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  • Publisher Correction: Transcriptome dynamics revealed by a gene expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Joakim Palovaara, Shunsuke Saiga, Jos R. Wendrich, Nicole van ‘t Wout Hofland, J. Paul van Schayck, Friederike Hater, Sumanth Mutte, Jouke Sjollema, Mark Boekschoten, Guido J. Hooiveld, Dolf Weijers

    Publisher Correction: Transcriptome dynamics revealed by a gene expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo Publisher Correction: Transcriptome dynamics revealed by a gene expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo, Published online: 11 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0077-6 Publisher Correction: Transcriptome dynamics revealed by a gene expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Elm Street, USA
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Daegan Miller

    Elm Street, USA Elm Street, USA, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0088-3 Elm Street, USA

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • California in infinite layers
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Ryan Scarrow

    California in infinite layers California in infinite layers, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0090-9 California in infinite layers

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Technologies to boost breeding
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-04

    Technologies to boost breeding Technologies to boost breeding, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0091-8 Breeding crops with a high yield and superior adaptability is vital to maintaining global food security. New technologies on multiple scales are re-engineering traditional plant breeding to meet these challenges.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • International agreements may impact genomic technologies
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Emily Marden

    International agreements may impact genomic technologies International agreements may impact genomic technologies, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0087-4 Modern plant biology relies heavily on genetic sequence information from species with a diversity of origins. Could proposed changes to the terms of use of this digital sequence information threaten the development of new crop varieties and improvements in global agriculture?

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Flexible competitive strategy
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-04
    Lei Lei

    Flexible competitive strategy Flexible competitive strategy, Published online: 04 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0094-5 Flexible competitive strategy

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Two genetic changes in cis-regulatory elements caused evolution of petal spot position in Clarkia
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Peng Jiang, Mark Rausher

    A major premise in evolutionary developmental biology is that regulatory changes, often involving cis-regulatory elements, are responsible for much morphological evolution. This premise is supported by recent investigations of animal development, but information is just beginning to accumulate regarding whether it also applies to the evolution of plant morphology1,2,3,4. Here, we identify the genetic differences between species in the genus Clarkia that are responsible for evolutionary change in an ecologically important element of floral colour patterns: spot position. The evolutionary shift in spot position was due to two simple genetic changes that resulted in the appearance of a transcription factor binding site mutation in the R2R3 Myb gene that changes spot formation. These genetic changes caused R2R3 Myb to be activated by a different transcription factor that is expressed in a different position in the petal. These results suggest that the regulatory rewiring paradigm is as applicable to plants as it is to animals, and support the hypothesis that cis-regulatory changes may often play a role in plant morphological evolution.

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Physcomitrella MADS-box genes regulate water supply and sperm movement for fertilization
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Shizuka Koshimizu, Rumiko Kofuji, Yuko Sasaki-Sekimoto, Masahide Kikkawa, Mie Shimojima, Hiroyuki Ohta, Shuji Shigenobu, Yukiko Kabeya, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yosuke Tamada, Takashi Murata, Mitsuyasu Hasebe

    MIKC classic (MIKCC)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that function in various developmental processes, including angiosperm floral organ identity. Phylogenetic analyses of the MIKCC-type MADS-box family, including genes from non-flowering plants, suggest that the increased numbers of these genes in flowering plants is related to their functional divergence; however, their precise functions in non-flowering plants and their evolution throughout land plant diversification are unknown. Here, we show that MIKCC-type MADS-box genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens function in two ways to enable fertilization. Analyses of protein localization, deletion mutants and overexpression lines of all six genes indicate that three MIKCC-type MADS-box genes redundantly regulate cell division and growth in the stems for appropriate external water conduction, as well as the formation of sperm with motile flagella. The former function appears to be maintained in the flowering plant lineage, while the latter was lost in accordance with the loss of sperm.

    更新日期:2018-01-03
  • Speed breeding is a powerful tool to accelerate crop research and breeding
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Amy Watson, Sreya Ghosh, Matthew J. Williams, William S. Cuddy, James Simmonds, María-Dolores Rey, M. Asyraf Md Hatta, Alison Hinchliffe, Andrew Steed, Daniel Reynolds, Nikolai M. Adamski, Andy Breakspear, Andrey Korolev, Tracey Rayner, Laura E. Dixon, Adnan Riaz, William Martin, Merrill Ryan, David Edwards, Jacqueline Batley, Harsh Raman, Jeremy Carter, Christian Rogers, Claire Domoney, Graham Moore, Wendy Harwood, Paul Nicholson, Mark J. Dieters, Ian H. DeLacy, Ji Zhou, Cristobal Uauy, Scott A. Boden, Robert F. Park, Brande B. H. Wulff, Lee T. Hickey

    The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand1. This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here, we present a method called ‘speed breeding’, which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programmes. Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2–3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully enclosed, controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies and transformation. The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent (SSD) and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost saving through light-emitting diode (LED) supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.

    更新日期:2018-01-01
  • Joining the dots
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Róisín Fattorini, Beverley J. Glover

    Joining the dotsJoining the dots, Published online: 01 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0086-5It is hypothesized that morphological evolution occurs through a variety of molecular mechanisms. The position and patterning of petal spots in Clarkia evolved through changes to the regulatory region of a gene that encodes a transcriptional activator of pigment synthesis, prompting its control by novel positional cues.

    更新日期:2018-01-01
  • Dr Rhodo and Mr Coccus
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Guillaume Tena

    Dr Rhodo and Mr CoccusDr Rhodo and Mr Coccus, Published online: 01 January 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0093-6Dr Rhodo and Mr Coccus

    更新日期:2018-01-01
  • Elevation of soybean seed oil content through selection for seed coat shininess
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Dajian Zhang, Lianjun Sun, Shuai Li, Weidong Wang, Yanhua Ding, Stephen A. Swarm, Linghong Li, Xutong Wang, Xuemin Tang, Zhifang Zhang, Zhixi Tian, Patrick J. Brown, Chunmei Cai, Randall L. Nelson, Jianxin Ma

    Many leguminous species have adapted their seed coat with a layer of powdery bloom that contains hazardous allergens and makes the seeds less visible, offering duel protection against potential predators1. Nevertheless, a shiny seed surface without bloom is desirable for human consumption and health, and is targeted for selection under domestication. Here we show that seed coat bloom in wild soybeans is mainly controlled by Bloom1 (B1), which encodes a transmembrane transporter-like protein for biosynthesis of the bloom in pod endocarp. The transition from the ‘bloom’ to ‘no-bloom’ phenotypes is associated with artificial selection of a nucleotide mutation that naturally occurred in the coding region of B1 during soybean domestication. Interestingly, this mutation not only ‘shined’ the seed surface, but also elevated seed oil content in domesticated soybeans. Such an elevation of oil content in seeds appears to be achieved through b1-modulated upregulation of oil biosynthesis in pods. This study shows pleiotropy as a mechanism underlying the domestication syndrome2, and may pave new strategies for development of soybean varieties with increased seed oil content and reduced seed dust.

    更新日期:2018-01-01
  • Preparing Rubisco for a tune up
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Brendon Conlan, Spencer Whitney

    Preparing Rubisco for a tune upPreparing Rubisco for a tune up, Published online: 20 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0089-2New capabilities for assembling plant Rubisco in bacteria offer a revolution for enhancing photosynthesis. The technology provides a breakthrough to identify and test solutions for improving CO2 fixation by crop Rubisco.

    更新日期:2017-12-21
  • Plants increase CO2 uptake by assimilating nitrogen via the photorespiratory pathway
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Florian A. Busch, Rowan F. Sage, Graham D. Farquhar

    Photorespiration is a major bioengineering target for increasing crop yields as it is often considered a wasteful process. Photorespiratory metabolism is integrated into leaf metabolism and thus may have certain benefits. Here, we show that plants can increase their rate of photosynthetic CO2 uptake when assimilating nitrogen de novo via the photorespiratory pathway by fixing carbon as amino acids in addition to carbohydrates. Plants fed NO3− had higher rates of CO2 assimilation under photorespiratory than low-photorespiratory conditions, while plants lacking NO3− nutrition exhibited lower stimulation of CO2 uptake. We modified the widely used Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry photosynthesis model to include the carbon and electron requirements for nitrogen assimilation via the photorespiratory pathway. Our modified model improves predictions of photosynthetic CO2 uptake and of rates of photosynthetic electron transport. The results highlight how photorespiration can improve photosynthetic performance despite reducing the efficiency of Rubisco carboxylation.

    更新日期:2017-12-11
  • Life in the branches
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Siobhan Sanford

    Life in the branches Life in the branches, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0069-6 Life in the branches

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Unearthing potato evolution
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Jun Lyu

    Unearthing potato evolution Unearthing potato evolution, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0079-4 Unearthing potato evolution

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Tales of a plant twitcher
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Barbara Gravendeel

    Tales of a plant twitcher Tales of a plant twitcher, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0071-z Tales of a plant twitcher

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Strategies for survival
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-05

    Strategies for survival Strategies for survival, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0081-x The United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals contain a commitment to abolish world hunger. Sounds like a job for a plant scientist!

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Low number of fixed somatic mutations in a long-lived oak tree
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Namrata Sarkar, Christian Iseli, Sandra Calderon, Caroline Gouhier-Darimont, Jacqueline Chrast, Pietro Cattaneo, Frédéric Schütz, Laurent Farinelli, Marco Pagni, Michel Schneider, Jérémie Voumard, Michel Jaboyedoff, Christian Fankhauser, Christian S. Hardtke, Laurent Keller, John R. Pannell, Alexandre Reymond, Marc Robinson-Rechavi, Ioannis Xenarios, Philippe Reymond

    Because plants do not possess a defined germline, deleterious somatic mutations can be passed to gametes, and a large number of cell divisions separating zygote from gamete formation may lead to many mutations in long-lived plants. We sequenced the genome of two terminal branches of a 234-year-old oak tree and found several fixed somatic single-nucleotide variants whose sequential appearance in the tree could be traced along nested sectors of younger branches. Our data suggest that stem cells of shoot meristems in trees are robustly protected from the accumulation of mutations.

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Zero-calorie sugar delivery to roots
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Michael G. Ryan, Elisabeth M. R. Robert

    Zero-calorie sugar delivery to roots Zero-calorie sugar delivery to roots, Published online: 04 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0070-0 Resistance to moving sugars from foliage to roots is high in trees, suggesting that the transport mechanism found in herbs might not work in trees. Now with new measurements of phloem structure and leaf turgor pressure, it has been shown that the Münch pressure-flow hypothesis can also explain sugar transport in tall trees.

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • How to get old without aging
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Cris Kuhlemeier

    How to get old without aging How to get old without aging, Published online: 04 December 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0076-7 The low number of mutations in multiple sectors from a 234-year-old oak tree reveals possible mechanisms to avoid the irreversible build-up of mutations in long-lived plants.

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Maintenance of carbohydrate transport in tall trees
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-12-04
    Jessica A. Savage, Sierra D. Beecher, Laura Clerx, Jessica T. Gersony, Jan Knoblauch, Juan M. Losada, Kaare H. Jensen, Michael Knoblauch, N. Michele Holbrook

    Trees present a critical challenge to long-distance transport because as a tree grows in height and the transport pathway increases in length, the hydraulic resistance of the vascular tissue should increase. This has led many to question whether trees can rely on a passive transport mechanism to move carbohydrates from their leaves to their roots. Although species that actively load sugars into their phloem, such as vines and herbs, can increase the driving force for transport as they elongate, it is possible that many trees cannot generate high turgor pressures because they do not use transporters to load sugar into the phloem. Here, we examine how trees can maintain efficient carbohydrate transport as they grow taller by analysing sieve tube anatomy, including sieve plate geometry, using recently developed preparation and imaging techniques, and by measuring the turgor pressures in the leaves of a tall tree in situ. Across nine deciduous species, we find that hydraulic resistance in the phloem scales inversely with plant height because of a shift in sieve element structure along the length of individual trees. This scaling relationship seems robust across multiple species despite large differences in plate anatomy. The importance of this scaling becomes clear when phloem transport is modelled using turgor pressures measured in the leaves of a mature red oak tree. These pressures are of sufficient magnitude to drive phloem transport only in concert with structural changes in the phloem that reduce transport resistance. As a result, the key to the long-standing mystery of how trees maintain phloem transport as they increase in size lies in the structure of the phloem and its ability to change hydraulic properties with plant height.

    更新日期:2017-12-05
  • Loopholes for smuggling DNA into pollen
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Stephanie Ruf, Ralph Bock

    Loopholes for smuggling DNA into pollen Loopholes for smuggling DNA into pollen, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0072-y The development of an efficient transformation method for pollen promises to provide a simple and tissue culture-independent technique for genetic engineering in plants.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Pollen magnetofection for genetic modification with magnetic nanoparticles as gene carriers
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Xiang Zhao, Zhigang Meng, Yan Wang, Wenjie Chen, Changjiao Sun, Bo Cui, Jinhui Cui, Manli Yu, Zhanghua Zeng, Sandui Guo, Dan Luo, Jerry Q. Cheng, Rui Zhang, Haixin Cui

    Genetic modification plays a vital role in breeding new crops with excellent traits. Almost all the current genetic modification methods require regeneration from tissue culture, involving complicated, long and laborious processes. In particular, many crop species such as cotton are difficult to regenerate. Here, we report a novel transformation platform technology, pollen magnetofection, to directly produce transgenic seeds without regeneration. In this system, exogenous DNA loaded with magnetic nanoparticles was delivered into pollen in the presence of a magnetic field. Through pollination with magnetofected pollen, transgenic plants were successfully generated from transformed seeds. Exogenous DNA was successfully integrated into the genome, effectively expressed and stably inherited in the offspring. Our system is culture-free and genotype independent. In addition, it is simple, fast and capable of multi-gene transformation. We envision that pollen magnetofection can transform almost all crops, greatly facilitating breeding processes of new varieties of transgenic crops.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Non-specific activities of the major herbicide-resistance gene BAR
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Bastien Christ, Ramon Hochstrasser, Luzia Guyer, Rita Francisco, Sylvain Aubry, Stefan Hörtensteiner, Jing-Ke Weng

    Bialaphos resistance (BAR) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) genes, which convey resistance to the broad-spectrum herbicide phosphinothricin (also known as glufosinate) via N-acetylation, have been globally used in basic plant research and genetically engineered crops1,2,3,4. Although early in vitro enzyme assays showed that recombinant BAR and PAT exhibit substrate preference toward phosphinothricin over the 20 proteinogenic amino acids1, indirect effects of BAR-containing transgenes in planta, including modified amino acid levels, have been seen but without the identification of their direct causes5,6. Combining metabolomics, plant genetics and biochemical approaches, we show that transgenic BAR indeed converts two plant endogenous amino acids, aminoadipate and tryptophan, to their respective N-acetylated products in several plant species. We report the crystal structures of BAR, and further delineate structural basis for its substrate selectivity and catalytic mechanism. Through structure-guided protein engineering, we generated several BAR variants that display significantly reduced non-specific activities compared with its wild-type counterpart in vivo. The transgenic expression of enzymes can result in unintended off-target metabolism arising from enzyme promiscuity. Understanding such phenomena at the mechanistic level can facilitate the design of maximally insulated systems featuring heterologously expressed enzymes.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Raising the BAR of specificity
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Sarah E. O’Connor

    Raising the BAR of specificity Raising the BAR of specificity, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0074-9 Phosphinothricin resistance is a widely used trait in plant science research and agriculture. The BAR resistance gene that inactivates phosphinothricin has now been shown to produce two non-specific metabolites in planta. An engineered BAR resistance gene with no detectable off-target activity is developed to address this issue.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Food regimes and the geopolitics of wheat
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    André Magnan

    Food regimes and the geopolitics of wheat Food regimes and the geopolitics of wheat, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0073-x Economic and political systems can influence development for decades, shaping food production with lingering effects. These path dependencies of national and international agriculture are examined in a study that links wheat production in the United States and the vulnerability of poorer nations to food insecurity.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • Sweet transgenic immunity
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Guillaume Tena

    Sweet transgenic immunity Sweet transgenic immunity, Published online: 27 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0080-y Sweet transgenic immunity

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • The crystal structure of Deg9 reveals a novel octameric-type HtrA protease
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-27
    Min Ouyang, Xiaoyi Li, Shun Zhao, Hua Pu, Jianren Shen, Zach Adam, Tim Clausen, Lixin Zhang

    The high temperature requirement A (HtrA) proteases (also termed Deg proteases) play important roles in diverse organisms by regulating protein quality and quantity. One of the 16 Arabidopsis homologs, Deg9, is located in the nucleus where it modulates cytokinin- and light-mediated signalling via degrading the ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 4 (ARR4). To uncover the structural features underlying the proteolytic activity of Deg9, we determined its crystal structure. Unlike the well-established trimeric building block of HtrAs, Deg9 displays a novel octameric structure consisting of two tetrameric rings that have distinct conformations. Based on the structural architecture, we generated several mutant variants of Deg9, determined their structure and tested their proteolytic activity towards ARR4. The results of the structural and biochemical analyses allowed us to propose a model for a novel mechanism of substrate recognition and activity regulation of Deg9. In this model, protease activation of one tetramer is mediated by en-bloc reorientation of the protease domains to open an entrance for the substrate in the opposite (inactive) tetramer. This study provides the structural basis for understanding how the levels of nuclear signal components are regulated by a plant protease.

    更新日期:2017-11-28
  • The Aegilops tauschii genome reveals multiple impacts of transposons
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Guangyao Zhao, Cheng Zou, Kui Li, Kai Wang, Tianbao Li, Lifeng Gao, Xiaoxia Zhang, Hongjin Wang, Zujun Yang, Xu Liu, Wenkai Jiang, Long Mao, Xiuying Kong, Yuannian Jiao, Jizeng Jia

    Wheat is an important global crop with an extremely large and complex genome that contains more transposable elements (TEs) than any other known crop species. Here, we generated a chromosome-scale, high-quality reference genome of Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, in which 92.5% sequences have been anchored to chromosomes. Using this assembly, we accurately characterized genic loci, gene expression, pseudogenes, methylation, recombination ratios, microRNAs and especially TEs on chromosomes. In addition to the discovery of a wave of very recent gene duplications, we detected that TEs occurred in about half of the genes, and found that such genes are expressed at lower levels than those without TEs, presumably because of their elevated methylation levels. We mapped all wheat molecular markers and constructed a high-resolution integrated genetic map corresponding to genome sequences, thereby placing previously detected agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the Ae. tauschii genome for the first time.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • Corruption drives deforestation
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Ryan Scarrow

    Corruption drives deforestation Corruption drives deforestation, Published online: 20 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0075-8

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • A potent Cas9-derived gene activator for plant and mammalian cells
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Zhenxiang Li, Dandan Zhang, Xiangyu Xiong, Bingyu Yan, Wei Xie, Jen Sheen, Jian-Feng Li

    Overexpression of complementary DNA represents the most commonly used gain-of-function approach for interrogating gene functions and for manipulating biological traits. However, this approach is challenging and inefficient for multigene expression due to increased labour for cloning, limited vector capacity, requirement of multiple promoters and terminators, and variable transgene expression levels. Synthetic transcriptional activators provide a promising alternative strategy for gene activation by tethering an autonomous transcription activation domain (TAD) to an intended gene promoter at the endogenous genomic locus through a programmable DNA-binding module. Among the known custom DNA-binding modules, the nuclease-dead Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (dCas9) protein, which recognizes a specific DNA target through base pairing between a synthetic guide RNA and DNA, outperforms zinc-finger proteins and transcription activator-like effectors, both of which target through protein–DNA interactions1. Recently, three potent dCas9-based transcriptional activation systems, namely VPR, SAM and SunTag, have been developed for animal cells2,3,4,5,6. However, an efficient dCas9-based transcriptional activation platform is still lacking for plant cells7,8,9. Here, we developed a new potent dCas9–TAD, named dCas9–TV, through plant cell-based screens. dCas9–TV confers far stronger transcriptional activation of single or multiple target genes than the routinely used dCas9–VP64 activator in both plant and mammalian cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • Ripening activator turned repressor
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    James Giovannoni

    Ripening activator turned repressor Ripening activator turned repressor, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0062-0 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Gene editing reveals that the tomato ripening-inhibitor ( rin ) mutation encodes an active repressor of ripening, refines our understanding of RIN function and highlights strategies for engineering shelf life control. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Saga rooted in conflict between men and nature
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Anastasia Broadbridge

    Saga rooted in conflict between men and nature Saga rooted in conflict between men and nature, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0056-y

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Precious plants
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Sandra Knapp

    Precious plants Precious plants, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0054-0

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Brutal honesty of a life in science
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Laci Gerhart

    Brutal honesty of a life in science Brutal honesty of a life in science, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0052-2

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The fruits of imagination
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07

    The fruits of imagination The fruits of imagination, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0058-9 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= The sciences and arts are often described as two separate cultures, but fruitful collaborations across this divide highlight the artificiality of such distinctions. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Sea to summit
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Guillaume Tena

    Sea to summit Sea to summit, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0057-x

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Tracing the past and future of a mighty river
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Ryan Scarrow

    Tracing the past and future of a mighty river Tracing the past and future of a mighty river, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0055-z

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Wood from the Heart
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Chris Surridge

    Wood from the Heart Wood from the Heart, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0053-1

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Painting with betalains
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Anne Osbourn

    Painting with betalains Painting with betalains, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0049-x NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Investigations of plant metabolism reveal how an enzyme variant with reduced feedback sensitivity may allow plants to switch their pigment palettes. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Transcriptome dynamics revealed by a gene expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Joakim Palovaara, Shunsuke Saiga, Jos R. Wendrich, Nicole van ‘t Wout Hofland, J. Paul van Schayck, Friederike Hater, Sumanth Mutte, Jouke Sjollema, Mark Boekschoten, Guido J. Hooiveld, Dolf Weijers

    During early plant embryogenesis, precursors for all major tissues and stem cells are formed. While several components of the regulatory framework are known, how cell fates are instructed by genome-wide transcriptional activity remains unanswered—in part because of difficulties in capturing transcriptome changes at cellular resolution. Here, we have adapted a two-component transgenic labelling system to purify cell-type-specific nuclear RNA and generate a transcriptome atlas of early Arabidopsis embryo development, with a focus on root stem cell niche formation. We validated the dataset through gene expression analysis, and show that gene activity shifts in a spatio-temporal manner, probably signifying transcriptional reprogramming, to induce developmental processes reflecting cell states and state transitions. This atlas provides the most comprehensive tissue- and cell-specific description of genome-wide gene activity in the early plant embryo, and serves as a valuable resource for understanding the genetic control of early plant development.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Tinker, tailor, soldier, enzyme
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Susanne E. Kohalmi, Emily J. Clayton

    Tinker, tailor, soldier, enzyme Tinker, tailor, soldier, enzyme, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0047-z NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= Enzymes are a great example of the tight link between sequence, structure and function. A recent study of two dehydrogenases shows exactly how small changes in sequence can have great impacts on function. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Photosynthesis booster
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Lei Lei

    Photosynthesis booster Photosynthesis booster, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0050-4

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Variation engineering
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jun Lyu

    Variation engineering Variation engineering, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0059-8

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Cannabis loves company
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Ryan Scarrow

    Cannabis loves company Nature Plants, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0051-3

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Duplication of an upstream silencer of FZP increases grain yield in rice
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Xufeng Bai, Yong Huang, Yong Hu, Haiyang Liu, Bo Zhang, Cezary Smaczniak, Gang Hu, Zhongmin Han, Yongzhong Xing

    Transcriptional silencer and copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with gene expression. However, their roles in generating phenotypes have not been well studied. Here we identified a rice quantitative trait locus, SGDP7 (Small Grain and Dense Panicle 7). SGDP7 is identical to FZP (FRIZZY PANICLE), which represses the formation of axillary meristems. The causal mutation of SGDP7 is an 18-bp fragment, named CNV-18bp, which was inserted ~5.3 kb upstream of FZP and resulted in a tandem duplication in the cultivar Chuan 7. The CNV-18bp duplication repressed FZP expression, prolonged the panicle branching period and increased grain yield by more than 15% through substantially increasing the number of spikelets per panicle (SPP) and slightly decreasing the 1,000-grain weight (TGW). The transcription repressor OsBZR1 binds the CGTG motifs in CNV-18bp and thereby represses FZP expression, indicating that CNV-18bp is the upstream silencer of FZP. These findings showed that the silencer CNVs coordinate a trade-off between SPP and TGW by fine-tuning FZP expression, and balancing the trade-off could enhance yield potential.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • GC-rich coding sequences reduce transposon-like, small RNA-mediated transgene silencing
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Lyudmila V. Sidorenko, Tzuu-fen Lee, Aaron Woosley, William A. Moskal, Scott A. Bevan, P. Ann Owens Merlo, Terence A. Walsh, Xiujuan Wang, Staci Weaver, Todd P. Glancy, PoHao Wang, Xiaozeng Yang, Shreedharan Sriram, Blake C. Meyers

    The molecular basis of transgene susceptibility to silencing is poorly characterized in plants; thus, we evaluated several transgene design parameters as means to reduce heritable transgene silencing. Analyses of Arabidopsis plants with transgenes encoding a microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase revealed that small RNA (sRNA)-mediated silencing, combined with the use of repetitive regulatory elements, led to aggressive transposon-like silencing of canola-biased PUFA synthase transgenes. Diversifying regulatory sequences and using native microalgal coding sequences (CDSs) with higher GC content improved transgene expression and resulted in a remarkable trans-generational stability via reduced accumulation of sRNAs and DNA methylation. Further experiments in maize with transgenes individually expressing three crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) tested the impact of CDS recoding using different codon bias tables. Transgenes with higher GC content exhibited increased transcript and protein accumulation. These results demonstrate that the sequence composition of transgene CDSs can directly impact silencing, providing design strategies for increasing transgene expression levels and reducing risks of heritable loss of transgene expression.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Dark night, cold ground
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Thomas Potuschak, Pascal Genschik

    Dark night, cold ground Nature Plants, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0043-3 Plant growth and development depend on the integration of environmental cues with endogenous signals. Two recent manuscripts provide molecular insights into the mechanism of signal transduction for light and temperature, finding that both impinge on the stability of the PIF3 transcription factor.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Tough GC beats transgene silencing
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Xiuren Zhang

    Tough GC beats transgene silencing Nature Plants, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0048-y Solid genetic and genomic data now reveal that high guanine–cytosine content can prevent transgenes from RNA silencing, and enhance expression and transgenerational stability.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Arabidopsis BTB/POZ protein-dependent PENETRATION3 trafficking and disease susceptibility
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Hailiang Mao, Bibek Aryal, Tobias Langenecker, Jörg Hagmann, Markus Geisler, Markus Grebe

    The outermost cell layer of plant roots (epidermis) constantly encounters environmental challenges. The epidermal outer plasma membrane domain harbours the PENETRATION3 (PEN3)/ABCG36/PDR8 ATP-binding cassette transporter that confers non-host resistance to several pathogens. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-ARRESTED PEN3 (EAP3) BTB/POZ-domain protein specifically mediates PEN3 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and confers resistance to a root-penetrating fungus, providing prime evidence for BTB/POZ-domain protein-dependent membrane trafficking underlying disease resistance.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Re-evaluation of the rin mutation and the role of RIN in the induction of tomato ripening
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Yasuhiro Ito, Ayako Nishizawa-Yokoi, Masaki Endo, Masafumi Mikami, Yoko Shima, Nobutaka Nakamura, Eiichi Kotake-Nara, Susumu Kawasaki, Seiichi Toki

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) rin mutants completely fail to ripen: they do not produce red pigmentation, soften or induce an ethylene burst. Therefore, RIN has long been believed to function as a major regulator that is essential for the induction of ripening. Here, we provide evidence contradicting this concept of RIN function, showing induction of fruit ripening in the absence of RIN. A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated RIN-knockout mutation did not repress initiation of ripening and the mutant fruits showed moderate red colouring. Moreover, inactivation of the rin mutant allele partially restored the induction of ripening. Therefore, RIN is not required for the initiation of ripening and rin is not a null mutation, but rather is a gain-of-function mutation that produces a protein that actively represses ripening. Since the discovery of the rin mutant a half-century ago, many models have depicted RIN as indispensable for the induction of ripening; these models should be reconsidered in light of these results.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Author Correction: The pattern-recognition receptor CORE of Solanaceae detects bacterial cold-shock protein
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Lei Wang, Markus Albert, Elias Einig, Ursula Fürst, Damaris Krust, Georg Felix

    Author Correction: The pattern-recognition receptor CORE of Solanaceae detects bacterial cold-shock protein Nature Plants, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0044-2

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Publisher Correction: Reassessing apoptosis in plants
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Martin Dickman, Brett Williams, Yurong Li, Paul de Figueiredo, Thomas Wolpert

    Publisher Correction: Reassessing apoptosis in plants Nature Plants, Published online: 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0045-1

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • An even pattern of xylan substitution is critical for interaction with cellulose in plant cell walls
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Nicholas J. Grantham, Joel Wurman-Rodrich, Oliver M. Terrett, Jan J. Lyczakowski, Katherine Stott, Dinu Iuga, Thomas J. Simmons, Mylene Durand-Tardif, Steven. P. Brown, Ray Dupree, Marta Busse-Wicher, Paul Dupree

    Xylan and cellulose are abundant polysaccharides in vascular plants and essential for secondary cell wall strength. Acetate or glucuronic acid decorations are exclusively found on even-numbered residues in most of the glucuronoxylan polymer. It has been proposed that this even-specific positioning of the decorations might permit docking of xylan onto the hydrophilic face of a cellulose microfibril1,2,3. Consequently, xylan adopts a flattened ribbon-like twofold screw conformation when bound to cellulose in the cell wall4. Here we show that ESKIMO1/XOAT1/TBL29, a xylan-specific O-acetyltransferase, is necessary for generation of the even pattern of acetyl esters on xylan in Arabidopsis. The reduced acetylation in the esk1 mutant deregulates the position-specific activity of the xylan glucuronosyltransferase GUX1, and so the even pattern of glucuronic acid on the xylan is lost. Solid-state NMR of intact cell walls shows that, without the even-patterned xylan decorations, xylan does not interact normally with cellulose fibrils. We conclude that the even pattern of xylan substitutions seen across vascular plants enables the interaction of xylan with hydrophilic faces of cellulose fibrils, and is essential for development of normal plant secondary cell walls.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • MicroRNA sponge
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Jun Lyu

    MicroRNA sponge Nature Plants, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0037-1

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Geography drives agronomy
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Ryan Scarrow

    Geography drives agronomy Nature Plants, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0038-0

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Maintaining the common grounds
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 

    Maintaining the common grounds Nature Plants, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0036-2 Cities need green spaces to maintain the well-being of their citizens. But is the realization of their value making them more private luxury than public commons?

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • European infrastructures for sustainable agriculture
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Jacques Roy, François Tardieu, Michèle Tixier-Boichard, Ulrich Schurr

    European infrastructures for sustainable agriculture Nature Plants, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0027-3 The European infrastructures EMPHASIS and AnaEE aim to collaborate in bringing innovative solutions for a sustainable intensification of agriculture. By integrating the study of plant phenomics and agricultural ecology they hope to foster the development of novel scientific concepts, sensors and integrated models.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Seeing is believing
    Nat. Plants (IF 10.3) Pub Date : 
    Tamar Azoulay-Shemer, Po-Kai Hsu, Julian I. Schroeder

    Seeing is believing Nature Plants, Published online: 2 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41477-017-0025-5 Gibberellins (GAs) control key growth and developmental processes in plants. Real-time monitoring of GA concentrations in living tissues is critical for understanding the actions of this hormone class. A first-generation optogenetic GA-nano-indicator now illuminates the effects of GA levels on cell length and light signalling.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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