Formation and Characterization of Zein-Propylene Glycol Alginate-Surfactant Ternary Complexes: Effect of Surfactant Type Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Lei Dai, Cuixia Sun, Yang Wei, Xinyu Zhan, Like Mao, Yanxiang Gao
In this study, zein, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and surfactant ternary complexes were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation method. Two types of surfactants (rhamnolipid and lecithin) were applied to generate zein-PGA-rhamnolipid (Z-P-R) and zein-PGA-lecithin (Z-P-L) ternary complexes, respectively. Results showed that the surfactant types significantly affected the properties of ternary complexes. The formation of ternary complexes was mainly due to the non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions among zein, PGA and surfactants. Moreover, the thermal stability of ternary complexes was enhanced with increasing the levels of both surfactants. Notably, ternary complex dispersions exhibited better stability against pH from 2 to 8. Furthermore, a compact network structure was observed in Z-P-R ternary complex, while Z-P-L ternary complex remained the spherical structure. These findings would provide new insights into the development of novel delivery system and expand the options, when zein-based complexes were utilized under different environments.
Glycosaminoglycanomic profiling of human milk in different stages of lactation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Chen Wang, Yinzhi Lang, Qinying Li, Xin Jin, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Glycans in human milk serve several important biological functions that promote infant health. As kind of important glycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a complex family of polyanionic carbohydrate, participating in a variety of critical physiological and pathological processes. In this study, the content and the detailed composition of human milk GAGs from Chinese mothers in different stages of lactation, based on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was investigated. The results showed that the GAG fraction in the human milk samples was very complex as it was composed of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. With lactation extending, the total amount of GAGs in human milk decreased. This study provided an important guide for the demands of GAGs during different stages of lactation. The results were also beneficial for studies on the composition and functional properties of infant formula.
Solid phase extraction with high polarity Carb/PSA as composite fillers prior to UPLC-MS/MS to determine six bisphenols and alkylphenols in trace level hotpot seasoning Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Hao Dong, Xiaofang Zeng, Weidong Bai
The present study reports an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of six bisphenols (bisphenol A, bisphenol B and bisphenol F) and alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol and octylphenol) in hotpot seasoning. Samples were dispersed in n-hexane after addition of internal standards bisphenol A-d4 and 4-n-nonylphenol-d4. Sample solutions were then centrifuged, and the supernatants purified using solid phase extraction with high polarity Carb/PSA composite fillers. Six target analytes were separated on a Waters ACQUITY BEH C18 column by gradient elution with methanol and 0.05% ammonium hydroxide in water as the mobile phase, and determined under multiple reactions monitoring mode. The limits of detection and quantitation, matrix effect, recovery and precision of the method were investigated. Results were linear in the concentration range 0.1-250 µg/ L for all compounds of interest, with R2 greater than 0.9950. Limits of detection were in the range 0.1-0.4 μg/ kg, and limits of quantitation were between 0.5 μg/ kg and 1.0 μg/ kg. The mean recoveries for negative samples at three spiked concentrations were in the range 87.9%-102.4%, and the intra-day precision and inter-day precision were in the ranges 2.1-8.2% and 4.8-11.2%, respectively. This method is accurate and sensitive, and had good clean-up characteristics, which might apply to screening and quantitation of target bisphenols and alkylphenols in hotpot seasoning.
Comparative performances of lactoferrin-loaded liposomes under in vitro adult and infant digestion models Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Weilin Liu, Junmeng Lu, Aiqian Ye, Qingqing Xu, Mengmeng Tian, Youyu Kong, Fuqiang Wei, Jianzhong Han
There remain gaps in our understanding of the fate of liposomes in the infant gastrointestinal tract, especially regarding essential proteins such as lactoferrin. Models in vitro that mirrored digestion in the stomach and intestine of infants and adults were used to explore the behaviour of lactoferrin-loaded liposomes. The liposomes behaved differently in these environments, with less hydrolysis of encapsulated lactoferrin under infant model conditions. Compared to the adult model (1000 ± 66 μM mL-1), fewer free fatty acids were released (500 ± 43 μM mL-1) from liposomal bilayers and there was less alteration in functional groups of phospholipids membranes, based on pH and FTIR after infant model digestion. Particle tracking analysis and TEM supported the reduced damage of particle structure under infant model conditions. This work provides information on the stability of functional protein-loaded liposomes during digestion, and shows the potential of liposomes to be nutrient carriers in infant foods.
Validated Multiclass Targeted Determination of Antibiotics in Fish with High Performance Liquid Chromatography -Benchtop Quadrupole Orbitrap Hybrid Mass Spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Luca Chiesa, Sara Panseri, Elisa Pasquale, Renato Malandra, Radmila Pavlovic, Francesco Arioli
High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with a benchtop Q-Exactive Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer, was successfully applied for the determination of 24 target antibiotics (selected beta-lactams, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamids, phenicols, macrolides, cephalosporins, lincosamides, diaminopyrimidine) in fish matrices. The Q-Exactive parameters were carefully studied to accomplish the best compromise between a suitable scan speed and selectivity, considering the restrictions associated with generic sample preparation methodology. Retention time, an exact mass with tolerance of 2 ppm and data-dependent MS2 spectra were the main identifiers. The method was validated through specificity, linearity, recovery, intra- and inter-day repeatability, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ), according to 2002/657/EC. The values of CCα and CCβ ranged from 29.2-36.8 and 32.5-48.9, respectively, while overall recovery ranged from 91.1 to 105.6%. Fifty fish samples were analysed, showing the sporadic incidence of enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin and trimethoprim, albeit below the maximum residual levels.
The molecularly imprinted polymer supported by anodic alumina oxide nanotubes membrane for efficient recognition of chloropropanes in vegetable oils Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xiuzhen Qiu, Xian-Yan Xu, Yong Liang, Huishi Guo
A new route to synthesize a covalent interaction-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material for 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) inside the nanopores of anodic alumina oxide (AAO) is presented. A series of adsorption experiments showed MIP had good extraction capacity and selectivity for 3-MCPD. In order to evaluate the usability of the MIP nanotubes membrane, a method combining AAO@MIP membrane extraction with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection was developed for determination of chloropropanols. The limits of detection for the proposed method were 0.072 and 0.13 µg·L-1, respectively, for 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP. The average recoveries of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP spiked oil samples at three concentrations (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg·kg-1) were in the range of 75.6∼101.0% with a RSD of 3.3∼8.4%, indicating the method would be suitable for determination of chloropropanols in vegetable oils.
Lactulose Determination in UHT Milk by CZE-UV with Indirect Detection Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Leandra Natália de Oliveira Neves, Rafael Marques, Paulo Henrique Fonseca da Silva, Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira
Lactulose is not found naturally in milk, but it has been detected in small quantities in heated dairy products. It can therefore be used as an indicator of the severity of heat treatment for dairy products. This study proposes an alternative method for lactulose quantification in milk using capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (CZE-UV). The investigation used several Brazilian UHT milk samples, and various sample pretreatment methods and injection conditions were considered. Optimal separation results were achieved using Carrez clarification solutions. Low detection and quantification limits were obtained, and good precision and high recovery rates indicated the applicability of the method for analysis of milk. Due to matrix effects, single-point standard addition was used for lactulose quantification. High lactulose concentrations (>1000 mg L-1) suggested that recirculation may have occurred during milk processing. The findings demonstrate that the CZE-UV method is a viable alternative for quality process control.
Rapid detection and quantification of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in milk using molecularly imprinted polymers–surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Marti Z. Hua, Shaolong Feng, Shuo Wang, Xiaonan Lu
We report the development of a molecularly imprinted polymers–surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MIPs–SERS) method for rapid detection and quantification of a herbicide residue 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in milk. MIPs were synthesized via bulk polymerization and utilized as solid phase extraction sorbent to selectively extract and enrich 2,4-D from milk. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized to facilitate the collection of SERS spectra of the extracts. Based upon the characteristic band intensity of 2,4-D (391 cm-1), the limit of detection was 0.006 ppm and the limit of quantification was 0.008 ppm. A simple logarithmic working range (0.01 to 1 ppm) was established, satisfying the sensitivity requirement referring to the maximum residue level of 2,4-D in milk in both Europe and North America. The overall test of 2,4-D for each milk sample required only 20 min including sample preparation. This MIPs-SERS method has potential for practical applications in detecting 2,4-D in agri-foods.
Gamma irradiation-assisted degradation of rosmarinic acid and evaluation of structures and anti-adipogenic properties Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Gyeong Han Jeong, Jae-Hyeon Cho, Cheorun Jo, Sungbeom Lee, Seung Sik Lee, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Byung Yeoup Chung, Tae Hoon Kim
Radiation is a promising technique for improving the safety and shelf-life of processed foods. In the present investigation, the degradation mechanism and bioactivity improvement of rosmarinic acid (RA) were studied in response to various gamma irradiation doses (10, 20, and 50 kGy). RA exposed to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was completely degraded and showed an increased inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 preadipocyte compare to the parent compound. Structures of the newly generated compounds 2–4 from irradiated RA at 50 kGy were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods, including 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Interestingly, compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significantly enhanced anti-adipogenic properties in 3T3-L1 cells compared to the original compound. These results provide evidence that structural changes in RA induced by gamma irradiation might enhance biological efficacy.
A new strategy for statistical analysis-based fingerprint establishment: application to quality assessment of Semen sojae praeparatum Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Hui Guo, Zhen Zhang, Yuan Yao, Jialin Liu, Ruirui Chang, Zhao Liu, Hongyuan Hao, Taohong Huang, Jun Wen, Tingting Zhou
Semen sojae praeparatum with homology of medicine and food is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. A simple and effective quality fingerprint analysis, coupled with chemometrics methods, was developed for quality assessment of Semen sojae praeparatum. First, similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clusting analysis (HCA) were applied to select the qualitative markers, which obviously influence the quality of Semensojae praeparatum. 21 chemicals were selected and characterized by high resolution ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS). Subsequently, principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were conducted to select the quantitative markers of Semensojae praeparatumsamples from different origins. Moreover, 11 compounds with statistical significance were determined quantitatively, which provided an accurate and informative data for quality evaluation. This study proposes a new strategy for “statistic analysis-based fingerprint establishment”, which would be a valuable reference for further study.
Determination of nutrients in sugarcane juice using slurry sampling and detection by ICP OES Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Sidnei O. Souza, Silvânio Silvério L. Costa, Bia Catarina T. Brum, Samir H. Santos, Carlos Alexandre B. Garcia, Rennan Geovanny O. Araujo
The fractional factorial and Doehlert designs for optimization of a slurry sampling procedure to determine of nutrients in sugarcane juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) were applied. External calibration curves was used for direct analysis of the slurry. This procedure allowed determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K and Mg with limits of detection (LoD) obtained of 2.0, 0.04, 0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1, respectively. The precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD), being better than 1.4% (n=3). Accuracy was confirmed by comparison with sample digestion method. The results for analysis of fourteen sugarcane juices samples demonstrated that the nutrients Ca, Cu, Fe, K and Mg have average contents of 108, 0.506, 6.40, 470 and 114 mg L-1, respectively. The proposed analytical method is a good alternative for simultaneous determination of nutrients in sugarcane juice using introduction of slurries and detection by ICP OES.
Thermal rice oil degradation evaluated by UV-Vis-NIR and PARAFAC Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Larissa Naida Rosa, Aline Coqueiro, Paulo Henrique Março, Patrícia Valderrama
Thermal rice oil degradation was evaluated by UV-Vis and NIR in three-way arrays assembled with samples, different temperatures, and the absorbance at different wavelengths by applying PARAFAC chemometric method. The loadings matrix of the mode corresponding to the samples (scores) contains the information related to the samples. The loadings on the temperature mode resemble kinetics profiles. These profiles change with the nature of the component responsible for the factor and evolve with the heating temperature. The loadings on the spectral mode reveal the antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherol, and oxidation products are the components responsible for the two factors. The results achieved showed that the antioxidants concentration decreases starting at 70 °C while oxidation products start to increase more pronounced after 90 °C. The proposed method is shown to be a simple and fast way to obtain information about the oxidative stability of rice oils.
Extraction kinetic modelling of total polyphenols and total anthocyanins from saffron floral bio-residues: comparison of extraction methods Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Carla Da Porto, Andrea Natolino
Analysis of the extraction kinetic modelling for natural compounds is essential for industrial application. The second order rate model was applied to estimate the extraction kinetics of conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of total polyphenols (TPC) from saffron floral bio-residues at different solid-to-liquid ratios (RS/L)(1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:50 g ml -1), ethanol 59% as solvent and 66 °C temperature. The optimum solid-to-liquid ratios for TPC kinetics were 1:20 for CLSE, 1:30 for UAE and 1:50 for MAE. The kinetics of total anthocyanins (TA) and antioxidant activity (AA) were investigated for the optimum R S/L for each method. The results showed a good prediction of the model for extraction kinetics in all experiments (R2 > 0.99; NRMS 0.65-3.35%). The kinetic parameters were calculated and discussed. UAE, compared with the other methods, had the greater efficiency for TPC, TA and AA.
A simple Micro-Batch ion-exchange Resin Extraction method coupled with reverse-phase HPLC (MBRE-HPLC) to quantify lactoferrin in raw and heat-treated bovine milk Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Sylvie Pochet, Céline Arnould, Perrine Debournoux, Jocelyne Flament, Odile Rolet-Répécaud, Eric Beuvier
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding cationic glycoprotein (pI=8.7) beneficial for mammal health, especially udder and milk preservation. A new simple two-step method of quantification was developed. Lactoferrin in 1 mL of bovine skim milk was first adsorbed onto 100 mg of macroporous sulfonated-resin at pH 6.8 by rotary stirring for 90 min at 20-25°C. After washing the resin, lactoferrin was desorbed using 1 mL of 2M NaCl containing phenylalanine as a dilution marker, then fully resolved and quantified by RP-HPLC at 220 nm using a wide-bore C4 silica column. This robust, inexpensive and flexible method improves selectivity (no protein interference) and sensitivity compared to previous HPLC methods. In-laboratory validation demonstrated its linearity (25 to 514 µg Lf mL-1), accuracy (110 to 98 % recovery), and precision (< 4 %), which were comparable to immuno-based methods. The results for individual raw cow’s milk were strongly correlated with results using an ELISA test.
Thermal behavior of inosine 5'-monophosphate in acidic form and as alkali and alkaline earth salts Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 J.H.F. de Jesus, A.P.G. Ferreira, E.T.G. Cavalheiro
Inosine 5’-monophosphate in acidic form and its lithium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium were prepared from the sodium salt and were characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and submitted to thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry coupled to infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) of the volatile products evolved during heating. All the salts were hydrated containing from 4 to 7.5 H2O. After dehydration these salts decomposed releasing the nitrogenous base followed by the ribose group, and producing pyrophosphates as final residue. Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) reveled the release of water, isocyanic acid and hydrocyanic acid during decomposition of the organic moiety. It was observed only water loss up to 200 °C. At temperatures above 200 °C, the nucleotides were unstable and decomposed, implying that foods containing those additives should be processed below this temperature. Finally, a general mechanism for the decomposition of the inosinates was proposed.
Enzymatic mitigation of 5-O-chlorogenic acid for an improved digestibility of coffee Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Mareike Siebert, Ralf G. Berger, Annabel Nieter
A p-coumaroyl esterase from Rhizoctonia solani was used to decrease 5-O-chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) content in coffee powder. HPLC-UV showed a decline of up to 98% of 5–CQA after the enzyme treatment. Effects on aroma were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Flavour dilution factors of treated and control extract differed in four volatile compounds only. Effect on aroma and taste was evaluated by sensory tests. No significant differences were perceived, and no off-flavour nor off-taste was noted. As chlorogenic acids are suspected to cause stomach irritating effects in sensitive people, the enzyme treatment offers a technically feasible approach to improve the quality of coffee beverages by reducing 5–CQA concentration without significantly affecting the aroma and taste profile.
Residue dissipation and risk assessment of tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl and its metabolite in table grape by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Bizhang Dong, Yuanping Yang, Nannan Pang, Jiye Hu
An efficient method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl and its metabolite carbendazim in grape and soil using QuEChERS procedure and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The average recoveries of the method were 83.2% - 105.4%, the limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 2.1 × 10-5 to 8.7 × 10-4 mg L-1, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.1 mg kg-1. The field results showed that tebuconazole and thiophanate-methyl in soil and grape were rapidly dissipated with half-lives less than 24.7 days. The terminal residues of all analytes in grape were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by China (2 mg kg-1 for tebuconazole; 3 mg kg-1 for both thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim). Risk assessment showed that tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl and its metabolite would be unlikely to cause health problems. However, carbendazim, the higher active metabolites of thiophanate-methyl, should receive more concerns.
Pectin-honey coating as novel dehydrating bioactive agent for cut fruit: enhancement of the functional properties of coated dried fruits Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Gabriella Santagata, Salvatore Mallardo, Gabriella Fasulo, Paola Lavermicocca, Francesca Valerio, Mariaelena Di Biase, Michele Di Stasio, Mario Malinconico, Maria Grazia Volpe
In this paper, a novel and sustainable process for the fruit dehydration was described. Specifically, edible coatings based on pectin and honey were prepared and used as dehydrating and antimicrobial agents of cut fruit samples, in this way promoting the fruit preservation from irreversible deteriorative processes. Pectin-honey coating was tested on apple, cantaloupe melon, mango and pineapple. The analysis were performed also on uncoated dehydrated fruits (control). The coated fruit evidenced enhanced dehydration percentage, enriched polyphenol and vitamin C contents, improved antioxidant activity and volatile molecules profile. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas and Escherichia Coli was assessed. Finally, morphological analysis performed on fruit fractured surface, highlighted the formation of a non-sticky and homogeneous thin layer. These outcomes suggested that the novel fruit dehydration process, performed by using pectin-honey coating, was able to both preserve the safety and quality of dehydrated fruits, and enhance their authenticity and naturalness.
Characterization and comparison of key aroma compounds in raw and dry porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis) by aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitation and aroma recombination experiments Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Huiying Zhang, Dandan Pu, Baoguo Sun, Fazheng Ren, Yuyu Zhang, Haitao Chen
A study was carried out to determine and compare the key aroma compounds in raw and dry porcini mushroom (Boletus edulis). The volatile fractions were prepared by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to identify the odorants. Selected aroma compounds were quantitated and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥ 1 for 12 compounds in raw porcini, among which 1-octen-3-one showed the highest OAV. In addition to compounds with eight carbon atoms, 3-methylbutanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal were also responsible for the unique aroma profile. In dry mushroom OAVs ≥ 1 were obtained for 20 odorants. Among them, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 1-octen-3-one and pyrazines were determined as predominant odorants. Overall, drying increased complexity of volatile compounds, thus significantly changing the aroma profile of porcini, providing more desirable roasted and seasoning-like flavor and less grass-like and earthy notes.
The influence of food matrices on aptamer selection by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) targeting the norovirus P-Domain Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Katja B. Schilling, Jeffrey DeGrasse, Jacquelina W. Woods
This study investigates the enrichment of aptamers targeting the norovirus protruding domain in the presence of foods often associated with norovirus outbreaks. The goal is to explore if and how the presence of food alters in vitro selection of aptamers and target binding of the enriched oligonucleotides. Our study demonstrates that the introduction of food to SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) is either detrimental to enrichment of oligonucleotides with target-specific binding, or facilitates enrichment of non-target-specific oligonucleotides. Moreover, a relationship between target binding of enriched oligonucleotides in presence of food and their selection condition was not observed. Our findings also suggest that a pathogen specific aptamer with application in food does not need to be selected in presence of the particular food, but may require properties beyond high affinity and selectivity to be applied for pathogen extraction and detection in undiluted food matrices.
In vitro effects of rebaudioside A, stevioside and steviol on porcine cytochrome p450 expression and activity Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Rebekka Thøgersen, Bjørn Petrat-Melin, Galia Zamaratskaia, Kai Grevsen, Jette Feveile Young, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
The physiological effects of the Stevia-derived compounds, rebaudioside A, stevioside and steviol have been the focus of several studies due to their use as sweeteners in food. Despite that, little isknown about their potential food-drug interactions. In the present study, IPEC-J2 cells and primary hepatocytes were used to investigate the effect of rebaudioside A, stevioside and steviol on cytochrome p450 (CYP) mRNA expression. Moreover, hepatic microsomes were used to investigate direct interactions between the compounds and specific CYP activity. In IPEC-J2 no changes in mRNA expression of CYP1A1 or CYP3A29 were observed with the stevia-derived compounds. In primary hepatocytes all three tested compounds induce a significant increase in CYP3A29 expression. The tested compounds had no direct effect on specific CYP activity. In conclusion, rebaudioside A, stevioside and steviol induce only minor or no changes to the CYP expression and activity, and are not likely to cause food-drug interactions.
Pb2+ and Hg2+ removal from polluted milk by di-acrylated Pluronic P123 hydrogels Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Chong Shen, Bin Peng, Ying Wang, Qin Meng
Milk is often polluted by heavy metal ions due to the growing environment pollution, but few methods have been developed to remove the heavy metal ions. Here a non-toxic sorbent, namely di-acrylated Pluronic P123 (P123-DA) hydrogel, was fabricated for removal of Hg2+ and Pb2+ from milk without impairing their nutritive contents. This hydrogel possessed high mechanical stress and maximum adsorption capacity of 35.2 and 53.9 mg/g for Pb2+ and Hg2+. The removal ratio of Pb2+ and Hg2+ by P123-DA hydrogel respectively reached 85.3% and 81.9% for the polluted whole milk while was individually 86.3% and 83.8% for the skim milk. Interestingly, the treatment by P123-DA hydrogel didn’t significantly reduce the main nutritive contents in milk. Such hydrogel will be a recyclable, safe and effective tool for reuse of milk that polluted by heavy metal ions.
Immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Huizao: insights into their chemical characteristics and modes of action Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Man Zou, Yilun Chen, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Yuhuan Zhang, Feng Li
Chinese jujube is commonly used in folklore medicine. This study aimed to examine the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of two acidic polysaccharides, HP1 and HP2, extracted and purified from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Huizao (which remains extensively unexplored). HP1 and HP2 had the same monosaccharide species and manganese contents, but differed in their molar rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and uronic acid contents (7.32 and 35.9%, as galacturonic acid), Mw (68.7 and 111 kDa, respectively), and contents of K, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca. Both HP1 and HP2 could significantly (P < 0.05) increase spleen and thymus indices, promote serum hemolysin formation, enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages and inhibit footpad edema of mice, with HP2 likely being a more consistent and potent immunomodulator. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of Z. jujuba cv. Huizao polysaccharides as immunomodulators and their associated chemical characteristics and working mechanisms.
Determination of 21 antibiotics in sea cucumber using accelerated solvent extraction with in-cell clean-up coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Minghua Zhu, Hongxia Zhao, Deming Xia, Juan Du, Huaijun Xie, Jingwen Chen
An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with in-cell clean-up method coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine 21 antibiotics in sea cucumber. The analytes include 10 sulfonamides, 4 fluoroquinolones, 3 amphenicols, 2 beta-lactams, 1 lincosamide and trimethoprim. Optimal parameters of ASE method were obtained at 80°C, 1 static cycle of 5 min with methanol/acetonitrile (1/1, v/v) using 2 g of C18 as adsorbent. Recoveries at 50.1-129.2% were achieved with RSD under 20%. Method detection limits ranged from 0.03 to 2.9 μg kg-1. Compared to the reported ultrasound-assisted extraction method, the proposed method offered comparable extraction efficiency for sulfonamides from sea cucumber, but higher for other categories of antibiotics. This validated method was then successfully applied to sea cucumber samples and 9 antibiotics were detected with the highest concentration up to 57.7 μg kg-1 for norfloxacin.
Colonic fermentation of polyphenols from Chilean currants (Ribes spp.) and its effect on antioxidant capacity and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Alberto Burgos-Edwards, Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Cristina Theoduloz, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 hours incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others. The content of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was most affected by simulated colonic conditions, with a loss of 71-92% and 90-100% after 24h incubation, respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity values (ORAC) were reached after 8 h incubation. The inhibitory activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase was maintained after the fermentation process. Our results show that simulated colonic fermentation exerts significant changes on the polyphenolic composition of these berries, modifying their health-promoting properties.
Bioactive Compounds and Quality Parameters of Avocado Oil Obtained by Different Processes Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Fernanda D. Krumreich, Caroline D. Borges, Carla Rosane B. Mendonça, Cristina Jansen, Rui C. Zambiazi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of avocado oil whose pulp was processed through different drying and oil extraction methods. The physicochemical characteristics of avocados cv. Breda were determined after drying the pulp in an oven under ventilation (40 °C and 60 °C) and vacuum oven (60 °C), followed by the oil extracted by mechanical pressing or the Soxhlet method. From the approximately 72% pulp found in the avocado fruit, the 16% fraction is lipids. The quality indices evaluated in avocado oil showed better results when the pulp was dried at 60 °C under vacuum and oil extraction was done by the Soxhlet method with petroleum ether, whereas the bioactive compounds were better preserved when the avocado pulp was dried at 60 °C under ventilation and mechanical pressing was used for the oil extraction. Among the fatty acids found, oleic acid was the main.
Systematic evaluation of phenolic compounds and protective capacity of a new mulberry cultivar J33 against palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity using a simulated digestion method Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Dongwen Hu, Yang Xu, Jiahong Xie, Chongde Sun, Xiaodong Zheng, Wei Chen
This research aimed to investigate the protective effects of a new mulberry cultivar J33 with simulated gastrointestinal digestion against palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity. LC-MS analysis revealed that the contents of four flavonoid glycosides (quercetin rhamnosylhexoside hexoside, quercetin rhamnosylhexoside, quercetin hexoside, kaempferol rhamnosylhexoside) increased after digestion. Besides, mulberry digest (MBD) at 0.5 - 2 mg/mL significantly reduced PA-induced lipotoxicity in human hepatocytes, while mulberry extract without digestion (MBE) showed no protection. Further investigations demonstrated that the protection of MBD was attributed to two aspects. On the one hand, MBD could attenuate PA-induced oxidative stress by suppressing ROS accumulation, regulating intracellular glutathione and ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. On the other hand, MBD could promote PA incorporation into inert triglycerides (TG) to deal with the acute lipid overload, reducing the lipotoxicity caused by PA. Overall, our research might provide a new perspective of mulberry cultivar J33 in ameliorating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Concentration of natural aroma compounds from fruit juice hydrolates by pervaporation in laboratory and semi-technical scale. Part 1. Base study Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Anna Dawiec-Liśniewska, Antoni Szumny, Daria Podstawczyk, Anna Witek-Krowiak
The first article of a two-article series presents pervaporation (PV) of volatile aroma compounds from fruit juice hydrolates (plum, apple, blackcurrant and cherry). The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of fruit juice hydrolates separation on a laboratory scale (inert gas flow pervaporation system) and semi-technical (vacuum pervaporation system) by means of pervaporation. To create precise matrices for hydrolates before and after pervaporation for each of the separated systems, solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied. Sensory analysis confirmed improvement of aroma note of concentrated permeates as compared to feed hydrolates solutions. The results indicated that pervaporation may be applied in condensing aromatic water or fruit juice hydrolate, which may significantly enhance product quality and lengthen shelf life.
Development of a statistical model to detect quality and storage conditions of Atlantic salmon Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Elena Shumilina, Anastasiya Dykyy, Alexander Dikiy
The ever-increasing demand for fish as a food, has led to the development of new handling and packaging technologies resulting in premium quality fish products. In order to avoid frauds reaching the market, fish quality assurance methods need to be developed.In this study, two statistical models of biochemical processes that occur in Atlantic salmon during two weeks of storage at 0 and 4°C were developed. These models were further used to detect salmon quality and its storage conditions. The biochemical processes were monitored using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) approach was applied to develop and evaluate the models. The fraud detection potential of the models was tested using samples of various quality and storage parameters. It was shown that the developed models are able to discriminate quality, time and temperature of stored Atlantic salmon.
Detection of Fe(III)EDTA by using photoluminescent carbon dot with the aid of F− ion Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Nan Wang, Huijuan Chai, Xuelin Dong, Qian Zhou, Lihua Zhu
Iron(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(III)EDTA) is widely used in iron fortification for reducing iron deficiency, and its determination is urgently needed. The present work developed a fluorescent method to straightforwardly determine Fe(III)EDTA by using photoluminescent carbon dots (C-dots) with the aid of F− ions as the masking agent of free Fe3+ ions. In the presence of F− ions, only Fe(III)EDTA selectively quenched the photoluminescence of C-dots, and both Fe3+ and Fe2+ as well as other carboxylic acids have no effect on the emission of C-dots. The sensing mechanism was attributed to the ligand-tailored electron transfer process from C-dots to Fe3+. Under optimum conditions, this method showed a linear calibration plot over the Fe(III)EDTA range of 1.0−200 μmol L−1 and a detection limit of 0.4 μmol L−1. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine Fe(III)EDTA in real samples with acceptable recoveries of spikes (95%−110%) and repeatability (RSD, 4.2%−9.5%).
Fucoxanthin bioavailability from fucoxanthin-fortified milk: In-vivo and in-vitro study Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Il-Kyoon Mok, Jae Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwa Kim, Cheol-Ho Pan, Sang Min Kim
Our previous study reported the improved stability of fucoxanthin (FX) fortified in whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM). In this study, in vivo and in vitro FX bioavailability were investigated using FX-fortified milk (FX-SM and FX-WM) and microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum biomass (Pt-powder). Organ tissue accumulation of FX and its metabolites (FXOH: fucoxanthinol, AXA: amarouciaxanthin A) after repeated oral administration was in the following order: FX-SM > FX-WM > Pt-powder. In vivo pharmacokinetic study with a single oral administration also demonstrated that the absorption of FXOH and AXA was the highest for FX-SM. To reinforce the in vivo results, in vitro-simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake assays were performed, which revealed that FX-SM showed the highest FX bioaccessibility (release from food matrices) and cellular uptake efficiency of FX and FXOH. In conclusion, skimmed milk was validated as an excellent food matrix for FX application in terms of stability and bioavailability.
NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomic characterization of sunki, an unsalted fermented pickle of turnip leaves Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Satoru Tomita, Toshihide Nakamura, Sanae Okada
This study revealed the compositional characteristics of sunki, a traditional, unsalted, lactic acid-fermented pickle produced using turnip leaf in Kiso district, Japan. Comprehensive compositional analysis by two metabolomic approaches based on NMR and solid-phase microextraction-GC/MS methods was used to determine its chemical composition by annotating 54 water-soluble and 62 volatile compounds. Principal component analysis showed that samples had different compositions, depending on the agricultural processing factory and production year. This variation potentially resulted from the differences in the lactic acid bacterial community produced during the spontaneous fermentation of sunki and in the initial nutritional composition of the turnip leaf. Partial least squares regression revealed that the acetic acid level showed a strong positive correlation with pH (R = 0.810), in contrast to the negative correlations of lactic acid and ethanol levels (R = −0.533 and −0.547). This indicated the crucial impact of acetic acid-related metabolism on acidification during sunki fermentation.
The Relative Antioxidant Activity and Steric Structure of Green Tea Catechins – A Kinetic Approach Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Hong Yang, Xuejia Xue, Huan Li, Siti Norasikin Apandi, Su Chin Tay-Chan, Seng Poon Ong, Edmund Feng Tian
There are eight most abundant green tea catechins (GTCs) existing in four pairs of epimers, and carbon-3 configuration represents the only steric difference within each pair. This study aimed to use a new kinetic approach to elucidate the effect of stereochemical changes on the antioxidant activity. A mixture of eight GTCs was treated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) prepared in a series of concentrations, their relative reaction rates towards scavenging DPPH were revealed by the recently introduced parameter, i.e. Dm. The 3-R configuration in (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate gave lower Dm values demonstrating faster kinetics as opposed to their 3-S counterparts, with the only exception of the pair of (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate in which 3-S configuration was faster. These results suggested that the kinetic approach adopted in this study could reflect the different antioxidant activity of GTCs attributed by minor steric changes.
Quantitative Analyses of the Bitterness and Astringency of Catechins from Green Tea Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Yong-Quan Xu, Ying-Na Zhang, Jian-Xin Chen, Fang Wang, Qi-Zhen Du, Jun-Feng Yin
Bitterness and astringency are two important quality attributes of green tea infusion, and catechins are the main contributor to the bitterness and astringency. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the bitterness and astringency of green tea infusion according to the concentrations of catechins. The concentration–taste curves of catechins showed a pattern that fit the cubic functions, and their R2 values were higher than 0.956. The bitterness of green tea was highly correlated with the concentrations of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) (R2 = 0.7769, p < 0.01), and the astringency (R2 = 0.7878, p < 0.01) was highly correlated with the concentrations of ECG and flavonol glycosides (myricetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside). Taste interactions between different catechins and between catechins and other substances were determined. These results may enhance the understanding of tea chemistry for improving the taste of products from green tea.
Evaluation of the physicochemical stability and digestibility of microencapsulated esterified astaxanthins using in vitro and in vivo models Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Qingxin Zhou, Lu Yang, Jie Xu, Xing Qiao, Zhaojie Li, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue
Esterified astaxanthins are used as functional nutraceuticals in many food products. Unfortunately, their utilization is currently limited owing to their poor water solubility, chemical instability, and low bioavailability. In this study, esterified astaxanthin microcapsules were fabricated through electrostatic complexation of whey protein and gum arabic by adjusting the pH to 4.0. After their encapsulation, the stability of the esterified astaxanthins was effectively better than that of the oleoresin. In vitro tests revealed a 26% rate of astaxanthin release from the microcapsules, which was significantly higher than the 14.6% rate from the oleoresin (P < 0.05). In vivo experiments showed that the AUC0-t value after oral gavage of the microcapsules (8.23 ± 1.33 h·μg·mL-1) was approximately 2-fold higher than that after gavage of the oleoresin (3.72 ± 0.98 h·μg·mL-1). In conclusion, the bioavailability of esterified astaxanthins can be significantly improved by microencapsulation.
Individual contributions of Savinase and Lactobacillus plantarum to lentil functionalization during alkaline pH-controlled fermentation Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Sara Bautista-Expósito, Elena Peñas, Montserrat Dueñas, José Manuel Silván, Juana Frias, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Legumes offer the possibility to develop multifunctional foods with benefits for metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to study the effect of alkaline fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Savinase (FLPS) as well the individual effects of both processes on peptides, phenolics and bioactivity of lentil. FLPS increased peptides and some flavonoids and enhanced antioxidant activity, inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and intestinal maltase activities of lentil soluble fraction. Savinase contributed to peptide release, ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of lentil soluble fraction. L. plantarum affected to phenolic composition, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities. Mass spectrometry analysis of the most active fermented lentil subfraction allowed the identification of the main bioactive compounds. Gastrointestinal digestion of fermented lentil increased bioaccesibility of peptides and phenolics as well as antioxidant activity. FLPS enhanced the overall healthy potential of lentil offering the possibility of its use as strategy for lentil functionalization.
Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of wild and cultivated white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Magdalena Karamać, Hakime H. Orak, Ryszard Amarowicz, Adnan Orak, Wojciech Piekoszewski
The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacities and phenolic compound profiles of wild and cultivated Lupinus albus L. seeds. The total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antioxidant activity in an β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion were determined. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify phenolics. The TPC of lupin seeds ranged from 4.36 to 7.24 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter (d.m.). The dominant phenolics of all genotypes were two p-coumaric acid derivatives (0.74-1.61 and 0.66-1.63 mg/g d.m.) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside (1.13-1.31 mg/g d.m.). The results of antioxidant assays of wild lupin extracts were similar to or lower than those of the cultivated variety. FRAP and ABTS•+ scavenging activity were correlated with the contents of the more polar p-coumaric acid derivative and apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside. Generally, significant differences between cultivated and wild L. albus seeds were not found in antioxidant capacities and phenolic compound contents.
Effects of ocean warming and acidification combined with eutrophication on chemical composition and functional properties of Ulva rigida Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Guang Gao, Anthony S. Clare, Eleni Chatzidimitriou, Craig Rose, Gary Caldwell
Ulva is increasingly viewed as a food source in the world. Here, Ulva rigida was cultured at two levels of temperature (14, 18°C), pH (7.95, 7.55, corresponding to low and high pCO2), and nitrate conditions (6 μmol L-1, 150 μmol L-1), to investigate the effects of ocean warming, acidification, and eutrophication on food quality of Ulva species. High temperature increased the content of each amino acid. High nitrate increased the content of all amino acid except aspartic acid and cysteine. High temperature, pCO2, and nitrate also increased content of most fatty acids. The combination of high temperature, pCO2, and nitrate increased the swelling capacity, water holding capacity, and oil holding capacity by 15.60%, 7.88%, and 16.32% respectively, compared to the control. It seems that future ocean environment would enhance the production of amino acid and fatty acid as well as the functional properties in Ulva species.
Hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of fermentation index, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in single cocoa beans Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Nicola Caporaso, Martin B. Whitworth, Mark S. Fowler, Ian D. Fisk
The aim of the current work was to use hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the spectral range 1000-2500 nm to quantitatively predict fermentation index (FI), total polyphenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AA) of individual dry fermented cocoa beans scanned on a single seed basis. Seventeen cocoa bean batches were obtained and 10 cocoa beans were used from each batch. PLS regression models were built on 170 samples. The developed HSI predictive models were able to quantify three quality-related parameters with sufficient performance for screening purposes, with external validation R2 of 0.50 (RMSEP=0.27, RPD=1.40), 0.70 (RMSEP=34.1 mg ferulic acid g-1, RPD=1.77) and 0.74 (60.0 mmol Trolog kg-1, RPD=1.91) for FI, TP and AA, respectively. The calibrations were subsequently applied at a single bean and pixel level, so that the distribution was visualised within and between single seeds. HSI is thus suggested as a promising approach to estimate cocoa bean composition rapidly and non-destructively, thus offering a valid tool for food inspection and quality control.
Modification of carrot (Daucus carota Linn. var. sativa Hoffm.) pomace insoluble dietary fiber with complex enzyme method, ultrafine comminution, and high hydrostatic pressure Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Guoyong Yu, Jia Bei, Jing Zhao, Quanhong Li, Chen Cheng
Insoluble dietary fiber (DF) extracted from carrot pomace was modified by complex enzyme method, ultrafine comminution and high hydrostatic pressure and their structural, physicochemical, and functional properties were evaluated. Results showed that complex enzyme method increased the content of soluble DF to 15.07 %, and the cholesterol adsorption capacity peaked; ultrafine comminution greatly improved the total antioxidant activities, DPPH radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant abilities in linoleic acid system of DF; high hydrostatic pressure led to a significant increase in capacities of water retention (7.14 g/g, 600MPa), water swelling (10.02 mL/g, 500MPa), oil retention (2.35 g/g, 500MPa), cation exchange (2.29 mmol/g, 600MPa), and glucose adsorption (2.634 mmol/g, 400MPa). Furthermore, SEM showed that surface structures of all modified DF were loose. Overall, three kinds of modification methods have shown their respective advantages. Modified DF from carrot pomace can be applied as a functional ingredient in diverse food products.
Use of fish trypsin immobilized onto magnetic-chitosan composite as a new tool to detect antinutrients in aquafeeds Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Rafael D.S. Azevedo, Ian P.G. Amaral, Amália C.M. Ferreira, Talita S. Espósito, Ranilson S. Bezerra
Specific colorimetric ELISA method based on DNA hybridization reaction and non–crosslinking gold nanoparticles aggregation for the detection of amantadine Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Fang–Fei Zhu, Juan Peng, Zhen Huang, Li–Ming Hu, Gang–Gang Zhang, Dao–Feng Liu, Ke–Yu Xing, Kai–Yi Zhang, Wei–Hua Lai
Amantadine (AMD), a banned antiviral veterinary drug, is still being abused. This study developed a novel enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the colorimetric detection of AMD involving DNA hybridization reaction and non–crosslinking gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation. Accordingly, the Primer 1–AuNPs–anti–AMD monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be captured by AMD artificial antigen on ELISA wells. Primer 2, which was complementary paired to Primer 1, was eventually added into the ELISA wells. After the hybridization reaction, the free Primer 2 in the supernatant was mixed with AuNPs and NaCl and induced a rapid color change of AuNPs. The lack of AMD in the sample resulted in capturing a substantial Primer 1–AuNPs–mAb complex and limited free Primer 2 in the supernatant. After adding NaCl, the color of AuNPs turned blue with limited Primer 2. This simple and visualized novel method had good sensitivity (0.033 μM) and exhibited a potential application for AMD screening on site.
Pretreatment with formic acid enhances the production of small peptides from highly cross-linked collagen of spent hens Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Hui Hong, Bimol C. Roy, Meram Chalamaiah, Heather L. Bruce, Jianping Wu
Small collagen peptides are associated with various benefits, such as bone and skin health. However, preparation of small collagen peptides from terrestrial vertebrate origins remains a challenge. Here, we show that pretreatment with formic acid enhanced the production of small collagen peptides from spent hen skin. After pretreatment with formic acid, the percentage of small peptides below 2 kDa increased to 48.92% and 43.34% from 33.79% and 36.32% for heat-soluble collagen (HSC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC), respectively. Pretreatment with formic acid degraded telopeptides and released the cross-links (pyrrole and pyridinoline), which made hen collagen more susceptible to papain hydrolysis. LC-MS/MS results revealed that none of the peptides identified from HSC-FA (formic acid)-Papain and PSC-FA-Papain were derived from cross-linked telopeptides. These results demonstrated that formic acid assisted the hydrolysis of highly cross-linked collagen of spent hens, and it might also be used to produce small collagen peptides from other aged, vertebrate collagens.
Characterisation of the antioxidant peptide AEEEYPDL and its quantification in Spanish dry-cured ham Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Marta Gallego, Leticia Mora, Fidel Toldrá
Bioactive peptides derived from food matrices are currently a subject of intensive research, due to the multiple health benefits they can exert in the human body. However, the small size and low abundance of these peptides in complex matrices as well as the effect of food processing and gastrointestinal digestion on their structure, sequence, and functionality, are important challenges. Spanish dry-cured ham has been reported as a good and natural source of bioactive peptides mainly showing antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. In this work, the antioxidant peptide AEEEYPDL, identified from 9 months of curing dry-cured ham, showed good resistance to different heat treatments and salt contents. The bioactivity of the peptide significantly decreased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. An optimised multiple reaction monitoring methodology was able to quantify the peptide AEEEYPDL at a concentration of 0.148 fg per g of dry-cured ham, despite the existing challenges in the quantification of bioactive peptides from complex matrices.
Particulate Nanocomposite from Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) Hydrolysates via Zinc Chelation Improves Zinc Solubility and Peptide Activity Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Ziran Zhang, Feibai Zhou, Xiaoling Liu, Mouming Zhao
An oyster protein hydrolysates-zinc complex (OPH-Zn) was prepared and investigated to improve zinc bioaccessibility. Zinc ions chelating with oyster protein hydrolysates (OPH) cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregation, homogeneously forming the OPH-Zn complex as nanoclusters with a Z-average at 89.28 nm (PDI: 0.16 ± 0.02). The primary sites of zinc-binding in OPH were carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups, and they were related to the high number of charged amino acid residues. Furthermore, formation of the OPH-Zn complex could significantly enhance zinc solubility both under specific pH conditions as well as during simulated gastrointestinal digestion, compared to the commonly used ZnSO4. Additionally, after digestion, either preserved or enhanced antioxidant activity of OPH was found when chelated with zinc. These results indicated that the OPH-Zn complex could be a potential functional ingredient with improved antioxidant bioactivity and zinc bioaccessibility.
Genetic diversity of potato genotypes estimated by starch physicochemical properties and microsatellite markers Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Sulaiman Ahmed, Xin Zhou, Yuehang Pang, Yanjie Xu, Chuan Tong, Jinsong Bao
Genetic diversity of 29 potato genotypes was estimated by their starch physicochemical properties and microsatellite markers. The apparent amylose content (AAC) of potato starches averaged 25.3%, ranging from 18.9 to 29.4%. Significance differences were observed in pasting and gel texture properties among potato accessions. Wide genetic diversity was also found in the gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc), enthalpies of gelatinization, retrogradation and retrogradation percentage, which had ranges of 62.2-67.6 °C, 66.1-71.1 °C, 73.5-77.4 °C, 17.5-21.0 J/g, 1.95-4.41 J/g, and 10.6-21.4%, respectively. AAC had significant correlation with pasting viscosities and gel hardness, but had no correlation with thermal and retrogradation properties. The grouping of the potato genotypes using 30 microsatellite markers did not correspond to that drawn using the starch physicochemical properties. Molecular analysis revealed that genotypes with interesting starch properties were distributed among three clusters. Potato starches exhibited interesting physiochemical properties could be applied in food and industrial applications.
Characterisation of β-carotene partitioning in protein emulsions: Effects of pre-treatments, solid fat content and emulsifier type Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 W.A. Fahmi Wan Mohamad, Donald McNaughton, Mary Ann Augustin, Roman Buckow
Understanding the bioactive partitioning between the phases of an emulsion system underpins strategies for improving the efficiency of bioactive protection against degradation. We analysed in-situ partitioning of β-carotene in emulsions with various formulations using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). The partitioning of β-carotene into the aqueous phase of emulsions increased when whey protein isolate (WPI) was heat or high pressure-treated prior to emulsion formation. However, increasing the concentration of high pressure-treated WPI reduced the β-carotene partitioning into the aqueous phase. Increasing the solid fat content in the carrier oil favoured the migration of β-carotene into the aqueous phase. The use of WPI as the emulsifier resulted in a greater partitioning of β-carotene into the aqueous phase compared to when Tween 40 was the emulsifier. This study demonstrates that partitioning of β-carotene between the aqueous and oil phase is dependent on the characteristics of the oil phase, emulsifier type and processing.
Cold low pressure O2 plasma treatment of Crocus sativus: an efficient way to eliminate toxicogenic fungi with minor effect on molecular and cellular properties of saffron Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Seyed Iman Hosseini, Naser Farrokhi, Khadijeh Shokri, Mohammad Reza Khani, Babak Shokri
In this study cold low pressure radiofrequency oxygen plasma was used for the first time to inactivate toxicogenic fungi proliferation on saffron. Varieties of plasma produced reactive oxygen species which were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. The data were indicative of the absence of UV radiation. Effects of plasma treatment on antioxidant activity, metabolic content, colour, odour and flavour parameters and physical impact on saffron were investigated. A range of plasma powers and exposure times were assayed in suppression of fungal growth. Amongst which power of 60 W for 15 min was used to eradicate Aspergillus and other microorganisms. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was changed from 1778.21 to 1674.25 mM/g dry weight following plasma treatment. Moreover, crocin ester, picrocrocin and safranal metabolites reduced insignificantly. Additionally, plasma had no significant impact on colour, odour and flavour of saffron.
N,S co-doped carbon dots based fluorescent “on-off-on” sensor for determination of ascorbic acid in common fruits Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Xueli Luo, Wengang Zhang, Yong Han, Xiumei Chen, Li Zhu, Wenzhi Tang, Jianlong Wang, Tianli Yue, Zhonghong Li
A switchable sensor based on N and S co-doped carbon dots (N,S-CDs) was developed to determine ascorbic acid (AA) content in common fruits via fluorescence quenching of N,S-CDs by Fe3+ (off) and recovery by AA (on). TEM showed that the particle size was 2.35-7.95 nm with an average diameter of 5.12 nm. XPS and FTIR confirmed the presence of -OH, -COOH and -NH2 on N,S-CDs surface. UV-vis and FTIR revealed that the coordination of -COOH and -NH2 on N,S-CDs surface with Fe3+ accounted for FL quenching, and the release of -NH2 from coordination complexes due to the reduction of Fe3+ by AA led to partly FL recovery. The sensor allowed detecting AA in the linear range of 10-200 μmol/L with a LOD of 4.69 μmol/L. AA contents in common fruits detected by the sensor were in good agreement with the reference method (P>0.05), indicating a practical fluorescent sensor for AA detection in common fruits.
Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion for the delivery of starter cultures in reduced-salt moromi fermentation of soy sauce Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Putu Virgina Partha Devanthi, Robert Linforth, Hani El Kadri, Konstantinos Gkatzionis
This study investigated the application of water-oil-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsions (DE) for yeast encapsulation and sequential inoculation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromi stage of soy sauce fermentation with reduced NaCl and/or substitution with KCl. Z. rouxii and T. halophilus were incorporated in the internal W1 and external W2 phase of DE, respectively. NaCl reduction and substitution promoted T. halophilus growth to 8.88 log CFU/mL, accompanied with faster sugar depletion and enhanced lactic acid production. Reducing NaCl without substitution increased the final pH (5.49) and decreased alcohols, acids, esters, furan and phenol content. However, the application of DE resulted in moromi with similar microbiological and physicochemical characteristics to that of high-salt.. Principal component analysis of GC-MS data demonstrated that the reduced-salt moromi had identical aroma profile to that obtained in the standard one, indicating the feasibility of producing low-salt soy sauce without compromising its quality.
Nutritional analysis of Spirulina dietary supplements: Optimization procedure of ultrasound-assisted digestion for multielemental determination Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Bárbara D. Neher, Silvana M. Azcarate, José M. Camiña, Marianela Savio
Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima are a type of blue-green microalga used as a dietary supplement (Spirulina). A low time-consuming ultrasound-assisted digestion (UAD) of Spirulina supplements for multielemental determination by microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MPAES) was performed. Several parameters such as acid concentration (AC), thermostated water bath (TWB), digestion time (DT) and UAD –probe or bath- affecting the digestion process were evaluated through a full factorial design. Under the optimal conditions -100°C for TWB, 5% for AC and 10 min for DT- and selecting the bath as the proper UAD system, the concentrations of 15 analytes (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, V, Zn) were reported. The values are in accordance with the recommendation established by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) excepting for Cd. The knowledge of Spirulina multielemental composition contributes to an outstanding nutritional and toxicological report for human health.
Green and Fast Determination of the Alcoholic Content of Wines Using Thermal Infrared Enthalpimetry Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Alessandra S. Oliveira, Cristiano A. Ballus, Cristiano R. Menezes, Roger Wagner, José Neri G. Paniz, Bruna Tischer, Adilson B. Costa, Juliano S. Barin
An innovative use of thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) is proposed for the determination of alcoholic content of red and white wines. Notwithstanding the presence of ethanol in beverages, absolute ethanol was added directly to wines, and the temperature rise caused by the heat of dilution was monitored using an infrared camera. Analytical signals were obtained in only 10 s for four samples simultaneously, and a calibration curve was constructed with hydroalcoholic reference solutions. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 3.0 to 18.0% (v/v) ethanol (R2=0.9987). The results showed agreement ranging from 98.2 to 104.0% with 942.06 and 969.12 methods of AOAC. Organic compounds (e.g., sugar) did not interfere in the determinations. The proposed method provided fast results, with a throughput of 480 samples per hour and negligible energy consumption (0.001 kWh). In addition, the consumption of reagents was reduced when compared with conventional method fulfilling green analytical chemistry requirements.
Phenolic profile and effect of growing area on Pistacia lentiscus seed oil Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Faten Mezni, Awatef Slama, Riadh Ksouri, Ghaith Hamdaoui, Mohamed Larbi Khouja, Abdelhamid Khaldi
Psidium cattleianum fruits: A review on its composition and bioactivity Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Elisa dos Santos Pereira, Juliana Vinholes, Rodrigo C. Franzon, Gabriel Dalmazo, Márcia Vizzotto, Leonardo Nora
Psidium cattleianum Sabine, commonly known as araçá, is a Brazilian native fruit, which is very juicy, with sweet to sub acid pulp and a spicy touch. The fruit can be eaten fresh or processed into juice, jellies and ice creams. Araçás are source of vitamin C, minerals, fatty acids, polysaccharides, volatile compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, which can provide nutrients and phytochemical agents with different biological functions. Different pharmacological studies demonstrate that P. cattleianum exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiaging effects. Thus, this article aims to review the chemical composition and biological effects reported for araçá fruit in the last years.
Quality assessment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extracts via UHPLC-DAD-MS analysis and detection of adulteration using gardenia fruit extract (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Moras Benjamin, Loffredo Loïc, Rey Stéphane
A new UHPLC-DAD-MS method based on a Core-Shell particles column was developed to realize the rapid separation of saffron stigma metabolites (Crocus sativus L.). A single separation of 35 compounds included cis and trans-crocetin esters (crocins), cis-crocetin, trans-crocetin, kaempferol derivatives, safranal, and picrocrocin from pure saffron stigmas. This method permitted the detection of 11 picrocrocin derivatives as the typical group of compounds from saffron as well as the detection of gardenia-specific compounds as typical adulterant markers. The metabolite concentration in a Standardized Saffron Extract (SSE) was determined using the method described herein and by comparison to the ISO3632 conventional method. The safranal content was 5 to 150 times lower than the value of 2% that was expected via ISO3632 analyses. Using the same Core-Shell separation, geniposide detection appeared to be a relevant approach for detecting the adulteration of saffron by using gardenia.
Profiling, quantification and classification of cocoa beans based on chemometric analysis of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Roberto Megías-Pérez, Sergio Grimbs, Roy N. D'Souza, Herwig Bernaert, Nikolai Kuhnert
Fifty-six cocoa bean samples of Theobroma cacao, from different origins, were analyzed by a validated method hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-of time-of-flight (HILIC-ESI-TOF) MS. The profile of the low molecular weight carbohydrate (LMWC) by high resolution and tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides, sugar alcohols and iminosugars.This study provides, for the first time in a large sample set of samples, a comprehensive absolute quantitative data set for the carbohydrates identified in cocoa beans (fructose, glucose, mannitol, myo-inositol, sucrose, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose). Differences in the content of carbohydrates were observed between unfermented (range of 0.9 - 4.9 g/g DM) and fermented (range 0.1-0.5 g/g DM) cocoa beans.The use of multivariate statistical tools allowed the identification of biomarkers suitable for cocoa bean classification according to the status of fermentation, procedure of fermentation employed and number of days of fermentation.
Enhancing storage stability of guava with tannic acid-crosslinked zein coatings Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Talita M. Santos, Men de Sá M. Souza Filho, Ebenézer de Oliveira Silva, Márcia Régia Souza da Silveira, Maria Raquel Alcântara de Miranda, Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes, Henriette M.C. Azeredo
Safety assessment of sodium acetate, sodium diacetate and potassium sorbate food additives Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Hossein Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Yousef Sohrabi, Ali Mohammadi, Dariush Shanehbandi, Parvin Dehghan, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi
Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium acetate (SA), sodium diacetate (SDA), and potassium sorbate (PS) was tested on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, while genotoxicity was evaluated using DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining assays. The growth of treated HUVECs with various concentrations of SA, SDA and PS decreased in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of 487.71, 485.82 and 659.96 µM after 24 h and IC50 of 232.05, 190.19 and 123.95 µM after 48 h of treatment were attained for SA, SDA and PS, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that early and late apoptosis percentage in treated cells was not considerable. Also neither considerable DNA fragmentation nor DNA smear was observed using DAPI staining and DNA ladder assays. Overall, it can be concluded that the aforementioned food additives can be used as safe additives at low concentration in food industry.
Volatile profile of white wines fermented with sequential inoculation of Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Vasileios Englezos, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Francesco Cravero, Fabrizio Torchio, Matteo Pollon, Fracassetti Daniela, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Vincenzo Gerbi, Luca Rolle, Luca Cocolin
Mixed fermentations with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae affect the chemical composition of wines, by modulating various metabolites of oenological interest. The current study was carried out to elucidate the effect of sequential inoculation of the above mentioned species on the production of white wines, especially on the chemical and aromatic characteristics of Chardonnay, Muscat, Riesling and Sauvignon blanc wines. Titratable acidity and glycerol content exhibited evident differences among the wines after fermentation. For volatile compounds, mixed fermentations led to a reduction of the total esters, including ethyl acetate, which is a compound responsible for wine deterioration. However, Sauvignon blanc wines fermented by mixed cultures contained significantly higher levels of esters and thiols, both associated with positive sensory attributes. These findings suggest that sequential inoculations possess great potential in affecting and modulating the chemical and aromatic profile of white wines, especially those produced from Sauvignon blanc grapes.
Tea Polyphenols enhance binding of porcine pancreatic α-amylase with starch granules but reduce catalytic activity Food Chem. (IF 4.529) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Lijun Sun, Michael J. Gidley, Fredrick J. Warren
The effects of tea polyphenols on binding of porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) with normal maize starch granules were studied through solution depletion assays, fluorescence spectroscopy and initial rate kinetics. Only polyphenols which have inhibitory activity against PPA increased the binding of PPA with starch. The results are consistent with a binding equilibrium between polyphenols, starch and PPA. The dissociation constant (Kd) for PPA binding was decreased by tea polyphenols, with the effects greater for theaflavins than catechins and for galloylated than non-galloylated polyphenols. Tea polyphenols were also shown to increase the binding rate of PPA to starch. In addition, there were positive linear correlations between 1/Kd and reciprocal of competitive inhibition constant (1/Kic) and between 1/Kd and fluorescence quenching constant (KFQ). Despite the greater amount of PPA on the granules, starch hydrolysis is reduced because the polyphenol inhibition of PPA persists after binding to starch.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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