical and sensory quality.
Tara pod (Caesalpinia spinosa) extract mitigates neo-contaminant formation in Chilean bread preserving their sensory attributes LWT - Food Sci. Technol. (IF 2.329) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Franco Pedreschi, Ilse Saavedra, Andrea Bunger, Rommy N. Zuñiga, Romina Pedreschi, Rosana Chirinos, David Campos, María Salomé Mariotti-Celis
"Hallulla" is a highly consumed type of Chilean bread, which may contain considerable amounts of some Neo-Formed Contaminants (NFCs). The objective of this research was to study the effect of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pod polyphenolic extract (TPPE) on the mitigation of acrylamide (AA) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in “hallulla” bread without affecting its sensory attributes. The effect of different TPPE concentrations was evaluated (0–3000 mg kg-1) over NFC formation during “hallulla“ baking and its impact on sensory attributes. AA was mitigated by ∼90% at 1500 mg/kg TPPE added to the bread pieces. A similar descriptive profile of the final product, with significant changes only in the crumb color was observed. HMF was mitigated by ∼85% in bread pieces, when the highest concentration (3000 mg/kg) of TPPE was used. Our results highlight the potential of using polyphenolics from tara pod extracts to reduce the exposure of consumers to dietary neo-formed contaminants.
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