A Lifetime of Adventures in Glycobiology Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Stuart Kornfeld
My initial research experience involved studying how bacteria synthesize nucleotide sugars, the donors for the formation of cell wall polysaccharides. During this time, I became aware that mammalian cells also have a surface coat of sugars and was intrigued as to whether these sugars might be arranged in specific sequences that function as information molecules in biologic processes. Thus began a long journey that has taken me from glycan structural analysis and determination of plant lectin-binding preferences to the biosynthesis of Asn-linked oligosaccharides and the mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) lysosomal enzyme targeting pathway. The Man-6-P system represents an early example of a glycan serving as an information molecule in a fundamental cellular function. The remarkable advances in the field of glycobiology since I entered have uncovered scores of additional examples of oligosaccharide–lectin interactions mediating critical biologic processes. It has been a rewarding experience to participate in the efforts that have established a central role for glycans in biology.
Metabolic Regulation of Transcription and Chromatin Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Ronald C. Conaway
Although cell metabolism has been established as a major regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, the mechanisms underlying this regulation are still being uncovered. Recent years have seen great advances in our understanding of biochemical mechanisms of metabolic regulation of transcription and chromatin. Prime examples include insights into how nutrients and cellular energy status regulate synthesis of ribosomal RNAs by RNA polymerases I and III during ribosome biogenesis and how a variety of enzymes that catalyze modifications of histones in chromatin are regulated by the levels of certain metabolites. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry includes a set of reviews describing these and other advances in understanding aspects of the metabolic regulation of RNA polymerases I and III transcription and chromatin.
Chromatin and Metabolism Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Tamaki Suganuma, Jerry L. Workman
Chromatin is a mighty consumer of cellular energy generated by metabolism. Metabolic status is efficiently coordinated with transcription and translation, which also feed back to regulate metabolism. Conversely, suppression of energy utilization by chromatin processes may serve to preserve energy resources for cell survival. Most of the reactions involved in chromatin modification require metabolites as their cofactors or coenzymes. Therefore, the metabolic status of the cell can influence the spectra of posttranslational histone modifications and the structure, density and location of nucleosomes, impacting epigenetic processes. Thus, transcription, translation, and DNA/RNA biogenesis adapt to cellular metabolism. In addition to dysfunctions of metabolic enzymes, imbalances between metabolism and chromatin activities trigger metabolic disease and life span alteration. Here, we review the synthesis of the metabolites and the relationships between metabolism and chromatin function. Furthermore, we discuss how the chromatin response feeds back to metabolic regulation in biological processes.
Regulation of RNA Polymerase I Transcription in Development, Disease, and Aging Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Samim Sharifi, Holger Bierhoff
Ribosome biogenesis is a complex and highly energy-demanding process that requires the concerted action of all three nuclear RNA polymerases (Pol I–III) in eukaryotes. The three largest ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) originate from a precursor transcript (pre-rRNA) that is encoded by multicopy genes located in the nucleolus. Transcription of these rRNA genes (rDNA) by Pol I is the key regulation step in ribosome production and is tightly controlled by an intricate network of signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. In this article, we give an overview of the composition of the basal Pol I machinery and rDNA chromatin. We discuss rRNA gene regulation in response to environmental signals and developmental cues and focus on perturbations occurring in diseases linked to either excessive or limited rRNA levels. Finally, we discuss the emerging view that rDNA integrity and activity may be involved in the aging process.
Signaling to and from the RNA Polymerase III Transcription and Processing Machinery Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Ian M. Willis, Robyn D. Moir
RNA polymerase (Pol) III has a specialized role in transcribing the most abundant RNAs in eukaryotic cells, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), along with other ubiquitous small noncoding RNAs, many of which have functions related to the ribosome and protein synthesis. The high energetic cost of producing these RNAs and their central role in protein synthesis underlie the robust regulation of Pol III transcription in response to nutrients and stress by growth regulatory pathways. Downstream of Pol III, signaling impacts posttranscriptional processes affecting tRNA function in translation and tRNA cleavage into smaller fragments that are increasingly attributed with novel cellular activities. In this review, we consider how nutrients and stress control Pol III transcription via its factors and its negative regulator, Maf1. We highlight recent work showing that the composition of the tRNA population and the function of individual tRNAs is dynamically controlled and that unrestrained Pol III transcription can reprogram central metabolic pathways.
Principles of Protein Stability and Their Application in Computational Design Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Adi Goldenzweig, Sarel J. Fleishman
Proteins are increasingly used in basic and applied biomedical research. Many proteins, however, are only marginally stable and can be expressed in limited amounts, thus hampering research and applications. Research has revealed the thermodynamic, cellular, and evolutionary principles and mechanisms that underlie marginal stability. With this growing understanding, computational stability design methods have advanced over the past two decades starting from methods that selectively addressed only some aspects of marginal stability. Current methods are more general and, by combining phylogenetic analysis with atomistic design, have shown drastic improvements in solubility, thermal stability, and aggregation resistance while maintaining the protein's primary molecular activity. Stability design is opening the way to rational engineering of improved enzymes, therapeutics, and vaccines and to the application of protein design methodology to large proteins and molecular activities that have proven challenging in the past.
Directed Evolution of Protein Catalysts Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Cathleen Zeymer, Donald Hilvert
Directed evolution is a powerful technique for generating tailor-made enzymes for a wide range of biocatalytic applications. Following the principles of natural evolution, iterative cycles of mutagenesis and screening or selection are applied to modify protein properties, enhance catalytic activities, or develop completely new protein catalysts for non-natural chemical transformations. This review briefly surveys the experimental methods used to generate genetic diversity and screen or select for improved enzyme variants. Emphasis is placed on a key challenge, namely how to generate novel catalytic activities that expand the scope of natural reactions. Two particularly effective strategies, exploiting catalytic promiscuity and rational design, are illustrated by representative examples of successfully evolved enzymes. Opportunities for extending these approaches to more complex biocatalytic systems are also considered.
Understanding and Improving the Activity of Flavin-Dependent Halogenases via Random and Targeted Mutagenesis Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Mary C. Andorfer, Jared C. Lewis
Flavin-dependent halogenases (FDHs) catalyze the halogenation of organic substrates by coordinating reactions of reduced flavin, molecular oxygen, and chloride. Targeted and random mutagenesis of these enzymes have been used to both understand and alter their reactivity. These studies have led to insights into residues essential for catalysis and FDH variants with improved stability, expanded substrate scope, and altered site selectivity. Mutations throughout FDH structures have contributed to all of these advances. More recent studies have sought to rationalize the impact of these mutations on FDH function and to identify new FDHs to deepen our understanding of this enzyme class and to expand their utility for biocatalytic applications.
Metabolite–Enzyme Coevolution: From Single Enzymes to Metabolic Pathways and Networks Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Lianet Noda-Garcia, Wolfram Liebermeister, Dan S. Tawfik
How individual enzymes evolved is relatively well understood. However, individual enzymes rarely confer a physiological advantage on their own. Judging by its current state, the emergence of metabolism seemingly demanded the simultaneous emergence of many enzymes. Indeed, how multicomponent interlocked systems, like metabolic pathways, evolved is largely an open question. This complexity can be unlocked if we assume that survival of the fittest applies not only to genes and enzymes but also to the metabolites they produce. This review develops our current knowledge of enzyme evolution into a wider hypothesis of pathway and network evolution. We describe the current models for pathway evolution and offer an integrative metabolite–enzyme coevolution hypothesis. Our hypothesis addresses the origins of new metabolites and of new enzymes and the order of their recruitment. We aim to not only survey established knowledge but also present open questions and potential ways of addressing them.
Lesion Bypass and the Reactivation of Stalled Replication Forks Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Kenneth J. Marians
Accurate transmission of the genetic information requires complete duplication of the chromosomal DNA each cell division cycle. However, the idea that replication forks would form at origins of DNA replication and proceed without impairment to copy the chromosomes has proven naive. It is now clear that replication forks stall frequently as a result of encounters between the replication machinery and template damage, slow-moving or paused transcription complexes, unrelieved positive superhelical tension, covalent protein–DNA complexes, and as a result of cellular stress responses. These stalled forks are a major source of genome instability. The cell has developed many strategies for ensuring that these obstructions to DNA replication do not result in loss of genetic information, including DNA damage tolerance mechanisms such as lesion skipping, whereby the replisome jumps the lesion and continues downstream; template switching both behind template damage and at the stalled fork; and the error-prone pathway of translesion synthesis.
Translesion and Repair DNA Polymerases: Diverse Structure and Mechanism Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Wei Yang, Yang Gao
The number of DNA polymerases identified in each organism has mushroomed in the past two decades. Most newly found DNA polymerases specialize in translesion synthesis and DNA repair instead of replication. Although intrinsic error rates are higher for translesion and repair polymerases than for replicative polymerases, the specialized polymerases increase genome stability and reduce tumorigenesis. Reflecting the numerous types of DNA lesions and variations of broken DNA ends, translesion and repair polymerases differ in structure, mechanism, and function. Here, we review the unique and general features of polymerases specialized in lesion bypass, as well as in gap-filling and end-joining synthesis.
The MRE11–RAD50–NBS1 Complex Conducts the Orchestration of Damage Signaling and Outcomes to Stress in DNA Replication and Repair Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Aleem Syed, John A. Tainer
Genomic instability in disease and its fidelity in health depend on the DNA damage response (DDR), regulated in part from the complex of meiotic recombination 11 homolog 1 (MRE11), ATP-binding cassette–ATPase (RAD50), and phosphopeptide-binding Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1). The MRE11–RAD50–NBS1 (MRN) complex forms a multifunctional DDR machine. Within its network assemblies, MRN is the core conductor for the initial and sustained responses to DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, dysfunctional telomeres, and viral DNA infection. MRN can interfere with cancer therapy and is an attractive target for precision medicine. Its conformations change the paradigm whereby kinases initiate damage sensing. Delineated results reveal kinase activation, posttranslational targeting, functional scaffolding, conformations storing binding energy and enabling access, interactions with hub proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), and distinct networks at DNA breaks and forks. MRN biochemistry provides prototypic insights into how it initiates, implements, and regulates multifunctional responses to genomic stress.
Nuclear Genomic Instability and Aging Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Laura J. Niedernhofer, Aditi U. Gurkar, Yinsheng Wang, Jan Vijg, Jan H.J. Hoeijmakers, Paul D. Robbins
The nuclear genome decays as organisms age. Numerous studies demonstrate that the burden of several classes of DNA lesions is greater in older mammals than in young mammals. More challenging is proving this is a cause rather than a consequence of aging. The DNA damage theory of aging, which argues that genomic instability plays a causal role in aging, has recently gained momentum. Support for this theory stems partly from progeroid syndromes in which inherited defects in DNA repair increase the burden of DNA damage leading to accelerated aging of one or more organs. Additionally, growing evidence shows that DNA damage accrual triggers cellular senescence and metabolic changes that promote a decline in tissue function and increased susceptibility to age-related diseases. Here, we examine multiple lines of evidence correlating nuclear DNA damage with aging. We then consider how, mechanistically, nuclear genotoxic stress could promote aging. We conclude that the evidence, in toto, supports a role for DNA damage as a nidus of aging.
Dosage Compensation of the X Chromosome: A Complex Epigenetic Assignment Involving Chromatin Regulators and Long Noncoding RNAs Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Maria Samata, Asifa Akhtar
X chromosome regulation represents a prime example of an epigenetic phenomenon where coordinated regulation of a whole chromosome is required. In flies, this is achieved by transcriptional upregulation of X chromosomal genes in males to equalize the gene dosage differences in females. Chromatin-bound proteins and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituting a ribonucleoprotein complex known as the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex or the dosage compensation complex mediate this process. MSL complex members decorate the male X chromosome, and their absence leads to male lethality. The male X chromosome is also enriched with histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac), indicating that the chromatin compaction status of the X chromosome also plays an important role in transcriptional activation. How the X chromosome is specifically targeted and how dosage compensation is mechanistically achieved are central questions for the field. Here, we review recent advances, which reveal a complex interplay among lncRNAs, the chromatin landscape, transcription, and chromosome conformation that fine-tune X chromosome gene expression.
A Solid-State Conceptualization of Information Transfer from Gene to Message to Protein Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Masato Kato, Steven L. McKnight
In this review, we describe speculative ideas and early stage research concerning the flow of genetic information from the nuclear residence of genes to the disparate, cytoplasmic sites of protein synthesis. We propose that this process of information transfer is meticulously guided by transient structures formed from protein segments of low sequence complexity/intrinsic disorder. These low complexity domains are ubiquitously associated with regulatory proteins that control gene expression and RNA biogenesis, but they are also found in the central channel of nuclear pores, the nexus points of intermediate filament assembly, and the locations of action of other well-studied cellular proteins and pathways. Upon being organized into localized cellular positions via mechanisms utilizing properly folded protein domains, thereby facilitating elevated local concentration, certain low complexity domains adopt cross-β interactions that are both structurally specific and labile to disassembly. These weakly tethered assemblies, we propose, are built to relay the passage of genetic information from one site to another within a cell, ensuring that the process is of extreme fidelity.
Along the Central Dogma—Controlling Gene Expression with Small Molecules Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Tilman Schneider-Poetsch, Minoru Yoshida
The central dogma of molecular biology, that DNA is transcribed into RNA and RNA translated into protein, was coined in the early days of modern biology. Back in the 1950s and 1960s, bacterial genetics first opened the way toward understanding life as the genetically encoded interaction of macromolecules. As molecular biology progressed and our knowledge of gene control deepened, it became increasingly clear that expression relied on many more levels of regulation. In the process of dissecting mechanisms of gene expression, specific small-molecule inhibitors played an important role and became valuable tools of investigation. Small molecules offer significant advantages over genetic tools, as they allow inhibiting a process at any desired time point, whereas mutating or altering the gene of an important regulator would likely result in a dead organism. With the advent of modern sequencing technology, it has become possible to monitor global cellular effects of small-molecule treatment and thereby overcome the limitations of classical biochemistry, which usually looks at a biological system in isolation. This review focuses on several molecules, especially natural products, that have played an important role in dissecting gene expression and have opened up new fields of investigation as well as clinical venues for disease treatment.
How Messenger RNA and Nascent Chain Sequences Regulate Translation Elongation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2015-06-17 Junhong Choi, Rosslyn Grosely, Arjun Prabhakar, Christopher P. Lapointe, Jinfan Wang, Joseph D. Puglisi
Translation elongation is a highly coordinated, multistep, multifactor process that ensures accurate and efficient addition of amino acids to a growing nascent-peptide chain encoded in the sequence of translated messenger RNA (mRNA). Although translation elongation is heavily regulated by external factors, there is clear evidence that mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences control elongation dynamics, determining both the sequence and structure of synthesized proteins. Advances in methods have driven experiments that revealed the basic mechanisms of elongation as well as the mechanisms of regulation by mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences. In this review, we highlight how mRNA and nascent-peptide elements manipulate the translation machinery to alter the dynamics and pathway of elongation.
Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics: Modes of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, and Implications for Drug Design Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Jinzhong Lin, Dejian Zhou, Thomas A. Steitz, Yury S. Polikanov, Matthieu G. Gagnon
Genetic information is translated into proteins by the ribosome. Structural studies of the ribosome and of its complexes with factors and inhibitors have provided invaluable information on the mechanism of protein synthesis. Ribosome inhibitors are among the most successful antimicrobial drugs and constitute more than half of all medicines used to treat infections. However, bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat because the microbes have developed resistance to the most effective antibiotics, creating a major public health care threat. This has spurred a renewed interest in structure-function studies of protein synthesis inhibitors, and in few cases, compounds have been developed into potent therapeutic agents against drug-resistant pathogens. In this review, we describe the modes of action of many ribosome-targeting antibiotics, highlight the major resistance mechanisms developed by pathogenic bacteria, and discuss recent advances in structure-assisted design of new molecules.
DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries: A Selection System Based on Endowing Organic Compounds with Amplifiable Information Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Dario Neri, Richard A. Lerner
The discovery of organic ligands that bind specifically to proteins is a central problem in chemistry, biology, and the biomedical sciences. The encoding of individual organic molecules with distinctive DNA tags, serving as amplifiable identification bar codes, allows the construction and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, thus facilitating the discovery of ligands to many different protein targets. Fundamentally, one links powers of genetics and chemical synthesis. After the initial description of DNA-encoded chemical libraries in 1992, several experimental embodiments of the technology have been reduced to practice. This review provides a historical account of important milestones in the development of DNA-encoded chemical libraries, a survey of relevant ongoing research activities, and a glimpse into the future.
The Structural Enzymology of Iterative Aromatic Polyketide Synthases: A Critical Comparison with Fatty Acid Synthases Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2013-07-12 Shiou-Chuan (Sheryl) Tsai
Polyketides are a large family of structurally complex natural products including compounds with important bioactivities. Polyketides are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs), multienzyme complexes derived evolutionarily from fatty acid synthases (FASs). The focus of this review is to critically compare the properties of FASs with iterative aromatic PKSs, including type II PKSs and fungal type I nonreducing PKSs whose chemical logic is distinct from that of modular PKSs. This review focuses on structural and enzymological studies that reveal both similarities and striking differences between FASs and aromatic PKSs. The potential application of FAS and aromatic PKS structures for bioengineering future drugs and biofuels is highlighted.
Reductionist Approach in Peptide-Based Nanotechnology Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Ehud Gazit
The formation of ordered nanostructures by molecular self-assembly of proteins and peptides represents one of the principal directions in nanotechnology. Indeed, polyamides provide superior features as materials with diverse physical properties. A reductionist approach allowed the identification of extremely short peptide sequences, as short as dipeptides, which could form well-ordered amyloid-like β-sheet-rich assemblies comparable to supramolecular structures made of much larger proteins. Some of the peptide assemblies show remarkable mechanical, optical, and electrical characteristics. Another direction of reductionism utilized a natural noncoded amino acid, α-aminoisobutryic acid, to form short superhelical assemblies. The use of this exceptional helix inducer motif allowed the fabrication of single heptad repeats used in various biointerfaces, including their use as surfactants and DNA-binding agents. Two additional directions of the reductionist approach include the use of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and coassembly techniques. The diversified accomplishments of the reductionist approach, as well as the exciting future advances it bears, are discussed.
A Rich Man, Poor Man Story of S-Adenosylmethionine and Cobalamin Revisited Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Jennifer Bridwell-Rabb, Tsehai A.J. Grell, Catherine L. Drennan
S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) has been referred to as both “a poor man's adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)” and “a rich man's AdoCbl,” but today, with the ever-increasing number of functions attributed to each cofactor, both appear equally rich and surprising. The recent characterization of an organometallic species in an AdoMet radical enzyme suggests that the line that differentiates them in nature will be constantly challenged. Here, we compare and contrast AdoMet and cobalamin (Cbl) and consider why Cbl-dependent AdoMet radical enzymes require two cofactors that are so similar in their reactivity. We further carry out structural comparisons employing the recently determined crystal structure of oxetanocin-A biosynthetic enzyme OxsB, the first three-dimensional structural data on a Cbl-dependent AdoMet radical enzyme. We find that the structural motifs responsible for housing the AdoMet radical machinery are largely conserved, whereas the motifs responsible for binding additional cofactors are much more varied.
2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenases Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Md. Saiful Islam, Thomas M. Leissing, Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury, Richard J. Hopkinson, Christopher J. Schofield
2-Oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases (2OGXs) catalyze a remarkably diverse range of oxidative reactions. In animals, these comprise hydroxylations and N-demethylations proceeding via hydroxylation; in plants and microbes, they catalyze a wider range including ring formations, rearrangements, desaturations, and halogenations. The catalytic flexibility of 2OGXs is reflected in their biological functions. After pioneering work identified the roles of 2OGXs in collagen biosynthesis, research revealed they also function in plant and animal development, transcriptional regulation, nucleic acid modification/repair, fatty acid metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including of medicinally important antibiotics. In plants, 2OGXs are important agrochemical targets and catalyze herbicide degradation. Human 2OGXs, particularly those regulating transcription, are current therapeutic targets for anemia and cancer. Here, we give an overview of the biochemistry of 2OGXs, providing examples linking to biological function, and outline how knowledge of their enzymology is being exploited in medicine, agrochemistry, and biocatalysis.
Transition Metal Sequestration by the Host-Defense Protein Calprotectin Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Emily M. Zygiel, Elizabeth M. Nolan
In response to microbial infection, the human host deploys metal-sequestering host-defense proteins, which reduce nutrient availability and thereby inhibit microbial growth and virulence. Calprotectin (CP) is an abundant antimicrobial protein released from neutrophils and epithelial cells at sites of infection. CP sequesters divalent first-row transition metal ions to limit the availability of essential metal nutrients in the extracellular space. While functional and clinical studies of CP have been pursued for decades, advances in our understanding of its biological coordination chemistry, which is central to its role in the host–microbe interaction, have been made in more recent years. In this review, we focus on the coordination chemistry of CP and highlight studies of its metal-binding properties and contributions to the metal-withholding innate immune response. Taken together, these recent studies inform our current model of how CP participates in metal homeostasis and immunity, and they provide a foundation for further investigations of a remarkable metal-chelating protein at the host–microbe interface and beyond.
Chalkophores Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Grace E. Kenney, Amy C. Rosenzweig
Copper-binding metallophores, or chalkophores, play a role in microbial copper homeostasis that is analogous to that of siderophores in iron homeostasis. The best-studied chalkophores are members of the methanobactin (Mbn) family—ribosomally produced, posttranslationally modified natural products first identified as copper chelators responsible for copper uptake in methane-oxidizing bacteria. To date, Mbns have been characterized exclusively in those species, but there is genomic evidence for their production in a much wider range of bacteria. This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding the function, biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of Mbns. While the roles of several proteins in these processes are supported by substantial genetic and biochemical evidence, key aspects of Mbn manufacture, handling, and regulation remain unclear. In addition, other natural products that have been proposed to mediate copper uptake as well as metallophores that have biologically relevant roles involving copper binding, but not copper uptake, are discussed.
Regulated Proteolysis in Bacteria Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Samar A. Mahmoud, Peter Chien
Regulated proteolysis is a vital process that affects all living things. Bacteria use energy-dependent AAA+ proteases to power degradation of misfolded and native regulatory proteins. Given that proteolysis is an irreversible event, specificity and selectivity in degrading substrates are key. Specificity is often augmented through the use of adaptors that modify the inherent specificity of the proteolytic machinery. Regulated protein degradation is intricately linked to quality control, cell-cycle progression, and physiological transitions. In this review, we highlight recent work that has shed light on our understanding of regulated proteolysis in bacteria. We discuss the role AAA+ proteases play during balanced growth as well as how these proteases are deployed during changes in growth. We present examples of how protease selectivity can be controlled in increasingly complex ways. Finally, we describe how coupling a core recognition determinant to one or more modifying agents is a general theme for regulated protein degradation.
Structure and Function of the 26S Proteasome Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Jared A.M. Bard, Ellen A. Goodall, Eric R. Greene, Erik Jonsson, Ken C. Dong, Andreas Martin
As the endpoint for the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the 26S proteasome is the principal proteolytic machine responsible for regulated protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The proteasome's cellular functions range from general protein homeostasis and stress response to the control of vital processes such as cell division and signal transduction. To reliably process all the proteins presented to it in the complex cellular environment, the proteasome must combine high promiscuity with exceptional substrate selectivity. Recent structural and biochemical studies have shed new light on the many steps involved in proteasomal substrate processing, including recognition, deubiquitination, and ATP-driven translocation and unfolding. In addition, these studies revealed a complex conformational landscape that ensures proper substrate selection before the proteasome commits to processive degradation. These advances in our understanding of the proteasome's intricate machinery set the stage for future studies on how the proteasome functions as a major regulator of the eukaryotic proteome.
Protein Quality Control Degradation in the Nucleus Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Charisma Enam, Yifat Geffen, Tommer Ravid, Richard G. Gardner
Nuclear proteins participate in diverse cellular processes, many of which are essential for cell survival and viability. To maintain optimal nuclear physiology, the cell employs the ubiquitin-proteasome system to eliminate damaged and misfolded proteins in the nucleus that could otherwise harm the cell. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge about the major ubiquitin-protein ligases involved in protein quality control degradation (PQCD) in the nucleus and how they orchestrate their functions to eliminate misfolded proteins in different nuclear subcompartments. Many human disorders are causally linked to protein misfolding in the nucleus, hence we discuss major concepts that still need to be clarified to better understand the basis of the nuclear misfolded proteins’ toxic effects. Additionally, we touch upon potential strategies for manipulating nuclear PQCD pathways to ameliorate diseases associated with protein misfolding and aggregation in the nucleus.
Protein Quality Control of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ubiquitin–Proteasome-Triggered Degradation of Aberrant Proteins: Yeast Pioneers the Path Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Nicole Berner, Karl-Richard Reutter, Dieter H. Wolf
Cells must constantly monitor the integrity of their macromolecular constituents. Proteins are the most versatile class of macromolecules but are sensitive to structural alterations. Misfolded or otherwise aberrant protein structures lead to dysfunction and finally aggregation. Their presence is linked to aging and a plethora of severe human diseases. Thus, misfolded proteins have to be rapidly eliminated. Secretory proteins constitute more than one-third of the eukaryotic proteome. They are imported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they are folded and modified. A highly elaborated machinery controls their folding, recognizes aberrant folding states, and retrotranslocates permanently misfolded proteins from the ER back to the cytosol. In the cytosol, they are degraded by the highly selective ubiquitin–proteasome system. This process of protein quality control followed by proteasomal elimination of the misfolded protein is termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD), and it depends on an intricate interplay between the ER and the cytosol.
Retrospective on Cholesterol Homeostasis: The Central Role of Scap Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Michael S. Brown, Arun Radhakrishnan, Joseph L. Goldstein
Scap is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a molecular machine to control the cholesterol content of membranes in mammalian cells. In the 21 years since our laboratory discovered Scap, we have learned how it binds sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and transports them from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi for proteolytic processing. Proteolysis releases the SREBP transcription factor domains, which enter the nucleus to promote cholesterol synthesis and uptake. When cholesterol in ER membranes exceeds a threshold, the sterol binds to Scap, triggering several conformational changes that prevent the Scap–SREBP complex from leaving the ER. As a result, SREBPs are no longer processed, cholesterol synthesis and uptake are repressed, and cholesterol homeostasis is restored. This review focuses on the four domains of Scap that undergo concerted conformational changes in response to cholesterol binding. The data provide a molecular mechanism for the control of lipids in cell membranes.
The Oxysterol-Binding Protein Cycle: Burning Off PI(4)P to Transport Cholesterol Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Bruno Antonny, Joëlle Bigay, Bruno Mesmin
To maintain an asymmetric distribution of ions across membranes, protein pumps displace ions against their concentration gradient by using chemical energy. Here, we describe a functionally analogous but topologically opposite process that applies to the lipid transfer protein (LTP) oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP). This multidomain protein exchanges cholesterol for the phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] between two apposed membranes. Because of the subsequent hydrolysis of PI(4)P, this counterexchange is irreversible and contributes to the establishment of a cholesterol gradient along organelles of the secretory pathway. The facts that some natural anti-cancer molecules block OSBP and that many viruses hijack the OSBP cycle for the formation of intracellular replication organelles highlight the importance and potency of OSBP-mediated lipid exchange. The architecture of some LTPs is similar to that of OSBP, suggesting that the principles of the OSBP cycle—burning PI(4)P for the vectorial transfer of another lipid—might be general.
Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Elisabeth M. Storck, Cagakan Özbalci, Ulrike S. Eggert
Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.
Regulation of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Marcel Mettlen, Ping-Hung Chen, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Gaudenz Danuser, Sandra L. Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. It is responsible for the uptake of transmembrane receptors and transporters, for remodeling plasma membrane composition in response to environmental changes, and for regulating cell surface signaling. CME occurs via the assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits that concentrate cargo as they invaginate and pinch off to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition to the major coat proteins, clathrin triskelia and adaptor protein complexes, CME requires a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids. CME is regulated at multiple steps—initiation, cargo selection, maturation, and fission—and is monitored by an endocytic checkpoint that induces disassembly of defective pits. Regulation occurs via posttranslational modifications, allosteric conformational changes, and isoform and splice-variant differences among components of the CME machinery, including the GTPase dynamin. This review summarizes recent findings on the regulation of CME and the evolution of this complex process.
The Molecular Basis of G Protein–Coupled Receptor Activation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2014-06-12 William I. Weis, Brian K. Kobilka
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate the majority of cellular responses to external stimuli. Upon activation by a ligand, the receptor binds to a partner heterotrimeric G protein and promotes exchange of GTP for GDP, leading to dissociation of the G protein into α and βγ subunits that mediate downstream signals. GPCRs can also activate distinct signaling pathways through arrestins. Active states of GPCRs form by small rearrangements of the ligand-binding, or orthosteric, site that are amplified into larger conformational changes. Molecular understanding of the allosteric coupling between ligand binding and G protein or arrestin interaction is emerging from structures of several GPCRs crystallized in inactive and active states, spectroscopic data, and computer simulations. The coupling is loose, rather than concerted, and agonist binding does not fully stabilize the receptor in an active conformation. Distinct intermediates whose populations are shifted by ligands of different efficacies underlie the complex pharmacology of GPCRs.
Protein Serine/Threonine Phosphatases: Keys to Unlocking Regulators and Substrates Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 David L. Brautigan, Shirish Shenolikar
Protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPPs) are ancient enzymes, with distinct types conserved across eukaryotic evolution. PPPs are segregated into types primarily on the basis of the unique interactions of PPP catalytic subunits with regulatory proteins. The resulting holoenzymes dock substrates distal to the active site to enhance specificity. This review focuses on the subunit and substrate interactions for PPP that depend on short linear motifs. Insights about these motifs from structures of holoenzymes open new opportunities for computational biology approaches to elucidate PPP networks. There is an expanding knowledge base of posttranslational modifications of PPP catalytic and regulatory subunits, as well as of their substrates, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination. Cross talk between these posttranslational modifications creates PPP-based signaling. Knowledge of PPP complexes, signaling clusters, as well as how PPPs communicate with each other in response to cellular signals should unlock the doors to PPP networks and signaling “clouds” that orchestrate and coordinate different aspects of cell physiology.
Biological Insight from Super-Resolution Microscopy: What We Can Learn from Localization-Based Images Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 David Baddeley, Joerg Bewersdorf
Super-resolution optical imaging based on the switching and localization of individual fluorescent molecules [photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), etc.] has evolved remarkably over the last decade. Originally driven by pushing technological limits, it has become a tool of biological discovery. The initial demand for impressive pictures showing well-studied biological structures has been replaced by a need for quantitative, reliable data providing dependable evidence for specific unresolved biological hypotheses. In this review, we highlight applications that showcase this development, identify the features that led to their success, and discuss remaining challenges and difficulties. In this context, we consider the complex topic of defining resolution for this imaging modality and address some of the more common analytical methods used with this data.
Imaging Bacterial Cell Wall Biosynthesis Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Atanas D. Radkov, Yen-Pang Hsu, Garrett Booher, Michael S. VanNieuwenhze
Peptidoglycan is an essential component of the cell wall that protects bacteria from environmental stress. A carefully coordinated biosynthesis of peptidoglycan during cell elongation and division is required for cell viability. This biosynthesis involves sophisticated enzyme machineries that dynamically synthesize, remodel, and degrade peptidoglycan. However, when and where bacteria build peptidoglycan, and how this is coordinated with cell growth, have been long-standing questions in the field. The improvement of microscopy techniques has provided powerful approaches to study peptidoglycan biosynthesis with high spatiotemporal resolution. Recent development of molecular probes further accelerated the growth of the field, which has advanced our knowledge of peptidoglycan biosynthesis dynamics and mechanisms. Here, we review the technologies for imaging the bacterial cell wall and its biosynthesis activity. We focus on the applications of fluorescent d-amino acids, a newly developed type of probe, to visualize and study peptidoglycan synthesis and dynamics, and we provide direction for prospective research.
Defining Adult Stem Cells by Function, not by Phenotype Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Hans Clevers, Fiona M. Watt
Central to the classical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) paradigm is the concept that the maintenance of blood cell numbers is exclusively executed by a discrete physical entity: the transplantable HSC. The HSC paradigm has served as a stereotypic template in stem cell biology, yet the search for rare, hardwired professional stem cells has remained futile in most other tissues. In a more open approach, the focus on the search for stem cells as a physical entity may need to be replaced by the search for stem cell function, operationally defined as the ability of an organ to replace lost cells. The nature of such a cell may be different under steady state conditions and during tissue repair. We discuss emerging examples including the renewal strategies of the skin, gut epithelium, liver, lung, and mammary gland in comparison with those of the hematopoietic system. While certain key housekeeping and developmental signaling pathways are shared between different stem cell systems, there may be no general, deeper principles underlying the renewal mechanisms of the various individual tissues.
Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Enrico Cappellini, Ana Prohaska, Fernando Racimo, Frido Welker, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Morten E. Allentoft, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Petra Gutenbrunner, Julie Dunne, Simon Hammann, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Melissa Ilardo, J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Yucheng Wang, Martin Sikora, Lasse Vinner, Jürgen Cox, Richard P. Evershed, Eske Willerslev
Over the past three decades, studies of ancient biomolecules—particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids—have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, today the field stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules. Sampling frequencies and the spatial and temporal scope of studies have also increased markedly, and with them the size and quality of the data sets generated. This progress has been made possible by continuous technical innovations in analytical methods, enhanced criteria for the selection of ancient samples, integrated experimental methods, and advanced computational approaches. Here, we discuss the history and current state of ancient biomolecule research, its applications to evolutionary inference, and future directions for this young and exciting field.
At the Intersection of Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Christopher T. Walsh
After an undergraduate degree in biology at Harvard, I started graduate school at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City in July 1965. I was attracted to the chemical side of biochemistry and joined Fritz Lipmann's large, hierarchical laboratory to study enzyme mechanisms. That work led to postdoctoral research with Robert Abeles at Brandeis, then a center of what, 30 years later, would be called chemical biology. I spent 15 years on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty, in both the Chemistry and Biology Departments, and then 26 years on the Harvard Medical School Faculty. My research interests have been at the intersection of chemistry, biology, and medicine. One unanticipated major focus has been investigating the chemical logic and enzymatic machinery of natural product biosynthesis, including antibiotics and antitumor agents. In this postgenomic era it is now recognized that there may be from 105 to 106 biosynthetic gene clusters as yet uncharacterized for potential new therapeutic agents.
Protein Misfolding Diseases Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 F. Ulrich Hartl
The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies. To prevent or regulate protein aggregation, all cells contain an extensive protein homeostasis (or proteostasis) network comprising molecular chaperones and other factors. These defense systems tend to decline during aging, facilitating the manifestation of aggregate deposition diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of three articles addressing our current understanding of the structures of pathological protein aggregates and their associated disease mechanisms. These articles also discuss recent insights into the strategies cells have evolved to neutralize toxic aggregates by sequestering them in specific cellular locations.
Protein Misfolding, Amyloid Formation, and Human Disease: A Summary of Progress Over the Last Decade Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Fabrizio Chiti, Christopher M. Dobson
Peptides and proteins have been found to possess an inherent tendency to convert from their native functional states into intractable amyloid aggregates. This phenomenon is associated with a range of increasingly common human disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, type II diabetes, and a number of systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we describe this field of science with particular reference to the advances that have been made over the last decade in our understanding of its fundamental nature and consequences. We list the proteins that are known to be deposited as amyloid or other types of aggregates in human tissues and the disorders with which they are associated, as well as the proteins that exploit the amyloid motif to play specific functional roles in humans. In addition, we summarize the genetic factors that have provided insight into the mechanisms of disease onset. We describe recent advances in our knowledge of the structures of amyloid fibrils and their oligomeric precursors and of the mechanisms by which they are formed and proliferate to generate cellular dysfunction. We show evidence that a complex proteostasis network actively combats protein aggregation and that such an efficient system can fail in some circumstances and give rise to disease. Finally, we anticipate the development of novel therapeutic strategies with which to prevent or treat these highly debilitating and currently incurable conditions.
Structural Studies of Amyloid Proteins at the Molecular Level Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 David S. Eisenberg, Michael R. Sawaya
Dozens of proteins are known to convert to the aggregated amyloid state. These include fibrils associated with systemic and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, functional amyloid fibrils in microorganisms and animals, and many denatured proteins. Amyloid fibrils can be much more stable than other protein assemblies. In contrast to globular proteins, a single protein sequence can aggregate into several distinctly different amyloid structures, termed polymorphs, and a given polymorph can reproduce itself by seeding. Amyloid polymorphs may be the molecular basis of prion strains. Whereas the Protein Data Bank contains some 100,000 globular protein and 3,000 membrane protein structures, only a few dozen amyloid protein structures have been determined, and most of these are short segments of full amyloid-forming proteins. Regardless, these amyloid structures illuminate the architecture of the amyloid state, including its stability and its capacity for formation of polymorphs.
Mechanisms and Functions of Spatial Protein Quality Control Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Emily Mitchell Sontag, Rahul S. Samant, Judith Frydman
A healthy proteome is essential for cell survival. Protein misfolding is linked to a rapidly expanding list of human diseases, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to aging and cancer. Many of these diseases are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in intra- and extracellular inclusions, such as amyloid plaques. The clear link between protein misfolding and disease highlights the need to better understand the elaborate machinery that manages proteome homeostasis, or proteostasis, in the cell. Proteostasis depends on a network of molecular chaperones and clearance pathways involved in the recognition, refolding, and/or clearance of aberrant proteins. Recent studies reveal that an integral part of the cellular management of misfolded proteins is their spatial sequestration into several defined compartments. Here, we review the properties, function, and formation of these compartments. Spatial sequestration plays a central role in protein quality control and cellular fitness and represents a critical link to the pathogenesis of protein aggregation-linked diseases.
The Ubiquitin System, Autophagy, and Regulated Protein Degradation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Alexander Varshavsky
This brief disquisition about the early history of studies on regulated protein degradation introduces several detailed reviews about the ubiquitin system and autophagy.
Ubiquitin Ligases: Structure, Function, and Regulation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Ning Zheng, Nitzan Shabek
Ubiquitin E3 ligases control every aspect of eukaryotic biology by promoting protein ubiquitination and degradation. At the end of a three-enzyme cascade, ubiquitin ligases mediate the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to specific substrate proteins. Early investigations of E3s of the RING (really interesting new gene) and HECT (homologous to the E6AP carboxyl terminus) types shed light on their enzymatic activities, general architectures, and substrate degron-binding modes. Recent studies have provided deeper mechanistic insights into their catalysis, activation, and regulation. In this review, we summarize the current progress in structure–function studies of ubiquitin ligases as well as exciting new discoveries of novel classes of E3s and diverse substrate recognition mechanisms. Our increased understanding of ubiquitin ligase function and regulation has provided the rationale for developing E3-targeting therapeutics for the treatment of human diseases.
Mechanisms of Deubiquitinase Specificity and Regulation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Tycho E.T. Mevissen, David Komander
Protein ubiquitination is one of the most powerful posttranslational modifications of proteins, as it regulates a plethora of cellular processes in distinct manners. Simple monoubiquitination events coexist with more complex forms of polyubiquitination, the latter featuring many different chain architectures. Ubiquitin can be subjected to further posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and acetylation) and can also be part of mixed polymers with ubiquitin-like modifiers such as SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) or NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8). Together, cellular ubiquitination events form a sophisticated and versatile ubiquitin code. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) reverse ubiquitin signals with equally high sophistication. In this review, we conceptualize the many layers of specificity that DUBs encompass to control the ubiquitin code and discuss examples in which DUB specificity has been understood at the molecular level. We further discuss the many mechanisms of DUB regulation with a focus on those that modulate catalytic activity. Our review provides a framework to tackle lingering questions in DUB biology.
Proteasomal and Autophagic Degradation Systems Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Ivan Dikic
Autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system are the two major quality control pathways responsible for cellular homeostasis. As such, they provide protection against age-associated changes and a plethora of human diseases. Ubiquitination is utilized as a degradation signal by both systems, albeit in different ways, to mark cargoes for proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Both systems intersect and communicate at multiple points to coordinate their actions in proteostasis and organelle homeostasis. This review summarizes molecular details of how proteasome and autophagy pathways are functionally interconnected in cells and indicates common principles and nodes of communication that can be therapeutically exploited.
Mechanisms of Autophagy Initiation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 James H. Hurley, Lindsey N. Young
Autophagy is the process of cellular self-eating by a double-membrane organelle, the autophagosome. A range of signaling processes converge on two protein complexes to initiate autophagy: the ULK1 (unc51-like autophagy activating kinase 1) protein kinase complex and the PI3KC3–C1 (class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I) lipid kinase complex. Some 90% of the mass of these large protein complexes consists of noncatalytic domains and subunits, and the ULK1 complex has essential noncatalytic activities. Structural studies of these complexes have shed increasing light on the regulation of their catalytic and noncatalytic activities in autophagy initiation. The autophagosome is thought to nucleate from vesicles containing the integral membrane protein Atg9 (autophagy-related 9), COPII (coat protein complex II) vesicles, and possibly other sources. In the wake of reconstitution and super-resolution imaging studies, we are beginning to understand how the ULK1 and PI3KC3–C1 complexes might coordinate the nucleation and fusion of Atg9 and COPII vesicles at the start of autophagosome biogenesis.
Systems Biology of Metabolism Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Jens Nielsen
Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.
Metabolite Measurement: Pitfalls to Avoid and Practices to Follow Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Wenyun Lu, Xiaoyang Su, Matthias S. Klein, Ian A. Lewis, Oliver Fiehn, Joshua D. Rabinowitz
Metabolites are the small biological molecules involved in energy conversion and biosynthesis. Studying metabolism is inherently challenging due to metabolites’ reactivity, structural diversity, and broad concentration range. Herein, we review the common pitfalls encountered in metabolomics and provide concrete guidelines for obtaining accurate metabolite measurements, focusing on water-soluble primary metabolites. We show how seemingly straightforward sample preparation methods can introduce systematic errors (e.g., owing to interconversion among metabolites) and how proper selection of quenching solvent (e.g., acidic acetonitrile:methanol:water) can mitigate such problems. We discuss the specific strengths, pitfalls, and best practices for each common analytical platform: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and enzyme assays. Together this information provides a pragmatic knowledge base for carrying out biologically informative metabolite measurements.
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutation and (R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate: From Basic Discovery to Therapeutics Development Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Lenny Dang, Shin-San Michael Su
The identification of heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in subsets of cancers, including secondary glioblastoma, acute myeloid leukemia, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and chondrosarcomas, led to intense discovery efforts to delineate the mutations’ involvement in carcinogenesis and to develop therapeutics, which we review here. The three IDH isoforms (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–dependent IDH1 and IDH2, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent IDH3) contribute to regulating the circuitry of central metabolism. Several biochemical and genetic observations led to the discovery of the neomorphic production of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by mutant IDH1 and IDH2 (mIDH). Heterozygous mutation of IDH1/2 and accumulation of 2-HG cause profound metabolic and epigenetic dysregulation, including inhibition of normal cellular differentiation, leading to disease. Crystallographic structural studies during the development of compounds targeting mIDH demonstrated common allosteric inhibition by distinct chemotypes. Ongoing clinical trials in patients with mIDH advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated compelling clinical proof-of-concept, validating the biology and drug discovery approach.
Conceptual and Experimental Tools to Understand Spatial Effects and Transport Phenomena in Nonlinear Biochemical Networks Illustrated with Patchy Switching Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Rebecca R. Pompano, Andrew H. Chiang, Christian J. Kastrup, Rustem F. Ismagilov
Many biochemical systems are spatially heterogeneous and exhibit nonlinear behaviors, such as state switching in response to small changes in the local concentration of diffusible molecules. Systems as varied as blood clotting, intracellular calcium signaling, and tissue inflammation are all heavily influenced by the balance of rates of reaction and mass transport phenomena including flow and diffusion. Transport of signaling molecules is also affected by geometry and chemoselective confinement via matrix binding. In this review, we use a phenomenon referred to as patchy switching to illustrate the interplay of nonlinearities, transport phenomena, and spatial effects. Patchy switching describes a change in the state of a network when the local concentration of a diffusible molecule surpasses a critical threshold. Using patchy switching as an example, we describe conceptual tools from nonlinear dynamics and chemical engineering that make testable predictions and provide a unifying description of the myriad possible experimental observations. We describe experimental microfluidic and biochemical tools emerging to test conceptual predictions by controlling transport phenomena and spatial distribution of diffusible signals, and we highlight the unmet need for in vivo tools.
Biochemistry of Catabolic Reductive Dehalogenation Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Maeva Fincker, Alfred M. Spormann
A wide range of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms couple the reductive dehalogenation of organohalides to energy conservation. Key enzymes of such anaerobic catabolic pathways are corrinoid and Fe–S cluster–containing, membrane-associated reductive dehalogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reductive elimination of a halide and constitute the terminal reductases of a short electron transfer chain. Enzymatic and physiological studies revealed the existence of quinone-dependent and quinone-independent reductive dehalogenases that are distinguishable at the amino acid sequence level, implying different modes of energy conservation in the respective microorganisms. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about catabolic reductive dehalogenases and the electron transfer chain they are part of. We review reaction mechanisms and the role of the corrinoid and Fe–S cluster cofactors and discuss physiological implications.
Electric Fields and Enzyme Catalysis Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Stephen D. Fried, Steven G. Boxer
What happens inside an enzyme's active site to allow slow and difficult chemical reactions to occur so rapidly? This question has occupied biochemists’ attention for a long time. Computer models of increasing sophistication have predicted an important role for electrostatic interactions in enzymatic reactions, yet this hypothesis has proved vexingly difficult to test experimentally. Recent experiments utilizing the vibrational Stark effect make it possible to measure the electric field a substrate molecule experiences when bound inside its enzyme's active site. These experiments have provided compelling evidence supporting a major electrostatic contribution to enzymatic catalysis. Here, we review these results and develop a simple model for electrostatic catalysis that enables us to incorporate disparate concepts introduced by many investigators to describe how enzymes work into a more unified framework stressing the importance of electric fields at the active site.
Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Peter M.J. Burgers, Thomas A. Kunkel
This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.
Telomerase Mechanism of Telomere Synthesis Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 R. Alex Wu, Heather E. Upton, Jacob M. Vogan, Kathleen Collins
Telomerase is the essential reverse transcriptase required for linear chromosome maintenance in most eukaryotes. Telomerase supplements the tandem array of simple-sequence repeats at chromosome ends to compensate for the DNA erosion inherent in genome replication. The template for telomerase reverse transcriptase is within the RNA subunit of the ribonucleoprotein complex, which in cells contains additional telomerase holoenzyme proteins that assemble the active ribonucleoprotein and promote its function at telomeres. Telomerase is distinct among polymerases in its reiterative reuse of an internal template. The template is precisely defined, processively copied, and regenerated by release of single-stranded product DNA. New specificities of nucleic acid handling that underlie the catalytic cycle of repeat synthesis derive from both active site specialization and new motif elaborations in protein and RNA subunits. Studies of telomerase provide unique insights into cellular requirements for genome stability, tissue renewal, and tumorigenesis as well as new perspectives on dynamic ribonucleoprotein machines.
Site-Specific Self-Catalyzed DNA Depurination: A Biological Mechanism That Leads to Mutations and Creates Sequence Diversity Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 Jacques R. Fresco, Olga Amosova
Self-catalyzed DNA depurination is a sequence-specific physiological mechanism mediated by spontaneous extrusion of a stem-loop catalytic intermediate. Hydrolysis of the 5′G residue of the 5′GA/TGG loop and of the first 5′A residue of the 5′GAGA loop, together with particular first stem base pairs, specifies their hydrolysis without involving protein, cofactor, or cation. As such, this mechanism is the only known DNA catalytic activity exploited by nature. The consensus sequences for self-depurination of such G- and A-loop residues occur in all genomes examined across the phyla, averaging one site every 2,000–4,000 base pairs. Because apurinic sites are subject to error-prone repair, leading to substitution and short frameshift mutations, they are both a source of genome damage and a means for creating sequence diversity. Their marked overrepresentation in genomes, and largely unchanging density from the lowest to the highest organisms, indicate their selection over the course of evolution. The mutagenicity at such sites in many human genes is associated with loss of function of key proteins responsible for diverse diseases.
A New Facet of Vitamin B12: Gene Regulation by Cobalamin-Based Photoreceptors Annu. Rev. Biochem. (IF 20.154) Pub Date : 2017-06-27 S. Padmanabhan, Marco Jost, Catherine L. Drennan, Montserrat Elías-Arnanz
Living organisms sense and respond to light, a crucial environmental factor, using photoreceptors, which rely on bound chromophores such as retinal, flavins, or linear tetrapyrroles for light sensing. The discovery of photoreceptors that sense light using 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 that is best known as an enzyme cofactor, has expanded the number of known photoreceptor families and unveiled a new biological role of this vitamin. The prototype of these B12-dependent photoreceptors, the transcriptional repressor CarH, is widespread in bacteria and mediates light-dependent gene regulation in a photoprotective cellular response. CarH activity as a transcription factor relies on the modulation of its oligomeric state by 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and light. This review surveys current knowledge about these B12-dependent photoreceptors, their distribution and mode of action, and the structural and photochemical basis of how they orchestrate signal transduction and control gene expression.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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