Identification of Abnormal Fucosylated-Glycans Recognized by LTL in Saliva of HBV-Induced Chronic Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-12-07 Zhang J, Zhong Y, Zhang P, et al.
The hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced chronic liver diseases are serious health threats worldwide. There is evidence to display the alterations of salivary N-linked glycans related to the development of HBV-infected liver diseases. Here, we further investigated the alterations of fucosylated N/O-glycans recognized by LTL in saliva from 120 subjects (30 healthy volunteers (HV), 30 patients with hepatitis B (HB), 30 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (HC), and 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) using salivary microarrys and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The results showed that the expression level of fucosylated glycans recognized by LTL was significantly increased in HCC compared with other subjects (p<0.0001). Besides, the fucosylated glycoproteins were isolated from pooled saliva of HV, HB, HC, and HCC by LTL-magnetic particle conjugates. Then, N/O- glycans were released from the isolated glycoproteins with PNGase F and NaClO, and were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Totally, there were 21/20, 25/18, 29/19, and 28/24 N/O-glycan peaks that were identified and annotated with proposed structures in saliva of HV, HB, HC, and HCC. Among the total, there were 8 N-glycan peaks (e.g., m/z 1905.634, 2158.777 and 2905.036) and 15 O-glycan peaks (e.g., 1177.407, 1308.444 and 1322.444) that only presented in patients with HBV-induced liver diseases. One N-glycan peak (m/z 2205.766) was unique in HC, and 9 O-glycan peaks (e.g., m/z 1157.420, 1163.417 and 1193.402) were unique in HCC. This study could facilitate the discovery of biomarkers for HC and HCC based on precise alterations of fucosylated N/O-glycans in saliva.
Globo-series glycosphingolipids enhance Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation and play a pathophysiological role in diabetic nephropathy Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-11-22 Nitta T, Kanoh H, Inamori K, et al.
Alteration of glycosphingolipid (GSL) expression plays key roles in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of many important human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and glycosphingolipidosis. Inflammatory processes are involved in development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GSLs are known to play roles in inflammatory responses in various diseases, and levels of renal GSLs are elevated in mouse models of diabetic nephropathy; however, little is known regarding the pathophysiological role of these GSLs in this disease process. We studied proinflammatory activity of GSLs in diabetic nephropathy using spontaneously diabetic mouse strain KK. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (60% kcal from fat) or normal diet (ND) (4.6% kcal from fat) for a period of 8 wk. HFD-feeding resulted in quantitative and qualitative changes of renal globo-series GSLs (particularly Gb3Cer), upregulation of TNF-α, and induction of renal inflammation. Gb3Cer/Gb4Cer treatment enhanced inflammatory responses via TLR4 in TLR4/MD-2 complex expressing cells, including HEK293T, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and human monocytes. Our findings suggest that HFD-induced increase of Gb3Cer/Gb4Cer positively modulate TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, and that such GSLs play an important pathophysiological role in diabetic nephropathy.
In vitro acellular method to reveal O-fucosylation on EGF-like domains Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-11-29 Pennarubia F, Pinault E, Maftah A, et al.
A hundred of human proteins have one or more EGF-like domains (EGF-LD) bearing the O-fucosylation consensus motif C2X4(S/T)C3 but to date, only a few of them have been shown to be O-fucosylated. The protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT1) specifically recognizes correctly folded EGF-LD of the human EGF (hEGF) type and transfers fucose on serine or threonine residue within the O-fucosylation motif. Here, we propose a strategy for a rapid screening for ability of any EGF-LD to be O-fucosylated, using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). By an oligonucleotide hybridization approach, double-stranded fragments encoding any EGF-LD can be first rapidly cloned into the prokaryotic vector pET-25b to promote its targeting to periplasm and formation of the three conserved disulfide bonds. After protein production and purification, an in vitro POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation can be performed with azido GDP-fucose. Successful transfer of O-fucose is finally revealed by blotting technique after CuAAC. In this study, we specially focused on mouse NOTCH1 EGF12 and EGF26, which are both known to be O-fucosylated although having different binding affinities towards POFUT1. Indeed, we clearly showed here that addition of O-fucose by POFUT1 was much more efficient for EGF26 than for EGF12. This experimental approach is rapid and sufficiently sensitive to reveal propensity of any EGF-LD to be O-fucosylated; it is thus useful prior to perform structure-function studies on target proteins containing one or several EGF-LD.
Transcriptional activation of fucosyltransferase (FUT) genes using the CRISPR-dCas9-VPR technology reveals potent N-glycome alterations in colorectal cancer cells Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-11-22 Blanas A, Cornelissen L, Kotsias M, et al.
Aberrant fucosylation in cancer cells is considered as a signature of malignant cell transformation and it is associated with tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Specifically, in colorectal cancer cells, increased levels of the fucosylated Lewisx antigen are attributed to the deregulated expression of pertinent fucosyltransferases, like fucosyltransferase 4 (FUT4) and fucosyltransferase 9 (FUT9). However, the lack of experimental models closely mimicking cancer-specific regulation of fucosyltransferase gene expression has, so far, limited our knowledge regarding the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the impact of Lewisx synthesis on the glycome of colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, we sought to transcriptionally activate the Fut4 and Fut9 genes in the well-known murine colorectal cancer cell line, MC38, which lacks expression of the FUT4 and FUT9 enzymes. For this purpose, we utilized a physiologically relevant, guide RNA-based model of de novo gene expression, namely the CRISPR-dCas9-VPR system. Induction of the Fut4 and Fut9 genes in MC38 cells using CRISPR-dCas9-VPR resulted in specific neo-expression of functional Lewisx antigen on the cell surface. Interestingly, Lewisx was mainly carried by N-linked glycans in both MC38-FUT4 and MC38-FUT9 cells, despite pronounced differences in the biosynthetic properties and the expression stability of the induced enzymes. Moreover, Lewisx expression was found to influence core-fucosylation, sialylation, antennarity and the subtypes of N-glycans in the MC38-glycovariants. In conclusion, exploiting the CRISPR-dCas9-VPR system to augment glycosyltransferase expression is a promising method of transcriptional gene activation with broad application possibilities in glycobiology and oncology research.
Recent approaches for directly profiling cell surface sialoform Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Zhang X, Nie H, Whited J, et al.
Sialic acids (SAs) are nine-carbon monosaccharides existing at the terminal location of glycan structures on the cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates. The expression levels and linkages of SAs on cells and tissues, collectively known as sialoform, present the hallmark of the cells and tissues of different systems and conditions. Accordingly, detecting or profiling cell surface sialoforms is very critical for understanding the function of cell surface glycans and glycoconjugates and even the molecular mechanisms of their underlying biological processes. Further, it may provide therapeutic and diagnostic applications for different diseases. In the past decades, several kinds of SA-specific binding molecules have been developed for detecting and profiling specific sialoforms of cells and tissues; the experimental materials have expanded from frozen tissue to living cells; and the analytical technologies have advanced from histochemistry to fluorescent imaging, flow cytometry and microarrays. This review summarizes the recent bioaffinity approaches for directly detecting and profiling specific SAs or sialylglycans, and their modifications of different cells and tissues.
KIAA1199 expression and hyaluronan degradation colocalize in multiple sclerosis lesions Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-31 Marella M, Jadin L, Keller G, et al.
Modification of hyaluronan (HA) accumulation has been shown to play a key role in regulating inflammatory processes linked to the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to characterize the enzymatic activity involved in HA degradation observed within focal demyelinating lesions in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. EAE was induced in 3-month-old female C57BL/6J mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 33–35 (MOG33–35) peptide. The mice were monitored for 21 days. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from control and EAE mice were labeled with an immunoadhesin against HA, antibodies against KIAA1199 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for astrocytes. In situ hybridization was conducted using a KIAA1199 nucleic acid probe. In histologic sections of spinal cord from EAE mice, abnormal HA accumulation was observed in the close vicinity of the affected areas, whereas HA was totally degraded within the focal loci of damaged tissue. KIAA1199 immunoreactivity was exclusively associated with focal loci in damaged white columns of the spinal cord. KIAA1199 was mainly expressed by activated astrocytes that invaded damaged tissue. Similar findings were observed in tissue from an MS patient. Here, we show that KIAA1199, a protein that plays a role in a HA degradation pathway independent of the canonical hyaluronidases such as PH20, is specifically expressed in tissue lesions in which HA is degraded. KIAA1199 expression by activated astrocytes may explain the focal HA degradation observed during progression of MS and could represent a possible new therapeutic target.
Ligand binding and retention in snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL). A crystallographic, thermodynamic and molecular dynamics study Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-09-01 Chandran T, Sivaji N, Surolia A, et al.
Snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL) is a non-toxic homolog of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) which contain a catalytic domain and a lectin domain. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements of the interactions of the protein with LacNAc, Lac, Gal, Me-α-Gal were carried out and the crystal structures of the native protein and its complex with Lac were determined. The crystal structure of the Me-α-Gal complex has already been determined. While the crystal structure showed the presence of two-sugar-binding sites, one on each of the two domains of the lectin chain, ITC measurements indicated the presence of only one binding site. In order to resolve this anomaly, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on the native protein and on its complexes with Me-α-Gal and Lac. Simulations were also performed on the protein after reducing the inter-chain disulfide bridge between the two chains. The crystal structures and the simulations confirmed the robustness of the protein structure, irrespective of the presence or absence of the disulfide bridge. The simulations indicated that although two sites can bind sugar, only the ligand at one site is retained in a dynamic situation. The studies thus bring out the subtle relationship between binding and retention of the ligand.
A widely compatible expression system for the production of highly O-GlcNAcylated recombinant protein in Escherichia coli Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Gao H, Shi M, Wang R, et al.
O-GlcNAcylation is a ubiquitous and dynamic post-translational modification on serine/threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins in metazoa, which plays a critical role in numerous physiological and pathological processes. But the O-GlcNAcylation on most proteins is often substoichiometric, which hinders the functional study of the O-GlcNAcylation. This study aimed to improve the production of highly O-GlcNAcylated recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli). To achieve this goal, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome-based chloramphenicol-resistant expression vector co-expressing O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and key enzymes (phosphoglucose mutase, GlmM and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, GlmU) of the uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis pathway in E. coli, which can effectively increase the O-GlcNAcylation of the OGT target protein expressed by another vector. The results revealed that the expression of GlmM and GlmU increases the cellular concentration of UDP-GlcNAc in E. coli, which markedly enhanced the activity of the co-expressed OGT to its target proteins, such as H2B, p53 and TAB1. Altogether, we established a widely compatible E. coli expression system for producing highly O-GlcNAcylated protein, which could be used for modifying OGT target proteins expressed by almost any commercial expression vectors in E. coli. This new expression system provides possibility for investigating the roles of O-GlcNAcylation in the enzymatic activity, protein–protein interaction and structure of OGT target proteins.
Nature-inspired engineering of an F-type lectin for increased binding strength Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 Mahajan S, Ramya T.
Individual lectin–carbohydrate interactions are usually of low affinity. However, high avidity is frequently attained by the multivalent presentation of glycans on biological surfaces coupled with the occurrence of high order lectin oligomers or tandem repeats of lectin domains in the polypeptide. F-type lectins are l-fucose binding lectins with a typical sequence motif, HX(26)RXDX(4)R/K, whose residues participate in l-fucose binding. We previously reported the presence of a few eukaryotic F-type lectin domains with partial sequence duplication that results in the presence of two l-fucose-binding sequence motifs. We hypothesized that such partial sequence duplication would result in greater avidity of lectin–ligand interactions. Inspired by this example from Nature, we attempted to engineer a bacterial F-type lectin domain from Streptosporangium roseum to attain avid binding by mimicking partial duplication. The engineered lectin demonstrated 12-fold greater binding strength than the wild-type lectin to multivalent fucosylated glycoconjugates. However, the affinity to the monosaccharide l-fucose in solution was similar and partial sequence duplication did not result in an additional functional l-fucose binding site. We also cloned, expressed and purified a Branchiostoma floridae F-type lectin domain with naturally occurring partial sequence duplication and confirmed that the duplicated region with the F-type lectin sequence motif did not participate in l-fucose binding. We found that the greater binding strength of the engineered lectin from S. roseum was instead due to increased oligomerization. We believe that this Nature-inspired strategy might be useful for engineering lectins to improve binding strength in various applications.
Identity and role of the non-conserved acid/base catalytic residue in the GH29 fucosidase from the spider Nephilingis cruentata Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Perrella N, Withers S, Lopes A.
α-l-Fucosidases are widely occurring enzymes that remove fucose residues from N- and O-fucosylated glycoproteins. Comparison of amino acid sequences of fucosidases reveals that although the nucleophile is conserved among all α-l-fucosidases, the position of the acid/base residue is quite variable. Although several site-directed mutation studies have previously been performed on bacterial fucosidases, the only eukaryotic fucosidase so studied was the human fucosidase. Recent alignments indicate that human and Arthropoda α-l-fucosidases share at least 50% identity and the acid/base residue seems to be conserved among them suggesting a common acid/base residue in Metazoa. Here we describe the cloning and expression in Pichia pastoris of a very active α-l-fucosidase from the spider Nephilingis cruentata (NcFuc) with a Km value for pNPFuc of 0.4 mM. NcFuc hydrolyzed fucoidan, 2´fucosyllactose and also lacto-N-difucohexaose II. Mutants modified at the conserved residues D214N, E209A, E59A were expressed and characterized. The 500-fold lower kcat of D214N than the wild type was consistent with a role in catalysis, as was the 8000-fold lower kcat value of E59A. This was supported by the 57-fold increase in the kcat of E59A upon addition of azide. A complex pH/rate profile was seen for the wild-type and mutant forms of NcFuc, similar to those measured previously for the Sulfolobus fucosidase. The non-conservative catalytic structure and distinct active site organization reinforce the necessity of structural studies of new fucosidases.
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase is indispensable for oogenesis, oocyte-to-embryo transition, and larval development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-11-16 Kanaki N, Matsuda A, Dejima K, et al.
N-linked glycosylation of proteins is the most common post-translational modification of proteins. The enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase (DPAGT1) catalyses the first step of N-glycosylation, and DPAGT1 knockout is embryonic lethal in mice. In this study, we identified the sole orthologue (algn-7) of the human DPAGT1 in the nematode C. elegans. The gene activity was disrupted by RNAi and deletion mutagenesis, which resulted in larval lethality, defects in oogenesis and oocyte-to-embryo transition. Endomitotic oocytes, abnormal fusion of pronuclei, abnormal AB cell rotation, disruption of permeation barriers of eggs, and abnormal expression of chitin and chitin synthase in oocytes and eggs were the typical phenotypes observed. The results indicate that N-glycosylation is indispensable for these processes. We further screened an N-glycosylated protein database of C. elegans, and identified 456 germline-expressed genes coding N-glycosylated proteins. By examining RNAi phenotypes, we identified five germline-expressed genes showing similar phenotypes to the algn-7 (RNAi) animals. They were ribo-1, stt-3, ptc-1, ptc-2, and vha-19. We identified known congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) genes (ribo-1 and stt-3) and a recently found CDG gene (vha-19). The results show that phenotype analyses using the nematode could be a powerful tool to detect new CDG candidate genes and their associated gene networks.
An efficient use of X-Ray information, Homology Modeling, Molecular Dynamics and Knowledge-based Docking techniques to predict Protein-monosaccharide complexes Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-11-08 Blanco Capurro J, Di Paola M, Gamarra M, et al.
Unraveling the structure of lectin-carbohydrate complexes is vital for understanding key biological recognition processes and development of glycomimetic drugs. Molecular Docking application to predict them is challenging due to their low affinity, hydrophilic nature and ligand conformational diversity. In the last decade several strategies, such as the inclusion of glycan conformation specific scoring functions or our developed solvent-site biased method, have improved carbohydrate docking performance but significant challenges remain, in particular, those related to receptor conformational diversity.In the present work we have analyzed conventional and solvent-site biased autodock4 performance concerning receptor conformational diversity as derived from different crystal structures (apo and holo), Molecular Dynamics snapshots and Homology-based models, for fourteen different lectin-monosaccharide complexes. Our results show that both conventional and biased docking yield accurate lectin-monosaccharide complexes, starting from either apo or homology-based structures, even when only moderate ( < 45%) sequence identity templates are available. An essential element for success is a proper combination of a middle-sized (10-100 structures) conformational ensemble, derived either from Molecular dynamics or multiple homology model building. Consistent with our previous works, results show that solvent-site biased methods improve overall performance, but that results are still highly system dependent. Finally, our results also show that docking can select the correct receptor structure within the ensemble, underscoring the relevance of joint evaluation of both ligand pose and receptor conformation.
Letter To The Glycoforum: The Lec5 Glycosylation Mutant Links Homeobox Genes with Cholesterol and Lipid-Linked Oligosaccharides Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Lu H, Sathe A, Xing C, et al.
n/a for Glycoforum letter
Serine-Rich Repeat Protein adhesins from Lactobacillus reuteri display strain specific glycosylation profiles Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Latousakis D, Nepravishta R, Rejzek M, et al.
Lactobacillus reuteri is a gut symbiont inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of numerous vertebrates. The surface-exposed Serine-Rich Repeat Protein (SRRP) is a major adhesin in Gram-positive bacteria. Using lectin and sugar nucleotide profiling of wild-type or L. reuteri isogenic mutants, MALDI-ToF-MS, LC-MS and GC-MS analyses of SRRPs, we showed that L. reuteri strains 100–23 C (from rodent) and ATCC 53608 (from pig) can perform protein O-glycosylation and modify SRRP100–23 and SRRP53608 with Hex-Glc-GlcNAc and di-GlcNAc moieties, respectively. Furthermore, in vivo glycoengineering in E. coli led to glycosylation of SRRP53608 variants with α-GlcNAc and GlcNAcβ(1→6)GlcNAcα moieties. The glycosyltransferases involved in the modification of these adhesins were identified within the SecA2/Y2 accessory secretion system and their sugar nucleotide preference determined by saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning fluorimetry. Together, these findings provide novel insights into the cellular O-protein glycosylation pathways of gut commensal bacteria and potential routes for glycoengineering applications.
Elucidation of the O-antigen structure of Escherichia coli O63 Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-20 Ståhle J, Fontana C, Weintraub A, et al.
The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) from the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O63 has been elucidated using a combination of bioinformatics, component analyses, and NMR spectroscopy. The O-antigen is comprised of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: →2)-β-d-Quip3N(d-allo-ThrAc)-(1→2)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→ in which the N-acetylated d-allo-threonine is amide-linked to position 3 of the 3-amino-3-deoxy-d-Quip sugar residue. The presence of a predicted flippase and polymerase encoded in the O63 gene cluster is consistent with the Wzx/Wzy biosynthetic pathway and consequently the biological repeating unit has likely an N-acetyl-d-glucosamine residue at its reducing end. A bioinformatics approach based on predictive glycosyltransferase function present in ECODAB (E. coli O-antigen database) suggested the structural element β-d-Galp-(1→3)-d-GlcpNAc in the O-antigen. Notably, multiple gene sequence alignment of fdtA and qdtA from E. coli to that in E. coli O63 resulted in discrimination between the two, confirmation of the latter in E. coli O63, and consequently, together with qdtB, biosynthesis of dTDP-d-Quip3N. The E. coli O63 O-antigen polysaccharide differs in two aspects from that of E. coli O114 where the latter carries instead an l-serine residue, and the glycosidic linkage positions to and from the Quip3N residue are both changed. The structural characterization of the O63 antigen repeat supports the predicted functional assignment of the O-antigen cluster genes.
Demystifying O-GlcNAcylation: hints from peptide substrates Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Shi J, Ruijtenbeek R, Pieters R.
O-GlcNAcylation, analogous to phosphorylation, is an essential post-translational modification of proteins at Ser/Thr residues with a single β-N-acetylglucosamine moiety. This dynamic protein modification regulates many fundamental cellular processes and its deregulation has been linked to chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Reversible attachment and removal of O-GlcNAc is governed only by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase, respectively. Peptide substrates, derived from natural O-GlcNAcylation targets, function in the catalytic cores of these two enzymes by maintaining interactions between enzyme and substrate, which makes them ideal models for the study of O-GlcNAcylation and deglycosylation. These peptides provide valuable tools for a deeper understanding of O-GlcNAc processing enzymes. By taking advantage of peptide chemistry, recent progress in the study of activity and regulatory mechanisms of these two enzymes has advanced our understanding of their fundamental specificities as well as their potential as therapeutic targets. Hence, this review summarizes the recent achievements on this modification studied at the peptide level, focusing on enzyme activity, enzyme specificity, direct function, site-specific antibodies and peptide substrate-inspired inhibitors.
Structural basis of oligosaccharide processing by glycosaminoglycan sulfotransferases Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Gesteira T, Coulson-Thomas V.
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a sulfated polysaccharide that plays a key role in morphogenesis, physiology and pathogenesis. The biosynthesis of HS takes place in the Golgi apparatus by a group of enzymes that polymerize, epimerize and sulfate the sugar chain. This biosynthetic process introduces varying degrees of sulfate substitution, which are tightly regulated and directly dictate binding specificity to different cytokines, morphogens and growth factors. Here, we report the use of molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the dynamics of substrate recognition of two glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sulfotransferases, N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase and 2-O-sulfotransferase to the HS chain during the biosynthetic process. We performed multiple simulations of the binding of the sulfotransferase domains to both the HS oligosaccharide substrate and sulfate donor, 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate. Analysis of extended simulations provide detailed and useful insights into the atomic interactions that are at work during oligosaccharide processing. The fast information matching method was used to detect the enzyme global dynamics and to predict the pairwise contact of residues responsible for GAG–enzyme binding and unbinding. The correlation between HS displacement and the location of the modified GAG chain were calculated, indicating a possible route for HS and heparin during sulfotransferase processing. Our data also show sulfotransferases contain a conserved interspaced positively charged amino acid residues that form a patch which controls the protein–GAG binding equilibrium. Together, our findings provide further understanding on the fine-tuned complex mechanism of GAG biosynthesis. Our findings can also be extrapolated to other systems for calculating rates of protein–GAG binding.
Prognostic role of the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1 in ovarian cancer Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Wichert B, Milde-Langosch K, Galatenko V, et al.
Aberrant sialylation of glycoproteins has been detected in many tumors, and upregulation of the beta-galactosamide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) has been implicated with tumor aggressiveness and chemoresistance in experimental models. In our present study, we aimed to study the prognostic or predictive role of ST6GAL1 in ovarian carcinoma, using two independent ovarian cancer cohorts. ST6GAL1 mRNA levels were retrieved from a publicly available database (n = 517), and ST6GAL1 protein levels were analyzed by western blot analysis in a cohort of 204 ovarian tumor samples. The results were correlated with clinical and histological tumor parameters and follow-up information. High ST6GAL1 mRNA levels significantly correlated with lymphovascular invasion and shorter survival, whereas high ST6GAL1 protein expression was associated with advanced stage, distant metastasis and shorter recurrence-free intervals. In both cohorts the prognostic role was most pronounced in tumors without macroscopically visible residual tumor after surgery. In these cases, ST6GAL1 expression levels might help to identify cases with a higher risk of chemoresistance and metastatic relapse that might require an adapted therapeutic regime.
Members of the GalNAc-T family of enzymes utilize distinct Golgi localization mechanisms Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Becker J, Tran D, Tabak L.
Mucin-type O-glycosylation is an evolutionarily conserved and essential post-translational protein modification that is initiated in the Golgi apparatus by a family of enzymes known as the UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts). GalNAc-Ts are type II membrane proteins which contain short N-terminal tails located in the cytoplasm, a transmembrane domain that crosses the Golgi membrane, to which is connected a stem region that tethers the C-terminal catalytic and lectin domains that reside in the Golgi lumen. Although mucin-type O-glycans have been shown to play critical roles in numerous biological processes, little is known about how the GalNAc-Ts are targeted to their site of action within the Golgi complex. Here, we investigate the essential protein domains required for Golgi localization of four representative members of the GalNAc-T family of enzymes. We find that GalNAc-T1 and -T2 require their cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains for proper Golgi localization, while GalNAc-T10 requires its transmembrane and luminal stem domains. GalNAc-T7 can use either its cytoplasmic tail or its luminal stem, in combination with its transmembrane domain, to localize to the Golgi. We determined that a single glutamic acid in the GalNAc-T10 cytoplasmic tail inhibits its ability to localize to the Golgi via a cytoplasmic tail-dependent mechanism. We therefore demonstrate that despite their similarity, different members of this enzyme family are directed to the Golgi by more than one set of targeting signals.
Acinetobacter baumannii K20 and K21 capsular polysaccharide structures establish roles for UDP-glucose dehydrogenase Ugd2, pyruvyl transferase Ptr2 and two glycosyltransferases Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Kasimova A, Kenyon J, Arbatsky N, et al.
Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the major global clones, GC1 and GC2, are difficult to treat with antibiotics, and phage therapy, which requires extensive knowledge of the variation in the surface polysaccharides, is an option under consideration. The gene clusters directing the synthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in A. baumannii GC1 isolate A388 and GC2 isolate G21 differ by a single glycosyltransferase (gtr) gene. They include genes encoding a novel UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugd2) and a putative pyruvyl transferase (Ptr2). The composition and structures of the linear K20 and K21 tetrasaccharide repeats (K units) of the CPSs isolated from A338 and G21, respectively, were established by sugar analyses and Smith degradation along with 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The K20 and K21 CPSs are the first known to include GlcpA produced by Ugd2 and d-galactose with an (R)-configured 4,6-pyruvic acid acetal added by Prt2. The first sugar in the tetrasaccharide K units is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-d-glucose (d-QuipNAc4N) that carries a 4-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] group in some K units and a 4-N-acetyl group in the others. Accordingly, K unit polymerases WzyK20 and WzyK21 form a β-d-QuipNAc4NR-(1→2)-d-Galp bond. The K20 and K21 units differ only in the configuration of the glycosidic linkages of d-GlcpNAc allowing the unique inverting glycosyltransferases Gtr43 and the retaining glycosyltransferase Gtr45 to be assigned to the formation of the β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-d-GlcpA and α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-d-GlcpA linkages, respectively.
Glycosylation profiling of dog serum reveals differences compared to human serum Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Behrens A, Duke R, Petralia L, et al.
Glycosylation is the most common post-translational modification of serum proteins, and changes in the type and abundance of glycans in human serum have been correlated with a growing number of human diseases. While the glycosylation pattern of human serum is well studied, little is known about the profiles of other mammalian species. Here, we report detailed glycosylation profiling of canine serum by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-ultraperformance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) and mass spectrometry. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a widely used model organism and of considerable interest for a large veterinary community. We found significant differences in the serum N-glycosylation profile of dogs compared to that of humans, such as a lower abundance of galactosylated and sialylated glycans. We also compare the N-glycan profile of canine serum to that of canine IgG – the most abundant serum glycoprotein. Our data will serve as a baseline reference for future studies when performing serum analyses of various health and disease states in dogs.
The effect of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia on N-and O-linked protein glycosylation in mouse ovary Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Shathili A, Brown H, Everest-Dass A, et al.
Post-translational modification of proteins namely glycosylation influences cellular behavior, structural properties and interactions including during ovarian follicle development and atresia. However, little is known about protein glycosylation changes occurring in diabetes mellitus in ovarian tissues despite the well-known influence of diabetes on the outcome of successful embryo implantation. In our study, the use of PGC chromatography–ESI mass spectrometry in negative ion mode enabled the identification of 138 N-glycans and 6 O-glycans on the proteins of Streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic mouse ovarian tissues (n = 3). Diabetic mouse ovaries exhibited a relative decrease in sialylation, fucosylation and, to a lesser extent, branched N-linked glycan structures, as well as an increase in oligomannose structures on their proteins, compared with nondiabetic mouse ovaries. Changes in N-glycans occurred in the diabetic liver tissue but were more evident in diabetic ovarian tissue of the same mouse, suggesting an organ-specific effect of diabetes mellitus on protein glycosylation. Although at a very low amount, O-GalNAc glycans of mice ovaries were present as core type 1 and core type 2 glycans; with a relative increase in the NeuGc:NeuAc ratio as the most significant difference between control and diabetic ovarian tissues. STZ-treated mice also showed a trend towards an increase in TNF-α and IL1-B inflammatory cytokines, which have previously been shown to influence protein glycosylation.
An F-type lectin domain directs the activity of Streptosporangium roseum alpha-l-fucosidase Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-30 Bishnoi R, Mahajan S, Ramya T.
F-type lectins are phylogenetically widespread but selectively distributed fucose-binding lectins with L-fucose- and calcium-binding sequence motifs and an F-type lectin fold. Bacterial F-type lectin domains frequently occur in tandem with various protein domains in diverse architectures, indicating a possible role in directing enzyme activities or other biological functions to distinct fucosylated niches. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of a Streptosporangium roseum protein containing an F-type lectin domain in tandem with an NPCBM-associated domain and a family GH 29A alpha-l-fucosidase domain. We show that the F-type lectin domain of this protein recognizes fucosylated glycans in both α and β linkages but has high affinity for a Fuc-α-1,2-Gal motif and that the alpha-l-fucosidase domain displays hydrolytic activity on glycan substrates with α1-2 and α1-4 linked fucose. We also show that the F-type lectin domain does not have any effect on the activity of the cis-positioned alpha-l-fucosidase domain with the synthetic substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-alpha-l-fucopyranoside or on inhibition of this activity by l-fucose or deoxyfuconojirimycin hydrochloride. However, the F-type lectin domain together with the NPCBM-associated domain enhances the activity of the cis-positioned alpha-l-fucosidase domain for soluble fucosylated oligosaccharide substrates. While there are many reports of glycoside hydrolase activity towards insoluble and soluble polysaccharides being enhanced by cis-positioned carbohydrate binding modules on the polypeptide, this is the first report, to our knowledge, of enhancement of activity towards aqueous, freely diffusible, small oligosaccharides. We propose a model involving structural stabilization and a bind-and-jump action mediated by the F-type lectin domain to rationalize our findings.
Sensitized genetic backgrounds reveal differential roles for EGF repeat xylosyltransferases in Drosophila Notch signaling Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Pandey A, Li-Kroeger D, Sethi M, et al.
In multicellular organisms, glycosylation regulates various developmental signaling pathways including the Notch pathway. One of the O-linked glycans added to epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats in animal proteins including the Notch receptors is the xylose–xylose–glucose-O oligosaccharide. Drosophila glucoside xylosyltransferase (Gxylt) Shams negatively regulates Notch signaling in specific contexts. Since Shams adds the first xylose residue to O-glucose, its loss-of-function phenotype could be due to the loss of the first xylose, the second xylose or both. To examine the contribution of the second xylose residues to Drosophila Notch signaling, we have performed biochemical and genetic analysis on CG11388, which is the Drosophila homolog of human xyloside xylosyltransferase 1 (XXYLT1). Experiments in S2 cells indicated that similar to human XXYLT1, CG11388 can add the second xylose to xylose–glucose-O glycans. Flies lacking both copies of CG11388 (Xxylt) are viable and fertile and do not show gross phenotypes indicative of altered Notch signaling. However, genetic interaction experiments show that in sensitized genetic backgrounds with decreased or increased Notch pathway components, loss of Xxylt promotes Delta-mediated activation of Notch. Unexpectedly, we find that in such sensitized backgrounds, even loss of one copy of the fly Gxylt shams enhances Delta-mediated Notch activation. Taken together, these data indicate that while the first xylose plays a key role in tuning the Delta-mediated Notch signaling in Drosophila, the second xylose has a fine-tuning role only revealed in sensitized genetic backgrounds.
Oligosaccharyltransferase structures provide novel insight into the mechanism of asparagine-linked glycosylation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Shrimal S, Gilmore R.
Asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycosylation is one of the most common protein modification reactions in eukaryotic cells, occurring upon the majority of proteins that enter the secretory pathway. X-ray crystal structures of the single subunit OSTs from eubacterial and archaebacterial organisms revealed the location of donor and acceptor substrate binding sites and provided the basis for a catalytic mechanism. Cryoelectron microscopy structures of the octameric yeast OST provided substantial insight into the organization and assembly of the multisubunit oligosaccharyltransferases. Furthermore, the cryoelectron microscopy structure of a complex consisting of a mammalian OST complex, the protein translocation channel and a translating ribosome revealed new insight into the mechanism of cotranslational glycosylation.
Sequence-to-structure dependence of isolated IgG Fc complex biantennary N-glycans: A molecular dynamics study Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Harbison A, Brosnan L, Fenlon K, et al.
Fc glycosylation of human immunoglobulins G (IgGs) is essential for their structural integrity and activity. Interestingly, the specific nature of the Fc glycoforms is known to modulate the IgG effector function and inflammatory properties. Indeed, while core-fucosylation of IgG Fc-glycans greatly affects the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) function, with obvious repercussions in the design of therapeutic antibodies, sialylation can reverse the antibody inflammatory response, and galactosylation levels have been linked to aging, to the onset of inflammation, and to the predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis. Within the framework of a structure-to-function relationship, we have studied the role of the N-glycan sequence on its intrinsic conformational propensity. Here we report the results of a systematic study, based on extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in excess of 62 μs of cumulative simulation time, on the effect of sequence on the structure and dynamics of increasingly larger, complex biantennary N-glycoforms isolated from the protein, i.e. from chitobiose to the larger N-glycan species commonly found in the Fc region of human IgGs. Our results show that while core fucosylation and sialylation do not affect the intrinsic dynamics of the unlinked N-glycans, galactosylation of the α(1-6) arm shifts dramatically its conformational equilibrium from an outstretched to a folded conformation. These findings are in agreement with and can help rationalize recent experimental evidence showing a differential recognition of positional isomers in glycan array data and also the preference of sialyltransferase for the more reachable, outstretched α(1-3) arm in both isolated, and Fc-bound N-glycans.
Helicobacter pylori induces intracellular galectin-8 aggregation around damaged lysosomes within gastric epithelial cells in a host O-glycan-dependent manner Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 Li F, Weng I, Lin C, et al.
Galectin-8, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, is upregulated in the gastric tissues of rhesus macaques infected with Helicobacter pylori. In this study, we found that H. pylori infection triggers intracellular galectin-8 aggregation in human-derived AGS gastric epithelial cells, and that these aggregates colocalize with lysosomes. Notably, this aggregation is markedly reduced following the attenuation of host O-glycan processing. This indicates that H. pylori infection induces lysosomal damage, which in turn results in the accumulation of cytosolic galectin-8 around damaged lysosomes through the recognition of exposed vacuolar host O-glycans. H. pylori-induced galectin-8 aggregates also colocalize with autophagosomes, and galectin-8 ablation reduces the activation of autophagy by H. pylori. This suggests that galectin-8 aggregates may enhance autophagy activity in infected cells. We also observed that both autophagy and NDP52, an autophagy adaptor, contribute to the augmentation of galectin-8 aggregation by H. pylori. Additionally, vacuolating cytotoxin A, a secreted H. pylori cytotoxin, may contribute to the increased galectin-8 aggregation and elevated autophagy response in infected cells. Collectively, these results suggest that H. pylori promotes intracellular galectin-8 aggregation, and that galectin-8 aggregation and autophagy may reciprocally regulate each other during infection.
Glycoengineered Antibodies: Towards the Next-Generation of Immunotherapeutics Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 Mastrangeli R, Palinsky W, Bierau H.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the largest and fastest growing class of biopharmaceuticals, and they address unmet medical needs e.g., in oncology and in auto-immune diseases. Their clinical efficacy and safety is significantly affected by the structure and composition of their glycosylation profile which is commonly heterogeneous, heavily dependent on the manufacturing process, and thus susceptible to variations in the cell culture conditions. Glycosylation is therefore considered a critical quality attribute (CQA) for mAbs. Commonly, in currently marketed therapeutic mAbs, the glycosylation profile is suboptimal in terms of biological properties such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or may give rise to safety concerns due to the presence of non-human glycans.This article will review recent innovative developments in chemo-enzymatic glycoengineering, which allow generating mAbs carrying single, well-defined, uniform Fc glycoforms, which confers the desired biological properties for the target application. This approach offers significant benefits such as enhanced Fc effector functions, improved safety profiles, higher batch-to-batch consistency, decreased risks related to immunogenicity and manufacturing process changes, and the possibility to manufacture mAbs, in an economical manner, in non-mammalian expression systems. Overall, this approach could facilitate and reduce mAb manufacturing costs which in turn would translate into tangible benefits for both patients and manufacturers. The first glycoengineered mAbs are about to enter clinical trials and it is expected that, once glycoengineering reagents are available at affordable costs, and in-line with regulatory requirements, that targeted remodelling of antibody Fc glycosylation will become an integral part in manufacturing the next-generation of immunotherapeutics.
Identification of key amino acid residues determining ligand binding specificity, homodimerization and cellular distribution of human Galectin-10 Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Su J, Song C, Si Y, et al.
Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/Gal-10, abundantly expressed in eosinophils and basophils, is related to several immune diseases. Recently, crystallographic and biochemical studies showed that Gal-10 cannot bind lactose, because a glutamate residue (Glu33) from another monomer blocks the binding site. Moreover, Gal-10 actually forms a novel dimeric structure compared to other galectins. To investigate the role that Glu33 plays in inhibiting lactose binding, we mutated this residue to glutamine, aspartate, and alanine. The structure of E33A shows that Gal-10 can now bind lactose. In the hemagglutination assay, lactose could inhibit E33A from inducing chicken erythrocyte agglutination. Furthermore, we identified a tryptophan residue (Trp127) at the interface of homodimer that is crucial for Gal-10 dimerization. The variant W127A, which exists as a monomer, exhibited higher hemagglutination activity than wild type Gal-10. The solid phase assay also showed that W127A could bind to lactose-modified sepharose-6B, whereas wild type Gal-10 could not. This indicates that the open carbohydrate binding site of the W127A monomer can bind to lactose. In addition, the distribution of EGFP-tagged Gal-10 and its variants in HeLa cells was investigated. Because Trp72 is the highly conserved in the ligand binding sites of galectins, we used EGFP-tagged W72A to show that Gal-10 could not be transported into the nucleus, indicating that Trp72 is crucial for Gal-10 transport into that organelle.
Unraveling synthesis of the cryptococcal cell wall and capsule Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Wang Z, Li L, Doering T.
Fungal pathogens cause devastating infections in millions of individuals each year, representing a huge but underappreciated burden on human health. One of these, the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, kills hundreds of thousands of patients annually, disproportionately affecting people in resource-limited areas. This yeast is distinguished from other pathogenic fungi by a polysaccharide capsule that is displayed on the cell surface. The capsule consists of two complex polysaccharide polymers: a mannan substituted with xylose and glucuronic acid, and a galactan with galactomannan side chains that bear variable amounts of glucuronic acid and xylose. The cell wall, with which the capsule is associated, is a matrix of alpha and beta glucans, chitin, chitosan, and mannoproteins. In this review, we focus on synthesis of the wall and capsule, both of which are critical for the ability of this microbe to cause disease and are distinct from structures found in either model yeasts or the mammals afflicted by this infection. Significant research effort over the last few decades has been applied to defining the synthetic machinery of these two structures, including nucleotide sugar metabolism and transport, glycosyltransferase activities, polysaccharide export, and assembly and association of structural elements. Discoveries in this area have elucidated fundamental biology and may lead to novel targets for antifungal therapy. In this review, we summarize the progress made in this challenging and fascinating area, and outline future research questions.
Sialylated keratan sulfate proteoglycans are Siglec-8 ligands in human airways Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Gonzalez-Gil A, Porell R, Fernandes S, et al.
Human siglecs are a family of 14 sialic acid-binding proteins, most of which are expressed on subsets of immune cells where they regulate immune responses. Siglec-8 is expressed selectively on human allergic inflammatory cells—primarily eosinophils and mast cells—where engagement causes eosinophil apoptosis and inhibits mast cell mediator release. Evidence supports a model in which human eosinophils and mast cells bind to Siglec-8 sialoglycan ligands on inflammatory target tissues to resolve allergic inflammation and limit tissue damage. To identify Siglec-8-binding sialoglycans from human airways, proteins extracted from postmortem human trachea were resolved by size-exclusion chromatography and composite agarose–acrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted and probed by Siglec-8-Fc blot overlay. Three size classes of Siglec-8 ligands were identified: 250 kDa, 600 kDa and 1 MDa, each of which was purified by affinity chromatography using a recombinant pentameric form of Siglec-8. Proteomic mass spectrometry identified all size classes as the proteoglycan aggrecan, a finding validated by immunoblotting. Glycan array studies demonstrated Siglec-8 binding to synthetic glycans with a terminal Neu5Acα2-3(6-sulfo)-Gal determinant, a quantitatively minor terminus on keratan sulfate (KS) chains of aggrecan. Treating human tracheal extracts with sialidase or keratanase eliminated Siglec-8 binding, indicating sialylated KS chains as Siglec-8-binding determinants. Treating human tracheal histological sections with keratanase also completely eliminated the binding of Siglec-8-Fc. Finally, Siglec-8 ligand purified from human trachea extracts induced increased apoptosis of freshly isolated human eosinophils in vitro. We conclude that sialylated KS proteoglycans are endogenous human airway ligands that bind Siglec-8 and may regulate allergic inflammation.
Analysis of protein landscapes around N-glycosylation sites from the PDB repository for understanding the structural basis of N-glycoprotein processing and maturation Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-18 Suga A, Nagae M, Yamaguchi Y.
Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) are attached onto nascent glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently processed by a set of processing enzymes in the ER and Golgi apparatus. Accumulating evidence has shown that not all N-glycans on glycoproteins are uniformly processed into mature forms (hybrid and complex types in mammals) through the ER and Golgi apparatus, and a certain set of glycans remains unprocessed as an “immature” form (high-mannose type in mammals). Much attention has been paid to environmental factors regulating N-glycoprotein maturation, such as the expression levels of glycosyltransferases/glycosidases. On the other hand, the influence of the 3D structure of the carrier glycoprotein on N-glycan maturation has been investigated mostly using individual model glycoproteins. To obtain more insights into N-glycoprotein maturation, we herein analyze glycoprotein structures extracted from the Protein Data Bank. We confirm that site-specific N-glycan processing is largely explained by the solvent accessibility of the glycosylated Asn residue and of the conjugated N-glycan. Potential bias of protein structural features toward immature or mature forms was explored within a range of concentric circles of fully folded glycoproteins. There does appear to be bias in amino acid composition and secondary structure. Most notably, γ-branched amino acid residues (Asn+Asp+Leu) occur more frequently on unstructured loop regions of immature glycoproteins. Structural features of the protein surface around the N-glycosylated site do seem to affect N-glycan processing and maturation.
Structural and functional analysis of Alg1 beta-1,4 mannosyltransferase reveals the physiological importance of its membrane topology Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-18 Xu X, Li S, Wang N, et al.
In eukaryotes, the biosynthesis of a highly conserved dolichol-linked oligosaccharide (DLO) precursor Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-pyrophosphate-dolichol (PP-Dol) begins on the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ends within the lumen. Two functionally distinguished heteromeric glycosyltransferase (GTase) complexes are responsible for the cytosolic DLO assembly. Alg1, a β-1, 4 mannosyltransferase (MTase) physically interacts with Alg2 and Alg11 proteins to form the multienzyme complex which catalyzes the addition of all five mannose to generate the Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol intermediate. Despite the fact that Alg1 plays a central role in the formation of the multi-MTase has been confirmed, the topological information of Alg1 including the molecular mechanism of membrane association are still poorly understood. Using a combination of bioinformatics and biological approaches, we have undertaken a structural and functional study on Alg1 protein, in which the enzymatic activities of Alg1 and its variants were monitored by a complementation assay using the GALpr-ALG1 yeast strain, and further confirmed by a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based in vitro quantitative assay. Computational and experimental evidence confirmed Alg1 shares structure similarity with Alg13/14 complex, which has been defined as a membrane-associated GT-B GTase. Particularly, we provide clear evidence that the N-terminal transmembrane domain including the following positively charged amino acids and an N-terminal amphiphilic-like α helix domain exposed on the protein surface strictly coordinate the Alg1 orientation on the ER membrane. This work provides detailed membrane topology of Alg1 and further reveals its biological importance at the spatial aspect in coordination of cytosolic DLO biosynthesis.
EpsN from Bacillus subtilis 168 has UDP-2,6-dideoxy 2-acetamido 4-keto glucose aminotransferase activity in vitro Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Kaundinya C, Savithri H, Rao K, et al.
The gene epsN of Bacillus subtilis 168 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichiacoli. Purified recombinant EpsN is shown to be a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferase by absorption spectroscopy, l-cycloserine inhibition and reverse phase HPLC studies. EpsN catalyzes the conversion of UDP-2,6-dideoxy 2-acetamido 4-keto glucose to UDP-2,6-dideoxy 2-acetamido 4-amino glucose. Lys190 was found by sequence comparison and site-directed mutagenesis to form Schiff base with PLP. Mutagenesis studies showed that, in addition to Lys190, Ser185, Glu164, Gly58 and Thr59 are essential for aminotransferase activity.
Biophysical analysis of sialic acid recognition by the complement regulator Factor H Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Schmidt C, Hipgrave Ederveen A, Harder M, et al.
Complement factor H (FH), an elongated and substantially glycosylated 20-domain protein, is a soluble regulator of the complement alternative pathway (AP). It contains several glycan binding sites which mediate recognition of α2-3-linked sialic acid (FH domain 20) and glycosaminoglycans (domains 6–8 and 19–20). FH also binds the complement C3-activation product C3b, a powerful opsonin and focal point for the formation of C3-convertases of the AP feedback loop. In freely circulating FH the C3b binding site in domains 19–20 is occluded, a phenomenon that is not fully understood and could be mediated by an intramolecular interaction between FH’s intrinsic sialylated glycosylation and its own sialic acid binding site. In order to assess this possibility, we characterized FH’s sialylation with respect to glycosidic linkage type and searched for further potential, not yet characterized sialic acid binding sites in FH and its seven-domain spanning splice variant and fellow complement regulator FH like-1 (FHL-1). We also probed FH binding to the sialic acid variant Neu5Gc which is not expressed in humans but on heterologous erythrocytes that restrict the human AP and in FH transgenic mice. We find that FH contains mostly α2-6-linked sialic acid, making an intramolecular interaction with its α2-3-sialic acid specific binding site and an associated self-lock mechanism unlikely, substantiate that there is only a single sialic acid binding site in FH and none in FHL-1, and demonstrate direct binding of FH to the nonhuman sialic acid Neu5Gc, supporting the use of FH transgenic mouse models for studies of complement-related diseases.
Plasma contact activation by a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and its structure–activity relationship study Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Lin L, Xu L, Xiao C, et al.
Plasma contact system is the initial part of both the intrinsic coagulation pathway and kallikrein–kinin pathway, which mainly involves three proteins: coagulation factor XII (FXII), prekallikrein (PK) and high-molecular weight kininogen. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) is a unique sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and sulfated fucose branches. The native FCS was preliminary found to cause undesired activation of the plasma contact system. How this unusual GAG functions in this process remains to be clarified. Herein, the relationship between its structure, plasma contact activation and its effects on the PK–FXII reciprocal activation loop were studied. The recalcification time assay indicated that the FCS at high concentration could be procoagulant which may be attributed to its contact activation activity. The structure–activity relationship study indicated that its high molecular weight and distinct fucose side chains are required for contact activation by FCS, although the sulfate substitution types of its side chains have less impact. In human plasma, the native FCSs potently induced FXII-dependent contact activation. However, in purified systems FCS did not significantly activate FXII per se or induce its autoactivation, whereas FCS significantly promoted the activation of PK by factor XIIa. Polysaccharide–protein interaction assays showed that FCS bound to PK with higher affinity than other contact system proteins. These data suggested that potent contact activation by FCS requires the positive feedback loop between PK and FXII. These findings contribute to better understanding of contact activation by complex GAG.
Structural and conformational studies of the heparan sulfate mimetic PI-88 Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Elli S, Stancanelli E, Handley P, et al.
The heparan sulfate mimetic PI-88 is a complex mixture of sulfated oligosaccharides with anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activity due to its potent inhibition of heparanase and heparan sulfate-dependent angiogenic growth factors. It was recently in Phase III clinical trials for postresection hepatocellular carcinoma. The major oligosaccharide constituents of PI-88 were prepared for the first time by sulfonation of individually purified phosphorylated oligosaccharides isolated from the PI-88 precursor. PI-88 and its components were subjected to detailed 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The spectra of the individual components greatly assisted the assignment of minor resonances in the 1H NMR spectrum of PI-88. The data also showed that the majority of the oligosaccharides in PI-88 are fully sulfated and that undersulfated species present are largely due to anomeric desulfation. The solution conformation of the phosphomannopentaose sulfate (major component) of PI-88 was then determined by a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and NOE measurements which may provide insights into its binding interactions with target proteins.
A pipeline to translate glycosaminoglycan sequences into 3D models. Application to the exploration of glycosaminoglycan conformational space Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Clerc O, Mariethoz J, Rivet A, et al.
Mammalian glycosaminoglycans are linear complex polysaccharides comprising heparan sulfate, heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate and hyaluronic acid. They bind to numerous proteins and these interactions mediate their biological activities. GAG–protein interaction data reported in the literature are curated mostly in MatrixDB database (http://matrixdb.univ-lyon1.fr/). However, a standard nomenclature and a machine-readable format of GAGs together with bioinformatics tools for mining these interaction data are lacking. We report here the building of an automated pipeline to (i) standardize the format of GAG sequences interacting with proteins manually curated from the literature, (ii) translate them into the machine-readable GlycoCT format and into SNFG (Symbol Nomenclature For Glycan) images and (iii) convert their sequences into a format processed by a builder generating three-dimensional structures of polysaccharides based on a repertoire of conformations experimentally validated by data extracted from crystallized GAG–protein complexes. We have developed for this purpose a converter (the CT23D converter) to automatically translate the GlycoCT code of a GAG sequence into the input file required to construct a three-dimensional model.
Galectin-3 binds selectively to the terminal, non-reducing end of β(1→4)-galactans, with overall affinity increasing with chain length Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-09-11 Miller M, Zheng Y, Zhou Y, et al.
Galactans are linear polysaccharides of β(1→4)-linked galactose residues. Although they can antagonize galectin function, the nature of their binding to galectins needs to be better defined to develop them as drugs. Here, we investigated interactions between galectin-3 (Gal-3) and a series of galactans ranging in weight average molecular weight from 670 to 7550 Da. 15N-1H HSQC NMR studies with 15N-labeled Gal-3 carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) indicate that each of these galactans interacts primarily with residues in β-strands 4, 5 and 6 on the canonical, β-galactoside sugar binding S-face. Although these galactans also bind to full length Gal-3 (CRD plus N-terminal tail) to the same extent, it appears that binding to the S-face attenuates interactions between the CRD F-face and N-terminal tail, making interpretation of site-specific binding unclear. Following assignment of galactan 13C and 1H resonances using HSQC, HMBC and TOCSY experiments, we used 13C-1H HSQC data to demonstrate that the Gal-3 CRD binds to the terminal, non-reducing end of these galactans, regardless of their size, but with binding affinity increasing as the galactan chain length increases. Overall, our findings increase understanding as to how galactans interact with Gal-3 at the non-reducing, terminal end of galactose-containing polysaccharides as found on the cell surface.
Selectins in cancer immunity Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-01-17 Borsig L.
Selectins are vascular adhesion molecules that mediate physiological responses such as inflammation, immunity and hemostasis. During cancer progression, selectins promote various steps enabling the interactions between tumor cells and the blood constituents, including platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes. Selectins are carbohydrate-binding molecules that bind to sialylated, fucosylated glycan structures. The increased selectin ligand expression on tumor cells correlates with enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis for cancer patients. While, many studies focused on the role of selectin as a mediator of tumor cell adhesion and extravasation during metastasis, there is evidence for selectins to activate signaling cascade that regulates immune responses within a tumor microenvironment. L-Selectin binding induces activation of leukocytes, which can be further modulated by selectin-mediated interactions with platelets and endothelial cells. Selectin ligand on leukocytes, PSGL-1, triggers intracellular signaling in leukocytes that are induced through platelet’s P-selectin or endothelial E-selectin binding. In this review, I summarize the evidence for selectin-induced immune modulation in cancer progression that represents a possible target for controlling tumor immunity.
Targeting sialic acid–Siglec interactions to reverse immune suppression in cancer Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-01-27 Adams O, Stanczak M, von Gunten S, et al.
Changes in sialic acids in cancer have been observed for many years. In particular, the increase of sialoglycan density or hypersialylation in tumors has been described. Recent studies have identified mechanisms for immune evasion based on sialoglycan interactions with immunoregulatory Siglec receptors that are exploited by tumor cells and microorganisms alike. Siglecs are mostly inhibitory receptors similar to known immune checkpoints including PD-1 or CTLA-4 that are successfully targeted with blocking antibodies for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we summarize the known changes of sialic acids in cancer and the role Siglec receptors play in cancer immunity. We also focus on potential ways to target these Siglec receptors or sialoglycans in order to improve anti-cancer immunity.
Glycan-directed CAR-T cells Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Steentoft C, Migliorini D, King T, et al.
Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy.
Cancer glycan epitopes: biosynthesis, structure and function Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Pearce O.
Aberrant glycan epitopes are a classic hallmark of malignant transformation, yet their full clinical potential in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics is yet to be realized. This is partly because our understanding of how these epitopes are regulated remains poorly understood. In this review cancer glycan epitopes for the major glycan classes are summarized with a focus on their biosynthesis, structure and role in cancer progression. Their application as cancer biomarkers, in particular the more recent work on cancer glycoforms, and the advantages these offer over the glycan or protein alone are discussed. Finally, emerging concepts which expand on the current view of the cancer glycan epitope beyond the single structure, to patterns and the whole glycocalyx, are described. These new approaches that consider the cancer glycan epitope as a glycoform, or as a pattern of many epitope structures, are providing new targets both for cancer biomarkers and therapeutics currently in development at the bench and the clinic.
Through the barricades: overcoming the barriers to effective antibody-based cancer therapeutics Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-12 Dalziel M, Beers S, Cragg M, et al.
Since the turn of the century, cancer therapy has undergone a transformation in terms of new treatment modalities and renewed optimism in achieving long-lived tumor control and even cure. This is, in large part, thanks to the widespread incorporation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into standard treatment regimens. These new therapies have, across many settings, significantly contributed to improved clinical responses, patient quality of life and survival. Moreover, the flexibility of the antibody platform has led to the development of a wide range of innovative and combinatorial therapies that continue to augment the clinician’s armory. Despite these successes, there is a growing awareness that in many cases mAb therapy remains suboptimal, primarily due to inherent limitations imposed by the immune system’s own homeostatic controls and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Here, we discuss the principal barriers that act to constrain the tumor-killing activity of antibody-based therapeutics, particularly those involving antibody glycans, using illustrative examples from both pre-clinical and market approved mAbs. We also discuss strategies that have been, or are in development to overcome these obstacles. Finally, we outline how the growing understanding of the biological terrain in which mAbs function is shaping innovation and regulation in cancer therapeutics.
Active site complementation and hexameric arrangement in the GH family 29; a structure-function study of α-l-fucosidase isoenzyme 1 from Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-08-23 Terézia Kovaľová, Tomáš Kovaľ, Eva Benešová, Patricie Vodičková, Vojtěch Spiwok, Petra Lipovová, Jan Dohnálek
α-l-Fucosidase isoenzyme 1 from bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family GH29 capable of cleaving l-fucose from non-reducing termini of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. Here we present the first crystal structure of this protein revealing a novel quaternary state within this family. The protein is in a unique hexameric assembly revealing the first observed case of active site complementation by a residue from an adjacent monomer in this family. Mutation of the complementing tryptophan residue caused changes in the catalytic properties including a shift of the pH optimum, a change of affinity to an artificial chromogenic substrate and a decreased reaction rate for a natural substrate. The wild type enzyme was active on most of the tested naturally-occurring oligosaccharides and capable of transglycosylation on a variety of acceptor molecules, including saccharides, alcohols or chromogenic substrates. Mutation of the complementing residue changed neither substrate specificity nor the preference for the type of transglycosylation acceptor molecule, however the yields of the reactions were lower in both cases. Maltose molecules bound to the enzyme in the crystal structure identified surface carbohydrate-binding sites, possibly participating in binding of larger oligosaccharides.
Cancer Immunotherapy Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Oliver M T Pearce, Heinz Läubli
Advancements in our understanding of how tumor cells evade immune control have led to new therapeutic approaches, and the introduction of cancer immunotherapies into daily oncological practice. Inhibitors—most of the time blocking antibodies—of inhibitory receptors called immune checkpoints, including PD-1 and CTLA-4, can induce remissions even in patients with advanced disease (Chen and Mellman 2017). For example, patients with metastatic melanoma had a median survival of less than 12 months only 10 years ago, but treatment with blocking antibodies that target PD-1 and CTLA-4 results in 58% of patients with a 3-year survival (Wolchok et al. 2017). The success of these immune checkpoint inhibitors has spurred the development...
Meeting Report of the International Life Science Integration Workshop 2018 Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
The first International Life Science Integration Workshop was held on 5–9 March 2018 in Tokyo, Japan. This workshop was sponsored by the Glycoinformatics Consortium (GLIC), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the National Bioscience Database Center of Japan (NBDC). The first 2 days of this workshop consisted of a symposium with invited talks from experimentalists and bioinformatics experts in the life sciences. The last 3 days were devoted to a Hackathon to further develop communication between the different software projects and support the integration of different life science domains. This was one of the first meetings where glycomics software developers met with leading proteomics and lipidomics resource experimentalists, and the hackathon sessions provided a forum to discuss strategies for data integration and improved data interoperability in the life science domain. The results of the workshop are presented here.
Functional crosstalk among oxidative stress and O-GlcNAc signaling pathways Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Po-Han Chen, Jen-Tsan Chi, Michael Boyce
In metazoans, thousands of intracellular proteins are modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to a wide range of stimuli and stresses. In particular, a complex and evolutionarily conserved interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and oxidative stress has emerged in recent years. Here, we review the current literature on the connections between O-GlcNAc and oxidative stress, with a particular emphasis on major signaling pathways, such as KEAP1/NRF2, FOXO, NFκB, p53 and cell metabolism. Taken together, this work sheds important light on the signaling functions of protein glycosylation and the mechanisms of stress responses alike and illuminates how the two are integrated in animal cell physiology.
A unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate type II with strikingly homogeneous and neatly distributed α-fucose branches Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Paulo A G Soares, Kátia A Ribeiro, Ana P Valente, Nina V Capillé, Stephan-Nicollas M C G Oliveira, Ana M F Tovar, Mariana S Pereira, Eduardo Vilanova, Paulo A S Mourão
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) and sulfated fucans (SFs) are conspicuous components of the body wall of sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea). FCSs are composed of a central core of chondroitin sulfate (CS) decorated with branches of mono- or both mono- and disaccharides of α-fucose (FCS types I and II, respectively). FCSs type II have heterogeneous and irregularly distributed α-fucose branches; however, the novel FCS type II from Holothuria lentiginosa described herein via solution nuclear magnetic resonance has strikingly homogeneous α-fucose branches neatly distributed along its CS core. This FCS is built up of three distinct sequential units composed of the typical CS disaccharides of FCSs, rich in β-galactosamine-4,6diS, decorated with branches of α-Fucp-2,4diS, α-Fucp-3,4diS or α-Fucp[1→3]α-Fucp-4S[1→ linked to the position 3- of the β-glucuronic acid. Conformational analyses of these repetitive units revealed a fairly rigid structure despite of the high sulfate content of their α-fucose branches. We also determined the structure of the SF from H. lentiginosa as a repetitive tetrasaccharide sequence composed of →3]α-Fucp-2,4diS[1→3]α-Fucp[1→3]α-Fucp-2S[1→3]α-Fucp-2S[1→. Furthermore, we determined that the nonsulfated α-fucose units present in FCS type II did not interfere with their anticoagulant potencies and affinities to calcium. FCS is an autapomorphic molecular character of the class Holothuroidea and the composition of their α-fucose branches differs in a species-specific manner. Branches containing α-Fucp-2,4diS are the most common within the extant holothurians, being found in 90% of the FCSs characterized thus far.
Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) glycosite mutation perturbs secretion but not Golgi localization Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Ben Horowitz, Gabriel Javitt, Tal Ilani, Yair Gat, David Morgenstern, Frederic A Bard, Deborah Fass
Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in protein substrates. Unlike other enzymes with related activities, which are commonly found in the endoplasmic reticulum, QSOX1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus or secreted. QSOX1 is upregulated in quiescent fibroblast cells and secreted into the extracellular environment, where it contributes to extracellular matrix assembly. QSOX1 is also upregulated in adenocarcinomas, though the extent to which it is secreted in this context is currently unknown. To achieve a better understanding of factors that dictate QSOX1 localization and function, we aimed to determine how post-translational modifications affect QSOX1 trafficking and activity. We found a highly conserved N-linked glycosylation site to be required for QSOX1 secretion from fibroblasts and other cell types. Notably, QSOX1 lacking a glycan at this site arrives at the Golgi, suggesting that it passes endoplasmic reticulum quality control but is not further transported to the cell surface for secretion. The QSOX1 transmembrane segment is dispensable for Golgi localization and secretion, as fully luminal and transmembrane variants displayed the same trafficking behavior. This study provides a key example of the effect of glycosylation on Golgi exit and contributes to an understanding of late secretory sorting and quality control.
Identification of serum glycoprotein ligands for the immunomodulatory receptor blood dendritic cell antigen 2 Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Jong-won Kim, James Budzak, Yu Liu, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Kurt Drickamer, Maureen E Taylor
Blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA-2) is a C-type lectin found on the surface of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. It functions as a glycan-binding receptor that downregulates the production of type I interferons and thus plays a role in oligosaccharide-mediated immunomodulation. The carbohydrate recognition domain in BDCA-2 binds selectively to galactose-terminated bi-antennary glycans. Because the plasmacytoid dendritic cells function in a plasma environment rich in glycoproteins, experiments have been undertaken to identify endogenous ligands for blood dendritic cell antigen 2. A combination of blotting, affinity chromatography and proteomic analysis reveals that serum glycoprotein ligands for BDCA-2 include IgG, IgA and IgM. Compared to binding of IgG, which was previously described, IgA and IgM bind with higher affinity. The association constants for the different subclasses of immunoglobulins are below and roughly proportional to the serum concentrations of these glycoprotein ligands. Binding to the other main serum glycoprotein ligand, α2-macroglobulin, is independent of whether this protease inhibitor is activated. Binding to all of these glycoprotein ligands is mediated predominantly by bi-antennary glycans in which each branch bears a terminal galactose residue. The different affinities of the glycoprotein ligands reflect the different numbers of these galactose-terminated glycans and their degree of exposure on the native glycoproteins. The results suggest that normal serum levels of immunoglobulins could downmodulate interferon stimulation of further antibody production.
Streptococcal Siglec-like adhesins recognize different subsets of human plasma glycoproteins: implications for infective endocarditis Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Barbara A Bensing, Qiongyu Li, Dayoung Park, Carlito B Lebrilla, Paul M Sullam
Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are typically found among the normal oral microbiota but can also cause infective endocarditis. These organisms express cell surface serine-rich repeat adhesins containing “Siglec-like” binding regions (SLBRs) that mediate attachment to α2-3-linked sialic acids on human glycoproteins. Two known receptors for the Siglec-like adhesins are the salivary mucin MG2/MUC7 and platelet GPIbα, and the interaction of streptococci with these targets may contribute to oral colonization and endocarditis, respectively. The SLBRs display a surprising diversity of preferences for defined glycans, ranging from highly selective to broader specificity. In this report, we characterize the glycoproteins in human plasma recognized by four SLBRs that prefer different α2-3 sialoglycan structures. We found that the SLBRs recognize a surprisingly small subset of plasma proteins that are extensively O-glycosylated. The preferred plasma protein ligands for a sialyl-T antigen-selective SLBR are proteoglycan 4 (lubricin) and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4. Conversely, the preferred ligand for a 3′sialyllactosamine-selective SLBR is glycocalicin (the extracellular portion of platelet GPIbα). All four SLBRs recognize C1 inhibitor but detect distinctly different glycoforms of this key regulator of the complement and kallikrein protease cascades. The four plasma ligands have potential roles in thrombosis and inflammation, and each has been cited as a biomarker for one or more vascular or other diseases. The combined results suggest that the interaction of Siglec-like adhesins with different subsets of plasma glycoproteins could have a significant impact on the propensity of streptococci to establish endocardial infections.
β-Glucan-induced cooperative oligomerization of Dectin-1 C-type lectin-like domain Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-05-11 Hari P Dulal, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β(1–3)-glucans present on non-self pathogens. It is of great importance in innate immunity to understand the mechanism whereby Dectin-1 senses β(1–3)-glucans and induces intracellular signaling. In this study, we characterize the ligand binding and ligand-induced oligomerization of murine Dectin-1 using its C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Interaction of CTLD with laminarin, a β-glucan ligand, induced a tetramer of CTLD, as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering. Component analysis suggested a stoichiometry of four CTLD molecules bound to four laminarin molecules. Dimers and trimers of CTLD were not detected suggesting cooperative oligomerization. In order to map the amino acid residues of CTLD involved in β-glucan binding and domain oligomerization, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on surface-exposed and most conserved amino acid residues. Among the mutants examined, W221A, H223A and Y228A abolished oligomer formation. Since these residues are spatially arranged to form a hydrophobic groove, it is likely that W221, H223 and Y228 are directly involved in β-glucan binding. Interestingly, mutation of the residues on the other side of the hydrophobic groove, including Y141, R145 and E243, also exhibited reduced oligomer formation, suggesting involvement in protein–protein interactions guided by laminarin. Ligand titration using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed that wild-type CTLD binds laminarin cooperatively with a Hill coefficient of ~3, while the oligomer-reducing mutations, inside and outside the putative binding site abolish or decrease cooperativity. We suggest that the ligand-induced cooperative oligomer formation of Dectin-1 is physiologically relevant in sensing exogenous β-glucan and triggering intracellular signaling.
Conserved residues Arg188 and Asp302 are critical for active site organization and catalysis in human ABO(H) blood group A and B glycosyltransferases Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Susannah M L Gagnon, Max S G Legg, Robert Polakowski, James A Letts, Mattias Persson, Shuangjun Lin, Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Brian Rempel, Brock Schuman, Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Svetlana N Borisova, Monica M Palcic, Stephen V Evans
Homologous glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB perform the final step in human ABO(H) blood group A and B antigen synthesis by transferring the sugar moiety from donor UDP-GalNAc/UDP-Gal to the terminal H antigen disaccharide acceptor. Like other GT-A fold family 6 glycosyltransferases, GTA and GTB undergo major conformational changes in two mobile regions, the C-terminal tail and internal loop, to achieve the closed, catalytic state. These changes are known to establish a salt bridge network among conserved active site residues Arg188, Asp211 and Asp302, which move to accommodate a series of discrete donor conformations while promoting loop ordering and formation of the closed enzyme state. However, the individual significance of these residues in linking these processes remains unclear. Here, we report the kinetics and high-resolution structures of GTA/GTB mutants of residues 188 and 302. The structural data support a conserved salt bridge network critical to mobile polypeptide loop organization and stabilization of the catalytically competent donor conformation. Consistent with the X-ray crystal structures, the kinetic data suggest that disruption of this salt bridge network has a destabilizing effect on the transition state, emphasizing the importance of Arg188 and Asp302 in the glycosyltransfer reaction mechanism. The salt bridge network observed in GTA/GTB structures during substrate binding appears to be conserved not only among other Carbohydrate Active EnZyme family 6 glycosyltransferases but also within both retaining and inverting GT-A fold glycosyltransferases. Our findings augment recently published crystal structures, which have identified a correlation between donor substrate conformational changes and mobile loop ordering.
Role of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in Duchenne muscular dystrophy Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 Laurino Carmen, Vadala Maria, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Annamaria Vallelunga, Beniamino Palmieri, Tommaso Iannitti
Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited fatal X-linked myogenic disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 3500 male live births. It affects voluntary muscles, and heart and breathing muscles. DMD is characterised by continuous degeneration and regeneration cycles resulting in extensive fibrosis and a progressive reduction in muscle mass. Since the identification of a reduction in dystrophin protein as the cause of this disorder, numerous innovative and experimental therapies, focusing on increasing the levels of dystrophin, have been proposed, but the clinical improvement has been unsatisfactory. Dystrophin forms the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and its proteins have been studied as a promising novel therapeutic target to treat DMD. Among these proteins, cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are found almost ubiquitously on the surface and in the extracellular matrix of mammalian cells. These macromolecules interact with numerous ligands, including extracellular matrix constituents, adhesion molecules and growth factors that play a crucial role in muscle development and maintenance. In this article, we have reviewed in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies focused on the functional role of GAGs in the pathophysiology of DMD with the final aim of summarising the state of the art of GAG dysregulation within the extracellular matrix in DMD and discussing future therapeutic perspectives.
Tn and STn are members of a family of carbohydrate tumor antigens that possess carbohydrate–carbohydrate interactions Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Marit Sletmoen, Thomas A Gerken, Bjørn T Stokke, Joy Burchell, C Fred Brewer
The mucin-type O-glycome in cancer aberrantly expresses the truncated glycans Tn (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) and STn (Neu5Acα2,6GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr). However, the role of Tn and STn in cancer and other diseases is not well understood. Our recent discovery of the self-binding properties (carbohydrate–carbohydrate interactions, CCIs) of Tn (Tn–Tn) and STn (STn–STn) provides a model for their possible roles in cellular transformation. We also review evidence that Tn and STn are members of a larger family of glycan tumor antigens that possess CCIs, which may participate in oncogenesis.
Global aspects of viral glycosylation Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Ieva Bagdonaite, Hans H Wandall
Enveloped viruses encompass some of the most common human pathogens causing infections of different severity, ranging from no or very few symptoms to lethal disease as seen with the viral hemorrhagic fevers. All enveloped viruses possess an envelope membrane derived from the host cell, modified with often heavily glycosylated virally encoded glycoproteins important for infectivity, viral particle formation and immune evasion. While N-linked glycosylation of viral envelope proteins is well characterized with respect to location, structure and site occupancy, information on mucin-type O-glycosylation of these proteins is less comprehensive. Studies on viral glycosylation are often limited to analysis of recombinant proteins that in most cases are produced in cell lines with a glycosylation capacity different from the capacity of the host cells. The glycosylation pattern of the produced recombinant glycoproteins might therefore be different from the pattern on native viral proteins. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on analysis of viral glycosylation, and summarize known roles of glycans in the biology of enveloped human viruses. In addition, we describe how to overcome the analytical limitations by using a global approach based on mass spectrometry to identify viral O-glycosylation in virus-infected cell lysates using the complex enveloped virus herpes simplex virus type 1 as a model. We underscore that glycans often pay important contributions to overall protein structure, function and immune recognition, and that glycans represent a crucial determinant for vaccine design. High throughput analysis of glycosylation on relevant glycoprotein formulations, as well as data compilation and sharing is therefore important to identify consensus glycosylation patterns for translational applications.
TCA cycle-powered synthesis of fucosylated oligosaccharides Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 Ningzi Guan, Hyun-Dong Shin, Lingfeng Long, Parastoo Azadi, Rachel Chen
Microbial catalysis has recently emerged as one of the most promising approaches in oligosaccharide synthesis. However, despite significant progress, microbial synthesis still requires much improvement in efficiency and in reduction of process complexity. Additionally, given the stunning diversity and many varied applications of glycans, broadening the range of glycans accessible via microbial synthesis is of paramount importance. Major challenges in microbial synthesis include catabolite repression and high cellular energy requirement. Here we demonstrated a new approach to overcome these challenges by directly tapping into the cellular “power house,” the TCA cycle, to provide the cellular energy for synthesis. This approach not only circumvents catabolite repression but also eliminates acidic glycolysis by-products. As such, the whole-cell biocatalysis can be carried out without sophisticated fed-batch feeding and pH control in the synthesis stage. The system could achieve several grams per liter (3–4 g/L) within a 24-h period in shaker flask cultivation for two targets, fucosyllactose and fucosyllactulose, demonstrating efficiency of the biocatalyst developed and its applicability to both natural and non-natural targets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first use of TCA cycle intermediates as the energy source for oligosaccharide synthesis and the first description of successful synthesis of fucosyllactulose with titers in several grams per liter.
The parasitic nematode Oesophagostomum dentatum synthesizes unusual glycosaminoglycan-like O-glycans Glycobiology (IF 3.664) Pub Date : 2018-05-11 Jorick Vanbeselaere, Shi Yan, Anja Joachim, Katharina Paschinger, Iain BH Wilson
O-glycosylation is probably one of the most varied sets of post-translational modifications across all organisms, but amongst the most refractory to analyze. In animals, O-xylosylation of serine residues represents the first stage in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, whose repeat regions are generally analyzed as fragments resulting from enzymatic or chemical degradation, whereas their core regions can be isolated by β-elimination or endo-β-xylosidase digestion. In the present study, we show that hydrazinolysis can be employed for release of glycosaminoglycan-type oligosaccharides from nematodes prior to fluorescent labeling with 2-aminopyridine. While various [HexNAcHexA]nGal2Xyl oligosaccharides were isolated from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, more unusual glycosaminoglycan-type glycans were found to be present in the porcine parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum. In this case, as judged by MS/MS before and after hydrofluoric acid or β-galactosidase digestion, core sequences with extra galactose and phosphorylcholine residues were detected as [(±PC)HexNAcHexA]n(±PC)Galβ3-(±Galβ4)Galβ4Xyl. Thus, hydrazinolysis and fluorescent labeling can be combined to analyze unique forms of O-xylosylation, including new examples of zwitterionic glycan modifications.
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