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  • Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method with QuEChERS extraction using isotopic dilution to simultaneously analyze chlordecone and chlordecol in animal livers
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Maïlie Saint-Hilaire, Chanthadary Inthavong, Thomas Bertin, Gwenaëlle Lavison-Bompard, Thierry Guérin, Agnès Fournier, Cyril Feidt, Guido Rychen, Julien Parinet

    A QuEChERS extraction method followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis was developed to simultaneously analyze chlordecone and its metabolite chlordecol in animal livers. The overall method was validated with accuracy profiles according to the French Standard NF V03-110 and European Union guidelines. The validation was performed on bovine, ovine and porcine liver samples. Linearity, matrix effect, accuracy, within-laboratory repeatability, specificity, LOQ, Q/q relative ion intensities, and uncertainty were reported. Recoveries were between 70% and 120%. LOQs of 1.36 µg chlordecone kg-1 and 2.50 µg chlordecol kg-1 of fresh liver were found. Twelve contaminated livers of bovine, ovine and porcine origin from the French West Indies or samples from in vivo studies were analyzed. In these liver samples from contaminated animals, chlordecone was quantified at concentrations higher than the maximum residue limit and chlordecol in very low amounts in all the samples. In addition, these results confirm that chlordecone can be metabolized in ruminant species.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • The inhibitory potential of Montmorency tart cherry on key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Ara Kirakosyan, Enrique Gutierrez, Beatriz Ramos Solano, E. Mitchell Seymour, Steven F. Bolling

    The inhibitory potential of Montmorency tart cherry on glycemia regulation and other enzymes relevant to inflammation were evaluated. Tart cherry has superior inhibitory potential against key enzymes associated with carbohydrate digestion linked to hypertension. In particular, α-amylase activity was significantly inhibited (IC50=3.46±0.06 mg/ml), whereas we observed mild inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50=11.64±0.65 mg/ml). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition was also strong by about 89%. Tart cherry extract showed strong to moderate inhibitions of cyclooxygenase-1 (65%), lipoxygenase (64%), cyclooxygenase-2 (38%) and xanthine oxidase (26%), respectively. Anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, were strong inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Kaempferol showed relatively potent inhibition on COX and XO. It was revealed that some pairs of metabolites manifest positive or negative interactions against XO enzyme inhibition. Inhibition of all these enzymes provides a strong biochemical basis for management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by controlling glucose absorption, reducing associated hypertension and inflammation.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Combined spectroscopic, molecular docking and quantum mechanics study of β-casein and p-coumaric acid interactions following thermal treatment
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Jasmeet Kaur, Lita Katopo, Andrew Hung, John Ashton, Stefan Kasapis

    The molecular nature of interactions between β-casein and p-coumaric acid was studied following exposure of their solutions to ultra-high temperature (UHT at 145°C). Interactions were characterised by employing multi-spectroscopic methods, molecular docking and quantum mechanics calculations. FTIR demonstrates that the ligand lies in the vicinity of the protein, hence inverting the absorbance spectrum of the complex. This outcome changes the conformational characteristics of the protein leading to a flexible and open structure that accommodates the phenolic microconstituent. Results are supported by UV-vis, CD and fluorescence quenching showing considerable shifts in spectra with complexation. Molecular docking indicates that there is at least a hydrogen bond between p-coumaric acid and the peptide backbone of isoleucine (Ile27). Quantum mechanics calculations further argue that changes in experimental observations are also due to a covalent interaction in the protein-phenolic adduct, which according to the best predicted binding pose involves the side chain of lysine 47.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Purification and Identification of Anti-inflammatory Peptides from Spent Hen Muscle Proteins Hydrolysate
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Wenlin Yu, Catherine J. Field, Jianping Wu

    Spent hens have low market value and incur significant costs for disposal. This study explored the use of spent hens as a source of bioactive peptides. Spent hen hydrolysates prepared by Protease M or Protex 50FP exhibited interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitory activity in endotoxin-activated macrophage-like U937 cells (p<0.05). The potential peptides from Protex 50FP hydrolysate were further fractionated using a combination of ultrafiltration, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography; 17 novel peptides encoded in major muscle proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis, of which 7 were chemically synthesized and assayed for the IL-6 inhibitory activity. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, peptide FLWGKSY induced a 79% reduction of IL-6 production in endotoxin-activated macrophage-like U937 cells, which is comparable to results reported from other food sources. Our results indicate that spent hens have potential to be a source of bioactive peptides for anti-inflammatory applications.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Development and validation of an UHPLC-HRMS protocol for the analysis of flavan-3-ol metabolites and catabolites in urine, plasma and feces of rats fed a red wine proanthocyanidin extract
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Gema Pereira-Caro, José Luis Ordóñez, Iziar Ludwig, Sylvie Gaillet, Pedro Mena, Daniel Del Rio, Jean-Max Rouanet, Keren A. Bindon, José Manuel Moreno-Rojas, Alan Crozier

    This study developed, optimized and validated an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography−high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method to identify and quantify metabolites and microbial-derived catabolites in urine, plasma and feces of rats following ingestion of 50 mg of a red wine proanthocyanidin-rich extract. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LD) and quantification (LQ), intra-day, inter-day precision, recovery and matrix effects, which were determined for 34 compounds in the three biological matrices. After method validation, three parent flavan-3-ols, four 5-carbon side chain ring fission metabolites, and 27 phenolic acid and aromatic catabolites were quantified in plasma, urine and feces after red wine proanthocyanidin intake. These results establish the value of the UHPLC-HRMS protocol in obtaining a detailed picture of proanthocyanidin metabolites and their microbial-derived catabolites, along with their phase II metabolites, in biological fluids of rat, and potentially in human clinical studies designed to evaluate the bioavailability of dietary flavan-3-ols.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Effect of processing on aggregation mechanism of egg white proteins
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Negar Gharbi, Mohsen Labbafi

    Egg white proteins (EWPs) are important components of many food products. To obtain optimal functionality, EWP aggregation needs to be controlled. Different treatments can lead to the formation of aggregates in diverse ways, depending on the parameters of the treatments. Recent articles on the effects of processing (heat treatment, alkali treatment, pulsed electric field, high pressure, ultraviolet irradiation, and high intensity ultrasound) on the aggregation of EWPs are reviewed. The relationships between the processing parameters and the aggregation mechanisms are discussed. The information may be helpful in controlling the aggregation mechanisms during the processing.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Effect of heating and ionic strength on the interaction of bovine serum albumin and the antinutrients tannic and phytic acids, and its influence on in vitro protein digestibility
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Elaine Kaspchak, Luciana Igarashi Mafra, Marcos Rogério Mafra

    Bioavailability of food nutrients can be reduced in the presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. This work aimed to study bovine serum albumin binding to phytic acid and tannic acid, and its influence on in vitro protein digestibility. The effect of autoclaving and boiling on protein digestibility and the microstructure of complexes was also evaluated. Results showed that high ionic strength promotes greater affinity between tannic acid and bovine serum albumin, and decreases in vitro protein digestibility. For phytic acid and bovine serum albumin, the opposite behavior is observed because interactions are governed by electrostatic forces. A rise in temperature above that causing denaturation of the protein favors its interaction with phytic acid, and disfavors that with tannic acid, probably due to different protein binding site exposure. For both antinutrients, heating treatment increased protein hydrolysis, the size of complexes and their fragility.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Investigation into allergenicity reduction and glycation sites of glycated β-lactoglobulin with ultrasound pretreatment by high-resolution mass spectrometry
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Guang-xian Liu, Zong-cai Tu, Wenhua Yang, Hui Wang, Lu Zhang, Da Ma, Tao Huang, Jun Liu, Xue Li

    Ultrasound treatment could change the conformation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and improve the glycation reaction in aqueous solution under neutral condition. However, the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on glycation of β-Lg with pentose at dry-state remains ambiguous, and the relationship between glycation and allergenicity of β-Lg with ultrasound pretreatment is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on glycation and allergenicity of β-Lg. Markedly decreased allergenicity of β-Lg was observed after glycation with ribose before and after ultrasound pretreatment with the minimum found at 400 W. Orbitrap LC-MS/MS showed that the glycation degree of some peptides in glycated β-Lg with and without ultrasound pretreatment were different although the content of free amino group and molecular mass were insignificantly different. Therefore, ultrasound pretreatment promoted the reduction in allergenicity by improving the glycation extent of some glycation sites although it hardly enhanced the whole glycation degree of β-Lg.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • A comparative study of ultra-sonication and agitation extraction techniques on bioactive metabolites of green tea extract
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Protiva Rani Das, Jong-Bang Eun

    The aim of this study was to compare methods for efficient extraction of green tea metabolites. Aqueous green tea leaf powder extracts were prepared by ultra-sonication extraction (UE), agitation extraction (AE), and the conventional extraction method (control) at different temperatures (60, 70, and 80 °C) and times (5-30 min). Compared to the control, both UE and AE techniques significantly increased the yields of polyphenols (three-fold), catechins (two-fold), and flavonoids (two-fold), and resulted in higher antioxidant activity. For both techniques, highest extraction efficiency of bioactive metabolites occurred at 80 °C for 20 min. Caffeine, total free amino acid, vitamin C, and total soluble solid contents were also significantly increased using either technique compared to the control. Thus, AE and UE have similar extraction efficiencies and could be used to prepare antioxidant-rich green tea extract or green tea extract powder.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Discrimination of geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils using terahertz spectroscopy combined with chemometrics
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Wei Liu, Changhong Liu, Junjie Yu, Yan Zhang, Jian Li, Ying Chen, Lei Zheng

    Discrimination of geographical origin of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) is of great importance for legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a rapid discrimination of four different geographical origins of EVOOs with terahertz spectroscopy system was examined. Different chemometrics including least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), back propagation neural network (BPNN) and random forest (RF) combined with principal component analysis (PCA), genetic algorithm (GA) were compared to obtain the best discrimination model. The results demonstrated that there were apparent differences among the four different geographical origins of EVOOs in fatty acid compositions and the absorbance spectra, and an excellent classification (accuracy was 96.25% in prediction set) could be achieved using the LS-SVM method combine with GA. It can be concluded that THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to rapid discriminate the geographical origin of EVOOs with high efficiency.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Simultaneous determination of clanobutin, dichlorvos, and naftazone in pork, beef, chicken, milk, and egg using tandem mass spectrometry
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Jin-A Park, A.M. Abd El-Aty, Weijia Zheng, Seong-Kwan Kim, Sang-Hyun Cho, Jeong-min Choi, Ahmet Hacımüftüo, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jing Wang, Jae-Han Shim, Ho-Chul Shin
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Pectin characterisation using size exclusion chromatography: A comparison of ELS and RI detection
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Nerea Muñoz-Almagro, Fabián Rico-Rodriguez, Mar Villamiel, Antonia Montilla

    A high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method coupled to Evaporative Light Scattering (ELSD) and Refractive Index (RID) detectors were evaluated and compared for the molecular mass (Mw) estimation of pectin in a wide range (0.342-805 kDa). Instrumental parameters of the ELSD were optimised by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) being 73 °C the evaporator temperature and 0.9 mL/min the air flow rate. The linear range for the ELSD concentration response was wider (10 - 2,250 mg/L) and better (R2=0.985) than RID (10 to 1,500 mg/L; R2=0.875). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for all pullulans hardly changed in ELSD (LOD: 1.22–1.99 mg/L; LOQ: 4.07–6.63 mg/L); however, RID showed huge variations (LOD: 0.49–10.41 mg/L; LOQ: 1.64–34.70 mg/L), which increased with the Mw. In general, responses of both detectors were similar for the Mw estimation although, pectin characterisation with HPSEC-ELSD exhibited better results in the lowest Mw compounds.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • The antioxidant activity and genotoxicity of isogarcinol
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Zijin Liu, Gang Li, Cheng Long, Jing Xu, Juren Cen, Xiaobo Yang

    The antioxidant activity and genotoxicity of isogarcinol were assessed by several in vitro tests. Its IC50 values for DPPH· and ABTS· were 36.3 ± 3.35 µM and 16.6 ± 3.98 µM, respectively, which were all lower than those of VC and BHT. Isogarcinol had no cyctotoxic or promotional activities at 1-10 µM in the CCK-8 assay, and negligible genotoxic effects at 50-500 µM on HepG2 cells by the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Pre-incubation of the cells with 0.5-1.5 µM isogarcinol, before exposure to H2O2, significantly increased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Isogarcinol also reduced intercellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, lactate dehydrogenase release and malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione level. Western-blot analysis revealed that it up-regulated pro-caspase-3 and reduced cleaved caspase-3 during H2O2-induced oxidative stress. All the above results indicate that isogarcinol promises to be useful as a natural antioxidant.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Fast quantification of bovine milk proteins employing external cavity-quantum cascade laser spectroscopy
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Andreas Schwaighofer, Julia Kuligowski, Guillermo Quintás, Helmut K. Mayer, Bernhard Lendl

    Analysis of proteins in bovine milk is usually tackled by time-consuming analytical approaches involving wet-chemical, multi-step sample clean-up procedures. The use of external cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) based IR spectroscopy was evaluated as an alternative screening tool for direct and simultaneous quantification of individual proteins (i.e. casein and β-lactoglobulin) and total protein content in commercial bovine milk samples. Mid-IR spectra of protein standard mixtures were used for building partial least squares (PLS) regression models. A sample set comprising different milk types (pasteurized; differently processed extended shelf life, ESL; ultra-high temperature, UHT) was analysed and results were compared to reference methods. Concentration values of the QCL-IR spectroscopy approach obtained within several minutes are in good agreement with reference methods involving multiple sample preparation steps. The potential application as a fast screening method for estimating the heat load applied to liquid milk is demonstrated.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Flavonols and ellagic acid derivatives in peels of different species of jabuticaba (Plinia spp.) identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Nathália de Andrade Neves, Paulo César Stringheta, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez

    Extracts of jabuticaba peels show complex chromatographic profiles at 360 nm, with some peaks presenting UV-Vis spectra resembling those of flavonol glycosides and others resembling that of ellagic acid. The presence and tentative identification of these phenolic compounds were comprehensively studied in four species of Brazilian jabuticaba fruit - Plinia trunciflora, variety ‘jabuticaba de cabinho’; P. caulifora, varieties ‘jabuticaba paulista’ and ‘jabuticaba canaã-açu’; P. jaboticaba, variety ‘jabuticaba sabará’; and P. phitrantha, variety ‘jabuticaba branca-vinho’ - using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Seventeen flavonols derived from quercetin and three from myricetin and eighteen derivatives of ellagic acid and eleven of methyl ellagic acid were detected. Most of them were newly described and mainly occurred in glycosylated and acylglycosylated forms. Some compounds were missing in one variety, such as the absence of methyl ellagic acid derivatives in ‘jabuticaba branca-vinho’, and others only appeared in one variety, thus suggesting potential capacity for varietal differentiation.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • NMR-driven identification of anti-amyloidogenic compounds in green and roasted coffee extracts
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Carlotta Ciaramelli, Alessandro Palmioli, Ada De Luigi, Laura Colombo, Gessica Sala, Chiara Riva, Chiara Paola Zoia, Mario Salmona, Cristina Airoldi

    To identify food and beverages that provide the regular intake of natural compounds capable of interfering with toxic amyloidogenic aggregates, we developed an experimental protocol that combines NMR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, in vitro biochemical and cell assays to detect anti-Aβ molecules in natural edible matrices. We applied this approach to investigate the potential anti-amyloidogenic properties of coffee and its molecular constituents. Our data showed that green and roasted coffee extracts and their main components, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and melanoidins, can hinder Aβ on-pathway aggregation and toxicity in a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Coffee extracts and melanoidins also counteract hydrogen peroxide- and rotenone-induced cytotoxicity and modulate some autophagic pathways in the same cell line.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • The prooxidant activity of salts on the lipid oxidation of lecithin-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Leqi Cui, Jing Fan, Yifei Sun, Zhenbao Zhu, Jianhua Yi

    Salts reduction/substitution have gained a lot interest from food industry since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a draft guidance for salt reduction. However how changes of salts in food formulation could influence lipid oxidation is still not fully understood. Using oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by a natural emulsifier – lecithin at pH 7.0 as a model system, this study evaluated how salts affect the physical parameters of the emulsion, the chelating activity of lecithin and thus the lipid oxidation of these emulsions. Results showed that salts increased the particle size, the negative charge of the oil droplets, and the amount of iron chelated by lecithin. Lipid oxidation lag phases were shortened by addition of salts, by 1 day and 2 days for lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances measurements respectively. These results provide some new insights on the mechanisms of how salts could affect the lipid oxidation of food emulsions.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Secondary Structure Changes Induced by Pulsed Electric Field Affect Antioxidant Activity of Pentapeptides from Pine Nut (Pinus koraiensis) Protein
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Rong Liang, Sheng Cheng, Xiuying Wang

    We used a pulsed electric field (PEF) to treat four pentapeptides with similar amino acid sequences (KCHKP, KCHQP, QCHKP, and QCHQP). We then evaluated antioxidant activity of the pentapeptides according to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. Structures of the peptides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated that antioxidant activities of KCHQP and QCHKP were increased by PEF, whereas those of KCHKP and QCHQP were reduced. The basic structures and functional groups of peptides were unaffected. PEF treatment reduced the α-helix contents of KCHQP and QCHKP, but increased those of KCHKP and QCHQP. Moreover, the chemical shifts at 14.46 ppm, 8.22 ppm, 7.87 ppm, 7.24 ppm, and 6.13 ppm attributable to hydrogen atoms of QCHKP shifted to the right, but the active hydrogens of QCHQP were not affected by PEF.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Screening and profiling of natural ketocarotenoids from environmental aquatic bacterial isolates
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Dalal Asker, Tarek S. Awad, Teruhiko Beppu, Kenji Ueda
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • One-step sample preparation for convenient examination of volatile monoterpenes and phenolic compounds in peppermint leaves using deep eutectic solvents
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Kyung Min Jeong, Yan Jin, Da Eun Yoo, Se Young Han, Eun Mi Kim, Jeongmi Lee

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as an extraction medium for one-step sample preparation for chemical characterization of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Rather than applying discontinuous, time-consuming extraction methods to prepare two types of extracts, peppermint leaves were extracted efficiently into a DES, which was composed of choline chloride and D-(+)-glucose at a 5:2 molar ratio. The produced peppermint extracts contained volatile monoterpenes and phenolics at levels sufficient for direct chemical examination of peppermint leaves. The extracted monoterpenes in DES could be quantified via a newly developed method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography. The same extracts were also directly used to assess phenolics in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The proposed method allowed one-step sample preparation for extraction of volatile monoterpenes and phenolics of peppermint leaves and could be applied to various peppermint samples obtained from different origins.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Impact of US Brown Swiss genetics on milk quality from low-input herds in Switzerland: interactions with season
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Sokratis Stergiadis, Anna Bieber, Eleni Chatzidimitriou, Enrica Franceschin, Anne Isensee, Leonidas Rempelos, Marcin Baranski, Veronika Maurer, Giulio Cozzi, Beat Bapst, Gillian Butler, Carlo Leifert

    This study investigated the effect of, and interactions between, US Brown Swiss (BS) genetics and season on milk yield, basic composition and fatty acid profiles, from cows on low-input farms in Switzerland. Milk samples (n=1,976) were collected from 1,220 crossbreed cows with differing proportions of BS, Braunvieh and Original Braunvieh genetics on 40 farms during winter-housing and summer-grazing. Cows with more BS genetics produced more milk in winter but not in summer, possibly because of underfeeding potentially high-yielding cows on low-input pasture-based diets. Cows with more Original Braunvieh genetics produced milk with more (i) nutritionally desirable eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids, throughout the year, and (ii) vaccenic and α-linolenic acids, total omega-3 fatty acid concentrations and a higher omega-3/omega-6 ratio only during summer-grazing. This suggests that overall milk quality could be improved by re-focussing breeding strategies on cows’ ability to respond to local dietary environments and seasonal dietary changes.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Determination of toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins in nuts and dried fruits using imaging and spectroscopic techniques
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Qifang Wu, Lijuan Xie, Huirong Xu

    Nuts and dried fruits contain rich nutrients and are thus highly vulnerable to contamination with toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins because of poor weather, processing and storage conditions. Imaging and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be potential alternative tools to wet chemistry methods for efficient and non-destructive determination of contamination with fungi and toxins. Thus, this review provides an overview of the current developments and applications in frequently used food safety testing techniques, including near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS), conventional imaging techniques (colour imaging (CI) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI)), and fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging (FS/FI). Interesting classification and determination results can be found in both static and on/in-line real-time detection for contaminated nuts and dried fruits. Although these techniques offer many benefits over conventional methods, challenges remain in terms of heterogeneous distribution of toxins, background constituent interference, model robustness, detection limits, sorting efficiency, as well as instrument development.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Evaluation of triacylglycerol composition in commercial infant formulas on the Chinese market: A comparative study based on fat source and stage
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Cong Sun, Wei Wei, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jianhua Huang, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) composition in 180 commercial infant, follow-on and growing-up formulas with different fat sources (plant oil, cow’s milk and goat’s milk) were analyzed and compared with mature human milk (MHM). TAGs in formulas were greatly affected by the fat source. Formulas contained higher proportions of TAGs with short-chain/medium-chain saturated fatty acids, OOO and acyl carbon number (ACN) 54, and lower proportions of ACN 52 than MHM. There were significant differences in the content and stereochemical structure of OPL and OPO between formulas and MHM. Although there were no significant differences in the OPO contents between formulas with OPO and MHM, it is not enough to reach the abundance of palmitic acid (PA) at the sn-2 position in MHM. These results indicated that it is more suitable for Chinese infants to supplement the formulas with not only OPO, but also other TAGs containing PA mainly at the sn-2 position (such as OPL).

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Improvement of curcuminoid bioaccessbility from turmeric by a nanostructured lipid carrier system
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Sung Jin Park, Coralia V. Garcia, Gye Hwa Shin, Jun Tae Kim

    Turmeric contains curcumin and its analogues, which show anticancer and antiinflammatory effects; however, curcuminoids are lipophilic and are poorly absorbed by the human body. Nanostructured lipid carriers for encapsulating whole turmeric powder were successfully produced by ultrasonication, and their physicochemical properties and stability in simulated gastric and intestinal media were evaluated. The turmeric nanostructured lipid carriers (TNLCs) exhibited a round shape, small diameter (282±7.19 nm), adequate zeta potential (-22.75±1.20 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (93.3±0.01%). The TNLCs were able to protect the encapsulated curcuminoids under acidic gastric conditions, and effectively released 95±2.51% of the curcuminoids in the simulated intestinal medium, demonstrating their suitability for controlled release. The in vitro bioaccessibility of the encapsulated curcuminoids was 75±1.24%, representing more than a four-fold increase compared to that of free turmeric. Therefore, the proposed TNLCs are a promising delivery system for increasing the bioaccessibility of curcuminoids from turmeric.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Activation of membrane-located Ca2+ channels by hop beta acids and their tricyclic transformation products
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Carolin Schulz, Nikolas Fritz, Thomas Sommer, Karel Krofta, Kristina Friedland, Monika Pischetsrieder

    Beta-bitter acids of hops (lupulones) revealed sedative and antidepressant–like effects in animal studies. Transformation of β-acids during beer brewing leads to the formation of tricyclic transformation products, which have a close structural analogy to hyperforin. The latter compound is responsible for the antidepressant activity of St. John’s wort by activation of TRPC6 cation channels in neuronal-like cells leading to Ca2+ influx. In this study, nortricyclolupones, dehydrotricyclolupones, and tricyclolupones were isolated from a wort-boiling model and their structures were elucidated by UHPLC–DAD, UHPLC–ESI--MS/MS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy. Beta-bitter acids and their transformation products induced Ca2+ influx in PC12 cells to the same extent as hyperforin. Application of a Ca2+-free environment abolished the Ca2+ elevation, indicating that the increase is mediated by influx across the plasma membrane. Thus, activation of neuronal-like Ca2+-channels by lupulones and tricyclolupones represent a novel mechanism contributing to the antidepressant activity of hops.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory pyranoids and isochromenyl analogues from Corbiculid bivalve clam, Villorita cyprinoides
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Minju Joy, Kajal Chakraborty

    Bivalve black clam, Villorita cyprinoides is traditional seafood in Southwestern coast of Arabian Sea. In this study, bioactivity-guided purification of ethyl acetate:methanol extract of black clam was carried out. Two irregular meroterpenoids {tetrahydro-3-methoxy-5-((E)-8,12-dimethyloct-8-enyl)-pyran-2-one (1) and dihydro-5-(8-(9,12-dihydro-8-methyl-11-propyl-2H-pyran-8-yl)-ethyl)-furan-2(3H)-one (2)} and two hexahydro-isochromenyl-meroterpenoids (3-4) were identified. The structures were characterized by detailed spectroscopy and their antioxidant/anti-inflammatory potentials were evaluated. Compound 2 registered significantly greater 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability (IC50 <0.65 mg/mL) than other analogues (IC50 ≥0.70 mg/mL). Ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelating ability was higher for 1-2 (IC50 ∼0.84 mg/mL) than α-tocopherol (IC50 0.89 mg/mL). The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of furano-meroterpenoid analogue, 2 (IC50 0.76 mg/mL) was greater than other compounds (IC50 >0.90 mg/mL). An optimum hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of furano-meroterpenoid and lesser steric bulk manifested towards its greater bioactivities compared to other compounds. These anti-inflammatory and antioxidant leads could be used as potential functional food components.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Reverse phase protein arrays for the identification/validation of biomarkers of beef texture and their use for early classification of carcasses
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Mohammed Gagaoua, Muriel Bonnet, Marie-Pierre Ellies-Oury, Leanne De Koning, Brigitte Picard

    The validation of biomarkers and tools for the prediction of beef texture remains a challenging task. In this study, reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) quantified 29 protein biomarkers in the m. Longissimus thoracis of Charolais cattle sampled early post-mortem. Myosin heavy chain 1 (MHC1, slow-oxidative fibers) and Retinal dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1, oxidative enzyme) discriminated between tender and juicy vs. tough meat with residues classes and are validated as prime biomarkers of beef texture. Several proteins belonging to energy metabolism, heat shock and oxidative stress, cytoskeletal, cell signaling and apoptosis were related with tenderness. Among the unusual proteins, four and a half LIM domains 1 (FHL1) and Tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) correlated respectively negatively and positively with beef tenderness. Principal component regression was used for the first time to explain beef texture traits using biomarkers. The results are very promising as they revealed sophisticated mechanisms behind the tenderizing process.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) leaf, stem and fruit at different harvest periods
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Oana-Crina Bujor, Christian Giniès, Valentin I. Popa, Claire Dufour

    Fruits and aerial parts of lingonberry could be better developed as dietary supplements if the composition in bioactive phenolic compounds and the best period for collection were known. UPLC/MS analysis revealed the predominant presence of arbutin in leaf and that of flavanols in stems harvested in May, July and September. Anthocyanins, flavanols and benzoic acid derivatives were equally present in fruits. Stem and leaf are highly homologous with (+)-catechin, A- and B-type dimers/trimers, and two quercetin glycosides as major contributors. No or only weak seasonal variations were highlighted for all phenolic classes. Additionally, flavanol oligomers showed a lower mDP for fruit (3-4) than for stem and leaf (4-6). The rate of A-type linkage was 3-5% with A-type subunits in extension mainly. Finally, the content in phenolic compounds (UPLC) correlated well with TPC and the DPPH radical scavenging activity although leaf and stem constituents reacted differently in both antioxidant tests.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Seasonal variations of iminosugars in mulberry leaves detected by hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Weili Han, Xiangxiang Chen, Huimin Yu, Lingyun Chen, Mei Shen

    A rapid, sensitive, and validated method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four iminosugars, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), D-fagomine (FAG), 2-O-a-D-galactopyranosyl-DNJ (Gal-DNJ), and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-fagomine (Glu-FAG), in mulberry leaves. The method used hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on this method, the seasonal variations of iminosugars in the leaves of different mulberry species (Morus alba, Morus multicaulis Perr, Morus atropurpurea Roxb. and Morus wittiorum Hand-Mazz.) collected in Guangzhou, China, during 10 consecutive months in 2013 were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum content of DNJ in the leaves of all four species occurred in summer (June or July). The highest FAG level was found in spring (April or May). The highest levels of Gal-DNJ and Glu-FAG were recorded in autumn (September or October).

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • 更新日期:2018-01-09
  • ROS-driven and preferential killing of HepG2 over L-02 cells by a short-term cooperation of Cu(II) and a catechol-type resveratrol analog
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Fang Dai, Qi Wang, Gui-Juan Fan, Yu-Ting Du, Bo Zhou

    This study was aimed at understanding why dietary polyphenols with a catechol skeleton tend to exhibit cancer chemopreventive activity by using a catechol-type stillbene (3,4-DHS) as a model molecule. Only a short-term cooperation of 3,4-DHS and exogenous Cu(II) exhibited a strong preferential ability to kill HepG2 cells over normal L02 cells. Mechanism studies reveal that this 3,4-DHS/Cu(II) system could produce extracellularly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and o-quinone through two sequential proton loss electron transfer followed by diffusion of ROS into cells, leading to higher intracellular accumulation of ROS, preferential disruption of redox homeostasis and more effective mitochondria-dependent apoptosis as well as necrosis of HepG2 cells than L-02 cells. This work provides further evidence that dietary catechol-type molecules show chemopreventive activity by virtue of their copper-dependent prooxidant action.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Emulsion stability and dilatational viscoelasticity of ovalbumin/chitosan complexes at the oil-in-water interface
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Wenfei Xiong, Cong Ren, Mo Tian, Xuejun Yang, Jing Li, Bin Li

    The contribution of the emulsion rheological properties and the viscoelastic of the interface adsorbed layer to the emulsification mechanism of ovalbumin (OVA)-chitosan (CS) mixtures were investigated. In comparison to the treatment with OVA alone and OVA/CS mixtures at pH 4.0, the addition of CS at pH 5.5 increased the size distribution of emulsion droplets with significant flocculation through polyelectrolyte bridging, remarkably enhancing the emulsions stability against gravity creaming after storage at 25 °C for 14 days. The dynamic rheological properties indicated that the formation of the complex at pH 5.5 increased the elastic modulus (G’) and apparent viscosity (η∗) of the emulsions, which is useful for inhibiting creaming. Moreover, the complexation of OVA and CS at pH 5.5 increased the dilatational modulus (E), especially the elastic modulus (Ed), of the oil/water interfacial absorbed layer, which could reduce the droplet coalescence and therefore inhibit the growth of emulsion droplets.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Exploring the effects of selenium treatment on the nutritional quality of tomato fruit
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Zhu Zhu, Yibo Zhang, Jia Liu, Yanli Chen, Xueji Zhang

    In this work, the effects of selenium (Se) on the nutritional quality of tomato fruit were investigated. The results showed that application of 1 mg L-1 sodium selenate foliar spray increased Se content in the fruit without affecting other concentrations of other metals. Se treatment elevated the contents of soluble sugars (glucose and fructose), amino acids, and bioactive compounds, such as flavanoids, glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E, in pink tomato fruit. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification was performed on tomato fruit at the commercial harvest stage. When comparing Se-enriched tomato fruit with the control group, we identified an aggregate of 269 differentially expressed proteins. Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acids metabolism, and secondary metabolism were highly affected by Se treatment. The results help elucidate the mechanism of Se treatment on improved nutritional quality of tomato fruit.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • A critical assessment of transmethylation procedures for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid quantification of lipid classes
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Anthony Sehl, Leslie Couëdelo, Laurence Fonseca, Carole Vaysse, Maud Cansell

    Lipid transmethylation methods described in the literature are not always evaluated with care so to insure that the methods are effective, especially on food matrix or biological samples containing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The aim of the present study was to select a method suitable for all lipid species rich in long chain n-3 PUFA. Three published methods were adapted and applied on individual lipid classes. Lipid (trans)methylation efficiency was characterized in terms of reaction yield and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The acid-catalyzed method was unable to convert triglycerides and sterol esters, while the method using an incubation at a moderate temperature was ineffective on phospholipids and sterol esters. On the whole only the method using sodium methoxide and sulfuric acid was effective on lipid classes taken individually or in a complex medium. This study highlighted the use of an appropriate (trans)methylation method for insuring an accurate fatty acid composition.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Analysis of the effects of biopolymer encapsulation and sodium replacement combination technology on the quality characteristics and inhibition of sodium absorption from sausage in mice
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Eun Young Jung, Sang Keun Jin, Sun Jin Hur

    The effects of biopolymer encapsulation and sodium replacement combination technology on quality characteristics (i.e., bitter taste) and inhibition of sodium absorption from pork sausage in mice were evaluated. The sausages were divided into three different sodium replacement groups (none, 40%, and 50%) and three different biopolymer encapsulation groups (none, cellulose, and chitosan) in combination. In groups with 50% sodium replacement by KCl and MgCl2, T8 (chitosan encapsulation) showed the highest inhibition of the sodium absorption rate. However, chitosan encapsulation groups (T2, T5, and T8) had higher bitterness and lower overall acceptability than other treatment groups. In contrast, in the group with 40% sodium replacement by KCl, T4 (cellulose encapsulation) exhibited the highest inhibition of sodium absorption without a bitter taste. This is the first report showing that 40–50% sodium replacement combined with 3% cellulose encapsulation reduced sodium absorption from sausage by 60% without causing a bitter taste.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Effect of thermal treatment and light irradiation on the stability of lycopene with high Z-isomers content
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Kazuya Murakami, Masaki Honda, Ryota Takemura, Tetsuya Fukaya, Wahyudiono, Hideki Kanda, Motonobu Goto

    The stability of lycopene with high Z-isomers content during thermal treatment and light irradiation was investigated. Purified (all-E)-lycopene was thermally isomerized to the Z-isomers in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) at 50 °C for 24 h. The total content of the Z-isomers of lycopene reached 56.1%. Then, the mixture of lycopene isomers was stored in the dark at 4, 25, and 40 °C for 30 days, and under light irradiation using a fluorescent light at 4 °C for 336 h. The degradation rate of lycopene during thermal treatment rose with increasing temperature and the activation energy for decomposition of the mixture of lycopene isomers was calculated to be 71.0 kJ mol−1. The degradation rate of lycopene isomers was almost the same under thermal treatment. On the other hand, during light irradiation, isomerization was promoted rather than decomposition, i.e. (9Z)- and (13Z)-lycopene converted to the (all-E)-isomer.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Effect of exogenous ATP on the postharvest properties and pectin degradation of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata)
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Lin Chen, Yige Zhou, Zhenyun He, Qin Liu, Shaojuan Lai, Hongshun Yang

    The effects of exogenous ATP on the postharvest quality, browning and softening of mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts were evaluated. ATP treatment significantly alleviated the quality loss and browning events during the storage of 3 days. It also reduced the oxidant damage by inducing high activities of peroxidase (9.3-13.9%) and superoxide dismutase (8.8-10.3%) which scavenged the reactive oxygen species (ROS) effectively. Transcriptional results indicated that ATP treatment decreased VrPL1, VrPME and VrPG1 gene expression levels more than 2 folds at some time points. Furthermore, the atomic force microscope (AFM) images revealed that the pectin degradation was notably slowed by ATP treatment and the width and height of pectin backbone were better maintained (47.1% and 45.6% higher than control without ATP treatment). The cooperative effects of ROS scavenging and decreased expressions of pectin-related genes might contribute to the deferred pectin deterioration and firmness loss by ATP treatment.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Molecular interactions governing the incorporation of cholecalciferol and retinyl-palmitate in mixed taurocholate-lipid micelles
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Charles Desmarchelier, Véronique Rosilio, David Chapron, Ali Makky, Damien P. Prévéraud, Estelle Devillard, Véronique Legrand-Defretin, Patrick Borel

    Cholecalciferol (D3) and retinyl palmitate (RP) are the two main fat-soluble vitamins found in foods from animal origin. It is assumed that they are solubilized in mixed micelles prior to their uptake by intestinal cells, but only scarce data are available on the relative efficiency of this process and the molecular interactions that govern it. The extent of solubilization of D3 and RP in micelles composed of lipids and sodium taurocholate (NaTC) was determined. Then, the molecular interactions between components were analyzed by surface tension and surface pressure measurements. The mixture of lipids and NaTC allowed formation of micelles with higher molecular order, and at lower concentrations than pure NaTC molecules. D3 solubilization in the aqueous phase rich in mixed micelles was several times higher than that of RP. This was explained by interactions between NaTC or lipids and D3 thermodynamically more favorable than with RP, and by D3 self-association.

    更新日期:2018-01-08
  • Development of procedure for sample preparation of cashew nuts using mixture design and evaluation of nutrient profiles by Kohonen neural network
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Luana Santos Moreira, Bruna Cirineu Chagas, Clissiane Soares Viana Pacheco, Herick Macedo Santos, Luiz Henrique Sales de Menezes, Madson Moreira Nascimento, Milana Aboboreira Simões Batista, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Fábio Alan Carqueija Amorim, Luana Novaes Santos, Erik Galvão Paranhos da Silva

    A procedure using ICP OES for sample preparation for the determination of copper, iron and manganese in cashew nuts was developed. Constrained simplex-centroid design was applied in the optimization of the digestion in microwave oven procedure, and the results evaluated from topological maps of the Kohonen network. The best proportion evaluated for the digestion of the sample with HNO3, H2O2 and H2O was 10:45:45 (%). With optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.63, 4.3 and 0.37 mg kg-1, and quantification 2.1, 14 and 1.2 mg kg-1 for Cu, Fe and Mg, respectively. The precision (% RSD) was 1.84, 2.31 and 2.73, for Cu, Fe and Mg, respectively. The procedure proposed had the accuracy confirmed using NIST 1568b (at 95% reliability) and was applied in the samples obtaining concentrations in the range of 10.7-19.4, 44.3-67.2 and 11.0-21.4 mg kg-1 for Cu, Fe and Mg, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • 更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Seed Characteristics and Physicochemical Properties of Powders of 25 Edible Dry Bean Varieties
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Carola Cappa, James D. Kelly, Perry K.W. Ng

    Information on the physicochemical variability in dry bean seeds from different varieties grown over distinct crop years is lacking. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the environment and the seed characteristics of 25 edible dry bean varieties and to expand the knowledge on their proximate composition, starch digestibility, solvent retention capacity, and pasting and thermal properties. The impact of bean genotype (25 varieties), growing environment (two crop years), and powder particle size (≤ 0.5 mm, ≤ 1.0 mm) was investigated. Statistical differences (P>0.05) in seed characteristics and in starch, amylose and protein contents were found among the 25 varieties. Unique pasting and thermal properties were observed, and genotype and particle size greatly affected these properties. The accumulated information can be used in breeding programs to select bean lines possessing unique properties for food ingredients while increasing the market value of the crop and enhancing human health.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Isoflavone Accumulation and Physiological-biochemical Changes of Soybean during Germination
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Meng Ma, Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu

    In this study, the effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavones accumulation, physiological and nutritional quality, water status, and characteristics of proteins in germinated soybeans were investigated. The results showed that isoflavones content in soybeans increased with appropriate intensity and time of UV-B radiation and decreased with excessive treatment. Fresh weight, length, free amino acids, reducing sugar contents and bulk water (T23) in germinated soybeans decreased with increasing radiation time, indicating that UV-B inhibited the growth and nutrients metabolism of soybean during germination. Cell damage was detected in germinated soybeans with excessive UV-B radiation, as shown by the black spots in cotyledons and the increased intercellular water determined by LF-NMR. Germination resulted in an increase in random coil structures, while UV-B radiation induced no obvious changes in FT-IR spectrum and protein conformation of soybeans. Both UV-B radiation and germination caused the increase in soluble proteins, especially in 1.0-75.0 kDa fraction.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Structural properties and prebiotic activities of fractionated lotus seed resistant starches
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Hongliang Zeng, Peilin Chen, Chuanjie Chen, Cancan Huang, Shan Lin, Baodong Zheng, Yi Zhang

    The objective of this study was to fractionate lotus seed resistant starch (LRS3) and investigate their structural properties and prebiotic activities. Two main fractions of resistant starch precipitated gradually by ethanol at concentrations of 20% and 30% were named as LRS3-20% and LRS3-30%, respectively. The swelling power and solubility of LRS3-20% was smaller compared to LRS3-30%, and their moisture and resistant starch contents were not significantly different. LRS3-20% and LRS3-30% had molecular weights mainly of 2.0×104–4.0×104 and 1.0×104–2.0×104 g/mol. Layered strips and gully shapes were evident on the rough surfaces of LRS3-20%, while LRS3-30% displayed a relatively smooth surface. Both LRS3-20% and LRS3-30% had a B-type crystalline structure with LRS3-20% containing more ordered structures and double-helices. Furthermore, LRS3-20% displayed higher prebiotic activities against Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to LRS3-30% and high amylose maize starch. This effect was related to its rough surface and double helix structure.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Swertiajaponin as an anti-browning and antioxidant flavonoid
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Kyoung Mi Moon, Bonggi Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Bong-Seon Lee, Choon Young Kim, Jin Yeul Ma

    Enzymatic browning is a major issue that needs to be solved in the food industry. Although swertiajaponin is a flavonoid rich in the whole herb of Swertia japonica that has been clinically used, its biological functions and application in the foods have not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that swertiajaponin efficiently blocked enzymatic browning in potatoes possibly by direct binding to and inactivating polyphenol oxidase. Furthermore, swertiajaponin showed potent antioxidant activity proven by markedly suppressed reactive oxygen species. Swertiajaponin significantly increased antioxidant properties of potato extract when it is added since it additively elevated total flavonoid content. Considering numerous beneficial effects of antioxidants, swertiajaponin may be used as a functional food additive to suppress enzymatic browning and elevate the antioxidant capacity of foods including beverages and soups by fortification of flavonoids.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Mimicking new receptors based on molecular imprinting and their application to potentiometric assessment of 2,4-dichlorophenol as a food taint
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    A.M. El-Kosasy, Ayman H. Kamel, L.A. Hussin, Miriam F. Ayad, N.V. Fares

    Innovative host-tailored polymers were prepared, characterized and used as recognition elements in potentiometric transducers for the selective quantification of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP).The polymer beads were synthesized using DCP as a template molecule, acrylamide (AM),methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) as functional monomers and divinylbenzene (DVB) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linkers. The sensors were fabricated by the inclusion of MIPs in plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Response characteristics of the proposed sensors revealed anionic slopes of -59.2, -49.7 and -80.6 mV/decade with detection limits of 5.6 x10-5,5.9 x10-5 and 13.2 x10-5 mol/L for MIP/AM/DVB, MIP/MAA/DVB and MIP/EMA/EGDMA membrane based sensors, respectively. Good selectivity was observed over common inorganic/organic anions. Validation of the assay method according to IUPAC recommendations was justified ensuring the synthesis of good reliable novel sensors for DCP determination. The method was successfully applied for routine analysis of food taint in fish and fish farms water samples .

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Effects of chitosan based coatings enriched with procyanidin by-product on quality of fresh blueberries during storage
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    C. Mannozzi, U. Tylewicz, F. Chinnici, L. Siroli, P. Rocculi, M. Dalla Rosa, S. Romani

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative edible coating, based on chitosan from mushrooms enriched with procyanidins extracted from grape seeds, on fresh blueberry quality maintenance, (weight loss, pH, dry matter, colour, firmness and antioxidant activity) and microbial growth, during 14 days of storage at 4° C. For weight loss, pH and dry matter no relevant differences were detected among the control and the differently coated samples at each considered storage time. Chitosan and chitosan + procyanidins coatings promoted a slight decrease of luminosity and an increase of blue hue colour of blueberry samples during the whole storage period. The use of coating promoted an increase in the antiradical activity that was the highest in blueberries coated with chitosan + procyanidins. Microbiological analysis results indicated that the chitosan-based coated samples had a significantly higher yeast and mould growth inhibition compared to the uncoated sample.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Chemical imaging of protein hydrogels undergoing alkaline dissolution by CARS microscopy
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Binqian Xu, Xiao Dong Chen, Ruben Mercadé-Prieto
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the quantification of porcine hemoglobin in meat products
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Xingyi Jiang, Danielle Fuller, Yun-Hwa Peggy Hsieh, Qinchun Rao

    Misusage of porcine blood proteins, such as misbranding and substitution, can cause religious objections, law violation, and food quality concerns. These issues highlight the need for detecting unlabeled or overuse of porcine blood in foods. Compared with acidic and neutral pHs, porcine hemoglobin (PHb) at alkaline pH retained the best solubility, molecular integrity, and immunoreactivity after heat treatment. PHb at acidic and alkaline pHs remained stable during storage at 4 °C for 29 days. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific to mammalian hemoglobin, 13F7, was developed. A mAb13F7-based indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) was optimized for the quantification of PHb in meat products. This assay had a wide working range from 0.5 ppm to 1,000 ppm. It was sensitive (limit of detection: 0.5 ppm), precise and reproducible with low inter- and intra-coefficient of variances (< 20%). This assay is suitable for government, food industry, and third-party authority to surveillance food quality.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Slowly digestible properties of lotus seed starch - glycerine monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Bingyan Chen, Xiangze Jia, Song Miao, Shaoxiao Zeng, Zebin Guo, Yi Zhang, Baodong Zheng

    Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization process, and the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the slow digestion properties of LS-GMS was investigated. The digestion profiles showed HPH treatment reduced the digestive rate of LS-GMS, and the extent of this change was dependent on homogenized pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed HPH treatment change the morphology of LS-GMS, with high pressure producing more compact block-shape structure to resist enzyme digestion. The results of Gel-permeation chromatography and Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed high homogenization pressure impacted molecular weight distribution and semi-crystalline region of complexes, resulting in the formation of new semi-crystalline with repeat unit distance of 16-18nm and molecular weight distribution of 2.50-2.80×105 Da, which displayed strong enzymatic resistance. Differential scanning calorimeter results revealed new semi-crystalline lamellar may originate from type-II complexes that exhibited a high transition temperature.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Extraction techniques and analysis of anthocyanins from food sources by mass spectrometry: An update
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Paulina Ongkowijoyo, Diego A. Luna-Vital, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    This article reviews recent developments in methods of sample preparation and analytical methodologies for the quantification of anthocyanins and their production from food sources. Various methods for sample extraction and purification are highlighted and evaluated. The use of UV-diode array, along with improved liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) and/or the combination of both methods have facilitated the identification of analytes. The use of one-dimensional and two-dimensional HPLC has significantly improved resolution with a shorter amount of time. Other LC×LC combinations to improve orthogonality are also discussed. The most efficient anthocyanin extraction method from food sources is pressurized liquid extraction. Moreover, electrospray ionization (ESI) and MS2/time-of-flight are currently the most popular instruments used for identification of anthocyanins; being positive mode of ESI the most widely used procedure for anthocyanin identification. Several databases for mass spectrometry polyphenol identification have been described for reference.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Differential proteomic analysis to identify proteins associated with quality traits of frozen mud shrimp (Solenocera melantho) using an iTRAQ-based strategy
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Jing Shi, Longteng Zhang, Yutian Lei, Huixing Shen, Xunpei Yu, Yongkang Luo

    An iTRAQ-based strategy was applied to investigate proteome changes in mud shrimp during long-term frozen storage under different conditions. A total of 226 proteins was identified as differential abundance proteins (DAPs) in mud shrimp from two frozen treatment groups (-20 °C and -40 °C) compared with the fresh control group. The proteome changes in mud shrimp muscle stored under -20 °C was much greater than that under -40 °C. Correlation analysis between DAPs and quality traits of mud shrimp muscle showed that 12 proteins were correlated closely with color (L∗, a∗, and b∗ value) and texture (hardness, elasticity, and chewiness). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that most of these proteins were involved in protein structure, metabolic enzymes, and protein turnover. Among them, several proteins might be potential protein markers for color, and some proteins are good candidate predictors for textural properties of mud shrimp muscle.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Assessment of the bacterial impact on the post-mortem formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX in pork meat
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Amin Ghadiri Khozroughi, Lothar W. Kroh, Oliver Schlüter, Harshadrai Rawel

    The post-mortem accumulation of the heme biosynthesis metabolite zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) in porcine muscle is associated with both a meat-inherent and a bacterial enzymatic reaction during meat storage. To estimate the bacterial impact on ZnPP formation, meat and meat-like media were investigated by HPLC-FLD (and MALDI-TOF-MS) after inoculation with a representative microorganism (P. fluorescens). Results indicate the principal ability of meat-inherent bacteria to form ZnPP in meat extracts and meat-like media, but not on the meat muscle. Thus it was concluded that the ZnPP formation in meat is due to a meat-inherent enzymatic reaction induced by porcine ferrochelatase (FECH), while the bacterial (FECH) induced reaction seems to be not significant.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Detection and identification of furan fatty acids from fish lipids by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Hajime Uchida, Yutaka Itabashi, Ryuichi Watanabe, Ryoji Matsushima, Hiroshi Oikawa, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Masashi Hosokawa, Naonobu Tsutsumi, Kazuhiro Ura, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R. Miller

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS), we have developed a new method for detection and identification of furan fatty acids (F-acids), which are widely distributed in living organisms and foods as minor lipid components and are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. For this purpose, total fatty acids prepared from the testis lipids of Japanese chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were examined without any concentration or isolation of F-acids. In negative ESI mode, F-acids gave a prominent [M – H]- ion, by which individual F-acids could be detected and identified. High-resolution extracted ion chromatograms clearly showed the occurrence of five major F-acid homologs as already reported by GC/MS. The method was successfully applied to several fish samples and revealed the occurrence of F-acids for the first time in the two New Zealand fish, hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and school shark (Galeorhinus galeus).

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Transepithelial transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of cooked chicken muscles
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Papungkorn Sangsawad, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, David D. Kitts, Xiu-Min Chen, Guangtao Meng, Eunice C.Y. Li-Chan, Jirawat Yongsawatdigul

    Korat-chicken breast and thigh were subjected to heating at 70, 100 or 121°C for 30 min and simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. At 70 or 100°C heating, digests of breast possessed higher ACE inhibitory activity than those of thigh. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was found in the digest of breast cooked at 70°C (B/H-70), whereas breast heated at 121°C (B/H-121) exhibited the lowest. The 1-kDa permeate of the B/H-70 digest revealed higher permeability through colorectal adenocarcinoma monolayers and ACE inhibitory activity than did B/H-121. Among nine transported peptides, APP derived from myosin showed the highest ACE inhibition, with a non-competitive characteristic (Ki 0.93 μM). Molecular docking showed that APP interacts with ACE via hydrogen bonds, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. In conclusion, mild thermal treatment of chicken breast resulted in a higher amount of transported peptides, exerting higher ACE inhibitory activity, which could lead to potential health benefits.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • 更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Dissociation mechanisms-based UHPLC Q-Orbitrap strategy for screening of cephalosporins and metabolites in shrimp
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Wei Jia, Lin Shi, Xiaogang Chu

    A screening method was explored for simultaneous analysis of 43 cephalosporins residues and their metabolites from four generations in shrimp utilizing a novel fully untargeted data acquisition method. Four generations of cephalosporins residues and their metabolites are extracted with online extraction simultaneously. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry was used for to determine cephalosporins and their metabolites in ten shrimp species. Precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) was under 6.3% for all compounds, and the extraction recoveries ranged from 85% to 108%. The detection capabilities ranged from 0.011 to 0.223 mg kg-1. The fully untargeted vDIA acquisition way improves both selectivity and sensitivity for the compounds at trace levels, which is beneficial for screening performance.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Mitigation effects of proanthocyanidins with different structures on acrylamide formation in chemical and fried potato crisp models
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Yajing Qi, Hao Zhang, Gangcheng Wu, Hui Zhang, Liwei Gu, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, Xiguang Qi

    Proanthocyanidins with different structures were prepared from three condensed tannin-rich plant materials and then characterized using HPLC–ESI-MS coupled with thiolysis and MALDI-TOF MS. Their effects on acrylamide formation in asparagine-glucose models and fried potato crisps were determined. Results showed that all proanthocyanidins significantly and dose dependently mitigated acrylamide formation at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL in chemical model system. Using the food model, acrylamide formation were inhibited when potato crisps were soaked in 0.01-1 mg/mL proanthocyanidin solutions for 15 min at room temperature before frying. Proanthocyanidins reduced up to 44.2% of the acrylamide level as concentration was increased to0.1 mg/mL, whereas higher concentration resulted in a decrease of inhibition. B-type proanthocyanidins had stronger inhibitory activity than A-type. Unit composition and DP had nearly no effect on their inhibitory activity based on same mass. This study showed that proanthocyanidins with various structures were promising additives to mitigate harmful acrylamide.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • The influence of yeast on chemical composition and sensory properties of dry white wines
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    B. Puertas, M.J. Jimenez-Hierro, E. Cantos-Villar, A. Marrufo, M. Carbú, F.J. Cuevas, J.M. Moreno-Rojas, V.E. González-Rodríguez, J.M. Cantoral, M.J. Ruiz-Moreno

    This study evaluates the impact on two varietal white wines from ‘Chardonnay’ and ‘Verdejo’ cultivars of different fermentative strategies: inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (CT), sequential inoculation (Torulaspora delbrueckii / Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SI), and spontaneous fermentation (SP). The wines’ chemical composition was characterized by oenological parameters, organic acids, metals, major volatile compounds, ester compounds and sensory analyses. The fermentative strategy (CT, SI and SP) was found to be a key factor for assessing different styles of white wines. SI wines showed enhanced ‘mature fruit’ nuances and a chemical profile characterized by higher content of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutyrate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate. Meanwhile, the SP wines presented enhanced “stone fruit” nuances possible related to the higher contents of 2-phenyl acetate and isobutyl acetate. After a chemometric approach the above esters were identified as the markers of each fermentative strategy, independently of the variety.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Chromium speciation in foodstuffs: a review
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Elliott M. Hamilton, Scott D. Young, Elizabeth H. Bailey, Michael J. Watts

    Numerous critical reviews have evaluated exposure to toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from a number of pathways; including workplace air, cement and packaging materials. The contribution of foodstuffs to dietary Cr(VI) has been increasingly under investigation, however no summary of this work has been carried out. The objective of this article is to review the last twenty years of chromium speciation research in foodstuffs. Alkaline extraction, used for chromium speciation in other solids, is the most widely-reported procedure. Previous measurement of Cr(VI) in foodstuffs is questionable due to the reducing power of organic matter and antioxidants, leading to the development of speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) techniques to monitor interconversions. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)), which acts through a different pathway to that of Cr(VI), requires reconsideration towards measurement of Cr(III), which is present at higher concentrations in foodstuffs following reduction of the more-bioavailable Cr(VI).

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Sample preparation combined with electroanalysis to improve simultaneous determination of antibiotics in animal derived food samples
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Wesley Pereira da Silva, Luiz Henrique de Oliveira, André Luiz dos Santos, Valdir Souza Ferreira, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves Trindade

    A procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and phase separation using magnetically stirred salt-induced high-temperature liquid-liquid extraction (PS-MSSI-HT-LLE) was developed to extract and pre-concentrate ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) and enrofloxacin (ENRO) from animal food samples before electroanalysis. Firstly, simple LLE was used to extract the fluoroquinolones (FQs) from animal food samples, in which dilution was performed to reduce interference effects to below a tolerable threshold. Then, adapted PS-MSSI-HT-LLE protocols allowed re-extraction and further pre-concentration of target analytes in the diluted acid samples for simultaneous electrochemical quantification at low concentration levels. To improve the peak separation, in simultaneous detection, a baseline-corrected second-order derivative approach was processed. These approaches allowed quantification of target FQs from animal food samples spiked at levels of 0.80 to 2.00 µmol L-1 in chicken meat, with recovery values always higher than 80.5%, as well as in milk samples spiked at 4.00 µmol L-1, with recovery values close to 70.0%.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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