Effect of organic amendments on cadmium stress to pea: A multivariate comparison of germinating vs young seedlings and younger vs older leaves Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Saliha Shamshad, Muhammad Shahid, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Sabir, Behzad Murtaza, Abu Bakr Umer Farooq, Noor S. Shah
Accumulation patterns and risk assessment of metals and metalloid in muscle and offal of free-range chickens, cattle and goat in Benin City, Nigeria Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida, Shouta M.M. Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Balazs Oroszlany, Isioma Tongo, Alex Ajeh Enuneku, Ogbeide Ozekeke, Martins Oshioriamhe Ainerua, Iriagbonse Priscillia Fasipe, Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer. Mean concentrations of metals (mg/kg ww) varied significantly depending upon the tissues and animal species. Human health risk estimations for children and adults showed estimated daily intake (EDI) values of tissues below oral reference dose (RfD) threshold for non essential metals Cd, As, Pb and Hg thus strongly indicating no possible health risk via consumption of animal based food. Calculated Hazard quotient (THQ) was less than 1 (< 1) for all the metals analyzed for both adult and children. However, Cd and As had the highest value of THQ suggestive of possible health risk associated with continuous consumption of Cd and As contaminated animal based foods. Hazard Index (HI) for additive effect of metals was higher in chicken liver and gizzard for children and chicken liver for adults. Thus, HI indicated that chicken liver and gizzard may contribute significantly to adult and children dietary exposure to heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear species difference in metal accumulation between chickens and the ruminants. This study provides baseline data for future studies and also valuable evidence of anthropogenic impacts necessary to initiate national and international policies for control of heavy metal and metalloid content in food items.
BiVO4 /N-rGO nano composites as highly efficient visible active photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes and antibiotics in eco system Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Brindha Appavu, Sivakumar Thiripuranthagan, Sudhakar Ranganathan, Elangovan Erusappan, Kathiravan Kannan
Diminution of arsenic accumulation in rice seedlings co-cultured with Anabaena sp.: Modulation in the expression of lower silicon transporters, two nitrogen dependent genes and lowering of antioxidants activity Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Ruma Ranjan, Navin Kumar, Arvind Kumar Dubey, Ambedkar Gautam, Shyam Narain Pandey, Shekhar Mallick
The present study was intended to investigate the role of algae, Anabaena sp. in the amelioration of As toxicity, when co-cultured with rice seedlings. The reduction of growth in rice seedlings against As(III) and As(V) was recovered with Anabaena sp. The Anabaena sp. also reduced the accumulation of As, where it was more efficient against 60 µM As(III) (49%) than As(V) (23%) in rice shoot. Similarly, with reduction of As accumulation, lower silicon transporters (Lsi-1 and Lsi-2) was found to be suppressed against As treatments. However, the expression of two nitrogen dependent genes i.e., NR and SAMT were found to be enhanced with the Anabaena sp. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant enzyme, GST, was enhanced, whereas, the activity of other enzymes such as SOD, APX, GPX, GR and DHAR were decreased with As+Algae combinations. Overall, the result suggested that the Anabaena sp. reduces As accumulation, modulates gene expressions and antioxidants to ameliorate the As toxicity in Oryza sativa L.
Could some procedures commonly used in bioassays with the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1849 distort results? Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-12 Laís Fernanda de Palma Lopes, Vanessa Ochi Agostini, Erik Muxagata
Many organizations have suggested the use of the Calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in protocols for acute toxicity tests. Nevertheless, these protocols present some problems, such as using 60–180 µm meshes to separate specific stages of A. tonsa or carrying out the tests using small volumes that reflect high densities of A. tonsa that do not occur in nature, which could lead to distorted results. In addition, ecotoxicological studies may use statistical approaches that are inadequate for the type of data being analysed. For these reasons, some methodological approaches for bioassays using A. tonsa need to be clarified and revised. In this study, we present information about (i) the retention of copepodite stages of A. tonsa on 180, 330 and 500 µm net meshes; (ii) tested storage volumes of 1 organism per 5, 10 or 20 mL in each test container (TC); and (iii) considerations about the statistics employed. The results demonstrated that a net mesh of 180 µm is capable of retaining all copepodite stages (CI to CVI), contrasting with the recommendation of using a 180 µm mesh to separate out adults only. Coarser meshes (330 and 500 µm) can also retain different proportions of all copepodite stages, but cannot separate out one developmental stage only. Twenty-five millilitres of medium in an open TC, commonly employed in bioassays simulating densities of 1 organism 5 mL−1, completely evaporated, and the results showed that the TCs need to be covered (e.g., PVC film) and filled with a minimum of 100 mL of culture medium (simulating densities of 1 organism 20 mL−1) to avoid evaporation and increases in salinity. The current use of ANOVA in ecotoxicological studies with proportions of surviving organisms should also be reconsidered since the data are discrete and have a binomial distribution; general linear models (GLMs) are considered more adequate. The information presented here suggests some adjustments that hopefully will enable the improvement of the procedures and methods employed in studies of acute toxicity using the copepod A. tonsa.
Bioaccumulation and physiological responses to lead (Pb) in Chenopodium murale L Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu, Aditi Shreeya Bali, Renu Bhardwaj, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy R. Batish, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Antioxidant capacity, insecticidal ability and heat-oxidation stability of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extract Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Chih-Ming Ma, Chih-Lun Cheng, Shang-Chieh Lee, Gui-Bing Hong
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of process factors such as ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature on the extraction yield and the bioactive contents of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extracts using response surface methodology (RSM). ANOVA results showed that the response variables were affected by the ethanol concentration to a very significant degree and by extraction temperature to a lesser degree. GC/MS characterization showed that the extract is rich in bioactive compounds and those present exhibited important biological activities such as antioxidant, insect repellence and insecticidal activities. The results from the toxicity assay demonstrate that the extract obtained from the leaves of Tagetes lemmonii was an effective insect toxin against Tribolium castaneum. The radical scavenging activity and p-anisidine test results of olive oil spiked with different concentrations of leaf extract showed that the phenolic compounds can retard lipid oxidation.
Strategies for oxidation of PAHs in aged contaminated soil by batch reactors Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Marina Peluffo, Janina A. Rosso, Irma S. Morelli, Verónica C. Mora
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are neutral, nonpolar and hydrophobic molecules that tend to sorb onto soil organic matter. Chemical oxidation is a good choice to avoid the limitations of bioremediation. To evaluate the efficiency of different types of oxidation (permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and persulfate) and activation (heat, alkaline, and iron), batch reactors were prepared. The soil was contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene (1200 ± 200 and 2800 ± 100 mg per kg of dry soil, respectively) and aged for fifteen months. Treatments were prepared with 10 g of contaminated dry soil and 20 ml of water and incubated at room temperature for 7 days. Analyses of phenanthrene and pyrene concentrations, soil pH and electric conductivity were performed. Counts of heterotrophic cultivable bacteria on R2A medium and PAH-degraders were carried out after 7 days of treatment. The persulfate treatment at room temperature, without the addition of activators, achieved better results than treatments with the same doses of permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. All the strategies to improve persulfate treatments yielded higher degradation of pyrene than the biological control, as expected from the structural description of this compound by Clar's model. The thermal activation of persulfate (65 °C for 6 h) led to the degradation of more than 90% of both PAHs after 7 days of treatment.
Improvements and cost-effective measures to the automated intermittent water renewal system for toxicity testing with sediments Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 W. Tyler Mehler, Jing You, Michael J. Keough, Michael J. Lydy, Vincent Pettigrove
The push to make bioassays more sensitive has meant an increased duration of testing to look at more chronic endpoints. To conduct these longer bioassays through the use of traditional bioassay methods can be difficult, as many traditional bioassays have employed manual water changes, which take considerable time and effort. To that end, static-renewal systems were designed to provide researchers a technique to ease the manual water change burden. One of the most well-known static-renewal designs, the static intermittent renewal system (STIR) was produced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1993. This system is still being used in laboratories across the globe today. However, these initial designs have become rather dated as new technologies and methods have been developed that make these systems easier to build and operate. The following information details changes to the initial design and a proof of concept experiment with the benthic invertebrate, Chironomus tepperi, to validate the modifications to the original system.
Humic acids decrease uptake and distribution of trace metals, but not the growth of radish exposed to cadmium toxicity Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Gabrijel Ondrasek, Zed Rengel, Davor Romic
Endocrine disruptors in soil: Effects of bisphenol A on gene expression of the earthworm Eisenia fetida Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 M. Novo, I. Verdú, D. Trigo, J.L. Martínez-Guitarte
Effects of high temperature on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis of pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Chang-Hong Cheng, Zhi-Xun Guo, Sheng-Wei Luo, An-Li Wang
Water temperature is an important environmental factor that affects physiology and biochemical activities of fish. In this study, we investigated of high temperature on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis of pufferfish. Thermal stress could significantly increase the levels of AST, ALT, LDH, GLU and TG, whereas the levels of ALP and TP decrease significantly. In addition, thermal stress also decreased total blood cell count, inhibited cell viability, and subsequently lead to DNA damage and apoptosis. The mRNA levels of p53, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were up-regulated under thermal stress. These results suggested that caspase-dependent and p53 signaling pathways could play important roles in thermal stress-induced apoptosis in fish. Furthermore, the gene expression of SOD, CAT, HSP90 and C3 were induced by thermal stress. This study provides new insights into the mechanism whereby thermal stress affects physiological responses and apoptosis in pufferfish.
Evaluation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes toxicity in two fish species Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Giovani Valentin Cimbaluk, Wanessa Algarte Ramsdorf, Maiara Carolina Perussolo, Hayanna Karla Felipe Santos, Helena Cristina Da Silva De Assis, Mariane Cristina Schnitzler, Danielle Caroline Schnitzler, Pedro Gontijo Carneiro, Marta Margarete Cestari
Carbon Nanotubes are among the most promising materials for the technology industry. Their unique physical and chemical proprieties may reduce the production costs and improve the efficiency of a large range of products. However, the same characteristics that have made nanomaterials interesting for industry may be responsible for inducing toxic effects on the aquatic organisms. Since the carbon nanotubes toxicity is still a controversial issue, we performed tests of acute and subchronic exposure to a commercial sample of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two fish species, an exotic model (Danio rerio) and a native one (Astyanax altiparanae). Using the alkaline version of the comet assay on erythrocytes and the piscine micronucleous, also performed on erythrocytes, it was verified that the tested carbon nanotubes sample did not generate apparent genotoxicity by means of single/double DNA strand break or clastogenic/aneugenic effects over any of the species, independently of the exposure period. Although, our findings indicate the possibility of the occurrence of CNTs-DNA crosslinks. Apparently, the sample tested induces oxidative stress after subchronic exposure as shown by activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The data obtained by the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase suggests acute neurotoxicity in Astyanax altiparanae and subchronic neurotoxicity in Danio rerio.
Impact of endocrine disrupting compounds in sewage impacted coastal area on seabream Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Noura Al-Jandal, Talat Saeed, Ismail Azad, Sherain Al-Subiai, Waleed Al-Zekri, Sumaiah Hussain, Enas Al-Hasan
The pollution of coastal regions worldwide has been of a great concern due to the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These chemicals find their way to the marine environment via the sewage treatment plants (STPs). Hence, this study was designed to investigate the status and sources of EDCs and their effect on fish in Kuwait's coastal areas, from the chemical and biological perspectives. The assessment of three STPs indicated the presence of significant levels of phthalates (19 and 31 µg/l), alkylphenols (85 and 159 ng/l), and estrogens (30 and 368 ng/l) in both inflow and outflow samples. The analysis of samples from field exposure sites revealed significant levels of EDCs in seawater (phthalates: 2.1–4.6 µg/l; alkylphenols: 1.2–16.4 ng/l; estrogens: 0–36.2 ng/l) and sediment (phthalates: 2.1–15.7 mg/kg dry wt; alkyphenols: 2.5–15.1 µg/kg dry wt.; estrogens: 4.1–214.2 µg/kg dry wt.) samples. The biological perspective investigated through the exposure of fish to sewage outlets at five sites. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) revealed a higher level in winter samples 0.48–0.79%) in comparison to summer samples 1–1.5%). Histological observation of hepatic tissue of fish exposed during winter months in all sites, showed much less necrotic changes and hepatic vacuolation in the hepatic tissue of summer exposed fish. Imunnohistochemistry evidences revealed a significant level of positive signals and Vtg localization in the hepatic tissue as the results support the histopathological alterations observed. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed no significant difference between the plasma protein content of winter and summer samples. Overall, the study suggest that there is possible local source or a chronic input of untreated and/or partially treated water due to the significant levels of phthalates, alkyphenols, and estrogens detected in the Kuwait Bay. These levels were enough to initiate alteration in the hepatic tissue of fish exposed to the sewage outlets in Kuwait for two weeks.
Bioremediation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by two phase bioslurry reactor: Processes evaluation and optimization by Taguchi's design of experimental (DOE) methodology Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Apourv Pant, J.P.N. Rai
Two phase bioreactor was constructed, designed and developed to evaluate the chlorpyrifos remediation. Six biotic and abiotic factors (substrate-loading rate, slurry phase pH, slurry phase dissolved oxygen (DO), soil water ratio, temperature and soil micro flora load) were evaluated by design of experimental (DOE) methodology employing Taguchi's orthogonal array (OA). The selected six factors were considered at two levels L-8 array (2^7, 15 experiments) in the experimental design. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the methodology showed enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation from 283.86 µg/g to 955.364 µg/g by overall 70.34% of enhancement. In the present study, with the help of few well defined experimental parameters a mathematical model was constructed to understand the complex bioremediation process and optimize the approximate parameters upto great accuracy.
Intracellular and extracellular retinoid-like activity of widespread cyanobacterial species Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Priebojová Jana, Hilscherová Klára, Procházková Tereza, Sychrová Eliška, Smutná Marie
Cyanobacterial species produce wide range of bioactive compounds. This study characterized production of retinoid-like compounds with embryotoxic and teratogenic potential by commonly occurring cyanobacterial species with tendency to form massive water blooms. The major goal was to simultaneously assess the intracellular and extracellular retinoid-like activity from several independent cultivations of one coccal (Microcystis aeruginosa) and four filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Limnothrix redekeii, and Planktothrix agardhii) and characterize the variability in its production among cultivations. The retinoid-like activity was evaluated by in vitro assay along with chemical analyses of nine retinoids: all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 9-cis retinoic acid (9cis-RA), 13cis-RA, 13cis-RA methyl ester, 5,6 epoxy-RA, 4keto-ATRA, 4keto-retinal, 4hydoxy-retinoic acid (4OH-ATRA), retinal and retinol. The production of retinoid-like compounds was recalculated per volume, per biomass dry weight and per cell to provide relevant data for risk assessment in relation to occurrence of massive water blooms in the environment. Total produced retinoid-like activity of five selected species ranged from 170 to 25,600 ng ATRA-equivalents (REQ)/g dm corresponding to 0.001–0.392 ng REQ/106 cyanobacterial cells. Results from chemical analyses showed that all tested extracts contained 4keto-ATRA and retinal. All-trans retinoic acid, 9/13cis-retinoic acid and 5,6 epoxy-retinoic acid were detected in most exudate and extract samples. The reported results of recalculated total retinoid-like activity enable potential predictions of its production by the studied species in water blooms of known cell densities relevant for risk assessment.
Interactive effects of aluminum and cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets cultivated in vitro Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 K. Manquián-Cerda, E. Cruces, M. Escudey, G. Zúñiga, R. Calderón
To evaluate the potential role of phenolic compounds in Al and Cd stress tolerance mechanisms, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Legacy plantlets were exposed to different metal concentrations. The present study used an in vitro plant model to test the effects of the following treatments: 100 μM Al; 100 μMAl + 50 μM Cd; and 100 μMAl + 100 μM Cd during periods of 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The oxidative damage was determined by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The antioxidant activity values were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Additionally, the phenolic compound concentrations were determined using HPLC-DAD. The exposure to Al and Cd increased the MDA and H2O2 contents differentially, while the antioxidant capacity values showed differences between DPPH and FRAP with the largest changes in FRAP relative to Cd. SOD had the highest activity in the first 7 days, leading to a significant increase in phenolic compounds observed after 14 days, and chlorogenic acid was the major compound identified. Our results revealed that phenolic compounds seem to play an important role in the response to ROS. Therefore, the mechanisms of tolerance to Al and Cd in V. corymbosum will be determined by the type of metal and time of exposure.
Effects of Microcystis aeruginosa on the expression of nuclear receptor genes in Daphnia similoides sinensis Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Xiaoxue Xu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Shuixiu Peng, Jianxun Wu, Daogui Deng, Zhongze Zhou
Nuclear receptor (NR) genes form a conserved superfamily, which is involved in organism metabolism, reproduction, development, homeostasis, and resource allocation. Microcystis aeruginosa can inhibit the growth and reproduction of Daphnia. However, whether M. aeruginosa can affect the expression of Daphnia NR genes is unknown. In total, 18 NRs were identified in this study based on previous Daphnia similoides sinensis transcriptome data. In treatments containing M. aeruginosa, the gene expression of the NR1 subfamily (E75a, E75b, HR3, HR96, NHR-1, HR97a, HR97g, and NHR97) and the NR2 subfamily (RXR, TLL, PNR, and SVP) were down-regulated 59% and 79%, respectively. In treatments containing M. aeruginosa, although the expression of 78% of the genes showed a similar trend in clones 1 and 2, the expression of 42% of the genes in clone 3 showed the opposite trend compared to clones 1 and 2, suggesting that the adaptability and molecular mechanism differ in individuals with different Microcystis tolerance genotypes.
n-Alkanes in sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China: Occurrence, sources and historical sedimentary record Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Shanshan Wang, Guijian Liu, Zijiao Yuan, Chunnian Da
Effects of wood vinegar on properties and mechanism of heavy metal competitive adsorption on secondary fermentation based composts Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Ling Liu, Xiaoping Guo, Shuqi Wang, Lei Li, Yang Zeng, Guanhong Liu
Fate of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) from River Yamuna, India: An ecotoxicological risk assessment approach Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Pravin K. Mutiyar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Atul Kumar Mittal
Tracing aquatic bioavailable Hg in three different regions of China using fish Hg isotopes Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Cheng-Bin Liu, Xiu-Bing Hua, Hong-Wei Liu, Ben Yu, Yu-Xiang Mao, Ding-Yong Wang, Yong-Guang Yin, Li-Gang Hu, Jian-Bo Shi, Gui-Bin Jiang
Oxygen content determines the bio-reactivity and toxicity profiles of carbon black particles Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : Yakun Wu, Yifan Guo, Haoyang Song, Wei Liu, Yi Yang, Yajun Liu, Nan Sang, Yi Y. Zuo, Sijin Liu
Environmental and human health risk indicators for agricultural pesticides in estuaries Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Elsa Teresa Rodrigues, Maria Fátima Alpendurada, Fernando Ramos, Miguel Ângelo Pardal
The present study aims to contribute to a better assessment of pesticide environmental and human health (here evaluated in the context of human exposure via food items) risks for the estuarine system by comprehensively studying the spatial and temporal occurrence of the pesticides atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine in the River Mondego estuary (Portugal). Pesticide quantification was performed in surface water, sediment, macroalgae (Ulva spp., Gracilaria gracilis, Fucus vesiculosus), aquatic plants (Zostera noltii, Spartina maritime, Scirpus maritimus) and bivalves (Scrobicularia plana). Since intense precipitation could promote the runoff of pesticides from the surrounding agricultural fields, a single long-duration flood event was also studied in this estuarine system. Under normal flow conditions, quantified concentrations were determined mostly during summer in agreement with the pesticide application period. Azoxystrobin presented the highest detection frequency and atrazine (an herbicide used globally but banned in the EU) presented the second highest frequency, thus highlighting the need to include legacy pesticides in monitoring programmes. Pesticide concentrations in surface water determined in the present study suggest low risk to estuarine organisms. However, all the pesticides were bioaccumulated by S. plana, leading us to consider that pesticides may not only cause adverse effects on the aquatic organism itself, but should also be an alert for human exposure, for this is an edible species and is considered of economic interest. Concern is also expressed about edible seaweeds, since s-triazine pesticides were found in Ulva spp. and G. gracilis. Acknowledging these concerns, developing and establishing allowable pesticide safety values for edible seaweeds and bivalves is recommended, as well as monitoring bivalve pesticide levels, using the whole animal, as a human health exposure indicator for estuarine systems. During the studied flood event, it appears that no serious pesticide contamination has occurred in the River Mondego estuary.
Efficient degradation of Azo dyes by a newly isolated fungus Trichoderma tomentosum under non-sterile conditions Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Xiao-ling He, Chao Song, Yuan-yuan Li, Ning Wang, Lei Xu, Xin Han, Dong-sheng Wei
A fast-growing fungus with remarkable ability to degrade several azo dyes under non-sterile conditions was isolated and identified. This fungus was identified as Trichoderma tomentosum. Textile effluent of ten-fold dilution could be decolorized by 94.9% within 72 h before optimization. Acid Red 3 R model wastewater with a concentration of 85.5 mg L−1 could be decolorized by 99.2% within the same time after optimization. High-level of manganese peroxidase and low-level of lignin peroxidase activities were detected during the process of decolorization from the culture supernatant, indicating the possible involvement of two enzymes in azo dye decolorization. No aromatic amine products were detected from the degradation products of Acid Red 3 R by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, indicating the possible involvement of a special symmetrical oxidative degradation pathway. Phytotoxicity assay confirmed the lower toxicity toward the test plant seeds of the degradation products when compared to the original dye.
Simultaneous removal of dihydroxybenzenes and toxicity reduction by Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum under saline conditions Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Sumaya Ferreira-Guedes, Ana Lúcia Leitão
The dihydroxybenzenes are widely found in wastewater and usually more than one of these aromatic compounds co-exist as pollutants of water resources. The current study investigated and compared the removal efficiency of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol in binary substrate systems under saline conditions by Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum, to clarify the potential of this fungal strain to degrade these aromatic compounds. Since P. chrysogenum is a known penicillin producer, biosynthetic penicillin genes were examined and antibiotic was quantified in mono and binary dihydroxybenzene systems to elucidate the carbon flux of dihydroxybenzenes metabolism in the P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum to the secondary metabolism. In binary substrate systems, the three assayed dihydroxybenzene compounds were found to be co-metabolized by fungal strain. The fungal strain preferentially degraded hydroquinone and catechol. Resorcinol was degraded slower and supports higher antibiotic titers than either catechol or hydroquinone. Dihydroxybenzenes were faster removed in mixtures compared to mono substrate systems, except for the case of hydroquinone. In this context, the expression of penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster was not related to the removal of dihydroxybenzenes. Penicillin production was triggered simultaneously or after dihydroxybenzene degradation, but penicillin yields, under these conditions, did not compromise dihydroxybenzene biological treatment. To investigate the decrease in dihydroxybenzenes toxicity due to the fungal activity, viability tests with human colon cancer cells (HCT116) and DNA damage by alkaline comet assays were performed. For all the conditions assays, a decrease in saline medium toxicity was observed, indicating its potential as detoxification agent.
Biosorption of copper ions from aqueous solution using rape straw powders: Optimization, equilibrium and kinetic studies Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Xin Liu, Zhao-Qiong Chen, Bin Han, Chun-Li Su, Qin Han, Wei-Zhong Chen
In this paper, the adsorption behaviors of Cu(II) from the aqueous solution using rape straw powders were studied. The effects of initial Cu(II) concentration, pH range and absorbent dosage on the adsorption efficiency of Cu(II) by rape straw powder were investigated by Box-Behnken Design based on response surface methodology. The values of coefficient constant of the nonlinear models were 0.9997, 0.9984 and 0.9944 for removal Cu(II) from aqueous solution using rape straw shell, seed pods and straw pith core, respectively, which could navigate the design space for various factors on effects of biosorption Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The various factors of pH and biosorbents dosage were the key factors that affecting the removal efficiency of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorption equilibrium data presented its favorable monolayer adsorption Cu(II) onto shell, seed pods and straw pith core, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was the proper approach to determine the adsorption kinetics. The biosorption of Cu(II) onto surfaces of rape straw powders were confirmed and ion-exchanged in the adsorption process by energy dispersive spectrometer. The critical groups, —OH, —CH, —NH3+, —CH3, —NH and —C—O, exhibited by the infrared spectra results, changed to suggest that these groups played critical roles, especially —CH3 in the adsorption of copper ions onto rape straw powders. The study provided evidences that rape straw powders can be used for removing Cu(II) from aqueous water.
Different efficiencies of the same mechanisms result in distinct Cd tolerance within Rhizobium Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Paulo Cardoso, Sofia Corticeiro, Rosa Freitas, Etelvina Figueira
Soil contamination with metals is a widespread problem posing risks to humans and ecosystems. Metal contaminated soils often hold poor microbial density and biodiversity. Among soil bacteria, rhizobia have a great agronomic and environmental significance and are major contributors to a sustainable maintenance of soil fertility. This group of microorganisms are severely affected by metals, such as cadmium (Cd), but information about metal resistance mechanisms in rhizobia is still limited. A concerted approach of the different mechanisms conferring Cd tolerance to rhizobia was conducted using two Rhizobium strains with contrasting tolerances to Cd. Results show that both strains resort to the same mechanisms (extracellular immobilization, periplasmic allocation, cytoplasmic sequestration and biotransformation of toxic products) to overcome stress, but differences in the efficiencies of some mechanisms were noticed. The ability of Rhizobium to increase glutathione in the presence of Cd emerges as a central factor in the tolerance to Cd and is as a feature to be looked for when screening or transforming microorganisms to integrate plant-microbe consortia. These could promote plant growth at contaminated sites, being more efficient for the cleanup of metals from contaminated sites and the restoration of soil quality.
The fate and risk assessment of psychiatric pharmaceuticals from psychiatric hospital effluent Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Jiajia Xiang, Minghong Wu, Jianqiu Lei, Chao Fu, Jianzhong Gu, Gang Xu
Human health risks and socio-economic perspectives of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh: A scoping review Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 M. Azizur Rahman, A. Rahman, M. Zaved Kaiser Khan, Andre M.N. Renzaho
Arsenic contamination of drinking water, which can occur naturally or because of human activities such as mining, is the single most important public health issue in Bangladesh. Fifty out of the 64 districts in the country have arsenic concentration of groundwater exceeding 50 µg L−1, the Bangladeshi threshold, affecting 35–77 million people or 21–48% of the total population. Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water and other dietary sources is an important public health issue worldwide affecting hundreds of millions of people. Consequently, arsenic poisoning has attracted the attention of researchers and has been profiled extensively in the literature. Most of the literature has focused on characterising arsenic poisoning and factors associated with it. However, studies examining the socio-economic aspects of chronic exposure of arsenic through either drinking water or foods remain underexplored. The objectives of this paper are (i) to review arsenic exposure pathways to humans; (ii) to summarise public health impacts of chronic arsenic exposure; and (iii) to examine socio-economic implications and consequences of arsenicosis with a focus on Bangladesh. This scoping review evaluates the contributions of different exposure pathways by analysing arsenic concentrations in dietary and non-dietary sources. The socio-economic consequences of arsenicosis disease in Bangladesh are discussed in this review by considering food habits, nutritional status, socio-economic conditions, and socio-cultural behaviours of the people of the country. The pathways of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh include drinking water, various plant foods and non-dietary sources such as soil. Arsenic affected people are often abandoned by the society, lose their jobs and get divorced and are forced to live a sub-standard life. The fragile public health system in Bangladesh has been burdened by the management of thousands of arsenicosis victims in Bangladesh.
Developmental toxicity and potential mechanisms of pyraoxystrobin to zebrafish (Danio rerio) Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Hui Li, Song Yu, Fangjie Cao, Chengju Wang, Mingqi Zheng, Xuefeng Li, Lihong Qiu
As a newly developed, highly efficient strobilurin fungicide, pyraoxystrobin has been reported to be highly toxic to some aquatic organisms. However, the toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of fish and the potential underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Hence, in the present study, the acute toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to different life stages of zebrafish (embryo, larva, and adult) was assessed. The developmental toxicity of pyraoxystrobin to zebrafish embryos and its effects on gene transcription in the embryo were also investigated. The results showed that the 96-h LC50 values of pyraoxystrobin to embryos [2 h post-fertilization (hpf)], 12 h post-hatching (hph) larvae (84 hpf), 72 hph larvae (144 hpf), and adult zebrafish were 4.099, 1.069, 3.236, and 5.970 µg/L, respectively. This suggests that pyraoxystrobin has very high toxicity to different life stages of zebrafish, while the newly hatched larvae constitute the most sensitive period of zebrafish to pyraoxystrobin. Decreased heart rate, hatching inhibition, growth regression, and morphological deformities were observed in zebrafish embryos after acute exposure to different concentrations of pyraoxystrobin. The rate of malformation increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in embryos, and the most pronounced abnormality was pericardial edema and yolk sac edema. Pyraoxystrobin (2 and 4 μg/L) significantly altered the mRNA levels of genes related to mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthesis (NDI, uqcrc, and ATPo6), oxidative stress (Mn-Sod, Cat, and Gpx), apoptosis (p53, Bcl2, Bax, and Cas3), and immune system (TNFα, IFN, and IL-1b) in zebrafish embryos. This result indicates that the alteration of these genes is a potential mechanism underlying the toxic effects of pyraoxystrobin on zebrafish.
Zn2+ induced molecular responses associated with oxidative stress, DNA damage and histopathological lesions in liver and kidney of the fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Arun Ratn, Rajesh Prasad, Yashika Awasthi, Manoj Kumar, Abha Misra, Sunil P. Trivedi
Zn2+ is essential for normal physiological functioning of all organisms in small quantities, but when its concentration enhances in surrounding environment it acts as a toxicant to organisms. Common sources of Zn2+ pollution are electroplating, alloying, mining, and allied industrial operations. The present study aims to assess the biochemical, histopathological and genotoxicological implications under Zn2+ intoxication along with its accumulation patterns in prime biotransformation sites-liver and kidney, of a bottom feeder fish, Channa punctatus. Fish were chronically exposed to two different concentrations of Zn2+i.e., 5 mg/L (permissible limit, T1) and 10 mg/L (twice the permissible limit, T2). Simultaneous control was maintained. A significant (p<0.05) increment in Zn2+ bioaccumulation, antioxidant enzymes activities of SOD, CAT and GR and induction in micronuclei frequencies along with the significant (p<0.05) decrement in total protein and GSH were observed in all the exposed groups after 28 d. Altered biochemical parameters coupled with enhanced induction in micronuclei and accumulation of Zn2+ in liver and kidney of fish can be regarded as sensitive biomarkers of Zn2+ induced toxicological manifestations and thus, they may be effectively utilized for reliable ecotoxicological biomonitoring of aquatic regimes polluted with Zn2+.
Effects of fluorine on crops, soil exoenzyme activities, and earthworms in terrestrial ecosystems Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Youn-Joo An
Developmental neurotoxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa in the early life stages of zebrafish Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Haifeng Qian, Guangfu Liu, Tao Lu, Liwei Sun
Accumulating evidence suggests that cyanotoxins can exert neurotoxic effects on exposed aquatic organisms but most studies have focused on purified toxins rather than on the more complex effects of cyanobacterial blooms. To evaluate this issue in an environmentally relevant model, we assessed the developmental neurotoxicity induced by Microcystis aeruginosa on newly hatched zebrafish. After four days of exposure, the locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae was significantly decreased with increasing algae concentration. The levels of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and dopamine (DA) were decreased, accompanied by a decline in ache, chrna7 and manf and a compensatory increase in nr4a2b transcription. Furthermore, the expression of nine marker genes for nervous system function or development, namely, elavl3, gap43, gfap, mbp, nestin, ngn1, nkx2.2a, shha and syn2a, similarly decreased after algal exposure. These results demonstrated that Microcystis aeruginosa exposure affected cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, the transcription of key nervous system genes, and consequently the activity level of larval zebrafish. Importantly, discrepancies in the neurotoxic effects observed in this study and in previous reports that were based on exposure to pure cyanotoxin highlight the necessity for further investigation of cyanobacterial bloom mixtures when assessing the ecotoxicity of cyanobacteria.
Biodegradation and detoxification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by new yeast strains Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Mohamed Hashem, Saad A. Alamri, Sharefah S.A.A. Al-Zomyh, Sulaiman A. Alrumman
Seeking new efficient hydrocarbon-degrading yeast stains was the main goal of this study. Because microorganisms are greatly affected by the environmental factors, the biodegradation potentiality of the microorganisms varies from climatic area to another. This induces research to develop and optimize the endemic organisms in bioremediation technology. In this study, 67 yeast strains were tested for their growth potentiality on both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The most efficient six strains were identified using sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit 26S ribosomal DNA. The identity of these strains was confirmed as Yamadazyma mexicana KKUY-0160, Rhodotorula taiwanensis KKUY-0162, Pichia kluyveri KKUY-0163, Rhodotorula ingeniosa KKUY-0170, Candida pseudointermedia KKUY-0192 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii KKUY-0214. These species are approved for their ability to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for the first time in this study. Although, all of them were able to utilize and grow on both hydrocarbons, Rhodotorula taiwanensis KKUY-0162 emerged as the best degrader of octane, and Rhodotorula ingeniosa KKUY-170 was the best degrader of pyrene. GC-MS analysis approved the presence of many chemical compounds that could be transitional or secondary metabolites during the utilization of the hydrocarbons. Our results recommend the application of these yeast species on large scale to approve their efficiency in bioremediation of oil-contamination of the environment. Using these yeasts, either individually or in consortia, could offer a practical solution for aquatic or soil contamination with the crude oil and its derivatives in situ.
Development of multi-metal interaction model for Daphnia magna: Significance of metallothionein in cellular redistribution Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Xiangrui Wang, Jianyu Liu, Qiaoguo Tan, Jinqian Ren, Dingyuan Liang, Wenhong Fan
Chlorpyrifos-induced biochemical changes in Cyprinus carpio: Ameliorative effect of curcumin Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 M. Enis Yonar
The aim of this study was to determine protective effects of curcumin on some haematological values and oxidant/antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio exposed to chlorpyrifos. The fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0.040 and 0.080 mg L), and curcumin (100 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered for 14 days. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, and haematocrit level) and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase activities) of the fish. There was a significant decrease in the red blood cell count, the haemoglobin concentration, and the haematocrit level and a increase in the white blood cell count of CPF-treated fish. The results revealed a significant increase in the malondialdehyde levels of the groups that were exposed to CPF. Conversely, the MDA levels were significantly decreased by curcumin. Also, CPF exposure caused a significant increase in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and a significant decrease in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. However, curcumin reversed the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase activities. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CPF had a negative effect on the haematological values and the oxidant/antioxidant status of the fish. The simultaneous administration of curcumin was neutralised CPF-induced toxicity.
Airborne polycyclic aromatic compounds contribute to the induction of the tumour-suppressing P53 pathway in wild double-crested cormorants Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 S.J. Wallace, S.R. de Solla, P.J. Thomas, T. Harner, A. Eng, V.S. Langlois
Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-like compounds are known or probable environmental carcinogens released into the environment as a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. Studies have shown that exposure to PACs in the environment can induce both genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity, but few studies have related PAC exposure to molecular changes in free ranging wildlife. Previous work has suggested that double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus; DCCO) exhibited a higher incidence of genetic mutations when their breeding sites were located in heavily industrialized areas (e.g., Hamilton Harbour, Hamilton, ON, Canada) as compared to sites located in more pristine environments, such as in Lake Erie. The aim of this study was to determine if airborne PACs from Hamilton Harbour alter the tumour-suppressing P53 pathway and/or global DNA methylation in DCCOs. Airborne PACs were measured using passive air samplers in the Hamilton Harbour area and low-resolution mass spectrometry analysis detected PACs in livers of DCCOs living in Hamilton Harbour. Further hepatic and lung transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the expression of the genes involved in the DNA repair and cellular apoptosis pathway were up-regulated in both tissues of DCCOs exposed to PACs, while genes involved in p53 regulation were down-regulated. However, global methylation levels did not differ between reference- and PAC-exposed DCCOs. Altogether, data suggest that PACs activate the P53 pathway in free-ranging DCCOs living nearby PAC-contaminated areas.
Influence of cadmium stress on root exudates of high cadmium accumulating rice line (Oryza sativa L.) Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Huijie Fu, Haiying Yu, Tingxuan Li, Xizhou Zhang
A hydroponic experiment with two different cadmium (Cd) accumulating rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) was carried out to explore the links among Cd stress, root exudates and Cd accumulation. The results showed that (1) Cd stress increased quantities of organic acids, but had no effect on composition in root exudates of the two rice lines. In Cd treatments, the contents of every detected organic acid in root exudates of Lu527-8 were 1.76–2.43 times higher than those of Lu527-4. Significant positive correlations between organic acids contents and Cd contents in plants were observed in both rice lines, except that malic acid was only highly relevant to Lu527-8, but not to Lu527-4. (2) Both composition and quantities of amino acids in root exudates changed a lot under Cd stress and this change differed in two rice lines. In control, four amino acids (glutamic acid, glycine, tyrosine and histidine) were detected in two rice lines. Under Cd stress, eight amino acids in Lu527-8 and seven amino acids in Lu527-4 could be detected, among which phenylalanine was only secreted by Lu527-8 and alanine, methionine and lysine were secreted by both rice lines. The contents of those four newly secreted amino acids from Lu527-8 increased significantly with the increase of Cd dose and each had a high-positive correlation with Cd contents, but the same change did not appear in Lu527-4. The difference between two rice lines in secretion of organic acids and amino acids may be related to their different Cd uptake properties.
A preliminary analysis of the effects of bisphenol A on the plant root growth via changes in endogenous plant hormones Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Xingyi Li, Lihong Wang, Shengman Wang, Qing Yang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment worldwide, affecting plant growth and development. Endogenous plant hormones serve as switches that regulate plant growth and development. However, plants have different physiological requirements and environmental adaptive capacities during the different growth stages. Here, we investigated the effects of BPA on soybean (Glycine max L.) root growth at the three growth stages and analyzed the mechanisms underlying the effects of BPA on the root growth by assessing changes in endogenous hormone. The results showed that low concentration of BPA (1.5 mg L−1) improved root growth (except at the seed-filling stage), increased indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at the first two growth stages, and increased zeatin (ZT) content and decreased gibberellic acid (GA3) content at the seedling stage. But low concentration of BPA caused decreased ethylene (ETH) contents and constant abscisic acid (ABA) content at all three stages. However, BPA at moderate and high concentrations (6.0 and 12.0 mg L−1) inhibited root growth, causing the decreased IAA, GA3 and ETH contents and increased ABA content at all three growth stages. The change degrees of above indices were weakened with prolonging the growth stages. After BPA withdrawal, both the root growth and the hormone contents recovered (with the exception of ZT and ETH), and the recovery degrees had negative correlation with the BPA exposure concentration and had positive correlation with the growth stage. Changes in residual BPA content in the roots were also observed at different BPA concentrations and different growth stages. Our results demonstrated the effects of BPA on root growth were related to BPA-induced changes in hormone, which performed differently at various growth stages.
Usefulness of RTL-W1 and OLCAB-e3 fish cell lines and multiple endpoint measurements for toxicity evaluation of unknown or complex mixture of chemicals Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Pauline Pannetier, Laura Fuster, Christelle Clérandeau, Camille Lacroix, Pierre-Yves Gourves, Jérôme Cachot, Bénédicte Morin
Fish are currently used for the assessment of chemical toxicity. The REACh regulation and the European directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes both recommend the use of methods other than animal testing. In view of this, fish cell lines are increasingly used to provide fast and reliable toxic and ecotoxic data on new chemicals. The sensitivity of the Rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 and Japanese medaka embryos cell line OLCAB-e3 were used with different toxicity endpoints, namely cytotoxicity, EROD activity, ROS production and DNA damage for various classes of pollutants displaying different modes of action but also with complex environmental mixtures. Toxicity tests were coupled with chemical analysis to quantify the chemical concentrations in cell cultures. Differences in sensitivity were found between fish cell lines. MTT reduction assay revealed that OLCAB-e3 cells were more sensitive than RTL-W1 cells. On the contrary, RTL-W1 gave higher response levels for the Fpg-modified comet assay and ROS assay. The OLCAB-e3 cell line did not express EROD activity unlike RTL-W1. This study highlights the capacity of the two different fish cell lines to measure the toxicity of individual toxicants but also environmental mixtures. Then, results obtained here illustrate the interest of using different cell lines and toxicity endpoints to assess the toxicity of complex or unknown mixture of chemicals.
Selenium poisoning of fish by coal ash wastewater in Herrington Lake, Kentucky Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 A. Dennis Lemly
Selenium pollution from the E.W. Brown Electric Generating Station was investigated in Herrington Lake, KY. Coal ash wastewater is discharged as surface water overflow from ash disposal ponds into the lake via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the Kentucky Division of Water, but the permit does not restrict or limit the amount of selenium released. Unpermitted discharges occur from seeps and drainage through leaks in ash pond dams. Together, these discharges have resulted in selenium concentrations in water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish that are 2–9 times the level that is toxic for fish reproduction and survival. A large proportion (12.2%, or 25 times background) of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, the only species examined) exhibited spinal and/or craniofacial malformations that are consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated a 3.05% population-level impact on the bass fishery, with total selenium-induced mortality (including pre-swimup mortality) estimated to be in excess of 25% per year. These findings confirm that coal ash discharges into Herrington Lake are contributing selenium to the Lake that is poisoning fish.
Identification of a cytochrome P450 gene in the earthworm Eisenia fetida and its mRNA expression under enrofloxacin stress Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Yinsheng Li, Chun Zhao, Xiaoxu Lu, Xiaojie Ai, Jiangping Qiu
The progestin norethisterone affects thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles at environmentally relevant concentrations Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Claudia Lorenz, Angela Krüger, Viola Schöning, Ilka Lutz
Impact of heavy metal on activity of some microbial enzymes in the riverbed sediments: Ecotoxicological implications in the Ganga River (India) Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Deepa Jaiswal, Jitendra Pandey
We studied the extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) in the riverbed sediment along a 518 km gradient of the Ganga River receiving carbon and nutrient load from varied human sources. Also, we tested, together with substrate-driven stimulation, if the heavy metal accumulated in the sediment inhibits enzyme activities. Because pristine values are not available, we considered Dev Prayag, a least polluted site located 624 km upstream to main study stretch, as a reference site. There were distinct increases in enzyme activities in the sediment along the study gradient from Dev Prayag, however, between-site differences were in concordance with sediment carbon(C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDAase), β-glucosidase (Glu) and protease activities showed positive correlation with C, N and P while alkaline phosphatase was found negatively correlated with P. Enzyme activities were found negatively correlated with heavy metal, although ecological risk index (<img height="24" border="0" style="vertical-align:bottom" width="20" alt="View the MathML source" title="View the MathML source" src="http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0147651317308485-si0002.gif">ERi) varied with site and metal species. Dynamic fit curves showed significant positive correlation between heavy metal and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) indicating a decrease in microbial activity in response to increasing heavy metal concentrations. This study forms the first report linking microbial enzyme activities to regional scale sediment heavy metal accumulation in the Ganga River, suggests that the microbial enzyme activities in the riverbed sediment were well associated with the proportion of C, N and P and appeared to be a sensitive indicator of C, N and P accumulation in the river. Heavy metal accumulated in the sediment inhibits enzyme activities, although C rich sediment showed relatively low toxicity due probably to reduced bioavailability of the metal. The study has relevance from ecotoxicological as well as from biomonitoring perspectives.
Ecotoxicity assessment of dicationic versus monocationic ionic liquids as a more environmentally friendly alternative Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 M.G. Montalbán, G. Víllora, P. Licence
Application of magnetic ionomer for development of very fast and highly efficient uptake of triazo dye Direct Blue 71 form different water samples Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Rouhollah Khani, Sara Sobhani, Mostafa Hossein Beyki, Simin Miri
Effects of the antidepressant, mianserin, on early development of fish embryos at low environmentally relevant concentrations Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Ming Yang, Shuai Liu, Lei Hu, Jing Zhan, Penghui Lei, Minghong Wu
Pharmaceuticals have been considered as emerging organic contaminants in the environment that might pose huge risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. Mianserin, a tetracyclic antidepressant, is present at low detectable concentrations in the aquatic environment; however, limited attention has been devoted to its potential adverse effects on the aquatic animals. In the present study, we first performed an acute toxicity test for mianserin exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos during 4–124 h post fertilization (hpf). Time-dependent lethal concentrations of mianserin exposure on the zebrafish embryos were firstly determined at mg/L levels. Then, a series of sublethal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L of mianserin were prepared for the short-term exposure of zebrafish embryos for 120 h. The results showed that mianserin exposure reduced the body length of zebrafish larvae, in addition to altering multiple physiological and biochemical parameters in the exposed embryos/larvae. A dose-dependent inhibition of the total antioxidant capacity and total cholinesterase activity was revealed in the exposed fish larvae upon increasing the concentrations of mianserin exposure. A U-shaped concentration-dependent response curve was observed for the adrenocorticotropic hormone; however, an inversed U-shaped response curve was obtained for the monoamine oxidase level in response to mianserin exposure. Activities of the total adenosine triphosphatase (T-ATPase), Na+/K+-ATPase, and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase were significantly increased in the fish larvae exposed to relatively high doses of mianserin; interestingly however, low dose of mianserin at 10 ng/L inhibited their Na+/K+-ATPase and T-ATPase activities. Additionally, the coordinated regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase A was observed in the mianserin-exposed fish larvae, implying a reserved signaling pathway involved in the fish response to the antidepressant. Therefore, our study demonstrated that mianserin exposure significantly affected the early development of fish embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations, and suggested that the risk of pharmaceutical contamination of the aquatic environment, even at low doses, should receive more attention.
Cadmium induced changes in Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) grown on organically fertilized soil with reference to mycorrhizae, metabolism, anatomy and ultrastructure Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Lidiane Silva Pereira, Romária Pereira de Araújo, Priscila Souza de Oliveira, Leandro Dias da Silva, Patricia Alves Casaes Alves, Valéria Ferreira Fernandes, Eduardo Gross
Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) is a medicinal important plant with few studies on nutrition and metabolism and none information on cadmium phytotoxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate Cd induced responses on the growth and metabolism in S. chilensis and on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, consisting of a 5 × 4 factorial with five doses of manure (0, 3.5, 7, 14 and 21 g dm−3) and four doses of cadmium (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3) applied to a Dystrophic Ultisol. After 250 days of plant cultivation, biomass, nutrient content, photosynthetic rate, guaiacol peroxidase activity, mycorrhizal colonization, glomalin content, anatomical and ultrastucture were evaluated. Plants were significantly affected by interaction of manure and Cd doses with anatomical, ultrastructural, physiological and nutritional modifications. Manure applied into Cd contaminated soil significantly improved mycorrhizal colonization and glomalin production. The highest organic manure dose (21 g dm−3) alleviated toxicity symptoms of Cd on S. chilensis.
Mercury in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rice-paddy soils under long-term fertilizer and organic amendment Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Zhenya Tang, Fangling Fan, Xinyue Wang, Xiaojun Shi, Shiping Deng, Dingyong Wang
Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1 Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Xiong Pan, Saige Wang, Nan Shi, Hua Fang, Yunlong Yu
The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1–10 mg/l) and temperature (20–40 °C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2 mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl.
Does extensive agriculture influence the concentration of trace elements in the aquatic plant Veronica anagallis-aquatica? Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Ana Kroflič, Mateja Germ, Aleksandra Golob, Vekoslava Stibilj
The present study describes the influence of extensive agriculture on the concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Cd, Se, Pb and Zn in sediments and in the aquatic plant Veronica anagallis-aquatica. The investigation, spanning 4 years, was conducted on three watercourses in Slovenia (Pšata, Lipsenjščica and Žerovniščica) flowing through agricultural areas. The different sampling sites were chosen on the basis of the presence of different activities in these regions: dairy farming, stock raising and extensive agriculture. The concentrations of the selected elements in sediments and V. anagallis-aquatica were below the literature background values. The distribution of the selected elements among different plant parts (roots, stems and leaves) were also investigated. The majority of the studied elements, with the exception of Zn and Cu, were accumulated mainly in root tissues.
Effects of bamboo biochar on soybean root nodulation in multi-elements contaminated soils Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Chunyan Wang, Darioush Alidoust, Xueling Yang, Akihiro Isoda
Improvements in plant physiological performance by means of biochar application in soils contaminated by multi-elements are determinants of agroecosystem functioning. This study analyzed the effects of bamboo-derived biochar on root nodulation and plant growth in a moderately acidic Andosol (pH = 5.56) contaminated with multi-elements during a 70-day investigation of soybean growth.Bamboo biochar that had been pyrolyzed at a temperature below 500 °C was applied to soils at three different and moderately high rates (5%, 10%, and 15%, w/w). Biochar amendment beyond 5% stimulated root nodulation as well as soybean growth. The nodule weight per root system was significantly enhanced by 186% and 243% over the control at the 10% and 15% addition rates, respectively. The primary explanation for these stimulatory effects was attributed to an increase in the K and Mo supplies for plant uptake that was induced by the biochar application, whereas the increased availability of P contributed to a lesser extent. Leaf CO2 assimilation rate was slightly enhanced at the highest application rate, but this enhancement was not associated with an increase in biomass. The incorporation of biochar into the soil reduced extractable-NH4NO3 Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb, regardless of the application dose. This change was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.05) suppression of the uptake od trace elements in soybean shoots at the optimum application rate (10%); the degree of reduction followed this order: Pb>Mn>Cd>Zn>Cu>Ni. The increase in soil pH and the diffusion/adsorption of trace elements onto the biochar may have contributed to the lowering of the concentration of trace elements in the soil as well as in soybean shoots.
Experimental exposure of blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to high levels of benzo[a]pyrene and possible implications for human health Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 A. Speciale, R. Zena, C. Calabrò, C. Bertuccio, M. Aragona, A. Saija, D. Trombetta, F. Cimino, P. Lo Cascio
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are lipophilic compounds able to accumulate in the food chain. Mussels showed to bioaccumulate contaminants, such as PAHs, so that recurrent consumption of such contaminated food represents a risk for human health. This study was aimed to elucidate if acute exposure of Mediterranean blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), a bivalve of great economic importance in several countries, to a PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at doses able to induce cytochrome P450 1 A (CYP1A) and pathological changes in mussel gills, can produce accumulation in soft tissue. We explored the cytotoxic effects (cell viability, DNA laddering, and glutathione levels) of in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to organic extracts obtained from blue mussels previously exposed for 12 and 72 h via water to B[a]P (0.5–1 mg/L). In our experimental conditions, B[a]P induced CYP1A induction and morphological changes in mussel gills and a significant B[a]P accumulation in soft tissue. Conversely, exposing PBMCs to organic extracts obtained from contaminated mussels, resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability and cell glutathione content, and in an increase in DNA laddering. This confirms that consumption of mussels from B[a]P polluted waters might affect human health. Our data lead us to suggest that CYP1A activity in mussel gills may be useful (more than the amount of detected PAHs in the mussel edible tissue) as a marker in assessment of risk for health of consumers exposed to PAHs through ingestion of shellfish.
Adsorption property of Br-PADAP-impregnated multiwall carbon nanotubes towards uranium and its performance in the selective separation and determination of uranium in different environmental samples Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Ramzanali Khamirchi, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad Alahabadi, Selvaraju Sivamani, Abolfazl Rahmani-Sani, Taher Shahryari, Ioannis Anastopoulos, Mohammad Miri, Hai Nguyen Tran
Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as bioindicators of heavy metals pollution in Shiroro Lake, Niger State, Nigeria Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Francis O. Arimoro, Yohanna I. Auta, Oghenekaro N. Odume, Unique N. Keke, Adamu Z. Mohammed
In this study, mouthpart deformities in Chironomid larvae (Diptera) were investigated in relation to sediment contamination in the Shiroro Lake in Nigeria. Metals and chironomids were sampled monthly at three stations (A–C) between August 2013 and January 2014. Across the stations, zinc ranged (3.9–75 mg/g), manganese (1.29–1.65 mg/g), lead (0.00–0.10 mg/g), iron (101–168 mg/g) and copper (0.13–0.17 mg/g). The metal ions did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the sampling stations. However, zinc and iron ions were significantly different between the sampling seasons (P < 0.05). Thirteen chironomid species were recorded, with Chironomus sp., Polypedilum sp. and Ablabesmyia sp. dominating the assemblage structure. Mouthpart deformities were significantly higher at Station A compared with Station C, and seasonally significantly higher during dry season compared with wet season. Elevated incidences of deformity were recorded in Chironomus spp larvae as compared to other genera therefore for further studies in this region assessments should be based solely on Chironomus species and ignoring the rest. Strategies need to be developed to reduce the contaminations and the biological effects.
Signaling molecule methylglyoxal ameliorates cadmium injury in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by a coordinated induction of glutathione pool and glyoxalase system Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Zhong-Guang Li, Qian Nie, Cong-Li Yang, Yue Wang, Zhi-Hao Zhou
Methylglyoxal (MG) now is found to be an emerging signaling molecule. It can relieve the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), however its alleviating mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, compared with the Cd-stressed seedlings without MG treatment, MG treatment could stimulate the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) in Cd-stressed wheat seedlings, which in turn induced an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH). Adversely, the activated enzymes related to GSH biosynthesis and increased GSH were weakened by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), 2,4-dihydroxy-benzylamine (DHBA) and 1,3-bischloroethyl-nitrosourea (BCNU, both are specific inhibitors of GR), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitors of GSH biosynthesis), and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, GSH scavenger), respectively. In addition, MG increased the activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) in Cd-treated seedlings, followed by declining an increase in endogenous MG as comparision to Cd-stressed seedlings alone. On the contrary, the increased glyoxalase activity and decreased endogenous MG level were reversed by NAC and specific inhibitors of Gly I (isoascorbate, IAS; squaric acid, SA). Furthermore, MG alleviated an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Cd-treated wheat seedlings. These results indicated that MG could alleviate Cd toxicity and improve the growth of Cd-stressed wheat seedlings by a coordinated induction of glutathione pool and glyoxalase system.
Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Jie Lyu, Jihae Park, Lalit Kumar Pandey, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Jonas De Saeger, Stephen Depuydt, Taejun Han
Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC50) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol).
Effects of food contaminated with cadmium and copper on hemocytes of Steatoda grossa (Araneae: Theridiidae) Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Grażyna Wilczek, Kamila Wiśniewska, Bartosz Kozina, Piotr Wilczek, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska, Monika Stalmach, Magdalena Skowronek, Florentyna Kaszuba
Perfluorinated compounds in surface waters of Shanghai, China: Source analysis and risk assessment Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Rui Sun, Minghong Wu, Liang Tang, Jiajun Li, Zhaoqiu Qian, Tao Han, Gang Xu
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