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  • Effect of ultrasound on the production of xanthylium cation pigments in a model wine
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Xi-Zhe Fu, Qing-An Zhang, Bao-Shan Zhang, Pei Liu

    As a potential novel technique in the wine-making industry, ultrasound has received considerable attention. In this paper, a model wine system was constructed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the formation of xanthylium cation pigment derived from the (+)-catechin and the glyoxylic acid, an oxidation product of tartaric acid, so as to explore the changing mechanism of the wine color mediated by ultrasound. The results indicate that the long-term ultrasonic treatment can enhance the formation of the xanthylium cation pigment in the model wine, which is attributed to free radicals triggered by ultrasound, meanwhile, iron ions and oxygen can influence the ultrasonic effect. All these results suggest that ultrasound is promising to be employed in regulating the formation of the yellow pigment during wine aging thus modifying the wine organoleptic characteristic.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • A mass spectrometry and 1H NMR study of hypoglycemic and antioxidant principles from a Castanea sativa tannin employed in oenology
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Nunzio Cardullo, Vera Muccilli, Rosaria Saletti, Samuele Giovando, Corrado Tringali

    The ethanol extract of the commercial tannin Tan’Activ C, (from Castanea sativa wood), employed in oenology, was subjected to chromatography on XAD-16 affording fractions X1–X5, evaluated for total phenols content (GAE), antioxidant activity (DPPH, ORAC), and hypoglycemic activity (α-glucosidase inhibition). Fraction X3 showed GAE, radical scavenging activity, and α-glucosidase inhibition higher than those of the Castanea sativa extract, and was subjected to chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 to obtain fractions S1–S7, analyzed by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS and 1H NMR to identify the main active constituents. In fractions with higher antioxidant activity, gallic acid (4), grandinin (5), valoneic acid dilactone (9), 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-glucose (14), 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-glucose (15) and galloyl derivative of valoneic acid dilactone (21) were identified as the major constituents. The highest hypoglycemic activity was found in fractions S6 and especially S7; the major constituents of these fractions are valoneic acid dilactone (9), three tetragalloyl glucose isomers (16–18) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-glucose (23), previously reported as α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • Bottle capsules as a barrier against airborne 2,4,6-trichloroanisole
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Andrii Tarasov, Doris Rauhut, Rainer Jung

    The possibility of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) migration through synthetic stoppers and into wine from highly contaminated air was shown by several authors. However, those experiments were usually conducted without bottle capsules, which are a common part of wine packaging. In the current study, we demonstrated that the presence of capsules (without open holes) above synthetic stoppers can reduce wine contamination by airborne d5-TCA by about 10 times or more. Generally, metallic capsules revealed better barrier properties than polyvinyl chloride counterparts. Application of EVOH film on the external surface of the polyvinyl chloride capsules usually resulted in a lower level of wine contamination. Additionally it was demonstrated, that relatively short exposure (3 months) of the bottles to highly contaminated air could cause a considerable absorption of d5-TCA by synthetic stoppers, which can subsequently lead to wine contamination after 12 months.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • Debranching of pea starch using pullulanase and ultrasonication synergistically to enhance slowly digestible and resistant starch
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Zhan-Hui Lu, Nicholas Belanger, Elizabeth Donner, Qiang Liu

    Pullulanase (P) and ultrasonication (U) were simultaneously applied to debranch pea starch to enhance slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions in the debranched pea starch (DPS). A synergistic debranching effect was found under conditions of pullulanase (40 npun/g) and ultrasonication (100% amplitude in pulse mode, 1 min on followed by 9 min off), which produced 73.5% linear glucans, 18% SDS and 26% RS in the resulting DPS-PU after 6 h of debranching. Even when autoclaving the DPS-PU at 118°C for 30 min, following cooldown, 11% SDS and 25% RS were retained in the DPS-PU, compared with 0% SDS and 12% RS in autoclaved native pea starch. The SDS fraction in autoclaved DPS-PU further increased to 16% while the RS content remained constant during 14 days of cold storage. In summary, DPS-PU is high in linear glucans, low in starch digestibility and has a thermally stable RS fraction.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • Study of soy-fortified green tea curd formulated using potential hypocholesterolemic and hypotensive probiotics isolated from locally made curd
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Sahoo Moumita, Bhaskar Das, Archana Sundaray, Sanghamitra Satpathi, P. Thangaraj, S. Marimuthu, R. Jayabalan
    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • Bioactive properties of fermented donkey milk, before and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Maria Aspri, Giulia Leni, Gianni Galaverna, Photis Papademas

    Indigenous strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from raw donkey milk samples were used to ferment donkey milk. Each sample was subjected to an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and analysis of the digesta by HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap XL was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive peptide profile of fermented donkey milk. Functional properties such as ACE-inhibitory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the resulting fermented donkey milks, as well as characterization of the bioactive peptides produced by an in vitro SGID, were assayed. All bioactivities were found to be high in fermented milk and a further significant increase was observed after SGID. The Enterococcus faecium DM33 fermented milk exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the highest antimicrobial activities. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity was observed in milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei DM214. These findings will contribute to the development of a new functional dairy drink with anti-hypertensive, antimicrobial and/or antioxidant activities.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • Microwave pretreatment and optimization of osmotic dehydration of wild blueberries using response surface methodology
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Ibtisam Sharif, Peter Adewale, Sai S Dalli, Sudip Rakshit

    This study investigated the effects of pretreatments and optimized osmotic dehydration (OD) of lowbush blueberries using response surface methodology (RSM) to produce dehydrated blueberries with high antioxidants content and shelf life. Fresh wild blueberries (WB) were initially pretreated and then subjected to osmotic dehydration. Microwave pretreated WB had shown better water loss during osmotic dehydration as compared to other pretreatment methods investigated. The highest levels of phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanin content of the dehydrated WB were found to be 742.61 mg/100g, 263.12 mg/100g, and 428.11 mg/100g d.m respectively, at optimized temperature of 40°C, for 5 h OD, with 65% (w/w) Brix and 1:5 ratio of sample to Brix%. These results revealed that with rigorous optimization of the critical osmotic dehydration parameters high level of antioxidants could be obtained in the dehydrated product.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • Effect of the frying process on the composition of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and antioxidant activity in flesh colored potatoes
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-23
    Antonieta Ruiz, Ariel Aguilera, Stefano Ercoli, José Parada, Peter Winterhalter, Boris Contreras, Pablo Cornejo

    Phenolic composition of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) with colored flesh has been previously reported, highlighting their anthocyanin composition. However, there is less information available about the profiles and concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCADs) in these potatoes. In pigmented potatoes from Southern Chile, three HCADs have been detected, corresponding to the trans isomers of 3-, 4- and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. It is remarkable that after frying, the HCAD concentrations increased 493 percent compared to those of fresh potatoes. The same tendency has been observed for total phenols and antioxidant activity of the chips. The results obtained are relevant in relation to the classification of pigmented potatoes as functional foods not only due to their anthocyanin content but also due to their higher content of HCADs, especially since their concentration increases considerably after frying, thus contributing to their antioxidant activity and potential beneficial effects for human health compared with uncolored genotypes.

    更新日期:2018-06-25
  • 更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Impact of Location, Type, and Number of Glycosidic Substitutions on the Color Expression of o-dihydroxylated Anthocyanidins
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Gregory T. Sigurdson, Rebecca J. Robbins, Thomas M. Collins, M. Mónica Giusti

    Anthocyanins express many hues depending on environmental factors and structural aspects, of which aglycone structure and acylation have been considered most impactful. Effects of different glycosylations on anthocyanins’ colors are less known. Twelve cyanidin and 3-deoxy-cyanidin (luteolinidin) derivatives were isolated from red cabbage and black carrot hydrolysates and from black sorghum, diluted in pH 1-9, and analyzed by spectrophotometry and colorimetry. Location, number, and structure of glycosylations affected λmax and spectral shape of o-dihydroxylated anthocyanins, playing important roles on color expression. Generally, glycosylation of cyanidin decreased its λmax (≤ 27nm), greatest decreases by 3-monoglycosylation. All cyanidin-glycosides appeared red in pH 1-3 and paled in pH 4-6. However, cyanidin-3-glycosides did not decolor completely like 3,5-glycosides. In alkaline pH, glycosylation patterns affected color more greatly: Cy-3-glycosides expressed maroon-purple hues (300-20°), 5-glycosides were green (100-115°), and only 3,5-glycosides expressed blue (240-250°). Luteolinidin derivatives shifted from yellow to red-purple hues with increasing pH.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Encapsulation of lutein into swelled cornstarch granules: Structure, stability and in vitro digestion
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Songnan Li, Chan Wang, Xiong Fu, Chao Li, Xiaowei He, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang

    Swelled cornstarch granules incubated at different incubation temperatures was prepared as a complexation matrix to encapsulate lutein. Increasing incubation temperature (55-70 °C) induced the gelatinization of cornstarch, resulting in enhancement of swelling power (1.67-6.26 g/g) and lutein content (0.78-4.86 mg/g). A decreased (double helix of amylopectin) and an increased (single helix of V-amylose) enthalpy change were associated with the increased incubation temperature. The retention index of lutein in the composites incubated at 65 °C and 70 °C could achieve 76% after 21 days of storage. Less than 30% of lutein in the composites was released after incubating for 120 min under stomach conditions. Fast lutein release was observed during the first 20 min intestinal digestion, consistent with starch hydrolysis data. This study opens a promising pathway for swelled cornstarch granules as delivery carrier of bioactive ingredients, which are of vital importance for their potential use in the sensitive food supplement.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Innovative technologies for the recovery of phytochemicals from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves: A review
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Marta Maras, Francisco J. Barba, Daniel Granato, Shahin Roohinejad, Kumar Mallikarjunan, Domenico Montesano, Jose M. Lorenzo, Predrag Putnik
    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • A new amplified fluorescent aptasensor based on hairpin structure of G-quadruplex oligonucleotide-Aptamer chimera and silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 in the grape juice
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Noor Mohammad Danesh, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous

    As one of the most toxic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major food pollutant which can pose a high risk to human health. In this work, an accurate fluorescent sensing method was proposed for AFB1 determination, based on hairpin structure of G-quadruplex oligonucleotide-Aptamer chimera, silica nanoparticles coated with streptavidin (SNPs-Streptavidin) and N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM). The hairpin structure of chimera and SNPs-Streptavidin allowed AFB1 detection with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the developed sensor could detect AFB1 in 30 min. The relative fluorescence intensity increased as AFB1 concentrations increased with a linear range of 30-900 pg/mL and a limit of detection (LOD) of 8 pg/mL. The constructed aptasensor was successfully employed to assess AFB1 spiked grape juice and human serum samples. The analytical recovery of AFB1 in the grape juice samples ranged from 95-106%, implying the great potential of the presented aptasensor in food product analysis.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Anthocyanins and Polyphenols in Cabernet Franc Wines Produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii Yeast Strains: Spectrophotometric Analysis and Effect on Selected Sensory Attributes
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Phillip Minnaar, Ludwe Nyobo, Neil Jolly, Nombasa Ntushelo, Skyé Meiring

    Grapes and wine contain phenolics divided into non-flavonoid and flavonoid classes. Yeast modulates the phenolics of wine by adsorption onto yeast cell walls. This may be advantageous for colour and quality. The effect of Torulaspora delbrueckii (654&M2/1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (VIN13) on phenolics and sensory attributes of Cabernet Franc wines (2012/2013) were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the phenolic content. Sensory analysis was conducted by expert tasters to evaluate the wines. ANOVA showed that polyphenols and anthocyanins were higher in M2/1+VIN13 wines (2012/2013) than 654+VIN13 wines. Colour, fruitiness, mouthfeel, sweetness, astringency and quality were different between treatments. 654+VIN13 wines (2012) were higher in polyphenols, acidity, astringency and mouthfeel than M2/1+VIN13 wines. M2/1+VIN13 (2012/2013) had increased colour and quality than 654+VIN13 wines. Two treatments were identified for Cabernet Franc wines; M2/1+VIN13 and 654+VIN13, which resulted in wines with increased colour and wines with increased mouthfeel and astringency, respectively.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Reactivity of gluten proteins from spelt and bread wheat accessions towards A1 and G12 antibodies in the framework of celiac disease
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Escarnot Emmanuelle, Gofflot Sébastien, Sinnaeve Georges, Dubois Benjamin, Bertin Pierre, Mingeot Dominique

    In the framework of celiac disease, this research aims at evaluating the reactivity of 195 wheat accessions and 240 spelt accessions to A1 and G12 monoclonal antibodies. A great variability in reactivity was found among the accessions of both subspecies. On average, spelt showed very slightly higher reactivity than wheat but accessions with low reactivity were encountered in both subspecies. In both wheat and spelt, there was no significant difference in the level of reactivity between varieties and landraces. Similarly, there was no significant difference in reactivity between old, mid and new varieties of wheat. In contrast, new spelt varieties showed lower levels of reactivity than old and mid ones. No relationship could be established between level of reactivity, protein content and the Zeleny index. This research did not establish a link between the breeding strategies for baking quality improvement and A1-G12 antibodies reactivity.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • A comparative study on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of flavonoids from honey by six resins
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Jie Yang, Cheng Lv, Yue Ding, Qun Lu, Rui Liu, Jiuliang Zhang, Jianling Deng

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of six different resins (NKA-9, XAD-2, AB-8, D3520, DM-130 and Polyamide) were investigated, in order to screen one resin compared favorably with XAD-2 resin for the purification of flavonoids from honey. The adsorption capacity was XAD-2 > AB-8 > DM-130 > D3520 > NKA-9 > Polyamide, and the desorption ratios of XAD-2, AB-8 and DM-130 had no significant differences, which was higher than those of D3520, NKA-9 and Polyamide. By analyzing kinetic adsorption using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and particle diffusion kinetics models combined with kinetic desorption, the adsorption and desorption behavior of AB-8 was similar to that of XAD-2, which was excellent than other four resins. The optimal temperature for XAD-2 and AB-8 to adsorb flavonoids was 25 °C under the analysis of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. AB-8 resin offers an efficient and economical choice for the purification of flavonoids from honey.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Cocoa and chocolate are sources of vitamin D2
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Julia Kühn, Annett Schröter, Bernd M. Hartmann, Gabriele I. Stangl

    Cocoa beans are susceptible to fungal contamination and often contain substantial amounts of ergosterol, the precursor to vitamin D2. We hypothesized that sun-drying the fermented cocoa beans might lead to the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2. We quantified vitamin D in cocoa and cocoa-based foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we show that cocoa beans from different growing regions contain vitamin D2. Particularly high vitamin D2 content was found in cocoa powder and butter. Among the chocolates, dark chocolate had the highest vitamin D2 content (ranging from 1.90 - 5.48 µg/100g), white chocolate had the lowest vitamin D2 content (ranging from 0.19 - 1.91 µg/100g), and chocolate nut spreads had a comparatively low vitamin D2 content, with an average of 0.15 µg/100 g. Thus, cocoa and chocolate are clearly a dietary source of vitamin D, therefore, it is necessary to update food composition databases.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Impact of unit operations during processing of cereal-based products on the levels of deoxynivalenol, total aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Yadolah Fakhri, Anderson S. Sant'Ana

    The study aimed to perform a meta-analysis on the fate of ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and total aflatoxin (TAF) during steps of bread and pasta-based products processing. A total of twenty and eight articles (549 data) collected from 1983 through June 2017 were included. Some of the investigated processing such as milling and fermentation caused an increase in the concentration of DON and TAF; although they reduce the concentration of ZEN and OTA. Also, heat processing (cooking) decrease the DON, OTA, and TAF and increase the concentration of ZEN in bread. Cooking reduces the concentration of DON and ZEN in the biscuit. Cooking of pasta reduces the content of DON; however, an increase in the concentration of TFA was found. The findings showed that the mycotoxins and their fate were influenced differently by the unit operations steps involved in the preparation of the different cereal-based products.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Health benefits and bioactive compounds of eggplant
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Nergiz Gürbüz, Selman Uluişik, Anne Frary, Amy Frary, Sami Doğanlar

    Eggplant is a vegetable crop that is grown around the world and can provide significant nutritive benefits thanks to its abundance of vitamins, phenolics and antioxidants. In addition, eggplant has potential pharmaceutical uses that are just now becoming recognized. As compared to other crops in the Solanaceae, few studies have investigated eggplant’s metabolic profile. Metabolomics and metabolic profiling are important platforms for assessing the chemical composition of plants and breeders are increasingly concerned about the nutritional and health benefits of crops. In this review, the historical background and classification of eggplant are shortly explained; then the beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health effects of eggplant are discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Identification and Differentiation of Insect Infested Rice Grains Varieties with FTNIR Spectroscopy and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Shubhangi Srivastava, Gayatri Mishra, Hari Niwas Mishra

    The potential and practicality of FTNIR as a screening tool, with ward’s algorithms, was performed for two different varieties of rice namely, ‘badshah bhog’ and ‘swarna’, followed by cluster, dendrogram, histogram, and conformity analysis with different storage periods (0-225) and insect infestation. Dendrogram analysis resulted in a clear differentiation between infested rice varieties with non-infested ones while hierarchical cluster analysis, lead to detection of different levels of infestations. Histograms analysis of averaged FTINR spectra of rice grains samples provided 100% classification between infested and non-infested samples. Dissimilarities between rice grains were calculated using Pearson’s correlation coefficients which were further converted to D values, and heterogeneity among the different varieties of rice along with a different level of infestation was identified. The results further revealed that the percentage accuracy(%) of classification for badshah bhog varied from 93.10 to 98.84%, while that for the swarna rice was between 95.75 to 99.74%.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • A novel colorimetric sensor array based on boron-dipyrromethene dyes for monitoring the storage time of rice
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Hao Lin, Zhong-xiu Man, Wen-cui Kang, Bin-bin Guan, Quan-sheng Chen, Zhao-li Xue

    A novel colorimetric sensor array based on boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes was developed to monitor the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of rice at different storage times. The VOCs of rice at different storage times were analyzed through GC-MS combined with multivariate analysis, and the compound 18-crown-6 was found significantly changed during rice aging process. Aimed at 18-crown-6 with particular macrocyclic structure, a series of BODIPYs were targeted synthesized for the selection of sensitive chemically responsive dyes. Four dyes were chosen to construct colorimetric sensor array based on sensitivity to VOCs of aged rice samples. Data acquired from the interactions of dyes and rice VOCs were subjected to the principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The optimal performance obtained by the LDA model was 98.75% in prediction set. Application of BODIPYs in this work has improved the sensitivity and expanded the choices of colorimetric dyes for the specific detection.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Rapid analysis of benzoic acid and vitamin C in beverages by paper spray mass spectrometry
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Muqian Yu, Ruizhi Wen, Le Jiang, Si Huang, Zhengfa Fang, Bo Chen, Liping Wang

    A paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) method has been developed for the rapid quantification of benzoic acid (BA) and vitamin C (VC) in beverages. Using BA-d5 as an internal standard (IS) to analyze BA and VC, the calibration curves ranged from 0.3-100 μg/mL for BA and 1-100 μg/mL for VC, the linearity was 0.9996 for BA and 0.9973 for VC. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.1 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL for BA, 0.3 μg/mL and 1 μg/mL for VC, respectively. The recovery ranged from 91.1-106.7% for BA, 92.6-108.2% for VC. Compared with HPLC, there is no substantial difference in the quantification of BA and VC in samples, the accuracy was 95.7-102.2%, and the run time is far less than that of the HPLC method. The results indicated that PS-MS is a rapid, environmentally friendly and high-throughput method for the quantification of BA and VC.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • A peptide/maltose-binding protein fusion protein used to replace the traditional antigen for immunological detection of deoxynivalenol in food and feed
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Yang Xu, Hongwei Yang, Zhibing Huang, Yanping Li, Qinghua He, Zhui Tu, Yanwei Ji, Wenjie Ren
    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Combined effect of CaCl2 and high pressure processing on the solubility of chicken breast myofibrillar proteins under sodium-reduced conditions
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Yu Wang, Ying Zhou, Pei-jun Li, Xi-xi Wang, Ke-zhou Cai, Cong-gui Chen

    The combined effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) (20–100 mM) and high pressure processing (HPP, 200 MPa) on the solubility of myofibrillar proteins (MP) was investigated under sodium-reduced conditions (0.3 M sodium chloride). The results revealed that HPP combined with low concentrations (<40 mM) of CaCl2 synergistically increased the solubility of MP, but an antagonistic effect occurred when a high concentration (100 mM) of CaCl2 was present. This synergistic effect could be attributed to a mildly destabilized conformation of myosin, an increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased total sulfhydryl group content of MP. However, CaCl2 at 100 mM destabilized myosin to a larger extent and induced non-disulfide covalent cross-linking of S-1 subfragment in pressurized MP, thus attenuating the solubilizing effect of HPP on the myosin heavy chain, resulting in the antagonistic effect. Therefore, HPP in combination with low-level CaCl2 (<40 mM) may improve the functional properties of sodium-reduced meat products.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Interaction of beta-Conglycinin with Catechin-Impact on Physical and Oxidative Stability of Safflower Oil-in-Water Emulsion
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Mouming Zhao, Ming Jiao, Feibai Zhou, Lianzhu Lin, Weizheng Sun

    The study aimed at improving the antioxidant activity of β-conglycinin to enhance the oxidative and physical stabilities of safflower oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by β-conglycinin. Heating promoted binding affinity and antioxidant activity of β-conglycinin. Catechin and chlorogenic acid showed higher binding affinities towards unheated (or heated) β-conglycinin than caffeic acid and quercetin. The enhancement efficiencies of the phenolics on the antioxidant activity of unheated (or heated) β-conglycinin decreased in the order of catechin > quercetin > chlorogenic acid > caffeic acid. Hydrophobic force and hydrogen bonding were the important binding forces for the selected phenolics to β-conglycinin. The complexation with catechin has no side effect on interfacial behavior and emulsifying property of β-conglycinin. The use of heated β-conglycinin-catechin complex as an emulsifier for preparing safflower oil emulsion effectively improved the oxidative and physical stabilities of the emulsion treated with lipoxygenase through inhibition of lipid oxidation, protein carbonyl formation and sulfhydryl loss.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Magnetic effervescent tablets containing ionic liquids as a non-conventional extraction and dispersive agent for determination of pyrethroids in milk
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Peipei Zhou, Kai Chen, Man Gao, Jingang Qu, Zhanen Zhang, Randy A. Dahlgren, Yanyan Li, Wei Liu, Hong Huang, Xuedong Wang

    Conventional magnetic effervescent tablet has many drawbacks, such as not practicable for field processing, rapid moisture absorption, and poor tablet storage characteristics. Herein, we developed a novel magnetic effervescent tablet containing ionic liquid microextraction (MET-ILM) for determination of pyrethroids in dairy milk. It contains only Na2CO3 as an alkali source (no acidic source) in the Fe3O4 magnetic tablet; the CO2-forming reaction is initiated in the acidic solution containing the analytes, and thus the prepared tablet can be stored for long time periods without deterioration. The combined action of extractant and sorbent vastly increase the extraction efficiency. The optimized procedure consisted of an effervescent tablet, 2:1 HCl : Na2CO3, and 60 μL [C6MIM]PF6 as extraction solvent. The LODs for five pyrethroids were 0.024-0.075 μg kg-1 with recoveries of 78.3-101.8%. The RSDs were <4.8% and <6.3% for intra- and inter-day precisions. Overall, the method is very feasible for use in the field.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Isoprostanoids quantitative profiling of marine red and brown macroalgae
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Claire Vigor, Guillaume Reversat, Amandine Rocher, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Joseph Vercauteren, Thierry Durand, Thierry Tonon, Catherine Leblanc, Philippe Potin

    With the increasing demand for direct human and animal consumption seaweed farming is rapidly expanding worldwide. Macroalgae have colonized aquatic environments in which they are submitted to frequent changes in biotic and abiotic factors that can trigger oxidative stress (OS). Considering that isoprostanoid derivatives may constitute the most relevant OS biomarkers, we were interested to establish their profile in two red and four brown macroalgae. Seven phytoprostanes, three phytofuranes, and four isoprostanes were quantified through a new micro-LC-MS/MS method. The isoprostanoid contents vary greatly among all the samples, the ent-16(RS)-9-epi-ST- 14-10-PhytoF and the sum of 5-F2t-IsoP and 5-epi-5F2t-IsoP being the major compounds for most of the macroalgae studied. We further quantified these isoprostanoids in macroalgae submitted to heavy metal (copper) exposure. In most of the cases, their concentrations increased after 24 h of copper stress corroborating the original hypothesis. One exception is the decrease of ent-9-L1-PhytoP content in L. digitata.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Impact of processing on n-3 LC-PUFA in model systems enriched with microalgae
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Lore Gheysen, Tom Bernaerts, Charlotte Bruneel, Koen Goiris, Jim Van Durme, Ann Van Loey, Luc De Cooman, Imogen Foubert

    Microalgae have already shown their potential as an alternative source of n-3 LC-PUFA. In this study, 5 different microalgal species (Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Porphyridium and Schizochytrium) were added to an acidic model system and screened on their potential use in acidic food matrices. The impact of mechanical and thermal processing on the model systems was studied by analyzing the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA, free fatty acids, carotenoids, lipid polymers and the oxidative stability. A (limited) reduction of n-3 LC-PUFA was observed. Thermal alterations combined with the presence of free fatty acids seemed to be the causing factor for this decrease. Furthermore, the oxidative stability of model systems enriched with photoautotrophic microalgae was significantly higher than of those enriched with heterotrophic microalgae. It can therefore be concluded that photoautotrophic microalgae low in initial free fatty acid content are a promising source ofn-3 LC-PUFA in thermally processed acidic food systems.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Enzymatic, physicochemical, nutritional and phytochemical profile changes of apple (Golden Delicious L.) juice under supercritical carbon dioxide and long-term cold storage
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Krystian Marszałek, Łukasz Woźniak, Francisco J. Barba, Sylwia Skąpska, Jose M. Lorenzo, Allesandro Zambon, Sara Spilimbergo

    The impact of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) (10-60 MPa/45 °C/30 min) and subsequent 10 weeks storage at 4 °C on polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) activities, phenolic profile, vitamin C, sugars, physicochemical properties of cloudy apple juices was investigated.No significant changes in sugars and total polyphenols were observed, whereas significant degradation (≈28%) of vitamin C and individual polyphenols (≈18%) was noted after SCCD treatment. After 4 weeks storage only 34% of vitamin C was retained and no vitamin C was detected after this time. Ten weeks of storage caused hydrolysis of sucrose in 15%, whereas degradation of individual polyphenols ranged from 43 to 50% depending on the pressure applied. The highest pressure was applied the highest retention of polyphenols was observed. The lightness of juice significantly increased by 15% after SCCD and decreased during storage. Moreover, the synergistic effect of both enzymes with chlorogenic acid and catechol was found.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Water and cell wall contributions to apple mechanical properties
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Marc Lahaye, Christopher Bouin, Adelin Barbacci, Sophie Le Gall, Loïc Foucat

    Relations between the apple cortex viscoelastic properties, water dynamics, histological, and chemical characteristics were investigated. Water mobility in four apple genotypes was studied by low-field NMR relaxometry prior and after plasmolysis of the cortex tissue. A discrete and a continuous method for decomposing the multi-exponential T2 curves were implemented and compared. The results show that both methods of relaxation curve decomposition had close ability to discriminate genotypes before and after plasmolysis. Although the sensitivity of T2 relaxometry allowed distinguishing microstructures among genotypes even after cellular fluids were mixed and diffused in plasmolyzed tissues, no relaxation component correlated with apple viscoelasticiy. Galactose and arabinose cell wall content were correlated with the storage modulus (E’) prior and after plasmolysis though the correlation signs were opposite and pointed to a potential key role of pectin RGI side chains in regulating apple texture in turgid tissue.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • New biological activity of the polysaccharide fraction from Cantharellus cibarius and its structural characterization
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Natalia Nowacka-Jechalke, Renata Nowak, Marek Juda, Anna Malm, Marta Lemieszek, Wojciech Rzeski, Zbigniew Kaczyński

    One of the most commonly consumed mushrooms in Europe is Cantharellus cibarius, also known as chanterelles. Therefore, the investigation of the pro-health properties of crude polysaccharides from this species was performed. The obtained results indicate that the polysaccharide fraction from C. cibarius inhibits the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2. Moreover, the prebiotic potential was revealed in relation to Lactobacillus strains. Crude polysaccharides were found to inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells with the simultaneous absence of toxicity towards normal cells. The purification and structural characterization of the examined polysaccharide fraction from C. cibarius indicates that it consists of one monosaccharide in the repeating unit →6)-α-D-Manp-(1→. The presented activities indicate for the first time that this edible mushroom possesses interesting chemopreventive potential, especially against colon cancer.

    更新日期:2018-06-22
  • Improvement in freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gel by inulin and its mechanism
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Jiangping Ye, Rong Yang, Chengmei Liu, Shunjing Luo, Jun Chen, Xiuting Hu, Jianyong Wu

    Three types of inulin with different degree of polymerization (average DP < 10, DP ≥ 10, and DP > 23) were used to improve the freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gel. The gels with or without addition of inulin were subjected to seven freeze-thaw cycles (FTC). Inulin enhanced the water holding capacity and reduced the amount of freezable water of the gels, thereby decreasing the syneresis of the gels during seven FTC. In addition, the amylose and amylopectin retrogradation of the gels were retarded. By adding inulin, the microstructure of gel network was stabilized, and the deterioration in viscoelastic properties of the gels during seven FTC was reversed. Therefore, inulin was an effective additive for preserving the quality of freeze-thawed rice starch gels. Furthermore, low DP inulin had higher water holding capacity than high DP one, as a result the inulin with lower DP was more effective.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Antifungal and eliciting properties of chitosan against Ceratocystis fimbriata in sweet potato
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Ke Xing, Teng Jie Li, Yuan Fang Liu, Jian Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xiao Qiang Shen, Xiao Yan Li, Xiang Min Miao, Zhao Zhong Feng, Xue Peng, Zong Yun Li, Sheng Qin

    The inhibitive effects of chitosan on black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in sweet potato tuber root (TR) were evaluated. The results demonstrated that chitosan effectively inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of C. fimbriata and directly led to the cell necrosis. Chitosan altered the chitin deposition and influenced the fatty acid composition of C. fimbriata. The application of chitosan effectively controlled the C. fimbriata development in sweet potato TRs 17 days of storage 25°C. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were clearly enhanced by the chitosan treatment, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) production was not increased. These findings suggest that chitosan effectively controlled the infection of C. fimbriata in sweet potato TRs owing to its antifungal and eliciting properties, which induced some defense responses during storage.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Characteristics and properties of goat meat gels as affected by setting temperatures
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Sulaiman Mad-Ali, Payap Masniyom, Soottawat Benjakul

    Effects of different setting temperatures (40-70 °C) on properties of goat meat gels after heating at 90 °C were investigated. Setting at 60 °C with subsequent heating at 90 °C yielded the gel with the highest breaking force along with coincidentally lowest expressible moisture content (p<0.05). The highest TCA-soluble peptide content was found in gel set at 70 °C (p<0.05). Slight decrease in myosin heavy chain band intensity was noticeable when setting temperature increased. As setting temperatures increased, a∗ and b∗-values of gels generally increased, while L∗-values decreased (p<0.05). Gel set at 60 °C had highest hardness, gumminess and chewiness (p<0.05). Gel set at 60 °C had the most compact network with immense connectivity of protein strands. Gels set at 40-60 °C had higher texture and overall likeness scores, compared to the control (p<0.05). Prior setting at 60°C was recommended for making the good quality goat meat gel.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Wheat gluten hydrolysates separated by macroporous resins enhance the stress tolerance in brewer’s yeast
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Huirong Yang, Xuyan Zong, Chun Cui, Lixia Mu, Haifeng Zhao

    Wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGH) were used to examine their adsorption-desorption kinetics and thermodynamics characteristics on six macroporous resins, and their effects on the stress tolerance in brewer’s yeast. Results showed that the pseudo second-order kinetics, Langmuir and Freundlich model could illuminate the adsorption mechanism, and the adsorption process was physical, spontaneous and exothermic. The 40% ethanol fraction separated by XAD-16 resin improved significantly the ethanol tolerance and the viability of brewer’s yeast, while the 0% ethanol fraction separated by XAD-16 resin increased obviously the osmotic stress tolerance and the viability of brewer’s yeast. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both these WGH fractions could increase budding rate and maintain normal morphology of yeast cells under various environmental stress. Thus, WGH separated by macroporous resin could be used in high gravity brewing to enhance the ethanol and osmotic stress tolerance in brewer’s yeast.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Antioxidant properties of ferrous flavanol mixtures
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Michalina Grzesik, Grzegorz Bartosz, Andrzej Dziedzic, Dorota Narog, Jacek Namiesnik, Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    Interaction of metal, especially iron ions with flavanols is considered as an important feature of these compounds and is believed to contribute to their both antioxidant and prooxidant properties. The aim of this study was to examine how Fe2+ binding to form a 4:1 (flavanol:Fe2+) mixtures affects the antioxidant properties of flavanols. ABTS∗ scavenging, protection against fluorescence bleaching induced by AAPH and hypochlorite, protection against lipid peroxidation and protection against hypochlorite-induced hemolysis demonstrated that flavonol-Fe2+ mixtures retain antioxidant properties, although, in most cases, they are lower with respect to the flavanols alone. No superoxide dismutase-like or catalase-like activity of the mixtures was revealed.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Hydrophilization of bixin by lipase-catalyzed transesterification with sorbitol
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Amita Jahangiri, Anders Hauer Møller, Marianne Danielsen, Bjoern Madsen, Bjarne Joernsgaard, Signe Vaerbak, Patrick Adlercreutz, Trine Kastrup Dalsgaard

    Bixin is one of the most used yellow-orange food colorants in the food industry. The polyene chain of bixin makes it highly hydrophobic and less suitable for water-based food formulations. Lipase-catalyzed reactions of bixin with sorbitol were studied to synthesize a new derivative of bixin with potential hydrophilic properties. Interestingly, we show that the lipase-catalyzed reaction of bixin leads to a transesterification reaction and formation of a transesterified product, sorbitol ester of norbixin (SEN). The reaction efficiency was optimized with various immobilized lipases at different water activity levels in the organic solvent, 2-methyl-2-butanol. Among the examined lipases, immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozyme 435) provided the highest reaction yield at a water activity close to zero. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was used as co-solvent to improve bixin solubility. The optimization of the reaction conditions with 20% THF lead to a total reaction yield of 50% of SEN.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Glucoraphanin and sulforaphane evolution during juice preparation from broccoli sprouts
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Cristiano Bello, Mariateresa Maldini, Simona Baima, Cristina Scaccini, Fausta Natella

    Broccoli sprouts are considered functional food as they are naturally enriched in glucoraphanin (GR) that is the biological precursor of the anticancer compound sulforaphane (SFN). Due to its health promoting value, also broccoli sprout juice is becoming very popular. The present study aimed to quantitatively assess the conversion of GR to its hydrolysis products, SFN and SFN-nitrile, during the juice preparation process. We demonstrated that SFN plus SFN-nitrile yield from glucoraphanin is quite low (≈25%) and that some SFN is lost during the juice preparation partially due to the spontaneous conversion to sulforaphane-amine or conjugation to GSH and proteins naturally present in the juice. Our results demonstrate that the detection of the sole SFN free form does not provide reliable information about the real concentration of this functional compound in the juice.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • Industrial prune processing and its effect on pesticide residue concentrations.
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Claudio Alister, Manuel Araya, Kevin Becerra, Christian Volosky, Jorge Saavedra, Marcelo Kogan

    The aim of this study was to determine the insecticide residue processing factor (PF) from plums to prunes and the effect of the industrial processing of prunes residue concentrations. Our results show an increase of insecticide concentrations during plum dehydration that is explained by fruit water loss; however, the normalized insecticide residue concentration, based on plum dry weights to compensate dehydration, was reduced. The water washing and tenderizing of prunes produced insecticide residue reductions of 22.9±4.5 % and 21.9±4.2%, respectively. PF were: 1.157, 1.872, 1.316, 0.192, 2.198, 0.775 and 0.156 for buprofezin, l-cyhalothrin, spirodiclofen, indoxacarb, acetamiprid, imidacloprid and emamectin benzoate, respectively, being directly related to water solubility, aqueous hydrolysis and degradation point and inversely related to molecular mass and melting point. In plums for the dehydrated agroindustry the final product is prunes, therefore, it is crucial to consider the PF to determine the specific preharvest interval for this important agroindustry.

    更新日期:2018-06-20
  • The effects of endogenous proteases within abdominal muscle parts on the rheological properties of thermally induced gels from white croaker (Pennahia argentata)
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Nobuhiko Ueki, Yoko Matsuoka, Jianrong Wan, Shugo Watabe

    Three types of material meats were prepared from a so-called normal muscle part of white croaker (Pennahia argentata) containing 0, 4.2 and 8.4% of an abdominal muscle part. Thermally induced gels were then prepared from these materials by pre-heating at 65°C for 30 or 60 min and subsequent heating at 85°C for 20 min. The breaking strength and breaking strain rate of thermally induced gels decreased with increasing contamination levels of the abdominal muscle part, in which degradation of myosin heavy chains was observed. The proteolytic activity in the abdominal muscle part homogenate was highest at 62.5°C. These results suggest that the abdominal muscle part contains proteases that induce the modori phenomenon. Technical experts assume that a contaminated abdominal muscle part leads to quality deterioration in surimi production industries. Our findings will aid the production of high-quality surimi-based products.

    更新日期:2018-06-19
  • Acetophenone benzoylhydrazones as antioxidant agents: synthesis, in vitro evaluation and structure-activity relationship studies
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Saeed Emami, Zahra Esmaili, Gholamreza Dehghan, Maryam Bahmani, Seyedeh Mahdieh Hashemi, Hassan Mirzaei, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Seyed Ershad Moradi
    更新日期:2018-06-19
  • Phenolic profile and bioactivity of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) inflorescence parts: selecting the best genotype for food applications
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-19
    Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, João C.M. Barreira, Maria José Alves, Paulo Barracosa, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    This study was designed to characterize the phenolic profile and bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts from different cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) genotypes. The analytical work focussed on the inflorescence stigmas, owing to their application in cheese production. Nevertheless, other parts were concomitantly analysed aiming to define their possible use in related applications. Phenolic profiles obtained by LC-DAD-ESI/MSn showed significant differences among different cardoon genotypes, but apigenin and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were generally the major molecules in all samples. Genotype influence has also been observed in relation to the antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Besides their strong antioxidant activity, the cardoon inflorescences showed satisfactory antibacterial activity, namely against Gram-positive strains, with particularly low MIC in Listeria monocytogenes. Overall, it was possible to identify the cardoon genotype (within the selected ones) providing the best standardized ingredient (stigma) with considerable added-value to be included in the process of cheese making.

    更新日期:2018-06-19
  • Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of novel sorbic and benzoic acid amide derivatives
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    Qingyi Wei, Xiaomei Wang, Jun-Hu Cheng, Guangxiang Zeng, Da-Wen Sun

    A series of sorbic and benzoic acid amide derivatives were synthesized by conjugating sorbic acid (SAAD, a1-a7) or benzoic acid (BAAD b1-b6) with amino acid esters and their antimicrobial activities were investigated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, mixed bacteria from rancid milk, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial activity of sorbic acid amides was better than that of benzoic acid amides. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of compound isopropyl N-[1-oxo-2, 4-hexadien-1-yl]-L-phenylalaninate (a7) were 0.17 mM against B. subtilis, and 0.50 mM against S. aureus, while the MIC values of sorbic acid were more than 2 mM respectively. Also, compound a7 displayed pH-independent antimicrobial activity in the range of pH 5.0-9.0 and was effective at pH 9.0. These results demonstrated that the conjugation of sorbic acid with amino acid esters led to significant improvement of in vitro antimicrobial attributes, but little effect was observed for benzoic acid amide derivatives.

    更新日期:2018-06-18
  • Carotenoid content of Goji berries: CIELAB, HPLC-DAD analyses and quantitative correlation
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Alexandros Patsilinakos, Rino Ragno, Simone Carradori, Stefania Petralito, Stefania Cesa

    Fruits of Lycium barbarum L., have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for centuries. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of many biologically constituents of these fruits. The high level of carotenoids offers protection against development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and related comorbidities. In the present work two different selections of Lycium barbarum L., cultivated in Italy and coming from three discrete harvest stages, were subjected to two different grinding procedure and to a simplified extraction method of carotenoid component. CIELAB colorimetric analysis of the freshly prepared purees and HPLC-DAD analysis of carotenoid extracts were performed and compared. Different harvesting dates and grinding procedures deeply influence the carotenoids content and statistical analysis showed high correlation between carotenoid content and colorimetric data. The final model provides a reliable tool to directly assess carotenoid content by performing cheap and routinely colorimetric analyses for food industry.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Influence of cyclodextrins on the gel properties of kappa-carrageenan
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Chao Yuan, Luyuan Sang, Yanli Wang, Bo Cui

    The influence of cyclodextrins (CDs) on the rheological and structural properties of κ-carrageenan (κ-CA) gel was investigated. Gelling temperature (Tg) of κ-CA was improved by CDs present in the system. Variation of the Herschel-Bulkley model parameters indicates that the addition of CDs increases plasticity of the κ-CA sol. Scanning electronic micrographs show that networks of κ-CA become flat and firm after CDs were added. κ-CA gel containing methyl-β-CD shows the most uniform and fine network structure. Moreover, a proposed model of CDs in κ-CA phase was provided. The influence of CDs on κ-CA gelation was mainly through (i) the exclusion of CDs from κ-CA in the sol state, (ii) the regular rearrangement of κ-CA random coils influenced by CDs in the sol state, (iii) the binding of CDs to the κ-CA surface by hydrogen bonds in the gel.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Physicochemical and functional properties of leftover egg yolk granules after phosvitin extraction
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Meram Chalamaiah, Yussef Esparza, Hui Hong, Feral Temelli, Jianping Wu

    In this study, leftover egg yolk granules, a by-product after phosvitin extraction, were evaluated for the physicochemical and functional properties and the results were compared with those of the egg yolk and whole granule with phosvitin. Leftover granule after phosvitin removal accounted for 12.6% of the dried egg yolk and contained 84.5% protein and 7.98% fat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of leftover granules indicated the dissociation of aggregates of high density lipoprotein-phosvitin complexes. Protein solubility of leftover granules was markedly influenced by pH and sodium chloride (0.5 and 1 M). The apparent viscosity of leftover granule was higher than egg yolk and whole granule. Compared to whole granule, leftover granule had significantly (P<0.05) superior foaming and emulsifying properties, but, lower than those of egg yolk. These findings are useful for the food industry for utilization of leftover egg yolk granules for the preparation of various food products.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Subcritical water extraction as a cutting edge technology for the extraction of bioactive compounds from chamomile: Influence of pressure on chemical composition and bioactivity of extracts
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Aleksandra Cvetanović, Jaroslava Švarc-Gajić, Zoran Zeković, Uroš Gašić, Živoslav Tešić, Gokhan Zengin, Pavle Mašković, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Saša Đurović

    The study was designed to determine the relationship between chemical structure, bioactivity and pressure during the subcritical water extraction (SCW) of chamomile. Extraction was carried out at isothermal conditions (100 °C) at five different pressures (10, 30, 45, 60 and 90 bar). Twenty three polyphenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, whereby apigenin was found to be the dominant compound (61.53-1344.99 mg/kg). Results suggest that the lowest applied pressure has negligible effect on phenolic recovery from chamomile, but also the use of pressures above than 45 bar was proven as needlessly. By using in vitro assays, influence of pressure on antioxidant, cytotoxic and enzyme-inhibitory activities of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained at 30, 45 and 60 bar exhibited stronger bioactivities than at 10 and 90 bar. It was concluded that pressure exert a significant influence on chemical composition of extracts, and thus on biological activity of chamomile extracts.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Intervention of transglutaminase in surimi gel under microwave irradiation
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Hongwei Cao, Daming Fan, Xidong Jiao, Jianlian Huang, Jianxin Zhao, Bowen Yan, Wenguo Zhou, Wenhai Zhang, Hao Zhang
    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Cell wall and metabolite composition of berries of Vitis vinifera (L.) cv Thompson Seedless with different firmness
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Baltasar Zepeda, Patricio Olmedo, Troy Ejsmentewicz, Pablo Sepúlveda, Iván Balic, Cristóbal Balladares, Joaquín Delgado-Rioseco, Claudia Fuentealba, Adrián A. Moreno, Bruno G. Defilippi, Claudio Meneses, Romina Pedreschi, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas

    Firm berries are highly appreciated by table grape consumers. Cell wall composition is one of the main factors influencing the firmness of table grape berries. Nevertheless, the biological factors driving changes in berry firmness remain unclear. In the present work, we evaluated the firmness of berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless. We selected two orchards displaying contrasting berry firmness and evaluated polar metabolites and cell wall composition. Our results suggest that berries from the soft orchard exhibited a higher accumulation of sugars at veraison whereas berries from the hard orchard accumulated the same sugars at harvest plus a higher amount of glucose monosaccharide at the cell wall. Thus, this study opens new insights about a connection between metabolic and cell wall changes with fruit firmness in a table grape variety, suggesting that it is possible to use metabolomic tools to identify metabolic biomarkers associated with table grape berry firmness.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Effects of high hydrostatic pressure-assisted organic acids on the copigmentation of Vitis amurensis Rupr anthocyanins
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Yang He, Liankui Wen, Hansong Yu, Fei Zheng, Zhitong Wang, Xuanwei Xu, Hao Zhang, Yong Cao, Bixiang Wang, Baiji Chu, Jianyu Hao

    Natural anthocyanins are safer and nutritious as compared to synthetic pigments; however, their stability is poor. They can produce spontaneous copigmentation with organic acids, leading to the improvement of colour stability, albeit slowly. Box–Behnken experimental design was used to elucidate the mechanism of copigmentation between Vitis amurensis Rupr anthocyanins (0.1 mg/mL) and organic acids (0.87 mg/mL, ferulic acid:d-gluconic acid:caffeic acid:vanillic acid=1.5:2.5:2.5:0.5, w/w/w/w) promoted by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; 300 MPa, 2 min). The copigmentation effect and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins were also evaluated. The structure of anthocyanins was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The results of HHP copigmentation showed that the following anthocyanins were newly formed—delphinidin-3-O-catechol, petunidin-3-O-catechol, delphinidin-4-vinyl-catechol, petunidin-3-O-guaiacol, malvidin-4-vinyl-guaiacol, cyanidin-3-O-(6“-O-caffeoyl)-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-(6”-O-caffeoyl)-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-(6“-O-caffeoyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-vinyl-guaiacol, and malvidin-3-O-(6”-O-feruloyl)-glucoside— owing to appropriate modifications that increased the copigmentation rate (R = 42.12%), photo-thermal stability (R >45%), and potential antioxidant activities expressed in vivo (p<0.01 vs. Model Group).

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Revisiting the evaluation strategy of varietal thiol biogenesis
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Hugo Bonnaffoux, Stéphane Delpech, Emmanuelle Remond, Rémi Schneider, Aurélie Roland, Florine Cavelier

    The varietal thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) are key aroma compounds in wine due to the tropical notes they impart. They are released by yeast during alcoholic fermentation from different precursors. However, a large part of 3MH origin remains unknown. In this study, we focused on dipeptide forms arising from glutathione S-conjugates to 3MH and 4MMP. Using labelled tracers, we showed in spiked must the release of varietal thiols from 4 different compounds. We highlighted the interconversion between different forms of precursors under defined enological conditions. Cysteinyl-glycine S-conjugates are partially degraded into cysteine S-conjugates, contrary to γ-glutamyl-cysteine S-conjugates. Glutathione S-conjugate to 3MH can be partially degraded to γ-glutamyl-cysteine S-conjugate to 3MH. For the first time, all these labeled forms of precursors were found to release 3MH or 4MMP between 0.17 to 1% molar conversion yield. Two different yeasts were compared without any significant difference.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Simultaneous Quantification of Free Amino Acids and 5'-Nucleotides in Shiitake Mushrooms by Stable Isotope-Labeling-LC-MS/MS Analysis
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Meng Dong, Lei Qin, Jia Xue, Ming Du, Song-Yi Lin, Xian-Bing Xu, Bei-Wei Zhu

    Evaluation of free amino acids (FAAs) and nucleotides in various food matrices has been a widely studied topic in recent years. Here, a fast and efficient strategy for the simultaneous analysis of 20 FAAs and six 5'-nucleotides, using stable-isotope-labeling-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (SIL-LC-MS/MS) is proposed. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), recovery, precision, and stability. LOQs of most FFAs were lower than 1 ng/mL, and 5'-nucleotides were in the range of 5-20 ng/mL. FAAs and 5'- nucleotides in ten shiitake mushrooms from different cultivate areas were further analyzed. Results showed that the contents of cytidine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, lysine, threonine, arginine were significantly different. Principal component analysis showed clear discrimination of origins, seasons and species. Thus, the proposed method is suitable for the fast discrimination of species and geographical origins of shiitake mushrooms.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Rapid purification of lysozyme by mixed-mode adsorption chromatography in stirred fluidized bed
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Kuei-Hsiang Chen, Shin-Ying Chou, Yu-Kaung Chang

    The commercial STREAMLINE Direct HST adsorbent was employed to investigate the adsorption characteristics of lysozyme in complex chicken egg white (CEW). The effects of operating parameters, including adsorption pH, ionic strength, and hydrophobicity of liquids on binding capacity, were examined using a well-mixed contactor. To determine the elution strategy, the experiments were carried out in a small packed bed. The lysozyme was completely eluted by 0.5 M NaCl in 40 mM carbonate buffer (pH 12) at a high liquid velocity of 200 cm/h. The effect of rotating speed on fluidization characteristics was further investigated by using a stirred fluidized bed process. Smoother fluidization was observed when the rotating speed reached 200 rpm and lysozyme was directly recovered from highly viscous CEW in a single step with a high yield of 94.3% and a purification factor of 15.7.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Wine industry by-product: full polyphenolic characterization of grape stalks
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Natércia Teixeira, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas, Joana Oliveira

    In this research work grape stalk samples from the Douro region were analyzed concerning polyphenolic composition. Different solid-liquid extraction conditions were tested for reaching the optimal parameters to obtain higher amounts of polyphenols. In general, the best conditions comprise the use of a mixture of acetone/ethanol/water (1:1:1) at room temperature during 20 minutes, using a pre-wash treatment with deionized water. The polyphenolic extractions with acetone are generally more effective than without acetone. Total phenolic determination (Folin-Ciocalteu), antioxidant capacity (DPPH/FRAP) and more accurate methods such as HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS were performed. An intensive polyphenolic characterization (including a possible identification of a new polyphenol) and compound quantification was achieved. A comparative study between these two analysis approaches was accomplished, which allowed to conclude that the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH/FRAP determinations do not always allow a direct correspondence between high phenolic content or antioxidant/reducing capacity and real high polyphenolic content on crude polyphenolic extracts.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Revisiting the enzymatic kinetics of pepsin using isothermal titration calorimetry
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Qi Luo, Dongxin Chen, Remko M. Boom, Anja E.M. Janssen

    Pepsin is the first protease that food proteins encounter in the digestive tract. However, most of the previous studies on the enzymatic kinetics of pepsin were based on the hydrolysis of small synthetic peptides, due to the limitations in methodology and the complexity of protein substrate. To better understand the role of pepsin in protein digestion, we used isothermal titration calorimetry to study the enzymatic kinetics of pepsin with bovine serum albumin as the substrate. We found that pepsin has a higher catalytic rate at lower pH, while its affinity to substrate is lower. At the same pH, pepsin has lower activity and affinity at higher ionic strengths. We found contrasting kinetic parameters for pepsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin and of small synthetic peptides. Time-dependent kinetics also showed that pepsin has lower efficiency towards intermediate peptides during hydrolysis.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Modification of soy protein isolate by glutaminase for nanocomplexation with curcumin
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Huan Xiang, Dongxiao Sun-waterhouse, Chun Cui, Wei Wang, Keming Dong

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) was first treated with glutaminase to yield modified SPI (E-SPI) before its complexation with curcumin. Comparisons were made between SPI and E-SPI concerning their characteristics and effectiveness in complexing with curcumin, along with changes in physicochemical properties, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH∙)-scavenging capacity and storage stability of curcumin upon complexation. The action of glutaminase did not markedly change SPI structure, but modified some secondary structures, causing greater protein unfolding with more hydrophobic clusters and amino acids exposed. Glutaminase treatment increased DPPH∙-scavenging capacity, foaming capacity and stability of SPI. The protein concentration played a role in the changes induced by glutaminase treatment and complexation with curcumin, and 1% protein seemed beneficial (highest DPPH scavenging activity; highest loading amount 10.07%; 98% and >90% curcumin retained in 1%-E-SPI at 4°C for 2 h and 12 h, respectively). Therefore, glutaminase treatment of SPI before complexation with curcumin appeared to be appropriate.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Potential of chitosan from mushroom waste to enhance quality and storability of fresh-cut melons
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Elena Poverenov, Hadar Arnon, Yana Zaicev, Viki Bar, Ofer Danay, Batia Horev, Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Tara McHugh, Victor Rodov

    The possibility of usage mushroom industry wastage, as a source of antimicrobial biopolymer chitosan to form active edible coatings was studied. It was found that the champignon stipe, an underutilized part of the mushroom, gave rise to a higher chitosan yield than caps (176 vs. 105 mg/g). Fungal chitosan caused a total growth inhibition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Escherichia coli bacteria at concentrations of 1% and 2%, respectively. The fungal chitosan-based edible coatings were applied on fresh-cut melons and found to enhance fruit firmness, inhibit off-flavors and reduce the microbial counts (up to 4 log CFU/g). Volatiles profile showed the coated melons have a higher content of esters responsible for fruit flavor (79.93% and 57.15% for fungal chitosan coated melon and uncoated melon, respectively). This study demonstrates that waste from the mushroom industry can be utilized for the production of non-animal sourced chitosan to form active edible coatings.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Modification of garlic skin dietary fiber with twin-screw extrusion process and in vivo evaluation of Pb binding
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Yiting Guo, Wan Liu, Bengang Wu, Ping Wu, Yuqing Duan, Qiaorong Yang, Haile Ma

    This study investigated the effects of a twin-screw extrusion-cooking process on the modification of garlic skin dietary fiber (DF) under optimal conditions (feed moisture 25 %, extrusion temperature 170 °C and screw speed 170 rpm). The evaluation of the soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from the extruded garlic skin on the capacity of Pb binding was determined in vivo. Compared with the untreated garlic skin, the content of extruded garlic skin SDF increased from 5.31 ± 0.58 % to 15.87 ± 0.88 %. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images demonstrated that the macromolecules deteriorated to form smaller SDF fractions during extrusion. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) spectra showed the thermal stability of the extruded SDF was highly improved after extrusion. Additionally, in vivo experimental results indicated that the addition of extruded DF significantly reduced the Pb absorptivity of rats with exposed Pb concentrations at 20, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The findings showed that the extruded garlic skin DF has a positive effect on Pb binding.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Metabolic Variation in the Pulps of Two Durian Cultivars: Unraveling the Metabolites that Contribute to the Flavor
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Pinnapat Pinsorn, Akira Oikawa, Mutsumi Watanabe, Ryosuke Sasaki, Panita Ngamchuachit, Rainer Hoefgen, Kazuki Saito, Supaart Sirikantaramas

    Durian (Durio zibethinus M.) is a major economic fruit crop in Thailand. In this study, two popular cultivars, namely Chanee and Mon Thong, were collected from three orchards located in eastern Thailand. The pulp metabolome, including 157 annotated metabolites, was explored using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight/mass spectrometry (CE-TOF/MS). Cultivars and harvest years had more impact on metabolite profile separation than cultivation areas. We identified cultivar-dependent metabolite markers related to durian fruit quality traits, such as nutritional value (pyridoxamine), odor (cysteine, leucine), and ripening process (aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid). Interestingly, durian fruit were found to contain high amounts of γ-glutamylcysteine (810.3 ± 257.5 mg/100 g dry weight) and glutathione (158.1 ± 80.4 mg/100 g dry weight), which act as antioxidants and taste enhancers. This metabolite information could be related to consumer preferences and exploited for durian fruit quality improvement.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Key Norisoprenoid compounds in wines from early-harvested grapes in view of climate change
    Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Andriani Asproudi, Alessandra Ferrandino, Federica Bonello, Enrico Vaudano, Matteo Pollon, Maurizio Petrozziello

    In view of climate change, the scheduling of an early harvest may be an agronomic option to limit wine alcohol, provided that a satisfactory content of secondary metabolites can be ensured in grapes. To better understand the link between grape ripening, seasonal trend and wine aroma, the aromatic expression of Barbera and Pinot Noir wines produced with early harvested grapes was assessed. Attention was focused on C13 norisoprenoids during both alcoholic fermentation and after three months of storage. At the end of fermentation, the highest β-damascenone content was detected in wines obtained from less ripe grapes, the content subsequently increased significantly after three months of storage; however, the levels of β-ionone decreased significantly during the same period. The reduction of wine alcohol as a result of harvesting earlier, especially for Barbera, was associated with optimal aromatic levels as well as good technological parameters.

    更新日期:2018-06-15
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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