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  • Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Robin J. M. Franklin, Charles ffrench-Constant

    Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.136 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Promoting remyelination may be an effective therapeutic strategy for various disorders that are characterized by a loss of myelin, including multiple sclerosis. In this Review, Franklin and ffrench-Constant discuss recent developments in our understanding of remyelination and the efforts that are underway to enhance this process. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Christophe Leterrier, Pankaj Dubey, Subhojit Roy

    The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.147

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Visual processing: Silent motion detectors
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Natasha Bray

    Visual processing: Silent motion detectors Visual processing: Silent motion detectors, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Nora D. Volkow, Roy A. Wise, Ruben Baler

    The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.130 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= The dopamine motive system, which integrates reinforcement and motivation, is influenced by obesogenic foods and addictive drugs. In this Review, Volkow and colleagues highlight how these stimuli sensitize the subject's motivation towards them while desensitizing the subject's motivation towards alternative reinforcers. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Robin J. M. Franklin, Charles ffrench-Constant

    Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.136 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Promoting remyelination may be an effective therapeutic strategy for various disorders that are characterized by a loss of myelin, including multiple sclerosis. In this Review, Franklin and ffrench-Constant discuss recent developments in our understanding of remyelination and the efforts that are underway to enhance this process. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Christophe Leterrier, Pankaj Dubey, Subhojit Roy

    The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.147

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Visual processing: Silent motion detectors
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Natasha Bray

    Visual processing: Silent motion detectors Visual processing: Silent motion detectors, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Nora D. Volkow, Roy A. Wise, Ruben Baler

    The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.130 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= The dopamine motive system, which integrates reinforcement and motivation, is influenced by obesogenic foods and addictive drugs. In this Review, Volkow and colleagues highlight how these stimuli sensitize the subject's motivation towards them while desensitizing the subject's motivation towards alternative reinforcers. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Neural circuits: Shock signals
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Natasha Bray

    Neural circuits: Shock signalsNeural circuits: Shock signals, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.145NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=In fear conditioning in mice, neurons in the lateral central amygdala that express protein kinase Cδ convey the unconditioned stimulus to the lateral amygdala to enable the encoding of aversive memory., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Axo-myelinic neurotransmission: a novel mode of cell signalling in the central nervous system
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    I. Micu, J. R. Plemel, A. V. Caprariello, K.-A. Nave, P. K. Stys

    Axo-myelinic neurotransmission: a novel mode of cell signalling in the central nervous systemAxo-myelinic neurotransmission: a novel mode of cell signalling in the central nervous system, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.128NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=Chemical communication between axons and their myelin sheath is an emerging concept in neurobiology. In this review, Stys and colleagues discuss how this 'axo-myelinic synapse' may play a role in metabolic control of the myelinating unit, modulate myelin dynamics and be a future therapeutic target., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Epigenetics: Leaving a lasting mark
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Katherine Whalley

    Epigenetics: Leaving a lasting markEpigenetics: Leaving a lasting mark, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.144NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=Methylation of neuronal genes at CA sequences is modulated by neuronal activity during early postnatal periods and fine tunes gene expression in adult neurons., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Neural circuits: Shock signals
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Natasha Bray

    Neural circuits: Shock signalsNeural circuits: Shock signals, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.145NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=In fear conditioning in mice, neurons in the lateral central amygdala that express protein kinase Cδ convey the unconditioned stimulus to the lateral amygdala to enable the encoding of aversive memory., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Axo-myelinic neurotransmission: a novel mode of cell signalling in the central nervous system
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    I. Micu, J. R. Plemel, A. V. Caprariello, K.-A. Nave, P. K. Stys

    Axo-myelinic neurotransmission: a novel mode of cell signalling in the central nervous systemAxo-myelinic neurotransmission: a novel mode of cell signalling in the central nervous system, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.128NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=Chemical communication between axons and their myelin sheath is an emerging concept in neurobiology. In this review, Stys and colleagues discuss how this 'axo-myelinic synapse' may play a role in metabolic control of the myelinating unit, modulate myelin dynamics and be a future therapeutic target., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Epigenetics: Leaving a lasting mark
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Katherine Whalley

    Epigenetics: Leaving a lasting markEpigenetics: Leaving a lasting mark, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.144NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup=Methylation of neuronal genes at CA sequences is modulated by neuronal activity during early postnatal periods and fine tunes gene expression in adult neurons., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Christophe Leterrier, Pankaj Dubey, Subhojit Roy

    The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.129 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= An axon's function is dictated by its morphology and, thus, by the properties and organization of the axonal cytoskeleton. Leterrier et al . describe how advances in super-resolution and live-cell imaging are transforming our understanding of the molecular architecture of the axonal shaft. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain?
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Margaret M. McCarthy, Catherine S. Woolley, Arthur P. Arnold

    Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain? Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain?, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.137 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= In recent years, several funding agencies have introduced requirements for researchers to consider sex as a biological variable in preclinical research. In this Comment article, McCarthy and colleagues discuss the potential impact of these policies for neuroscience research. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Fausto Caruana

    Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.139

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Learning and memory: Holding the space
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Sian Lewis

    Learning and memory: Holding the space Learning and memory: Holding the space, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.143 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Spatial position is spontaneously stored as part of working memory, even in tasks where spatial location is not relevant to the task. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Stephanie D. Preston, Frans B. M. de Waal

    Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.140

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Natasha Bray

    Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.142 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= In a working memory task, the neural code for the target stimulus in the lateral prefrontal cortex transforms when a distractor is presented, without loss of target-related information. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Christophe Leterrier, Pankaj Dubey, Subhojit Roy

    The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.129 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= An axon's function is dictated by its morphology and, thus, by the properties and organization of the axonal cytoskeleton. Leterrier et al . describe how advances in super-resolution and live-cell imaging are transforming our understanding of the molecular architecture of the axonal shaft. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain?
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Margaret M. McCarthy, Catherine S. Woolley, Arthur P. Arnold

    Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain? Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain?, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.137 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= In recent years, several funding agencies have introduced requirements for researchers to consider sex as a biological variable in preclinical research. In this Comment article, McCarthy and colleagues discuss the potential impact of these policies for neuroscience research. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Fausto Caruana

    Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.139

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Learning and memory: Holding the space
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Sian Lewis

    Learning and memory: Holding the space Learning and memory: Holding the space, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.143 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Spatial position is spontaneously stored as part of working memory, even in tasks where spatial location is not relevant to the task. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Stephanie D. Preston, Frans B. M. de Waal

    Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.140

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Natasha Bray

    Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction, Published online: 03 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.142 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= In a working memory task, the neural code for the target stimulus in the lateral prefrontal cortex transforms when a distractor is presented, without loss of target-related information. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-03
  • Genetic insights into the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Rebecca Birnbaum, Daniel R. Weinberger

    Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with a longstanding history of neurobiological investigation. Although the underlying causal mechanisms remain unknown, early neurodevelopmental events have been implicated in pathogenesis, initially by epidemiological and circumstantial data but more recently by brain-specific molecular and genetic findings. Notably, genomic research has recently uncovered discrete risk variants and risk loci associated with schizophrenia, with the potential to elucidate disease mechanisms. This Review revisits the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia from a current genetics perspective, delineating the complex genetic basis of the disorder and highlighting gene expression and epigenetic analyses of post-mortem cortical tissue that suggest that early brain development mediates genetic risk associated with schizophrenia. Future functional genomics investigations will accordingly need to characterize schizophrenia risk loci in relevant neurodevelopmental models.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Genetic insights into the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Rebecca Birnbaum, Daniel R. Weinberger

    Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with a longstanding history of neurobiological investigation. Although the underlying causal mechanisms remain unknown, early neurodevelopmental events have been implicated in pathogenesis, initially by epidemiological and circumstantial data but more recently by brain-specific molecular and genetic findings. Notably, genomic research has recently uncovered discrete risk variants and risk loci associated with schizophrenia, with the potential to elucidate disease mechanisms. This Review revisits the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia from a current genetics perspective, delineating the complex genetic basis of the disorder and highlighting gene expression and epigenetic analyses of post-mortem cortical tissue that suggest that early brain development mediates genetic risk associated with schizophrenia. Future functional genomics investigations will accordingly need to characterize schizophrenia risk loci in relevant neurodevelopmental models.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Motor cortex — to act or not to act?
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Christian Laut Ebbesen, Michael Brecht

    The motor cortex is a large frontal structure in the cerebral cortex of eutherian mammals. A vast array of evidence implicates the motor cortex in the volitional control of motor output, but how does the motor cortex exert this 'control'? Historically, ideas regarding motor cortex function have been shaped by the discovery of cortical 'motor maps' — that is, ordered representations of stimulation-evoked movements in anaesthetized animals. Volitional control, however, entails the initiation of movements and the ability to suppress undesired movements. In this article, we highlight classic and recent findings that emphasize that motor cortex neurons have a role in both processes.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Neurodegeneration: An independent route to toxicity
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Darran Yates

    Neurodegeneration: An independent route to toxicity Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.131 Apolipoprotein E4 promotes tau neurotoxicity in a mouse model of tau-mediated neurodegenerative disease.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Glia: Pulling in opposite directions
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Sian Lewis

    Glia: Pulling in opposite directions Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.133

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Cognitive neuroscience: Spatial navigation takes two
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Sian Lewis

    Cognitive neuroscience: Spatial navigation takes two Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.135

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Behavioural neuroscience: Fighting females
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Sian Lewis

    Behavioural neuroscience: Fighting females Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.132

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Cancer: Growth restriction
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Sian Lewis

    Cancer: Growth restriction Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.134

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Synaptic plasticity: Strength through movement
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Sian Lewis

    Synaptic plasticity: Strength through movement Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.127 Surface diffusion of AMPA receptors at the postsynpatic membrane of hippocampal synapses is shown to be crucial for the expression of both short-term plasticity and early long-term potentiation.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Motor cortex — to act or not to act?
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Christian Laut Ebbesen, Michael Brecht

    Motor cortex — to act or not to act? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.119 Volitional motor control involves not only the initiation of desired movements but also the suppression of undesired movements. In this Opinion article, Ebbesen and Brecht argue that motor cortex neurons have a role in both aspects of motor control.

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Neurodegeneration: An independent route to toxicity
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Darran Yates

    Neurodegeneration: An independent route to toxicity Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.131 Apolipoprotein E4 promotes tau neurotoxicity in a mouse model of tau-mediated neurodegenerative disease.

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Glia: Pulling in opposite directions
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Sian Lewis

    Glia: Pulling in opposite directions Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.133

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Cognitive neuroscience: Spatial navigation takes two
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Sian Lewis

    Cognitive neuroscience: Spatial navigation takes two Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.135

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Behavioural neuroscience: Fighting females
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Sian Lewis

    Behavioural neuroscience: Fighting females Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.132

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Cancer: Growth restriction
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Sian Lewis

    Cancer: Growth restriction Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.134

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Synaptic plasticity: Strength through movement
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Sian Lewis

    Synaptic plasticity: Strength through movement Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.127 Surface diffusion of AMPA receptors at the postsynpatic membrane of hippocampal synapses is shown to be crucial for the expression of both short-term plasticity and early long-term potentiation.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Neuroimmunology: Scratching the surface of chronic itch
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Katherine Whalley

    Neuroimmunology: Scratching the surface of chronic itch Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 5 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.126 The type 2 cytokine interleukin-4 directly stimulates and sensitizes sensory neurons to drive chronic itch.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Sensory perception in autism
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Caroline E. Robertson, Simon Baron-Cohen

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Managing competing goals — a key role for the frontopolar cortex
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri, Etienne Koechlin, Marcello G. P. Rosa, Mark J. Buckley

    Humans are set apart from other animals by many elements of advanced cognition and behaviour, including language, judgement and reasoning. What is special about the human brain that gives rise to these abilities? Could the foremost part of the prefrontal cortex (the frontopolar cortex), which has become considerably enlarged in humans during evolution compared with other animals, be important in this regard, especially as, in primates, it contains a unique cytoarchitectural field, area 10? The first studies of the function of the frontopolar cortex in monkeys have now provided critical new insights about its precise role in monitoring the significance of current and alternative goals. In human evolution, the frontopolar cortex may have acquired a further role in enabling the monitoring of the significance of multiple goals in parallel, as well as switching between them. Here, we argue that many other forms of uniquely human behaviour may benefit from this cognitive ability mediated by the frontopolar cortex.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Rehabilitating the addicted brain with transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Marco Diana, Tommi Raij, Miriam Melis, Aapo Nummenmaa, Lorenzo Leggio, Antonello Bonci

    Rehabilitating the addicted brain with transcranial magnetic stimulation Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Published online: 29 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.113 Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is emerging as a potential broad-spectrum therapy for addiction. In this Opinion article, Diana and colleagues discuss the neural foundations of TMS and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects observed in people with addictions.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Errant gardeners: glial-cell-dependent synaptic pruning and neurodevelopmental disorders
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 
    Urte Neniskyte, Cornelius T. Gross

    The final stage of brain development is associated with the generation and maturation of neuronal synapses. However, the same period is also associated with a peak in synapse elimination — a process known as synaptic pruning — that has been proposed to be crucial for the maturation of remaining synaptic connections. Recent studies have pointed to a key role for glial cells in synaptic pruning in various parts of the nervous system and have identified a set of critical signalling pathways between glia and neurons. At the same time, brain imaging and post-mortem anatomical studies suggest that insufficient or excessive synaptic pruning may underlie several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Here, we review current data on the cellular, physiological and molecular mechanisms of glial-cell-dependent synaptic pruning and outline their potential contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Decision making: Making hasty decisions
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Katherine Whalley

    The activity of neurons in the basal ganglia contributes to the weighting of speed versus accuracy, rather than to deliberation, in a motor decision-making task.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Non-coding RNA: Regulatory circles
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Darran Yates

    In mice, the circular RNA Cdr1as regulates microRNA expression in the brain and sensorimotor gating.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Reward: Restraint from risky reward
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Natasha Bray

    In mice, a set of projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens suppress reward seeking under risky conditions.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Neurodegenerative disease: Towards transplant therapy
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Natasha Bray

    The long-term safety and efficacy of using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons to replace midbrain dopaminergic neurons lost in Parkinson disease (PD) have not been tested in primates. Kikuchi et al. grafted human iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic progenitors into the putamen of macaques that

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Reward: Eating goes down a treat
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Natasha Bray

    A study in mice identified neurons in the central amygdala that express the serotonin 2A receptor and positively reinforce the consumption of food.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Learning and memory: Memories take the sub-way
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Sian Lewis

    Two pathways from CA1 to the entorhinal cortex — a direct pathway and an indirect pathway, that projects via the hippocampal subiculum — are shown to play dissociable roles in memory formation and retrieval, respectively.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Techniques: Having a field day
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Natasha Bray

    Recording magnetic fields associated with neuronal activity could have certain advantages over voltage recordings, but current probes to detect such fields are too large for in vivo use. Caruso et al. developed micron-scale 'magnetrodes' and used these in the cat visual cortex to

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Visual processing: Face off
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Natasha Bray

    How face patches — areas of cortex that process visual faces — develop is not known. Livingstone and colleagues reared three macaques for ∼200 days without any visual exposure to faces and used functional MRI to measure neural responses to images of faces, objects and

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • The use of brain organoids to investigate neural development and disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Elizabeth Di Lullo, Arnold R. Kriegstein

    Understanding the development and dysfunction of the human brain is a major goal of neurobiology. Much of our current understanding of human brain development has been derived from the examination of post-mortem and pathological specimens, bolstered by observations of developing non-human primates and experimental studies focused largely on mouse models. However, these tissue specimens and model systems cannot fully capture the unique and dynamic features of human brain development. Recent advances in stem cell technologies that enable the generation of human brain organoids from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) promise to profoundly change our understanding of the development of the human brain and enable a detailed study of the pathogenesis of inherited and acquired brain diseases.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders: A transcription-targeting target
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Natasha Bray

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) represses the transcription of many target genes, including genes that encode chromatin-associated proteins. Loss of FMRP leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, whether misregulation of chromatin-associated proteins contributes to FXS is unclear. Korb et al. showed that

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • The impact of cytoskeletal organization on the local regulation of neuronal transport
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-08-31
    Jeffrey J. Nirschl, Amy E. Ghiretti, Erika L. F. Holzbaur

    Neurons are akin to modern cities in that both are dependent on robust transport mechanisms. Like the best mass transit systems, trafficking in neurons must be tailored to respond to local requirements. Neurons depend on both high-speed, long-distance transport and localized dynamics to correctly deliver cargoes and to tune synaptic responses. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that provide localized regulation of the transport machinery, including the cytoskeleton and molecular motors, to yield compartment-specific trafficking in the axon initial segment, axon terminal, dendrites and spines. The synthesis of these mechanisms provides a sophisticated and responsive transit system for the cell.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Electrodiffusion phenomena in neuroscience: a neglected companion
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Leonid P. Savtchenko, Mu Ming Poo, Dmitri A. Rusakov

    The emerging technological revolution in genetically encoded molecular sensors and super-resolution imaging provides neuroscientists with a pass to the real-time nano-world. On this small scale, however, classical principles of electrophysiology do not always apply. This is in large part because the nanoscopic heterogeneities in ionic concentrations and the local electric fields associated with individual ions and their movement can no longer be ignored. Here, we review basic principles of molecular electrodiffusion in the cellular environment of organized brain tissue. We argue that accurate interpretation of physiological observations on the nanoscale requires a better understanding of the underlying electrodiffusion phenomena.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias — from genes to potential treatments
    Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 28.88) Pub Date : 2017-08-17
    Henry L. Paulson, Vikram G. Shakkottai, H. Brent Clark, Harry T. Orr

    The dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a large and diverse group of neurodegenerative diseases. The most prevalent SCAs (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7) are caused by expansion of a glutamine-encoding CAG repeat in the affected gene. These SCAs represent a substantial portion of the polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders and provide insight into this class of diseases as a whole. Recent years have seen considerable progress in deciphering the clinical, pathological, physiological and molecular aspects of the polyglutamine SCAs, with these advances establishing a solid base from which to pursue potential therapeutic approaches.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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