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  • Mitochondria: back to the future
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Navdeep S. Chandel

    Mitochondria: back to the futureMitochondria: back to the future, Published online: 20 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.133Navdeep Chandel highlights a study published in 1996 that — by showing that mitochondria can release cytochrome c to initiate apoptosis — changed his view of the role of mitochondria in physiology.

    更新日期:2017-12-20
  • Unfolded protein response: Pro-survival clock sUPRession
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Paulina Strzyz

    Unfolded protein response: Pro-survival clock sUPRessionUnfolded protein response: Pro-survival clock sUPRession, Published online: 20 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.137Activation of the unfolded protein response suppresses circadian clock genes, which contributes to translation repression and increased cell survival.

    更新日期:2017-12-20
  • The comeback of hand drawing in modern life sciences
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Renaud Chabrier, Carsten Janke

    Scientific manuscripts are full of images. Since the birth of the life sciences, these images were in a form of hand drawings, with great examples from da Vinci, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Remak, Buffon, Bovery, Darwin, Huxley, Haeckel and Gray's Anatomy to name a few. However, in the course of the past century, photographs and simplified schematics have gradually taken over as a way of illustrating scientific data and concepts, assuming that these are 'accurate' representations of the truth. Here, we argue for the importance of reviving the art of scientific drawings as a way of effectively communicating complex scientific ideas to both specialists and the general public.

    更新日期:2017-12-20
  • Gene expression: The yin and yang of enhancer–promoter interactions
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    Gene expression: The yin and yang of enhancer–promoter interactionsGene expression: The yin and yang of enhancer–promoter interactions, Published online: 20 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.136The transcription factor YY1 structurally mediates enhancer–promoter looping interactions and controls gene expression.

    更新日期:2017-12-20
  • Ageing: Pol III inhibition: new promise of longevity
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Paulina Strzyz

    Ageing: Pol III inhibition: new promise of longevity Ageing: Pol III inhibition: new promise of longevity, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.131 Inhibition of polymerase III in the gut is shown to promote animal lifespan downstream of the TOR complex 1.

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Ten principles of heterochromatin formation and function
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Robin C. Allshire, Hiten D. Madhani

    Ten principles of heterochromatin formation and function Ten principles of heterochromatin formation and function, Published online: 13 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.119 The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin are carried out by distinct mechanisms that include factors that bind nascent transcripts to recruit chromatin-modifying enzymes. The resulting post-translational modifications on heterochromatic histones contribute to the regulation of development by restricting lineage-specific gene expression.

    更新日期:2017-12-13
  • Splicing: Going in circles
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    Splicing: Going in circles Splicing: Going in circles, Published online: 06 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.128 The production of circular RNAs is enhanced when canonical splicing of parent genes or transcription termination at upstream genes is reduced.

    更新日期:2017-12-06
  • Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Julie Soutourina

    Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex, Published online: 06 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.115 The evolutionarily conserved mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator) complex is a general regulator of transcription. Recent structural and functional studies have provided important insights into the mechanisms of transcription activation by Mediator and have also revealed a new function of this complex in genome organization and suggested that it could be therapeutically targeted in disease.

    更新日期:2017-12-06
  • Stem cells: Regenerating the skin of a young patient
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Kim Baumann

    Stem cells: Regenerating the skin of a young patient Stem cells: Regenerating the skin of a young patient, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.124 The entire skin of a young patient with junctional epidermolysis bullosa was successfuly regenerated using a combination of ex vivo gene therapy and stem-cell replacement therapy, which is a major achievement in the translation of stem cell-based therapies to the clinic.

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • Chromatin dependencies in cancer and inflammation
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Ivan Marazzi, Benjamin D. Greenbaum, Diana H. P. Low, Ernesto Guccione

    Chromatin dependencies in cancer and inflammation Chromatin dependencies in cancer and inflammation, Published online: 29 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.113 Gene expression programmes that are induced by inflammatory or oncogenic signals are controlled by shared chromatin regulators. Such chromatin dependencies are known to regulate oncogenes and inflammation-promoting genes and can be leveraged to combine and increase the effectiveness of immune-cell-based therapies with epigenetic therapies.

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • The mitochondrial UPR: mechanisms, physiological functions and implications in ageing
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Tomer Shpilka, Cole M. Haynes

    The mitochondrial UPR: mechanisms, physiological functions and implications in ageing The mitochondrial UPR: mechanisms, physiological functions and implications in ageing, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.110 Cells activate a transcriptional response known as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) when mitochondrial integrity and function are impaired to promote their recovery. Recent insights into the regulation, mechanisms and functions of the UPRmt have uncovered important links to ageing and ageing-associated diseases.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • RNA metabolism: The short tail that wags the mRNA
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    RNA metabolism: The short tail that wags the mRNA RNA metabolism: The short tail that wags the mRNA, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.120 In contrast to the prevailing view, abundant and efficiently translated mRNAs tend to have short, pruned poly(A) tails.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Kathrin Leppek, Rhiju Das, Maria Barna

    Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.103 Structures in 5′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs contribute to gene regulation by controlling cap-dependent and cap-independent translation initiation through diverse mechanisms. New structure probing technologies coupled with techniques such as compensatory mutagenesis will likely identify new structured RNA elements and help elucidate their function.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Yusuf A. Hannun, Lina M. Obeid

    Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.107 Sphingolipids are a major class of lipids, comprising various species with diverse functions. In addition to being structural elements of membranes, many sphingolipids are bioactive and regulate a myriad of cellular processes. Recent advances have shed new light on the complexity of sphingolipid metabolism and their various roles in physiology and disease.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Chromosome biology: Spindle asymmetry drives selfish segregation
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Paulina Strzyz

    Chromosome biology: Spindle asymmetry drives selfish segregation Chromosome biology: Spindle asymmetry drives selfish segregation, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.121 Tubulin in meiotic oocyte spindles is asymmetrically tyrosinated, and this spindle asymmetry can drive biased, non-Mendelian inheritance of chromosomes.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • The mitochondrial UPR: mechanisms, physiological functions and implications in ageing
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Tomer Shpilka, Cole M. Haynes

    The mitochondrial UPR: mechanisms, physiological functions and implications in ageing The mitochondrial UPR: mechanisms, physiological functions and implications in ageing, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.110 Cells activate a transcriptional response known as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) when mitochondrial integrity and function are impaired to promote their recovery. Recent insights into the regulation, mechanisms and functions of the UPRmt have uncovered important links to ageing and ageing-associated diseases.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • RNA metabolism: The short tail that wags the mRNA
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    RNA metabolism: The short tail that wags the mRNA RNA metabolism: The short tail that wags the mRNA, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.120 In contrast to the prevailing view, abundant and efficiently translated mRNAs tend to have short, pruned poly(A) tails.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Kathrin Leppek, Rhiju Das, Maria Barna

    Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.103 Structures in 5′ untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs contribute to gene regulation by controlling cap-dependent and cap-independent translation initiation through diverse mechanisms. New structure probing technologies coupled with techniques such as compensatory mutagenesis will likely identify new structured RNA elements and help elucidate their function.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Yusuf A. Hannun, Lina M. Obeid

    Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease Sphingolipids and their metabolism in physiology and disease, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.107 Sphingolipids are a major class of lipids, comprising various species with diverse functions. In addition to being structural elements of membranes, many sphingolipids are bioactive and regulate a myriad of cellular processes. Recent advances have shed new light on the complexity of sphingolipid metabolism and their various roles in physiology and disease.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Chromosome biology: Spindle asymmetry drives selfish segregation
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Paulina Strzyz

    Chromosome biology: Spindle asymmetry drives selfish segregation Chromosome biology: Spindle asymmetry drives selfish segregation, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.121 Tubulin in meiotic oocyte spindles is asymmetrically tyrosinated, and this spindle asymmetry can drive biased, non-Mendelian inheritance of chromosomes.

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Julia D. Ransohoff, Yuning Wei, Paul A. Khavari

    The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA, Published online: 15 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.104 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) do not overlap protein-coding genes, although some lincRNA genes have minimal coding potential and can include small open reading frames that encode functional peptides. lincRNA functions include RNA stabilization and transcription regulation and the remodelling of chromatin and genome architecture. Recent insights suggest that lincRNAs broadly serve to fine-tune the expression of neighbouring genes with remarkable tissue specificity. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Julia D. Ransohoff, Yuning Wei, Paul A. Khavari

    The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA The functions and unique features of long intergenic non-coding RNA, Published online: 15 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.104 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) do not overlap protein-coding genes, although some lincRNA genes have minimal coding potential and can include small open reading frames that encode functional peptides. lincRNA functions include RNA stabilization and transcription regulation and the remodelling of chromatin and genome architecture. Recent insights suggest that lincRNAs broadly serve to fine-tune the expression of neighbouring genes with remarkable tissue specificity. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Mechanical forces direct stem cell behaviour in development and regeneration
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Kyle H. Vining, David J. Mooney

    Stem cells and their local microenvironment, or niche, communicate through mechanical cues to regulate cell fate and cell behaviour and to guide developmental processes. During embryonic development, mechanical forces are involved in patterning and organogenesis. The physical environment of pluripotent stem cells regulates their self-renewal and differentiation. Mechanical and physical cues are also important in adult tissues, where adult stem cells require physical interactions with the extracellular matrix to maintain their potency. In vitro, synthetic models of the stem cell niche can be used to precisely control and manipulate the biophysical and biochemical properties of the stem cell microenvironment and to examine how the mode and magnitude of mechanical cues, such as matrix stiffness or applied forces, direct stem cell differentiation and function. Fundamental insights into the mechanobiology of stem cells also inform the design of artificial niches to support stem cells for regenerative therapies.

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Mechanobiology of collective cell behaviours
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Benoit Ladoux, René-Marc Mège

    The way in which cells coordinate their behaviours during various biological processes, including morphogenesis, cancer progression and tissue remodelling, largely depends on the mechanical properties of the external environment. In contrast to single cells, collective cell behaviours rely on the cellular interactions not only with the surrounding extracellular matrix but also with neighbouring cells. Collective dynamics is not simply the result of many individually moving blocks. Instead, cells coordinate their movements by actively interacting with each other. These mechanisms are governed by mechanosensitive adhesion complexes at the cell–substrate interface and cell–cell junctions, which respond to but also further transmit physical signals. The mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction at adhesion complexes are important for regulating tissue cohesiveness and thus are important for collective cell behaviours. Recent studies have shown that the physical properties of the cellular environment, which include matrix stiffness, topography, geometry and the application of external forces, can alter collective cell behaviours, tissue organization and cell-generated forces. On the basis of these findings, we can now start building our understanding of the mechanobiology of collective cell movements that span over multiple length scales from the molecular to the tissue level.

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Publisher correction: The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome.
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Joshua C. Saldivar, David Cortez, Karlene A. Cimprich

    Publisher correction: The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome. Publisher correction: The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome., Published online: 08 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.116

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Translation: Immature ribosomes under surveillance
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    Translation: Immature ribosomes under surveillance Translation: Immature ribosomes under surveillance, Published online: 08 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.117 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Ribosome subunits that fail to properly mature enter translation, cause translational stress and become targets of translation surveillance pathways. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Mechanical forces direct stem cell behaviour in development and regeneration
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Kyle H. Vining, David J. Mooney

    Stem cells and their local microenvironment, or niche, communicate through mechanical cues to regulate cell fate and cell behaviour and to guide developmental processes. During embryonic development, mechanical forces are involved in patterning and organogenesis. The physical environment of pluripotent stem cells regulates their self-renewal and differentiation. Mechanical and physical cues are also important in adult tissues, where adult stem cells require physical interactions with the extracellular matrix to maintain their potency. In vitro, synthetic models of the stem cell niche can be used to precisely control and manipulate the biophysical and biochemical properties of the stem cell microenvironment and to examine how the mode and magnitude of mechanical cues, such as matrix stiffness or applied forces, direct stem cell differentiation and function. Fundamental insights into the mechanobiology of stem cells also inform the design of artificial niches to support stem cells for regenerative therapies.

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Mechanobiology of collective cell behaviours
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Benoit Ladoux, René-Marc Mège

    The way in which cells coordinate their behaviours during various biological processes, including morphogenesis, cancer progression and tissue remodelling, largely depends on the mechanical properties of the external environment. In contrast to single cells, collective cell behaviours rely on the cellular interactions not only with the surrounding extracellular matrix but also with neighbouring cells. Collective dynamics is not simply the result of many individually moving blocks. Instead, cells coordinate their movements by actively interacting with each other. These mechanisms are governed by mechanosensitive adhesion complexes at the cell–substrate interface and cell–cell junctions, which respond to but also further transmit physical signals. The mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction at adhesion complexes are important for regulating tissue cohesiveness and thus are important for collective cell behaviours. Recent studies have shown that the physical properties of the cellular environment, which include matrix stiffness, topography, geometry and the application of external forces, can alter collective cell behaviours, tissue organization and cell-generated forces. On the basis of these findings, we can now start building our understanding of the mechanobiology of collective cell movements that span over multiple length scales from the molecular to the tissue level.

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Publisher correction: The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome.
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Joshua C. Saldivar, David Cortez, Karlene A. Cimprich

    Publisher correction: The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome. Publisher correction: The essential kinase ATR: ensuring faithful duplication of a challenging genome., Published online: 08 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.116

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Translation: Immature ribosomes under surveillance
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    Translation: Immature ribosomes under surveillance Translation: Immature ribosomes under surveillance, Published online: 08 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.117 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Ribosome subunits that fail to properly mature enter translation, cause translational stress and become targets of translation surveillance pathways. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-08
  • Forces as regulators of cell adhesions
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Christopher S. Chen

    Forces as regulators of cell adhesions Forces as regulators of cell adhesions, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.112 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Christopher Chen highlights the early studies of mechanoregulation of cell–matrix adhesions that established mechanobiology as a cross-discplinary research field , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Mechanotransduction: Enforcing protein import
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Paulina Strzyz

    Mechanotransduction: Enforcing protein import Mechanotransduction: Enforcing protein import, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.114 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Applying force to the nucleus reduces the diffusion barrier at nuclear pores and promotes nuclear import of certain proteins, including the transcription regulator YAP, depending on their molecular properties. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Mechanobiology by the numbers: a close relationship between biology and physics
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Ulrich S. Schwarz

    Mechanobiology by the numbers: a close relationship between biology and physics Mechanobiology by the numbers: a close relationship between biology and physics, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.109 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Studies of mechanobiology lie at the interface of various scientific disciplines from biology to physics. Ulrich Schwarz discusses the importance of technological advances, quantification and modelling for the progress in understanding the role of forces in biology. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Forces as regulators of cell adhesions
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Christopher S. Chen

    Forces as regulators of cell adhesions Forces as regulators of cell adhesions, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.112 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Christopher Chen highlights the early studies of mechanoregulation of cell–matrix adhesions that established mechanobiology as a cross-discplinary research field , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Mechanotransduction: Enforcing protein import
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Paulina Strzyz

    Mechanotransduction: Enforcing protein import Mechanotransduction: Enforcing protein import, Published online: 02 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.114 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Applying force to the nucleus reduces the diffusion barrier at nuclear pores and promotes nuclear import of certain proteins, including the transcription regulator YAP, depending on their molecular properties. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Mechanobiology by the numbers: a close relationship between biology and physics
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Ulrich S. Schwarz

    Studies of mechanobiology lie at the interface of various scientific disciplines from biology to physics. Accordingly, quantification and mathematical modelling have been instrumental in fuelling the progress in this rapidly developing research field, assisting experimental work on many levels.

    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Transcription: Intragenic enhancers dampen gene expression
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Katharine H. Wrighton

    Transcription: Intragenic enhancers dampen gene expression Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.111 Transcription of enhancer RNA at intragenic enhancers can attenuate the expression of the host gene.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Transcription: Intragenic enhancers dampen gene expression
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Katharine H. Wrighton

    Transcription: Intragenic enhancers dampen gene expression Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 25 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.111 Transcription of enhancer RNA at intragenic enhancers can attenuate the expression of the host gene.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Regulation of genome organization and gene expression by nuclear mechanotransduction
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Caroline Uhler, G. V. Shivashankar

    It is well established that cells sense chemical signals from their local microenvironment and transduce them to the nucleus to regulate gene expression programmes. Although a number of experiments have shown that mechanical cues can also modulate gene expression, the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Nevertheless, we are now beginning to understand how mechanical cues are transduced to the nucleus and how they influence nuclear mechanics, genome organization and transcription. In particular, recent progress in super-resolution imaging, in genome-wide application of RNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture and in theoretical modelling of 3D genome organization enables the exploration of the relationship between cell mechanics, 3D chromatin configurations and transcription, thereby shedding new light on how mechanical forces regulate gene expression.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • The discovery of catalytic RNA
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    John Abelson

    The discovery of catalytic RNA Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.105 John Abelson recounts the discovery of self-splicing RNA.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Emerging roles of linker histones in regulating chromatin structure and function
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Dmitry V. Fyodorov, Bing-Rui Zhou, Arthur I. Skoultchi, Yawen Bai

    Together with core histones, which make up the nucleosome, the linker histone (H1) is one of the five main histone protein families present in chromatin in eukaryotic cells. H1 binds to the nucleosome to form the next structural unit of metazoan chromatin, the chromatosome, which may help chromatin to fold into higher-order structures. Despite their important roles in regulating the structure and function of chromatin, linker histones have not been studied as extensively as core histones. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made recently. The first near-atomic resolution crystal structure of a chromatosome core particle and an 11 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy-derived structure of the 30 nm nucleosome array have been determined, revealing unprecedented details about how linker histones interact with the nucleosome and organize higher-order chromatin structures. Moreover, several new functions of linker histones have been discovered, including their roles in epigenetic regulation and the regulation of DNA replication, DNA repair and genome stability. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of H1 action in these processes suggest a new paradigm for linker histone function beyond its architectural roles in chromatin.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Cell death: BCL-2 proteins feed their own expression
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Paulina Strzyz

    Cell death: BCL-2 proteins feed their own expression Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.106 Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins can drive their own expression and promote cell survival by regulating Hedgehog signalling transcription activator GLI.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Codon optimality, bias and usage in translation and mRNA decay
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    Gavin Hanson, Jeff Coller

    The advent of ribosome profiling and other tools to probe mRNA translation has revealed that codon bias — the uneven use of synonymous codons in the transcriptome — serves as a secondary genetic code: a code that guides the efficiency of protein production, the fidelity of translation and the metabolism of mRNAs. Recent advancements in our understanding of mRNA decay have revealed a tight coupling between ribosome dynamics and the stability of mRNA transcripts; this coupling integrates codon bias into the concept of codon optimality, or the effects that specific codons and tRNA concentrations have on the efficiency and fidelity of the translation machinery. In this Review, we first discuss the evidence for codon-dependent effects on translation, beginning with the basic mechanisms through which translation perturbation can affect translation efficiency, protein folding and transcript stability. We then discuss how codon effects are leveraged by the cell to tailor the proteome to maintain homeostasis, execute specific gene expression programmes of growth or differentiation and optimize the efficiency of protein production.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Piezos thrive under pressure: mechanically activated ion channels in health and disease
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-04
    Swetha E. Murthy, Adrienne E. Dubin, Ardem Patapoutian

    Cellular mechanotransduction, the process of translating mechanical forces into biological signals, is crucial for a wide range of physiological processes. A role for ion channels in sensing mechanical forces has been proposed for decades, but their identity in mammals remained largely elusive until the discovery of Piezos. Recent research on Piezos has underscored their importance in somatosensation (touch perception, proprioception and pulmonary respiration), red blood cell volume regulation, vascular physiology and various human genetic disorders.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Transcription: No proper rest in mitosis
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Paulina Strzyz

    Transcription: No proper rest in mitosis Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 4 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.102 Low-level transcription persists during mitosis, and the reinstatement of robust gene expression occurs in a stepwise manner, starting with genes regulating cell organization and growth followed by the expression of cell type-specific genes.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Regulation of genome organization and gene expression by nuclear mechanotransduction
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-10-18
    Caroline Uhler, G. V. Shivashankar

    Regulation of genome organization and gene expression by nuclear mechanotransduction Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 18 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.101 Mechanical cues from the microenvironment can be efficiently transmitted to the nucleus to engage in the regulation of genome organization and gene expression. Recent technological and theoretical progress sheds new light on the relationships between cell mechanics, nuclear and chromosomal architecture and gene transcription.

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Emerging roles of linker histones in regulating chromatin structure and function
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Dmitry V. Fyodorov, Bing-Rui Zhou, Arthur I. Skoultchi, Yawen Bai

    Together with core histones, which make up the nucleosome, the linker histone (H1) is one of the five main histone protein families present in chromatin in eukaryotic cells. H1 binds to the nucleosome to form the next structural unit of metazoan chromatin, the chromatosome, which may help chromatin to fold into higher-order structures. Despite their important roles in regulating the structure and function of chromatin, linker histones have not been studied as extensively as core histones. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made recently. The first near-atomic resolution crystal structure of a chromatosome core particle and an 11 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy-derived structure of the 30 nm nucleosome array have been determined, revealing unprecedented details about how linker histones interact with the nucleosome and organize higher-order chromatin structures. Moreover, several new functions of linker histones have been discovered, including their roles in epigenetic regulation and the regulation of DNA replication, DNA repair and genome stability. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of H1 action in these processes suggest a new paradigm for linker histone function beyond its architectural roles in chromatin.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Cell death: BCL-2 proteins feed their own expression
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Paulina Strzyz

    Cell death: BCL-2 proteins feed their own expression Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.106 Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins can drive their own expression and promote cell survival by regulating Hedgehog signalling transcription activator GLI.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Codon optimality, bias and usage in translation and mRNA decay
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Gavin Hanson, Jeff Coller

    The advent of ribosome profiling and other tools to probe mRNA translation has revealed that codon bias — the uneven use of synonymous codons in the transcriptome — serves as a secondary genetic code: a code that guides the efficiency of protein production, the fidelity of translation and the metabolism of mRNAs. Recent advancements in our understanding of mRNA decay have revealed a tight coupling between ribosome dynamics and the stability of mRNA transcripts; this coupling integrates codon bias into the concept of codon optimality, or the effects that specific codons and tRNA concentrations have on the efficiency and fidelity of the translation machinery. In this Review, we first discuss the evidence for codon-dependent effects on translation, beginning with the basic mechanisms through which translation perturbation can affect translation efficiency, protein folding and transcript stability. We then discuss how codon effects are leveraged by the cell to tailor the proteome to maintain homeostasis, execute specific gene expression programmes of growth or differentiation and optimize the efficiency of protein production.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • The discovery of catalytic RNA
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    John Abelson

    The discovery of catalytic RNA Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.105 John Abelson recounts the discovery of self-splicing RNA.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Transcription: No proper rest in mitosis
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Paulina Strzyz

    Transcription: No proper rest in mitosis Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 4 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.102 Low-level transcription persists during mitosis, and the reinstatement of robust gene expression occurs in a stepwise manner, starting with genes regulating cell organization and growth followed by the expression of cell type-specific genes.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Piezos thrive under pressure: mechanically activated ion channels in health and disease
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Swetha E. Murthy, Adrienne E. Dubin, Ardem Patapoutian

    Cellular mechanotransduction, the process of translating mechanical forces into biological signals, is crucial for a wide range of physiological processes. A role for ion channels in sensing mechanical forces has been proposed for decades, but their identity in mammals remained largely elusive until the discovery of Piezos. Recent research on Piezos has underscored their importance in somatosensation (touch perception, proprioception and pulmonary respiration), red blood cell volume regulation, vascular physiology and various human genetic disorders.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Rebecca A. Haeusler, Timothy E. McGraw, Domenico Accili

    The mechanism of insulin action is a central theme in biology and medicine. In addition to the rather rare condition of insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, genetic and acquired abnormalities of insulin action underlie the far more common conditions of type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance. The latter predisposes to diseases ranging from hypertension to Alzheimer disease and cancer. Hence, understanding the biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling is arguably a priority in biomedical research. In the past decade, major progress has led to the delineation of mechanisms of glucose transport, lipid synthesis, storage and mobilization. In addition to direct effects of insulin on signalling kinases and metabolic enzymes, the discovery of mechanisms of insulin-regulated gene transcription has led to a reassessment of the general principles of insulin action. These advances will accelerate the discovery of new treatment modalities for diabetes.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • AMPK: guardian of metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Sébastien Herzig, Reuben J. Shaw

    Cells constantly adapt their metabolism to meet their energy needs and respond to nutrient availability. Eukaryotes have evolved a very sophisticated system to sense low cellular ATP levels via the serine/threonine kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex. Under conditions of low energy, AMPK phosphorylates specific enzymes and growth control nodes to increase ATP generation and decrease ATP consumption. In the past decade, the discovery of numerous new AMPK substrates has led to a more complete understanding of the minimal number of steps required to reprogramme cellular metabolism from anabolism to catabolism. This energy switch controls cell growth and several other cellular processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that one ancestral function of AMPK is to promote mitochondrial health, and multiple newly discovered targets of AMPK are involved in various aspects of mitochondrial homeostasis, including mitophagy. This Review discusses how AMPK functions as a central mediator of the cellular response to energetic stress and mitochondrial insults and coordinates multiple features of autophagy and mitochondrial biology.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • In the news: The Lasker goes to Michael Hall
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 
    Kim Baumann

    In the news: The Lasker goes to Michael Hall Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Published online: 21 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrm.2017.97 The 2017 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award was awarded to Michael N. Hall (Biozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland) “for discoveries concerning the nutrient-activated TOR proteins and their central role in the metabolic control of cell growth”.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Ubiquitylation at the crossroads of development and disease
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-09-20
    Michael Rape

    Human development requires intricate cell specification and communication pathways that allow an embryo to generate and appropriately connect more than 200 different cell types. Key to the successful completion of this differentiation programme is the quantitative and reversible regulation of core signalling networks, and post-translational modification with ubiquitin provides embryos with an essential tool to accomplish this task. Instigated by E3 ligases and reversed by deubiquitylases, ubiquitylation controls many processes that are fundamental for development, such as cell division, fate specification and migration. As aberrant function or regulation of ubiquitylation enzymes is at the roots of developmental disorders, cancer, and neurodegeneration, modulating the activity of ubiquitylation enzymes is likely to provide strategies for therapeutic intervention.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Chromosome biology: Different turfs for cohesin and condensin
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Eytan Zlotorynski

    In yeast, mitotic chromosome condensation is achieved by cis-chromatin looping, a process in which cohesin and condensin have distinct roles.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Genome editing: CRISPR–Cas becoming more human
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-08-16
    Kim Baumann

    CRISPR–Cas9 was used in human embryos to correct a dominant heterozygous gene mutation that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Cell organization by liquid phase separation
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Daniel W. Gerlich

    Daniel Gerlich discusses how a study by the Hyman laboratory introduced the theory of liquid phase separation to cell biology and its implications for the understanding of cell organization and function.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Nuclear Envelope: Chromosomes: one BAF layer to bind them all
    Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (IF 46.602) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Paulina Strzyz

    Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) forms a layer on the surface of chromatin at late mitosis, guiding the reformation of a single nuclear envelope surrounding all chromosomes.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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