Umami taste and its association with energy status in harvested Pleurotus geesteranus stored at different temperatures Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Zhiyong Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Guang Xin, Xue Gong, Yudi Wang, Lu Wang, Bingxin Sun
Pleurotus geesteranus has recently been gaining popularity due to its strong umami taste. In the present study, umami taste, energy level, and energy metabolism-related enzymes activity in harvested P. geesteranus, stored at 20, 10, 5, and 0 °C, were investigated to evaluate the relationship between umami taste and energy status. Results showed that the mushroom at 5 °C exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) equivalent umami concentration (EUC), higher content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and higher activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) in late storage. AMP, associating umami taste with energy, presented a significantly positive correlation with EUC and umami determined by electronic tongue at 5 °C. Furthermore, there were better correlations between umami taste and energy status of mushroom at 5 °C. The results suggest that higher energy status of post-harvest P. geesteranus contributes to better umami taste.
Comparative study of chemical compositions and antioxidant capacities of oils obtained from two species of walnut: Juglans regia and Juglans sigillate Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Pan Gao, Ruijie Liu, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
This study compared the lipid compositions, minor components contents, oxidative stability index, and free radical scavenging capacities of walnut oils from two species in China: Juglans regia (common walnut) and Juglans sigillata (iron walnut). The results showed that iron walnut oil contained lower C16:0 (4.97–5.25 %) and special fatty acid (erucic acid). Common walnut oil provided higher tocopherols (441.03–490.32 mg/kg), phytosterols (1014.49–1211.40 mg/kg), squalene (4.41–5.21 mg/kg), and polyphenols (44.78–64.61 mg GAE/kg) and better antioxidant capacities. The walnut oil of the different walnut species could be distinguished by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. In addition, multiple linear regression was employed to evaluate the contributions of minor components to the free radical scavenging capacity of the walnut oils and develop a predictive model for the antioxidant capacity of the oil. This information has important implications for the nutritional value and industrial production of walnut oil in China.
Changes in milk fat globule membrane proteome after pasteurization in human, bovine and caprine species Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Ying Ma, Lina Zhang, Yanyan Wu, Peng Zhou
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the thermos-stability of human, bovine, and caprine MFGM proteins after pasteurization. The milk fat globule size was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The MFGM proteins were characterized using SDS-PAGE and label-free proteomic techniques. The results indicated that pasteurization didn’t influence the MFGs size distributions in these three species. A total of 1104, 632, and 137 proteins were identified in human, bovine, and caprine MFGM, respectively. The significantly changed proteins after pasteurization were mainly involved in lipid syntheses and secretion as well as immune response. In addition, the changes of these proteins also differed among species, and a higher thermo-sensitivity was observed in human and caprine MFGM proteins than bovine MFGM proteins. In sum, pasteurization affected MFGM protein composition in different extent among three species.
Simultaneous selenium and sulfur speciation analysis in cultivated Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Ivan Milovanovic, Bassam Lajin, Simone Braeuer, Oliver Steiner, Fasshold Lisa, Walter Goessler
Selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) speciation analysis in edible and medicinal Se enriched P. pulmonarius extracts was performed. Mycelium, colonized substrate, and fruiting bodies at different harvesting times were analyzed using ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to an ICPMS/MS detector. Extraction efficiencies in enzymatically digested and aqueous extracts were between 45.3-109 % for Se, depending on the sample type. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) was found to be the major Se-compound, together with a number of unknown Se-species. Cystine (Cys2), methionine (Met), and sulfate were also detected and quantified in all samples. Most of the Se-Met (84.0 %) and Met (75.8 %) were found to be in free form in the fruiting body, in contrast with the mycelium where 53.4 % of Se-Met and 80.5 % of Met is incorporated into proteins.
Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on alendronate sodium grafted mesoporous magnetic nanoparticle for the determination of trans-resveratrol in peanut oils Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Qin Zhao, Dan-Qi Cheng, Ming Tao, Wen-Jing Ning, Yong-Jiao Yang, Kai-You Meng, Yong Mei, Yu-Qi Feng
In the present study, a rapid and effective method based on alendronate sodium grafted mesoporous magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4@ANDS) extraction for the determination of trans-resveratrol (TRA) in peanut oils was developed by coupling with HPLC-UV detection. The Fe3O4@ANDS was prepared via Lewis acid/base interaction which was simply carried out in mild aqueous condition without the using of organic solvent. The resultant Fe3O4@ANDS encompassed amino group on its surface, and it was employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent for purification and enrichment of TRA from peanut oils through hydrogen bond interaction. Under the optimized conditions, the whole pretreatment process could be accomplished within 10 min without time-consuming concentrated and reconstituted process. The linearity range of the proposed method was 1−10000 ng/g with satisfactory correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9992. The recoveries in spiked oil samples were in the range of 78.6-118.9% with the RSDs less than 3.3% (intra-day) and 15.2% (inter-day). The limit of detection for TRA in peanut oils was 0.3 ng/g which was comparative to the reported methods by using LC-MS/MS detection. Finally, the established method was successfully applied to the analysis of TRA in several peanut oils with different brands from local market as well as other kinds of vegetable oils.
Prediction of oxidative stability in bulk oils using dielectric constant changes Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 YunSik Woo, Mi-Ja Kim, JaeHwan Lee
The effects of amphiphilic compounds on the dielectric constant of bulk oils were determined and the utility of the dielectric constant as a reliable parameter for predicting the oxidative stability of edible oils was evaluated. As the content of monoacylglycerols (MAG), lecithin, and moisture increased, the dielectric constant of modified corn oil increased at different rates, whereas the addition of free fatty acids, including oleic and linoleic acid, decreased the dielectric constant of modified corn oil. Unoxidized fresh bulk oils showed a wide range of dielectric constants, from 8 for canola oils to 33 for flaxseed oils. The dielectric constant showed a strong correlation with the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in the bulk oils. Oils with low oxidative stability had a high dielectric constant. Overall, the dielectric constant of bulk oils is strongly correlated with the content of amphiphilic compounds, moisture content, and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids.
Ultrafast, universal and visual screening of dual genetically modified elements based on dual super PCR and a lateral flow biosensor Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-10 Wei Gao, Jingjing Tian, Kunlun Huang, Zhansen Yang, Wentao Xu, Yunbo Luo
In this study, a cascade screening system has been developed combining Dual Super Polymerase Chain Reaction (DSPCR) with the universal Lateral Flow Biosensor (LFB) for the ultrafast, universal and visual screening of dual GM elements, taking P-35s × T-nos for example. In the design of DSPCR for universal screening, gene-specific forward primers were labelled with biotin and gene-specific reverse primers were tagged with Cy5 and digoxin, respectively. In 2.5-min, DSPCR effectively amplified the dual target fragments through our prototype facility. Then, through specific antigen-antibody binding, a universal lateral flow biosensor exported visually dual-amplified results simultaneously without cross contamination. After optimization, the detection limit allowed 0.05% GM maize, corresponding to nine copies in maize. The entire detection process could be achieved in 10 min without any large-scale instrumentation. This method may be useful for the ultrafast, universal and visual screening of dual GM elements (P-35s × T-nos) in GM crop lines and is expected to be of great promise for rapid GMO screening and point-of-care tests.
The effect of organic and conventional farm management on the allergenic potency and bioactive compounds status of apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 E. Hallmann, E. Rozpara, M. Słowianek, J. Leszczyńska
The present study shows a relationship between the use of organic or conventional practices and the allergenic properties and the bioactive compound content of apricots. The presented results indicate that organic apricots contain significantly more biologically active compounds from polyphenols group 53.75 mg/100 g FW and 31.52 mg/100 g FW and carotenoids 10.90 mg/100 g FW and 8.42 mg/100 g FW in than conventional apricots from polyphenols 16.83 mg/100 g FW and 27.27 mg/100 g FW and carotenoids 4.01 mg/100 g FW and 3.85 mg/100 g FW. Organic fruits are characterized by a higher allergenic potential. The authors of the current research have found a strong relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds and the content of allergenic proteins for organic apricots R2=0.9044 and for conventional apricots R2= 0.8169. The main conclusion is that some organic apricots, despite their better quality, would not be recommended for consumption by allergy sufferers.
“Marine prebiotics: polysaccharides and oligosaccharides obtained by using microbial enzymes” Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Daniela de Borba Gurpilhares, Leonardo Paes Cinelli, Naomi Kato Simas, Adalberto Pessoa, Lara Durães Sette
Utilization of marine algae has increased considerably over the past decades, since biodiversity within brown, red and green marine algae offers possibilities of finding a variety of bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich sources of dietary fibre. The remarkable positive effects of seaweed dietary fibre on human body are related to their prebiotic activity over the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota. However, dietary modulation of microorganisms present in GIT can be influenced by different factors such as type and source of the dietary fibre, their molecular weight, type of extraction and purification methods employed, composition and modification of polysaccharide and oligosaccharide. This review will demonstrate evidence that polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from marine algae can be used as prebiotics, emphasizing their use in human health, their application as food and other possible applications. Furthermore, an important approach of microbial enzymes employment during extraction, modification or production of those prebiotics is highlighted.
The location of amphiphobic antioxidants in micellar systems: the diving-swan analogy Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Amaia Lopez de Arbina, Sonia Losada-Barreiro, Marcos Caroli Rezende, Matías Vidal, Carolina Aliaga
A protocol for determining the location of antioxidants (AOs) in a micro-heterogeneous medium was applied to three series of AOs with increasing hydrophobicities: chromancarboxylic acid (“Trolox”) esters, caffeic acid and its esters, and gallic acid and its esters. The observed paradoxical behaviour of these and other commonly encountered antioxidants was rationalized with the aid of a pictorial simile, the “diving-swan” analogy, that explains the orientation and location of an amphiphobic AO when it reacts with a radical probe in the micellar interface.
Comparison of phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of different sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Nuria Acero, Ana Gradillas, Marta Beltran, Antonia García, Dolores Muñoz Mingarro
In the present work, three Spanish local varieties of Prunus avium (L.), as well as two foreign varieties were studied. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, glucose and fructose of methanolic extracts from ripe fruits of each variety were analysed. A phytochemical profile of these cultivars was performed by UHPLC-qTOF-MS. The employed chromatographic method allowed a clear and rapid separation of the three main phenolic compound groups present in the extracts: hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and flavonoids. In addition, the extracts DPPH• radical scavenging ability, as well as their capacity to affect xanthine /xanthine oxidase system, were determined. Finally, variations in ROS intracellular concentrations in HepG2 cell line cultures treated with cherry extracts were measured through DCFH-DA assay. All extracts showed a significant inhibitory effect on the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Differences between in vitro and in cell culture results evidence the interaction among the phenolic compounds of the extract.
Rapid single-step cleanup method for analyzing 47 pesticide residues in pepper, chili peppers and its sauce product by high performance liquid and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Le Song, Yongtao Han, Juan Yang, Yuhong Qin, Wenbo Zeng, Shaoqing Xu, Canping Pan
A novel rapid single-step cleanup method combined with quick, easy, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction approach for determining multi-pesticide residues was developed. For the single-step QuEChERS (sin-QuEChERS) cleanup procedure, a specified cartridge was fitted within an extraction centrifuge tube for removing non-target substances. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Primary Secondary Amine (PSA) mixed with salts functioned as absorbents. Method validation was applied on 47 representative pesticides in pepper, chili peppers and chili sauce by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS detection. Compared to the original QuEChERS method, the Sin-QuEChERS method was fast and convenient without any further vortex or centrifugation. Satisfactory recoveries of most pesticides at two concentration levels were in the range of 70-120% (except for pyrimethanil) with relative standard deviations (RSDs n=5) lower than 17%. The limit of quantification (LOQs) for the 47 pesticides were 0.01 mg/kg in three matrices. Sin-QuEChERS method was successfully applied to monitor the market multi-residues.
Flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fresh eating citrus fruits, using the coupled in vitro digestion and human intestinal HepG2 cells model Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Yujing Sun, Wenyang Tao, Haizhi Huang, Xingqian Ye, Peilong Sun
With in-vitro digestion and human intestinal HepG2 cells, we analyzed the bioaccessibility and cell uptake of phytochemicals and determined the cellular antioxidant capacity (CAA) of fresh eating citrus fruits. The results showed that CAA of citrus fruits was higher in digesta than in extracts, and the CAA is strongly correlated with naringenin and beta-carotene uptake (p < 0.05). During in vitro digestion, vanillic acid and p-coumaric decreased, and ferulic acid increased in all citrus fruits significantly (p < 0.05); other phytochemicals varied among the fruits. During uptake, hydroxybenzoic acids, hesperidin, narirutin, naringenin and neohesperidin were detected in cells, Zeaxanthin, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene could be detected in the citrus varieties except for pummel, but hydroxycinnamic acids and hesperitin were not detected in cells. This work provides insights into the bioaccessibility and cell uptake of phytochemicals and cellular antioxidant activity of fresh eating citrus fruits.
Effect of metal ions present in milk on the functional and structural integrity of native and polyaniline chitosan nanocomposites bound β-galactosidase: A multi-spectroscopic approach Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 Maryam Khan, Qayyum Husain
β-Galactosidase is vital to dairy industries because it catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose making it useful for lactose intolerant patients to consume milk and its products. The present study demonstrates the effect of metal ions commonly found in milk, namely Zn2+, K+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ on the activity of native and polyaniline chitosan nanocomposites bound Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase. In polyaniline chitosan silver nanocomposite adsorbed β-galactosidase, a multi-fold enhancement in catalytic activity was observed in the presence of cocktail of Zn2+, K+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions. 3D fluorescence, CD and FTIR studies established significant conformational changes in the secondary structure of polyaniline chitosan silver nanocomposite bound β-galactosidase on addition of metal ions as compared to the native and other bound enzyme. This enhanced catalytic efficiency of the immobilized enzyme in presence of metal ions can promote its economic use for lactose hydrolysis in milk.
Untargeted LC-MS based 13C labelling provides a full mass balance of deoxynivalenol and its degradation products formed during baking of crackers, biscuits and bread Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-11 David Stadler, Francesca Lambertini, Christoph Bueschl, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Christian Hametner, Heidi Schwartz-Zimmermann, Roland Hellinger, Michael Sulyok, Marc Lemmens, Rainer Schuhmacher, Michele Suman, Franz Berthiller, Rudolf Krska
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is considered to be one of the most important contaminants in cereals and food commodities produced thereof. So far it is not clear i) to which extent DON is degraded during baking and ii) if a degradation results in reduced toxicity. We have elucidated the fate of DON during baking of crackers, biscuits and bread, which were produced from fortified dough and processed under pilot plant conditions. Untargeted stable isotope assisted liquid chromatography (LC) high resolution mass spectrometry was used to determine all extractable degradation products. Targeted LC - tandem mass spectrometry based quantification revealed that DON was partially degraded to isoDON (1.3 – 3.9 %), norDON B (0.2 - 0.9 %) and norDON C (0.3 – 1.2 %). A DON degradation of 6 % (crackers), 5 % (biscuits) and 2 % (bread), respectively, was observed. In vitro translation experiments indicate that isoDON is less toxic than DON.
Design of microcapsules with bilberry seed oil, cold-set whey protein hydrogels and anthocyanins: effect of pH and formulation on structure formation kinetics and resulting microstructure during purification processing and storage Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-07 Lina Svanberg, Sophia Wassén, Graziele Gustinelli, Camilla Öhgren
Encapsulation of polar and non-polar bioactive compounds from bilberries was achieved by designing microcapsules with bilberry seed oil (BSO) distributed in an aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI). Non-thermal emulsification method (o/w/o) was developed and the effect of pH (3 or 4.5), concentration of WPI (8.4-10.8% w/w), addition of AC (72-216 ppm) and emulsifier on the structure-forming kinetics and the resulting microstructure during storage and after centrifugation and washing was investigated. Agglomeration of BSO was observed in all microcapsules at pH 4.5 due to slow gelling process and in samples at pH 3 at low concentrations of WPI (≤8.4%). Capsules with pH 3 (9.6-10.8%) had weak structures but as the gelling process was faster, it generated an even distribution of BSO droplets. All samples at pH 4.5 and samples with WPI concentration ≥10.8% at pH 3 exhibited intact structures after centrifugation and washing.
The aggregation, structures and emulsifying properties of soybean protein isolate induced by ultrasound and acid Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Liurong Huang, Xiaona Ding, Yunliang Li, Haile Ma
The effects of ultrasound and acid on the aggregation, structures and emulsifying properties of soybean protein isolate (SPI) were investigated. Results of solubility showed that ultrasonic treatments at 0.001 M HCl increased the content of soluble SPI. The particle size of soluble aggregates subjected to ultrasonication and acid was initially decreased and then increased with increasing ultrasonic time. Secondary structure analysis, by circular dichroism, indicated lower a-helix and higher random coil amounts in SPI treated with short ultrasonic time, in contrast to the higher a-helix and lower random coil in SPI treated with longer time (more than 20 min). Emulsions prepared with SPI by 10 min of ultrasonication demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) small droplet sizes and long term stability in comparison with their untreated counterparts. These results highlight that the emulsifying properties of SPI can be significantly improved by the synergistic effect of ultrasound and acid.
Comparison of flavonoid and policosanol profiles in Korean winter-spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivated in different regions Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Heung Joo Yuk, Hyung Won Ryu, Doo-Young Kim, Mi Hyeon Park, Woo Duck Seo, Seong Hun Jeong, Sei-Ryang Oh
Spinach intake has long been highlighted globally because of its outstanding nutritional aspects. In this study, changes in flavonoids, a representative functional phytochemical group, were investigated by UPLC–QTof MS with multivariate analysis of winter-spinach samples from three different cultivation regions in Korea. From the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the differences of flavonoids among the geographic locations were clearly distinguished. Seven spinach flavonoids (2, patuletin-3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucoside; 4, spinacetin-3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-[apiosyl-(1→2)]-glucoside; 8, patuletin 3-O-(2''-feruloylglucosyl)-(1→6)-[apiosyl-(1→2)]-glucoside; 11, spinacetin 3-O-(2''-feruloylglucosyl)-(1→6)-[apiosyl-(1→2)]-glucoside; 12, patuletin 3-O-(2''-feruloylglucosyl)-(1→6)-glucoside; 18, 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylendioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide; 20, 5,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-6:7-methylendioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide) were evaluated as key markers among 20 isolated metabolites. Interestingly, the contents of individual marker were significantly different among the groups, though total amount of flavonoids were almost same. Additionally, policosanols (PCs) in the winter-spinach was examined quantitatively using GC-MS for the first time. The PCs were analyzed as the range of 53.6 to 59.2 mg/100 g, indicate that the winter-spinach is a beneficial source of PCs.
High-throughput foodomics strategy for screening flavor components in dairy products using multiple mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Wei Jia, Han Wang, Lin Shi, Feng Zhang, Cheng Fan, Xuefeng Chen, James Chang, Xiaogang Chu
A reliable Fisher discriminant model was established which was able to analyze the aroma component in milk, dairy products, flavors and fragrance, and applied on its variety identification. Foodomics was applied on screening of flavor components in 1093 dairy products and flavor samples in this study. Stepwise discrimination was used to screen the components of the dairy products and flavor samples that had a significant effect on the classification results, and discriminant function analysis. Then nine principal components were used for established the Fisher discriminant model. The three-dimensional coordinate distance of the sample was calculated and as the gist. The result showed that samples and flavors were distributed in eight different sites. The separation and clustering effects are better. The objective of the present study was to effectively determine whether or not flavors were added to dairy products.
Combined cereal and pulse flavonoids show enhanced bioavailability by downregulating phase II metabolism and ABC membrane transporter function in Caco-2 model Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Shreeya Ravisankar, Shima Agah, Hyemee Kim, Susanne Talcott, Chaodong Wu, Joseph Awika
Predominant flavonoids in cereals and pulses are structurally different and may positively interact to enhance bioactivity in combined diet. This work investigated the effects of combined cereal 3-deoxyflavonoids (apigenin, naringenin) and pulse flavonols (quercetin), along with natural extracts, on their bioavailability and underlying mechanisms using Caco-2 monolayer model. Membrane permeability, phase II metabolism, and ATP binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporter expression and function were measured. Apparent absorption of quercetin and apigenin increased (p < 0.05) 3.3 X and 1.5 X, respectively, while both compounds were significantly less metabolized in combined treatments. Combinations with naringenin had insignificant effect, suggesting a role for flavonoid C2=C3 conjugation. Both natural extracts and apigenin-quercetin combinations synergistically (3-40 fold) downregulated ABC transporter expression, and inhibited P-glycoprotein activity, suggesting direct binding and inhibition of ATPase. Combination of conjugated cereal and pulse flavonoids enhances their potential bioavailability through synergistic inhibition of membrane transporter and phase II enzyme function.
Untargeted metabolite profiling and phytochemical analysis of Micromeria fruticosa L. (Lamiaceae) leaves Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Ibrahim M. Abu-Reidah, David Arráez-Román, Mohammed Al-Nuri, Ismail Warad, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Micromeria fruticosa is an important crop, is widely used in the Mediterranean basin as food and in folk medicine, owing to its health-promoting properties, partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, complete information on the phyto-metabolites in M. fruticosa is still lacking. Plant leaves were extracted in methanol (80%), then the phyto-metabolites were separated on C18 column and an extensive characterization using UHPLC–DAD-ESI–QTOF–MS2 method in two ionization modes was established. A total of 215 phenolics and other compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first comprehensive study available on the phytochemicals from M. fruticosa. Over 180 phytochemicals (87 flavonoids, 41 phenolic acids, 16 terpenoids, 8 sulfate derivatives, 7 iridoids, and others) are reported in Micromeria for the first time. M. fruticosa can be a promising source of functional ingredients and has use in the food, pharma and nutraceutical industries.
Proximate composition and profiles of free amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and aroma compounds in Citrus natsudsaidai peel Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Yu Matsuo, Larissa Akari Miura, Tetsuya Araki, Yumiko Yoshie-Stark
Bulky hard peel of Citrus natsudaidai is discarded and not utilized enough in Japan. In this study, the nutritional composition and volatile components of three cultivars of C. natsudaidai peel were determined. Considering the proximate composition and minerals, C. natsudaidai peels showed good carbohydrate and potassium content. The peel color varied probably due to the difference of cultivars. C. natsudadai peels were extracted and analyzed for free amino acids and for fatty acids and volatile compounds. The amount of free amino acids in the extracts was not enough to affect the taste of extracts. The proportion of individual fatty acid was not comparable to other plant oils, however, typical aroma compounds with citrusy smell were identified. C. natsudaidai extracts could contribute for the utilization as flavoring additives without affecting taste.
Use of a modified QuEChERS method for the determination of mycotoxin residues in edible nuts by nano flow liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Jaime Alcántara-Durán, David Moreno-González, Juan F. García-Reyes, Antonio Molina-Díaz
A nanoflow liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of mycotoxins in nuts has been developed. Two strategies based on QuEChERS methodology were evaluated. Thus, EMR-lipid was compared with a conventional mixture of PSA and C18 dispersive solid phase extraction sorbents which have been commonly used in this type of matrices as sample clean-up. The results showed that the use of EMR-lipid reduced more effectively matrix components, achieving a negligible matrix effect for all mycotoxins studied in peanut, pistachio and almond. The proposed method was validated in line with SANTE guidelines using EMR-Lipid as dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent. The lowest concentration level were between 0.05 and 5 μg kg-1, being lower than the maximum levels established by the current legislation. Recovery rates ranged from 75% to 98% was obtained in all sample studied, achieving also satisfactory precision with RSD values lower than 19% in all cases.
Co-pigmentation of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) anthocyanins with phenolic co-pigments and herbal extracts Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Daniela Klisurova, Ivalina Petrova, Manol Ognyanov, Yordan Georgiev, Maria Kratchanova, Petko Denev
The co-pigmentation of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) anthocyanins with ten phenolic co-pigments was studied. Tested compounds provoked different co-pigmentation effect, manifested by hyperchromic and batochromic shifts. The co-pigmentation was accompanied by a magnification of color intensity and decrease of color hue, both related to a more pleasant color. The hyperchromic effect was the most significant for rosmarinic acid (51.02%), syringic acid (43.24%) and catechin (39.73%). However, it was observed at the highest pigment/co-pigment ratio (1:50), not achievable in plant matter. Targeting the potential practical application of co-pigmentation, we tested eight herbal extracts for their co-pigmentation ability with aronia anthocyanins. The use of herbal extracts led to a significant hyperchromic effect at much lower pigment/co-pigment ratios, compared to pure compounds. The use of selected herbal extracts as co-pigments opens realistic prospects for development of aronia functional foods with improved sensory properties and biological effects, due to enhanced color and anthocyanin stability.
The Ratio of Chelate-soluble Fraction to Alcohol Insoluble Residue is a Major Influencing Factor on the Texture of Lotus Rhizomes After Cooking Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Gongji Liu, Xiang Li, Shoulei Yan, Jie Li
The differences in cell wall polysaccharides are considered as a major influencing factor on the texture of plant-based food after cooking. Here, 18 varieties of lotus rhizomes were collected from different regions of China and subjected to analysis, with the aim to identify the key factors that affect the texture of lotus rhizomes after cooking. The texture (hardness) of fresh samples and the samples after thermal treatment for different time periods was examined. The cell wall polysaccharides present in alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) were further subdivided into different fractions, and the composition of monosaccharides in each fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography. We then calculated the sugar ratios to examine the discrepancies in molecular structure among the fractions. Principal component analysis and regression analysis showed that the ratio of chelate-soluble fraction (CSF) to AIR is the major factor affecting the texture of lotus rhizomes after cooking.
Identification of hydroxytyrosyl oleate, a derivative of hydroxytyrosol with anti-inflammatory properties, in olive oil by-products Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Pierluigi Plastina, Cinzia Benincasa, Enzo Perri, Alessia Fazio, Giuseppina Augimeri, Mieke Poland, Renger Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
Hydroxytyrosyl esters with short, medium and long acyl chains were evaluated for their ability to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among the compounds tested, C18 esters, namely hydroxytyrosyl stearate (HtySte) and hydroxytyrosyl oleate (HtyOle), were found to decrease NO production in a concentration-dependent manner, while the other compounds, including the parent hydroxytyrosol, were ineffective in the tested concentration range (0.5-5 μM). Further study of the potential immune-modulating properties of HtyOle revealed a significant and concentration-dependent suppression of prostaglandin E2 production. At a transcriptional level, HtyOle inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-1β. Moreover, HtyOle was identified for the first time in olive oil by-products by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. By contrast, HtyOle was not found in intact olives. Our results suggest that HtyOle is formed during oil processing and represents a significant form in which hydroxytyrosol occurs.
Variation patterns in the content of glycosides during green tea manufacturing by a modification-specific metabolomics approach: enzymatic reaction promoting an increase in the glycosidically bound volatiles at the pan firing stage Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Pengliang Li, Yin Zhu, Meiling Lu, Chen Yang, Dongchao Xie, Junfeng Tan, Qunhua Peng, Yue Zhang, Dejiang Ni, Weidong Dai, Zhi Lin
The glycosides are presumed to influence the quality of green tea but the molecular mechanism behind remains unclear. To elucidate the contribution of glycosides to the flavor formation of green tea, changes of both glycosidically bound non-volatiles (GBNVs) and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) during the manufacturing of green tea were investigated using a modification-specific metabolomics method. A total of 64 glycosides (47 GBNVs and 17 GBVs) were identified and their contents mainly changed during the pan firing and drying stages of green tea manufacturing. Notably, the contents of GBVs significantly increased by 1.12-4.46-fold during pan firing. Correlation analysis showed that the GBVs contents were negatively related to the contents of volatiles and glucose. Model experiments revealed that enzymatic synthesis contributed to the increase in the content of GBVs during the pan firing. This comprehensive study on the glycosides changes revealed the molecular bases for GBVs increments during the pan firing.
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties of a camel whey protein enriched hydrolysate preparation Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Alice B. Nongonierma, Cloé Cadamuro, Aurélien Le Gouic, Priti Mudgil, Sajid Maqsood, Richard J. FitzGerald
Camel milk proteins contain dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides. A camel whey protein concentrate (WPC, 44.7 ± 3.4% (w/w) protein) was prepared and subsequently hydrolysed with trypsin at different temperatures, enzyme to substrate (E:S) ratios and hydrolysis times yielding fifteen hydrolysates (H1-H15). Their DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranged from 0.55 ± 0.05 to 1.52 ± 0.16 mg L-1 for H8 and H6, respectively. E:S was the only factor having a significant effect on the DPP-IV IC50 value (p <0.05). Relatively potent α-lactalbumin-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides (LAHKPL and ILDKEGIDY) were detected in selected hydrolysates. Additionally, three potent β-CN-derived peptides, VPV, YPI and VPF having DPP-IV IC50 values of 6.6 ± 0.5, 35.0 ± 2.0 and 55.1 ± 5.8 µM, respectively, were identified. After IPI, VPV is the second most potent DPP-IV inhibitory peptide identified to date, which supports the role of camel milk as an antidiabetic agent.
In vitro bioaccessibility of selenoamino acids from selenium (Se)-enriched Chlorella vulgaris biomass in comparison to selenized yeast; a Se-enriched food supplement; and Se-rich foods Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Dai Long Vu, Kumar Saurav, Mykola Mylenko, Karolína Ranglová, Jan Kuta, Daniela Ewe, Jiří Masojídek, Pavel Hrouzek
Selenium (Se) is an indispensable microelement in our diet and health issues resulting from deficiencies are well documented. Se-containing food supplements are available on the market including Se-enriched Chlorella vulgaris (Se-Chlorella) which accumulates Se in the form of Se-amino acids (Se-AAs). Despite its popular uses, data about the bioaccessibility of Se-AAs from Se-Chlorella are completely missing. In the present study, gastrointestinal digestion times were optimized and the in vitro bioaccessibility of Se-AAs in Se-Chlorella, Se-yeast, a commercially available Se-enriched food supplement (Se-supplement) and Se rich foods (Se-foods) were compared. Higher bioaccessibility was found in Se-Chlorella (∼49%) as compared to Se-yeast (∼21%), Se-supplement (∼32%) and Se-foods. The methods used in production of Se-Chlorella biomass were also investigated. We found that disintegration increased bioaccessibility whereas the drying process had no effect. Similarly, temperature treatment by microwave oven also increased bioaccessibility whereas boiling water did not. Chemical compounds studied in this article Selenomethionine (PubChem CID: 15103); Selenocysteine (PubChem CID: 6326983); Methylselenocysteine (PubChem CID: 147004); Methanesulfonic acid (PubChem CID: 6395).
Effect of in vitro digestion-fermentation on green and roasted coffee bioactivity: the role of the gut microbiota Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Sergio Pérez-Burillo, Trupthi Mehta, Adelaida Esteban-Muñoz, Silvia Pastoriza, Oleg Paliy, José Ángel Rufián-Henares
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages and has been linked to health in different studies. However, green and roasted coffees have different chemical composition and therefore their health properties might differ as well. Here, we study the effect of in vitro digestion-fermentation on the antioxidant capacity, phenolic profile, production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbiota community structure of green and roasted coffee brews. Roasted coffees showed higher antioxidant capacity than green coffees, with the highest level achieved in fermented samples. Polyphenol profile was similar between green and roasted coffees in regular coffee brews and the digested fraction, but very different after fermentation. Production of SCFAs was higher after fermentation of green coffee brews. Fermentation of coffee brews by human gut microbiota led to different community structure between green and roasted coffees. All these data suggests that green and roasted coffees behave as different types of food.
Precision Viticulture and Advanced Analytics. A short review Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Luis G. Santesteban
Precision viticulture (PV) is a relatively new discipline, whose development started in the 1990s. PV aims at adjusting vineyard management to the spatial variability that naturally appears in the field in order to increase its economic and environmental sustainability. Despite the rapid growth of PV in the last two decades, there is little PV research taking advantage of the great potential advanced analytics could provide to this field. PV and advanced analytics, working altogether, could provide not only a more suitable evaluation of the benefits of PV implementation for growers, but also a better understanding of the vineyard internal factors that determine grape composition, as most of the external factors behind sources of variability are fixed when working in a single field.
Effects on the Color, Taste, and Anthocyanins Stability of Blueberry Wine by Different Contents of Mannoprotein Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Xiyun Sun, Zhicheng Yan, Tong zhu, Jinyan Zhu, Yuehua Wang, Bin Li, Xianjun Meng
Blueberry wine is a new fruit wine with good taste and rich nutrition, but color change and anthocyanins (ACNs) content readily decrease during the production process. The effects of different content (0.2 g/L, 0.25 g/L, and 0.3 g/L) of mannoprotein (MP) on the blueberry wine were investigated in this study. The result showed that MP treatment inhibited the decrease in ACN content, reduced the content of total acid, increased the content of alcohol content in blueberry wine, maintained the color and improved the taste of blueberry wine. In addition, the effect was more pronounced as the MP concentration increased, with the optimum effect at 0.3 g/L. However, MP has no significant effect on the total sugar in blueberry wine. The results arising from this study provide new insights into blueberry wine production, by which treatment with MP maintain the color and ACNs contents, and improve the taste of blueberry wine.
Fractionation and Characterisation of Hard Milk Fat Crystals using Atomic Force Microscopy Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Damien A. Sebben, Nan Gao, Graeme Gillies, David A. Beattie, Marta Krasowska
The hard milk fat (HMF) fraction of milk fat was isolated via dry, thermal fractionation, followed by a solvent washing process. The resulting HMF crystals were visibly free of entrapped liquid fat, and subsequently characterised by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. The HMF crystals were found to be mostly β′ and β′2 crystalline structures, with a lamellar thickness of 42.7-44.1 Å. Additionally, crystal size was determined to be ≥ 1 μm in length and 0.4 - 1 μm in width. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to further characterise the HMF crystals. AFM enabled 3D mapping and visualisation of crystal layering, as well as simple determination of layer thickness (∼ 4.2 ±0.8 nm); a value in close agreement with the results obtained via X-ray analysis. The AFM characterisation approach provides a simple method of characterising HMF crystals, without suffering the limitations of other widely used techniques.
Evolution of the phenolic compounds profile of olive leaf extract encapsulated by spray-drying during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Estefanía González, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Begoña Giménez, Rubén Cebrián, Mercedes Maqueda, Antonio Martínez-Férez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Paz Robert
An olive leaf extract (OLE) was microencapsulated with sodium alginate (SA) by spray-drying to study the evolution of oleuropein (ORP) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and its bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability from OLE and OLE-SA microparticles. Secoiridoids, flavonoids, simple phenols, oleosides and elenolic acid were identified in OLE. OLE/SA ratio 1:1.6 and inlet air temperature 135°C were the optimal conditions for OLE-SA microparticles. ORP (70%) from OLE was degraded during gastric digestion, giving hydroxytyrosol and ORP-aglycone, whereas only the superficial ORP was released from microparticles. The remaining ORP from OLE was degraded under intestinal conditions, leading to oleosides; whereas alginate was swollen and disintegrated, releasing the ORP (90% of encapsulated ORP). ORP from both OLE and microparticles was degraded to hydroxytyrosol under colonic conditions. Encapsulation of OLE allowed the protection of ORP under gastric conditions and its controlled release at intestinal conditions, and higher bioaccessibility (58%) and potential bioavailability (20%).
Peptidomic analysis of hydrolyzed oat bran proteins, and their in vitro antioxidant and metal chelating properties Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-06 Ramak Esfandi, William G. Willmore, Apollinaire Tsopmo
Peptide profiles of hydrolyzed oat proteins and the susceptibility of their polypeptides to proteolytic cleavages were determined using peptidomic analysis. In addition, antioxidant activities were also measured. Proteins isolates were first extracted with carbohydrases, Viscozyme or Cellulase and then hydrolyzed with proteases (Alcalase, Papain, Protamex, Flavourzyme). Amongst the eight hydrolysates, Viscozyme-proteins hydrolyzed with Papain showed the highest ability to quench ABTS•+ radicals (866.9±10.6 µM TE/g) and to chelate ferrous ions (75±0.4%) while displaying the second strongest activity for ROO• radicals (396.7±14.0 µM TE/g). Peptidomics analysis showed that the higher activity of papain hydrolysate in most assays was related to its greater proteolytic action on main proteins (avenin, 11S- and 12S-globulins) compared to other proteases. In addition, the number of peptides identified in the Papain digest of proteins extracted with Viscozyme was about half relative to the number in proteins from bran treated with Cellulase and digested with the same protease. This was likely because the carbohydrases differently affected polypeptide secondary structures.
The gastrointestinal behavior of emulsifiers used to formulate excipient emulsions impact the bioavailability of β-carotene from spinach Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Xi Yuan, Jie Xiao, Xiaojuan Liu, David Julian McClements, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
The impact of the type of emulsifier used to formulate excipient emulsions on the degradation (D*) and bioaccessibility (B*) of β-carotene in spinach was investigated using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC) were more prone to droplet aggregation than those stabilized by either Tween 20 or octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch. The fraction of β-carotene available for absorption (D* × B*) was also affected by emulsifier type: SC (12.0%) > Tween 20 (5.0%) ≈ OSA stabilized (2.6%) (p < 0.05). This effect was mainly attributed to differences in the digestive characteristics of the emulsifiers, which affected the transfer efficiency of β-carotene from the plant tissues to the lipid phase, lipid digestion, and mixed micelle formation. These results show the importance of selecting an appropriate emulsifier when designing excipient emulsions to enhance the bioavailability of nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables.
Preparation and characterization of octenyl succinic anhydride modified agarose derivative Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Qiong Xiao, Huifeng Weng, Guo Chen, Anfeng Xiao
Agarose was successfully modified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and the factors affecting OSA modifying process were studied. The degree of substitution (DS) could be regulated from 0.02 to 0.21 by changing the reaction condition, simultaneously the molecular weight of the OSA-agarose (OSAG) varied from 342 kD to 483 kD. FT-IR spectrum of the OSAG at 1734 cm-1 and 1576 cm-1 revealed characteristic absorption peaks of the ester carbonyl groups (C=O) and the carboxylate (RCOO-), respectively. NMR spectrum of the OSAG suggested the main substitution occurred at the C-2 in the D-galactopyranose. The SEM image of agarose showed the porous network structure became dense and the fiber became thin after OSA modification. Compared with original agarose, the prepared OSAG showed novel physical properties including low gelling and melting temperature and high transparency. The remaining gelation ability and newly introduced amphiphilic character anticipate potential application as functional polysaccharide materials in foods.
Improved extraction of peanut residues from a wheat flour matrix for immunochemical detection Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Shyamali Jayasena, Subhashinee S.K. Wijeratne, Steve L. Taylor, Joe Baumert
The efficacy of different buffers in extracting peanut from a solid model food incurred with peanut and subjected to processing was evaluated using two commercial ELISA kits: Veratox® for peanut allergen and peanut ELISA from Morinaga. Average percentage recoveries of peanut from unprocessed samples using the kit supplied buffers were 46 ± 5 and 28 ± 2 with the Veratox and Morinaga kits, respectively. However, Na2CO3, pH 9.6 and PBS containing 1 M GuHCl recovered 65% ± 4% and 77% ± 10% of peanut, respectively from unprocessed samples with the Veratox kit. These two buffers also performed better than the Veratox buffer with fried, high pressure processed, and baked samples. PBS containing SDS and β-ME, performed significantly better than the Morinaga buffer in recovering peanut from unprocessed, boiled and fried samples. Thus, the use of alternative extraction buffers provides better recovery of peanut residues from a processed solid food matrix.
Antioxidant efficacy of thymol and carvacrol in microencapsulated walnut oil triacylglycerols Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Sevilay Gursul, Ihsan Karabulut, Gokhan Durmaz
Antioxidant efficiency of thymol and carvacrol in walnut oil triacylglycerols (WO-TAGs) was investigated. WO-TAGs alone or fortified with thymol/carvacrol were emulsified with sodium caseinate-lactose mixture. Oxidative stability of freeze dried emulsions was assessed via Rancimat and accelerated oven tests. Bulk WO-TAGs with and without thymol/carvacrol were also tested for comparison. Higher induction periods (IPs) were recorded for encapsulated and antioxidant fortified WO-TAGs compared to non-encapsulated and non-fortified counterparts. IP of thymol included and encapsulated WO-TAGs were found to be 1.5-2 fold higher than that of carvacrol at all concentrations (0.05-0.20%). IP of WO-TAGs was increased dose-dependent manner in the case of thymol and the highest protection was obtained with 0.20% thymol concentration (p < 0.05). Peroxide formation in bulk WO-TAGs fortified with carvacrol showed a slightly higher oxidative stability compared to thymol after 24 d of storage whereas thymol was a bit more effective in encapsulated WO-TAGs.
Comparison the effects of thermal and non-thermal technologies on pomegranate juice quality: A review Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Predrag Putnik, Željka Kresoja, Tomislav Bosiljkov, Anet Režek Jambrak, Francisco J. Barba, Jose M. Lorenzo, Shahin Roohinejad, Daniel Granato, Irena Žuntar, Danijela Bursać Kovačević
The consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ) has increased substantially since scientific literature reported its therapeutic benefits that are attributable to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The growing consumer demands for fresh and high-quality food products have led to the interest in non-thermal technologies for preservation of fruit juices. Although thermal pasteurization is the most widely used preservation technology, it has adverse effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of juices. Conversely, non-thermal technologies are suitable alternatives for preservation and without negative effects on the quality. However, there is limited scientific literature concerning the use of non-thermal technologies for preservation of PJ. Therefore, this review focuses on PJ preservation by using non-thermal technologies. In conclusion, pomegranate is an economical crop that can justify the use of advanced non-thermal technologies for PJ preservation, as consumers’ interest can offset the expenses associated with investments in alternative technological options and processing adjustments.
Three approaches to minimize matrix effects in residue analysis of multiclass pesticides in dried complex matrices using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Ewa Rutkowska, Bożena Łozowicka, Piotr Kaczyński
This paper discusses one of the major concerns in pesticide residue analysis: the matrix effect related to gas chromatography (GC), which can adversely affect quantification. In this study, a comparison of approaches for dealing with the matrix effect was investigated for 236 pesticides in complex matrices, including dried herbs (Centaurea cyanus L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Thymus vulgaris L.) and dried fruit (currants, chokeberry), using a modified QuEChERS method and GC-MS/MS analysis. Three approaches were evaluated: (i) using matrix-matched calibration, (ii) adding a mixture of analyte protectants (APs) to every extract or (iii) injection prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, minimization of the matrix effect to the acceptable levels of –20 to 20% for over 80% of investigated pesticides was found when APs mixture was injected at the beginning of the sequence. In this approach, the matrix effects were significantly weaker for some pesticides than when matrix-matched calibration was used.
Highlighting protein fining residues in a model red wine Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Chantal maury, Pascale sarni-manchado, Veronique cheynier
Many studies have dealt with fining treatments, focusing on their impact on phenolic precipitation or sensory properties of the treated wines. Previous articles suggested the presence of soluble complexes with tannins and fining proteins, and probably wine polysaccharides too. However, no study has quantified these possible protein residues in wine. The analyses performed on a model red wine to highlight the residual fining proteins were the measurement of viscosity, the quantification of amino acid/proteins of the samples and the radioactivity of the supernatants obtained after fining with a radioactive protein. This work has clearly shown, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the presence of fining residues in a model red wine that had been fined with a gelatin and two hydrolyzed plant proteins. These results have significant implications, yet to be confirmed with commercial fining agents and ‘real’ wines for allergen residues in treated wines.
Multifunctional green supramolecular solvents for cost-effective production of highly stable astaxanthin-rich formulations from Haematococcus pluvialis Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 José Angel Salatti-Dorado, Diego García-Gómez, Violeta Rodriguez-Ruiz, Virginie Gueguen, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Soledad Rubio
The interest of food industry to merchandise natural astaxanthin is growing up. However, it confronts scientific and technological challenges mainly related to its poor water solubility and chemical instability. Here, we present a new quick and efficient green process to simultaneously extract, encapsulate and stabilize astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. The process is based on the hitherto unexplored combination of supramolecular solvents (SUPRAS), nanostructured liquids generated from amphiphiles through sequential self-assembly and coacervation, and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). These novel nanosystems were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering, AFM and cryoSEM, revealing spherical particles of ∼100 nm. Their antioxidant activity was measured by ORAC (20.6±3.9 μM TE) and α-TEAC (2.92±0.58 µM α-TE) assays and their in vitro capacity to inhibit ROS by DHE probe. Results showed that the SUPRAS-NLCs proposed yield high extraction and encapsulation efficiencies (71±4 %) in combination with a remarkable time stability (180 d, 4 °C).
We might have got it wrong: modern wheat is not more toxic for celiac patients Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Miguel Ribeiro, Fernando M. Nunes
If there is a disease in which many myths are part of the daily lives of both patients and clinicians as well as researchers, this must be celiac disease. Here, we discuss the possibility that modern wheat varieties used by man do not have led to the increased prevalence of celiac disease.
Guava-flavored whey beverage processed by cold Plasma technology: bioactive compounds, fatty acid profile and volatile compounds Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Marcello R. Silveira, Nathalia M. Coutinho, Erick A. Esmerino, Jeremias Moraes, Leonardo M. Fernandes, Tatiana C. Pimentel, Monica Q. Freitas, Marcia C. Silva, Renata S.L. Raices, C. Senaka Ranadheera, Fábio O. Borges, Roberto P.C. Neto, Maria Inês B. Tavares, Fabiano A.N. Fernandes, Thatyane V. Fonteles, Filomena Nazzaro, Sueli Rodrigues, Adriano G. Cruz
The effect of cold plasma processing time and gas flow on bioactive compounds such as vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, DPPH, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, fatty acids profile, and volatile compounds of guava-flavored whey beverage was investigated. For comparative purposes, a pasteurized beverage was also manufactured. Cold plasma increased the concentration of bioactive and volatile compounds, and proportionated changes in the fatty acids profile. The milder conditions like lower flow rate and processing time, resulted in higher vitamin C and volatile compounds levels, and higher antioxidant activity, but with a lower carotenoids content and a less favorable fatty acids profile. More drastic conditions like higher flow rate and processing time resulted in products with lower vitamin C and volatile compounds levels, but with higher carotenoids content and ACE inhibitory activity. It can be concluded that the cold plasma processing can improve the properties of the guava-flavored whey beverages (increased concentration of bioactive and volatile compounds), while the effect on the fatty acid profile and ACE inhibitory activity is dependent on the process parameters (processing time and flow rate).
Impact of antioxidant on the stability of β-carotene in model beverage emulsions: role of emulsion interfacial membrane Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-05 Ha Youn Song, Tae Wha Moon, Seung Jun Choi
The effect of the thickness and density of droplet interfacial membrane on the chemical stability of β-carotene in emulsions was investigated, and its impact on the effectiveness of oil-soluble antioxidants to retard β-carotene degradation was examined. β-Carotene was incorporated into the emulsions stabilized by PEGylated emulsifiers having various-sized hydrophilic groups. In the presence of oxidative stresses (pH, iron ions, and radicals in this study), it was observed that the interfacial thickness was relevant to the stability of β-carotene encapsulated into emulsion droplets. Particularly, iron-mediated carotene degradation was effectively retarded in the emulsions having a thin interfacial membrane than ones with a thick interfacial membrane. The interfacial denseness also affected β-carotene stability but its ability to retard β-carotene degradation was influenced by the interfacial thickness. Although β-carotene degradation rate decreased upon the addition of oil-soluble antioxidants, its antioxidant activity depended on what prooxidant promoted the degradation of β-carotene in the emulsions.
Commentary on method for detection of menaquinone-7 in dietary supplements Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-04 Trygve Bergeland, Solveig Nordstrand, Inger Reidun Aukrust
Szterk et al. (Food Chemistry 243 (2018) 403-409) have recently analyzed the content of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) in eight dietary supplements. The authors concluded that five out of eight were below the declared content. For all samples, the authors used tetrahydrofuran (THF) to extract MK-7 prior to analysis. Two of the tested products that were below the declared content were microencapsulated MK-7 which had a coating with limited solubility in THF. By dissolving the coating with water and ethanol prior to extraction with ethyl acetate, all MK-7 will be made accessible prior to analysis by HPLC. We have repeated the analysis of the two microencapsulated products that Szterk et al. claimed were below the declared content, and have shown they contain 102% and 105% of the label claim. Since Szterk et al. have used a solvent that does not dissolve the coating on microencapsulated MK-7, their conclusion is not justified and is thus misleading.
Forcing Fermentation: Profiling Proteins, Peptides and Polyphenols in Lab-scale Cocoa Bean Fermentation Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-02 Warren A. John, Nina L. Böttcher, Maximilian Aßkamp, Audrey Bergounhou, Neha Kumari, Ping-Wei Ho, Roy N. D'souza, Elke Nevoigt, Matthias S. Ullrich
This study encompassed the lab-scale fermentation of cocoa beans in 300-g heaps under controlled laboratory conditions, in order to replicate the microbial dynamics and metabolomic changes that usually occur in large-scale spontaneous fermentations. Growth profiles of yeast and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) with the native assortment of microbes as well as with the use of a starter culture were very similar to those observed in literature. Greater production of acetic acid by AAB not only led to more acidic-tasting liquor but also contributed to bitterness, due to polyphenol preservation. It also brought about a drastic drop in pH leading to greater proteolytic activity. Peptides generated through proteolysis also showed incredible similarity to those reported in literature, in particular, those speculated to be involved in cocoa-specific flavour. A closer look at the naturally occurring peptide repertoires of our fermentation trials, generated by the breakdown of cocoa storage protein, pointed to a potential peptide responsible for cocoa-specific aroma.
Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins from malt to boiled wort Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Xenia Pascari, Yelko Rodriguez-Carrasco, Cristina Juan, Jordi Mañes, Sonia Marin, Antonio J. Ramos, Vicente Sanchis
The fate of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α- and β-zearalenol and fumonisins (fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2) through mashing and wort boiling was studied. Three different mycotoxin contamination scenarios were considered. In almost all samples an increase in the level of mycotoxins in wort was observed during mashing followed by a decrease after just 30 min of the process, with levels remaining constant until the end of boiling. Deoxynivalenol and its metabolites were reduced to their initial level contained in the malt before mashing, or even lower, however in none of the samples they were completely eliminated. Zearalenone was not quantitated at the end of boiling, although there was a significant initial level of ZEN. β-zearalenol remained unaltered during the process. Fumonisins were reduced by between 50 and 100 per cent during mashing and boiling.
Quantitative determination of carbasalate calcium derived metabolites, acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, in six animal foods using liquid-liquid extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Weijia Zheng, Kyung-Hee Yoo, A.M. Abd El-Aty, Da-Hee Park, Jeong-Min Choi, Seong-Kwan Kim, Young-Sun Kang, Hongxia Zhang, Ahmet Hacımüftüoğlu, Alaa El-Din Bekhit, Jing Wang, Jae-Han Shim, Ho-Chul Shin
This work describes a simple screening protocol for quantification of carbasalate calcium derived metabolites, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA), in animal and aquatic food matrices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes were extracted from porcine muscle, milk, egg, shrimp, eel, and flatfish using acetonitrile, with the addition of formic acid as well as trifluoroacetic acid, followed by liquid-liquid purification with saturated n-hexane. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed with a mobile phase comprising (A) 1 mM ammonium acetate in distilled water and (B) methanol to achieve the best chromatographic separation. Matrix-matched calibration curves (R2 ≥ 0.9817) were constructed using six concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 µg/kg in porcine muscle, milk, egg, shrimp, eel, and flatfish matrices. The calculated limits of quantification (LOQ) were 10 and 7 µg/kg, for ASA and SA, respectively. Recoveries of 67 to 102% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of ≤ 9.0 % (intra-day and inter-day) were obtained for all matrices at four spiking concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/kg). The method was feasibly applied for monitoring market samples. In conclusion, the developed method is versatile, accurate, and precise for detecting and quantifying acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid residues in animal-derived foods meant for human consumption.
Dietary antioxidants as a source of hydrogen peroxide Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Michalina Grzesik, Grzegorz Bartosz, Ireneusz Stefaniuk, Monika Pichla, Jacek Namieśnik, Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz
Studies of 54 antioxidants revealed that 27 of them, mainly polyphenols, generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when added to Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), other media used for culture of mammalian and yeast cells and phosphate-buffered saline. The most active antioxidants were: propyl gallate (PG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and quercetin (Q). Chelex treatment and iron chelators decreased H2O2 generation suggesting that transition metal ions catalyze antioxidant autoxidation and H2O2 production. Green tea also generated H2O2; tea prepared on tap water generated significantly more H2O2 than tea prepared on deionized water. Ascorbic acid decreased H2O2 production although it generated H2O2 itself, in the absence of other additives. Lemon added to the tea significantly reduced generation of H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide generated in the medium contributed to the cytotoxicity of PG, EGCG and Q to human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells, since catalase increased the survival of the cells subjected to these compounds in vitro.
Kinetics of β-carotene degradation under different storage conditions in transgenic Golden Rice® lines Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Haritha Bollinedi, Jyoti Dhakane-Lad, S. Gopala Krishnan, PK. Bhowmick, KV. Prabhu, NK. Singh, AK. Singh
The effect of vacuum packing and ambient storage conditions on the stability of the β-carotene in the transgenic Golden Rice® lines was studied. The β-carotene was quantified using RP-HPLC at bimonthly intervals for a period of six months. The β-carotene concentration in the genotypes analyzed ranged from 7.13 to 22.81 µg/g of endosperm. The transgene being the same in all the genotypes, variation in the β-carotene concentration reflects on the genetic background of the rice variety and the transgene position that governed the differential accumulation of β-carotene. It was observed that in the absence of light, oxidative degradation is higher followed by thermal degradation. Weibull model with higher R2 best explained the degradation kinetics of β-carotene in Golden Rice® lines across all the storage conditions. The knowledge generated through this study can be utilized in devising an effective delivery system for Golden Rice® to the consumer.
Identification and taste characteristics of novel umami and umami-enhancing peptides separated from peanut protein isolate hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and UPLC–ESI–QTOF–MS/MS Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Jianan Zhang, Mouming Zhao, Guowan Su, Lianzhu Lin
Six novel peptides were separated from peanut protein isolate hydrolysate (PPIH) using ethanol precipitation and gel chromatography, and identified as DQR, NNP, EGF, EDG, TESSSE and RGENESEEEGAIVT by UPLC–ESI–QTOF–MS/MS. On the basis of sensory results, all peptides were perceived umami with threshold values from 0.39 to 1.11 mM and had umami-enhancing abilities simultaneously with threshold values from 0.33 to 0.82 mM. RGENESEEEGAIVT was the first discovered tetradecapeptide with umami and umami-enhancing ability. The dose–response test revealed that umami-enhancing activities of identified peptides were different: TESSSE and RGENESEEEGAIVT imparted better umami intensity when equimolar monosodium glutamate (MSG) was added into 0.5 g/L MSG solution. Taste profile analyses of complex mixtures with/without synthetic peptides were determined by both electronic tongue and human panellists, suggesting that umami peptides influence multiple tastes and electronic tongue has the potential to replace sensory test to distinguish taste attributes of foods rich in peptides.
Spray-chilling encapsulation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline zinc chloride using hydrophobic materials: Storage stability and flavor application in food Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-12-01 Yun Yin, Keith R. Cadwallader
2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a popular yet highly unstable aroma compound, which limits its commercial use as a flavoring ingredient. The stability and application of spray-chilled paraffin-coated microcapsules of 2AP zinc chloride complex (2AP–ZnCl2) were investigated in this study. 2AP–ZnCl2 microcapsules (0.081% (w/w) 2AP loading) and unprotected 2AP–ZnCl2 complex were subjected to ambient storage at four different relative humidities (RH; ∼0%, ∼22.5%, ∼43.2% and ∼100%). The results showed that the microcapsules had significantly greater 2AP stability compared with the unprotected complex under all storage conditions studied. A flavor application study using instant rice was also performed to validate the potential effectiveness of using 2AP–ZnCl2 microcapsules as a flavoring agent. Full 2AP recovery was achieved after the cooking process, where the controlled release function of the microcapsules was clearly exhibited. The results demonstrated that microencapsulation of 2AP–ZnCl2 allows for more flexible handling/storage practices and has potential for application by the flavor industry.
Molecular characterization of anthocyanin and betulinic acid biosynthesis in red and white mulberry fruits using high-throughput sequencing Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 Shicheng Zhao, Chang Ha Park, Jingli Yang, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Tae Jin Kim, Jae Kwang Kim, Sang Un Park
To better understand the molecular mechanism of color formation in different varieties of the mulberry fruit, we investigated the functional genes related to anthocyanin and betulinic acid biosynthesis using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and detected the primary and secondary metabolites in the white (Morus alba L. cv. ‘Turkey’) and red (Morus alba L. cv. ‘Cheongil’) mulberry cultivars. We obtained 171,702,058 high-quality reads with an average read length of 125 bp. These reads were assembled into 51,272 and 51,159 unigenes in Turkey and Cheongil, respectively. We also identified the genes related to anthocyanin and triterpene biosynthesis and investigated their expression and metabolite profiles. Overall, our transcriptome sequencing provides valuable information that could be used in gene discovery, marker-assisted selection, and investigation of metabolic pathways in mulberry. Additionally, gene expression and metabolite profiles provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of anthocyanin and betulinic acid biosynthesis and relationship between primary and secondary metabolites.
Effectiveness of gamma and electron beam irradiation as preserving technologies of fresh Agaricus bisporus Portobello: a comparative study Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Rossana V.C. Cardoso, Ângela Fernandes, João C.M. Barreira, Sandra Cabo Verde, Amilcar L. Antonio, Ana M. Gonzaléz-Paramás, Lillian Barros, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Mushroom production and consumption is increasing, but high perishability still represents a major commercial drawback. Besides increasing the product shelf-life, conservation processes should be innocuous to consumers. Therefore, the effects of gamma and electron beam radiation on chemical and nutritional composition of fresh samples of Agaricus bisporus Portobello (a highly commercialized species) were assessed. Mushrooms were irradiated at 1, 2 or 5 kGy, and analyzed at different times (0, 4 and 8 days). In general, irradiation type had higher effect than irradiation dose. Gamma irradiation was associated with higher contents in sugars and ergosterol, while the 5 kGy dose, independently of irradiation source, was linked with higher protein levels. Nonetheless, irradiation might represent an effective preservation methodology for Portobello mushrooms, as it was effective in maintaining their chemical profiles (except for minor organic acids and saturated fatty acids) throughout the assayed time intervals.
Optimization of culture conditions of soymilk for equol production by Bifidobacterium breve 15700 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Salma Elghali Mustafa, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Faridah Abas, Mohd Yaizd ABD Manap, Amin Ismail, Mehrnoush Amid, Salma Elzen
This study analyzed the effect of pH (X1), temperature (X2) and inulin amount (X3) on transformation of isoflavones (daidzin and daidzein) to equol in soymilk fermented with Bifidobacterium spp. All responses significantly (p< 0.05) fitted into quadratic models with coefficients of determination (R2) close to 1 (0.935 - 0.989). At 24 h of fermentation, amounts of daidzin and daidzein were influenced by all factors. While at 48 h, all factors affected daidzin and only temperature affected daidzein. Equol production was influenced by pH and temperature in 24 h and by all factors in 48 h fermentation. The optimum conditions for equol production were pH 8, 30° C and 0.5% inulin. Model validation demonstrated there was no significant (p> 0.05) difference between the experimental and predicted values, suggested the suitability of established models in explaining the daidzin and daidzein transformation to equol as a function of pH, temperature and inulin.
Oat and lipolysis: Food matrix effect Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Peter J. Wilde, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, María Jesús Lagarda, Richard P. Haslam, Myriam M.L. Grundy
Oat is rich in a wide range of phytochemicals with various physico-chemical, colloidal and interfacial properties. These characteristics are likely to influence human lipid metabolism and the subsequent effect on health following oat consumption. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of oat materials varying in complexity on the lipolysis process. The composition, structure and digestibility of different lipid systems (emulsions, oil bodies and oil enriched in phytosterols) were determined. The surface activities of phytosterols were examined using the pendant drop technique. Differences in lipid digestibility of the oat oil emulsions and the oil bodies were clearly seen. Also, the digestion of sunflower oil was reduced proportionally to the concentration of phytosterols present. This may be due to their interfacial properties as demonstrated by the pendant drop experiments. This work highlights the importance of considering the overall structure of the system studied and not only its composition.
Production of milk peptides with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties through fungal proteases Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Mirella Rossitto Zanutto-Elgui, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Débora Zanoni do Prado, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha, Deilson ELGui De Oliveira, Luciana Francisco Fleuri
Bioactive peptides can provide health benefits due to different mechanisms. The aims of the present study are to produce bioactive peptides from bovine and goat milk subjected to the proteolytic activity of Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus flavipes enzymes, as well as to assess their putative antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Bioactive peptides were successfully generated from proteases of fungi cultivated in solid-state fermentation. The generated peptides were effective against all tested bacteria and fungi. There was antioxidant activity, up to 92.5% DPPH reduction and ORAC stabilization at 52.5 μmol μL-1 of Trolox Equivalent. The generation of milk-specific peptides in the samples was obtained through 2D-PAGE fractioning followed by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Based on results in the present study, milk bioactive peptides presenting broad antimicrobial action and antioxidant activity spectra can be cost-effectively produced through solid-state fermentation. The herein addressed approach can be valuable for the pharmaceutical and food industries.
Chemical composition and oral toxicity assessment of Anisophyllea boehmii kernel oil: potential source of new edible oil with high tocopherol content Food Chem. (IF 4.946) Pub Date : 2018-11-30 Jacques Nkengurutse, Farid Mansouri, Oussama Bekkouch, Abdessamad Ben Moumen, Tatien Masharabu, Godefroid Gahungu, Hana Caid Serghini, Ahmed Khalid
Anisophyllea boehmii is an indigenous and wild species in Burundi. Its fruits are edible and commercialized in local markets. This study investigates chemical quality, composition and toxicity test of A. boehmii kernel oil from two sites in eastern Burundi. Results of the present study reveal A. boehmii kernels to be an oil-rich source, yielding up to 29% of oil. Fatty acid composition analysis classifies these oils as palmitic. In fact, the main fatty acids are palmitic acid (36.47-39.55%) and oleic acid (18.83-22.21%). The analysis of minor compounds shows high tocopherols (485-657 mg kg-1), phenols (82-135 mg kg-1) and β-carotene (144-234 mg kg-1) content. The physicochemical parameters analyzed make A. boehmii kernel a source of good quality oil. Furthermore, acute oral toxicity test reveals no toxicity of A. boehmii kernel oil. Results of the present study are decisive in adoption of A. boehmii kernel oil as an alternative source of edible oil.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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