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  • Subacute intoxication with sodium nitrate induces hematological and biochemical alterations and liver injury in male Wistar rats
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    M.F. González Delgado, A. González Zamora, M.E. Gonsebatt, E. Meza Mata, G.G. García Vargas, E.Y. Calleros Rincón, R. Pérez Morales
    更新日期:2018-09-21
  • Queen bee acceptance under threat: Neurotoxic insecticides provoke deep damage in queen-worker relationships
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Alex Otesbelgue, Charles Fernando dos Santos, Betina Blochtein
    更新日期:2018-09-21
  • Response of the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha to sub-lethal concentrations of samarium and yttrium after chronic exposure
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-21
    Houda Hanana, Patrice Turcotte, Maxime Dubé, Christian Gagnon, François Gagné
    更新日期:2018-09-21
  • 更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Acute toxicity of organic pesticides to Daphnia magna is unchanged by co-exposure to polystyrene microplastics
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Alice A. Horton, Martina G. Vijver, Elma Lahive, David J. Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Roel Heutink, Peter M. van Bodegom, Jan Baas

    Daphnia magna were exposed to two pesticides in the presence or absence of microplastics (300 000 particles ml−1 1 µm polystyrene spheres) and to microplastics alone. The pesticides were dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide with a low log Kow, and deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide with a high log Kow. Daphnia were exposed to a nominal concentration range of 0.15, 0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5 mg l−1 dimethoate and 0.016, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5 and 10 µg l−1 deltamethrin. Exposure to polystyrene microplastics alone showed no effects on Daphnia magna survival and mobility over a 72 h exposure. In the dimethoate exposures, mobility and survival were both affected from a concentration of 1.25 mg l−1, with effects were seen on mobility from 28 h and survival from 48 h, with greater effects seen with increasing concentration and exposure time. In deltamethrin exposures, survival was affected from a concentration of 0.4 µg l−1 and mobility from a concentration of 0.08 µg l−1. Effects of deltamethrin on mobility were seen from 5 h and on survival from 28 h, with greater effects on survival and mobility seen with increasing concentration and exposure time. Contrary to expectations, pesticide toxicity to Daphnia magna was not affected by the presence of microplastics, regardless of chemical binding affinity (log Kow). This therefore suggests that polystyrene microplastics are unlikely to act as a significant sink, nor as a vector for increased uptake of pesticides by aquatic organisms.CapsulePolystyrene microplastics are unlikely to act as vector for increased uptake of pesticides by aquatic organisms

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Measurement of volatile organic compounds and associated risk assessments through ingestion and dermal routes in Dongjiang Lake, China
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Fengmei Cao, Pan Qin, Shaoyong Lu, Qi He, Fengchang Wu, Hongwen Sun, Lei Wang, Linlin Li
    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Morphophysiological responses and tolerance mechanisms of Xanthium strumarium to manganese stress
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Gao Pan, Wensheng Liu, Heping Zhang, Peng Liu

    Effective phytoremediation of manganese (Mn) requires the careful selection of a species that has a relatively high manganese tolerance. Exploring the physiological mechanisms related to Mn stress responses is crucial for identifying and employing species for Mn phytoremediation. Xanthium strumarium is a species that can accumulate high levels of Mn, thus it is a candidate species for Mn-phytoremediation. To reveal the tolerance mechanisms of this species to manage Mn stress, the morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses of seedlings grown in water cultures under six different Mn concentrations were analyzed. The results showed that X. strumarium can accumulate high levels of Mn, even as plant growth was inhibited by rising Mn concentrations. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and catalase (CAT) activity decreased along with the increased Mn concentrations, while soluble protein and proline content, as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes, all increased initially and then declined. The highest value of POD, SOD, soluble protein and proline all occurred at 5000 µM of Mn stress, which means that X. strumarium can adapt to low concentration of Mn stress. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased, and the stomatal limitation (Ls) increased in response to Mn stress. Furthermore, water use efficiency (WUE) and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) increased first under low concentration of Mn, and then reduced as the concentration of Mn increased. The maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), efficiency of excitation capture by open PSII reaction centers (Fv′/Fm′), electron transport rate (ETR) declined as Mn concentration increased. In conclusion, the above results showed that X. strumarium can be effectively used for phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils.

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Comparative studies on growth and Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena variabilis
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Mona M. Abd El-Hameed, Mohamed E. Abuarab, Shady Abdel Mottaleb, Reham M. El-Bahbohy, Gomaa A. Bakeer

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is a major environmental problem that needs to be treated. This study reported the ability of two fresh water algae cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena variabilis) to remove lead from aqueous solutions of four different initial concentrations (0–50 mg/L−1) for 21 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Results obtained in this study showed a maximum removal of Pb(II) (97.8%) by N. muscorum at 15 mg/L−1 initial metal concentration however the maximum removal by A. variabilis at the same concentration was 71.4% after 16 day of incubation. These N. muscorum appeared to be more efficient than A. variabilis for removing Pb(II). Algal growth, pigments in the algae cells were measured during incubation period. Lower concentrations of lead increased biomass, OD, chlorophyll a and carotenoids in both algae. On the other hand, higher concentrations of lead were inhibitory for growth.

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Decolorization and detoxification of water-insoluble Sudan dye by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 co-cultured with Bacillus circulans BWL1061
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Weijie Liu, Yanting You, Di Sun, Shiwei Wang, Jingrong Zhu, Cong Liu

    Effluents loaded with various synthetic dyes are considered as a huge burden to the surrounding ecosystems. Sudan dyes are relatively difficult to decolorize due to its water-insolubility. In the present study, the strain Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was firstly applied to decolorize Sudan dyes under the anaerobic condition, and the physicochemical parameters on the decolorization were optimized. The results demonstrated that the suitable decolorization condition was temperature 26 °C, initial pH 7.0–8.0 and NaCl concentrations 0–20 g/L. Electron competitive acceptors including nitrite, nitrate, dimethyl sulphoxide and oxygen could cause the significant inhibition to the decolorization of Sudan dyes. Biosurfactant rhamnolipid played a positive role in enhancing the decolorization of Sudan I. The co-culture of S. putrefaciens CN32 and Bacillus circulans BWL1061 is reported for the first time to accelerate the decolorization through improving the synergistic effect of enzymatic degradation and biological reductive effect. The highest decolorization of 90.23% to Sudan I was achieved within 108 h, suggesting that co-culture technique has a good potential in the treatment of dyeing wastewater. Furthermore, the microbial toxicity tests indicated that the toxicity of Sudan I to Escherichia coli BL21 and Bacillus subtilis 168 was obviously decreased after the decolorization.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Novel high-gluten flour physically cross-linked graphene oxide composites: Hydrothermal fabrication and adsorption properties for rare earth ions
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Xia Xu, Jiao Zou, Jie Teng, Qi Liu, Xin-Yu Jiang, Fei-Peng Jiao, Jin-Gang Yu, Xiao-Qing Chen

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were immobilized and cross-linked by high-gluten flour (HGF), and a series of biomass-GO composites with various HGF-to-GO mass ratios were fabricated through a one-step hydrothermal method. The HGF-GO composites were used as novel adsorbents to adsorb rare earth ions (REE3+: La3+, Yb3+, Y3+, Er3+ and Nd3+) from aqueous solutions, and their adsorption properties were also investigated detailly. To evaluate the physicochemical properties of HGF-GO composites and further understand the mechanisms of adsorption of REE3+ onto HGF-GO composites, the HGF-GO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Several important condition parameters including contact time, initial REE3+concentrations, solution pH values and temperature that might affect the adsorption process were studied in detail. The maximum adsorption capacities of HGF-GO1:1 composite toward La3+, Yb3+, Y3+, Er3+ and Nd3+ were 30.32, 36.64, 32.84, 42.36 and 48.68 mg g−1, respectively. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption of REE3+ onto HGF-GO1:1 was well fitted by the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic reaction. The HGF-GO1:1 composite could be well regenerated and reused after five adsorption-desorption cycles, and its removal efficiency for Yb3+ remained as a constant of 100%.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Effects of straw leachates from Cry1C-expressing transgenic rice on the development and reproduction of Daphnia magna
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Yi Chen, Yanjie Gao, Haojun Zhu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li, Yufa Peng, Xiuping Chen

    The transgenic rice line T1C-19 provides high resistance to lepidopteran pests because of the synthesis of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein Cry1C. It thus shows good prospect for commercial planting in China. Species of Cladocera, an order of aquatic arthropods commonly found in aquatic ecosystems such as rice paddies, might be exposed to the insecticidal protein released from Bt-transgenic rice-straw residues. For the study reported herein, we used Daphnia magna (water flea) as a representative of Cladocera to evaluate whether aquatic arthropods are adversely affected when exposed to Bt rice-straw leachates. We exposed D. magna to M4 medium containing various volume percentages of medium that had been incubated with T1C-19 rice straw or rice straw from its non-transformed near-isoline Minghui 63 (MH63) for 21 days. Compared with pure M4 medium (control), the fitness and developmental and reproduction parameters of D. magna decreased significantly when exposed to rice-straw leachates; conversely, no significant differences between the T1C-19 and MH63 rice-straw leachate treatments were observed, indicating that the Bt rice straw leachate did not adversely affect this non-target species.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • 更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Protective effects of farnesol on a Rhizobium strain exposed to cadmium
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Tiago Nunes, Paulo Cardoso, Rosa Freitas, Etelvina Figueira
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Tolerance mechanism of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. seedlings to lead and cadmium: Translocation, subcellular distribution, chemical forms and variations in leaf ultrastructure
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Jian-pan Xin, Yao Zhang, Ru-nan Tian

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to assess the accumulation, translocation, and chemical forms of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the roots, stems, and leaves of Triarrhena sacchariflora seedlings and the associated variation in leaf ultrastructure. The leaves and leaf ultrastructure showed no significant symptoms of toxicity with 0.05 mM Pb or 0.01 mM Cd exposure for 10d. Chlorosis and wilting were observed in leaves when the Pb and Cd concentration was higher than 0.1 and 0.05 mM in the medium, respectively, as demonstrated by severe ultrastructural modifications at higher concentration in the leaves, such as plasmolysis, cell wall detachment, chloroplast swelling, nuclear condensation, and even nuclear fragmentation. The Pb and Cd concentrations in the roots was significantly higher than those in the stems and leaves. This indicated low Pb and Cd translocation from the roots to the aboveground parts. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that the majority of Pb and Cd was bound to the cell wall, especially in the roots, indicating that the cell wall likely constitutes a crucial storage site for Pb and Cd. This mechanism decreases the translocation of Pb and Cd across membranes and is more effective than vacuolar compartmentation. The majority of Pb and Cd exited in form of insoluble Pb/Cd-pectate or -oxalate complexes in the plant. In conclusion, higher concentrations of Pb or Cd induced premature senescence. High Pb and Cd enrichment was observed in the roots, which decreased the translocation of Pb and Cd from the roots to the aboveground tissues. The immobilization of Pb or Cd by the cell wall is important for plant detoxification and can protect protoplasts from Pb or Cd toxicity. Pb and Cd mainly existed in insoluble Pb/Cd-phosphate or -oxalate complexes, exhibiting low activity and thereby limiting symplastic transport and suppressing toxicity.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Corrigendum to “Bioaccumulation of cadmium by Enterobacter sp. and enhancement of rice seedling growth under cadmium stress” [Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 156 (2018) 183–196]
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Soumik Mitra, Krishnendu Pramanik, Anumita Sarkar, Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tithi Soren, Tushar Kanti Maiti
    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Influence of potassium concentration gradient on stable caesium uptake by Calla palustris
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Dana Komínková, Kateřina Berchová-Bímová, Lucie Součková
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Multivariate linear regression model for source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals from different environmental media
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Yinxian Song, Huimin Li, Jizhou Li, Changping Mao, Junfeng Ji, Xuyin Yuan, Tianyuan Li, Godwin A. Ayoko, Ray L. Frost, Yuexing Feng

    The study evaluated source apportionment of heavy metals in vegetable samples from the potential sources of fertilizer, water and soil samples collected along the Changjiang River delta in China. The results showed that 25.72% of vegetable samples (Brassica chinensis L.) containing Pb, and Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn at relatively serious levels were from soil. Combined with principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), the results of the spatial distribution of heavy metals in different environmental media indicated that fertilizer, water and soil were the main sources of heavy metals in vegetables. The results of multivariate linear regression (MLR) using partition indexes (P) showed that fertilizer contributed to 38.5%, 40.56%, 46.01%, 53.34% and 65.25% of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn contents in vegetables, respectively. In contrast, 44.58% of As, 32.57% of Hg and 32.83% of Pb in vegetables came from soil and 42.78% of Cd and 66.97% of Hg contents in vegetables came from the irrigation water. The results of PCA and CA verified that MLR using P was suitable for determining source apportionment in a vegetable. A health risk assessment was performed; As, Cd and Pb contributed to more than 75% of the total hazard quotient (THQ) values and total carcinogenic risk values (Risktotal) for adults and children through oral ingestion. More than 70% of the estimated THQ and Risktotal is contributed by water and fertilizer. Therefore, it is necessary to increase efforts in screening limits/levels of heavy metals in fertilizer and irrigation water and prioritize appropriate pollution management strategies.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Distribution and transformation of lead in rice plants grown in contaminated soil amended with biochar and lime
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Honghong Li, Hao Xu, Shi Zhou, Yong Yu, Hailong Li, Cui Zhou, Yanhui Chen, Yunyun Li, Mingkuang Wang, Guo Wang
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Earthworms stimulate nitrogen transformation in an acidic soil under different Cd contamination
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Hui-Juan Xu, Hao Chen, Xue-Li Wang, Yu-Long Zhang, Jin-Jin Wang, Ning Li, Yong-Tao Li

    In acidic Cd-contaminated soils, soil nitrogen conversion is inhibited and usually block nitrogen supply for plants. Earthworms are well known for improving soil properties and regulating various soil biogeochemical processes including nitrogen cycling. To figure out the effect and mechanisms of earthworms on soil nitrogen transformation in Cd-contaminated soil, ten treatments with and without A. robustus in five soil Cd concentration gradients were established. The tolerant concentration of A. robustus to Cd in the acidic soil is about 6 mg kg-1. The potential ammonia oxidation of the acidic soils was very low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 µg NO2--N g-1 d-1. Although AOA was more abundant in the acidic soil than AOB, AOA was inhibited by Cd pollution, while AOB showed some increase under Cd-stress. AOA may play a dominant role in ammonia oxidation in acidic soil, but the recovery of nitrification in Cd-contaminated acidic soil was probably due to the effect of AOB. Earthworms significantly increased soil pH, DOC, ammonium and PAO, thus promoted soil ammonification and potential nitrification, but had no significant effect on soil net nitrification. Correlation analysis results demonstrate that earthworms may promote soil PAO by increasing soil pH, NH4+-N content, and AOB abundance. This study could provide a theoretical basis for solving the problem of nitrogen-cycling-functional degradation and nitrogen supply in the process of phytoremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soils.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • The antagonist and synergist potential of cholinium-based deep eutectic solvents
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Inês P.E. Macário, Sónia P.M. Ventura, Joana L. Pereira, Ana M.M. Gonçalves, João A.P. Coutinho, Fernando J.M. Gonçalves
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Variation of bacterioplankton community along an urban river impacted by touristic city: With a focus on pathogen
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Sheng Liu, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang, Juan Chen, Xun Wang, Qiusheng Yuan
    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Adsorptive mercaptan removal of liquid phase using nanoporous graphene: Equilibrium, kinetic study and DFT calculations
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Seyyed Salar Meshkat, Omid Tavakoli, Alimorad Rashidi, Mehdi D. Esrafili
    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Spatial distribution, accumulation and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil and groundwater of the Tano Basin, Ghana
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Israel Doyi, David Essumang, Gustav Gbeddy, Samuel Dampare, Elliot Kumassah, David Saka

    Soil serves as a vast matrix for heavy metal accumulation and subsequent redistribution to critical aspects of the environment such as groundwater. Soil pollution study is essential for sustainable human health and ecosystem protection. This study provides vital insight into the fate, accumulation, interactions, and health risk posed by heavy metals in soil and groundwater by employing geochemical accumulation index (Igeo), risk assessment models and multivariate data analysis techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), preference ranking organisation method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA). The median Igeo estimates show moderate to strong Pb accumulation levels whilst all the other metals indicate uncontaminated to moderate levels. The PCA output point to anthropogenic origin of Pb and Cd in the Tano Basin and surrounding communities. PROMETHEE-GAIA results indicate that Pb, Cd, Zn and Fe accumulated in the soil matrix may potentially leach into the groundwater resources. The carcinogenic lifetime risks posed by Pb, Cd, and Ni metals to adults are within the tolerable acceptable risk and thus do not present an immediate danger in the study area. Due to the significant toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties of Pb and Cd in the environment, areas associated with significant anthropogenic activities require regular monitoring and evaluation in order to ensure that these metals are consistently below the regulatory limits. This study has further elucidated the subject of heavy metal pollution and is therefore expected to enhance sustainable protection of the environment and human health.

    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Tellurite biotransformation and detoxification by Shewanella baltica with simultaneous synthesis of tellurium nanorods exhibiting photo-catalytic and anti-biofilm activity
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Diviya Chandrakant Vaigankar, Santosh Kumar Dubey, Sajiya Yusuf Mujawar, Avelyno D’Costa, Shyama S.K.

    Tellurite reducing bacterial strain was isolated from Zuari estuary, Goa India which could tolerate 5.5 mM potassium tellurite with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6 mM. This strain was designated as GUSDZ9 and was identified as Shewanella baltica (accession number: MF350629) based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and BLAST analysis. The Diethyl-dithiocarbamate based colorimetric analysis clearly demonstrated a complete reduction of 2 mM tellurite to elemental tellurium during the late stationary phase. Te Nanoparticles (TeNPs) biosynthesis which initiated at early log phase (i.e. 4 h) was evidently monitored through colour change and a peak due to surface plasmon resonance at 210 nm using UV–Vis spectroscopic analysis. X-ray crystallographic studies and transmission electron microscopy revealed unique nano-rods with a diameter ranging from 8 to 75 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further confirmed the presence of pure tellurium. The biogenic TeNPs at 10 and 5 µg/mL evidently demonstrated 90% degradation of methylene blue dye and anti-biofilm activity against potential Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens respectively. The alkaline comet assay revealed time and dose-dependent genotoxicity at concentrations higher than 15 µg/mL of TeNPs. This study clearly demonstrated the potential of Shewanella baltica strain GUSDZ9 in bioremediation of toxic tellurite through bio-reduction into elemental tellurium and involvement of biogenic TeNPs in the photo-catalytic reduction of methylene blue and anti-biofilm activity. This is the first report of its kind on the synthesis of biogenic TeNPs from Shewanella baltica demonstrating photo-catalytic, anti-biofilm activity as well as genotoxicity.

    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Comparative effects of nano and bulk-Fe3O4 on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Alexandre Konate, Yaoyao Wang, Xiao He, Muhammd Adeel, Peng Zhang, Yuhui Ma, Yayun Ding, Junzhe Zhang, Jie Yang, Simon Kizito, Yukui Rui, Zhiyong Zhang
    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • 更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Effectiveness of simultaneous applications of lime and zinc/iron foliar sprays to minimize cadmium accumulation in rice
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Ming-Meng Duan, Shuai Wang, Dao-You Huang, Qi-Hong Zhu, Shou-Long Liu, Quan Zhang, Han-Hua Zhu, Chao Xu
    更新日期:2018-09-14
  • In ovo exposure to triclosan alters the hepatic proteome in chicken embryos
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Jiahua Guo, Hoa Thanh Nguyen, Shohei Ito, Kimika Yamamoto, Mirella Kanerva, Hisato Iwata

    The occurrence of triclosan (TCS) in the eggs of wild avian species is an emerging concern. We previously evaluated the effects of in ovo exposure to TCS on the liver transcriptome of chicken embryos and proposed adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). However, the key molecular events identified to be affected need to be verified at the protein level. Herein, we investigated the changes in the spectrum of hepatic proteins in TCS-treated chicken embryos by proteomic analysis to validate the key signaling pathways involved in the AOPs. We identified and quantified 894 unique proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. In the 0.1 (low dose), 1 (median dose), and 10 μg triclosan/g egg (high dose) groups, TCS caused significant changes in the levels of 195, 233, and 233 proteins in males and 237, 188, and 156 proteins in females, respectively (fold changes > 1.3 or < 0.7). TCS exposure modulated the expression of proteins, predominantly involved in signaling pathways of lipid and energy metabolism in both genders. Among the proteins associated with TCS metabolism in the liver, phase I (e.g., CYP2C23a) and phase II (e.g., UGT1A1) enzymes mediated by chicken xenobiotic receptor, were only induced in males. In consonance with the malondialdehyde levels, which were increased upon TCS exposure in females in a dose-dependent manner, a battery of antioxidant enzymes, notably SOD2, GST, GSTz1, and PRDX1, was decreased and SOD1 and GSTK1 were increased in the embryos. Taken together, this proteome analysis complements the transcriptome profiling reported in our previous study and authenticates the AOPs proposed for chicken embryos in ovo exposed to TCS.

    更新日期:2018-09-14
  • In vitro and in vivo toxic effects and inflammatory responses induced by carboxylated black carbon-lead complex exposure
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Shuanglin Jiang, Mengting Shang, Kui Mu, Nan Jiang, Haiyan Wen, Rong Wang, Hai Wu, Wenyong Li
    更新日期:2018-09-14
  • Summer–winter differences of PM2.5 toxicity to human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and the roles of transition metals
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Yan Chen, Xiao-San Luo, Zhen Zhao, Qi Chen, Di Wu, Xue Sun, Lichun Wu, Ling Jin

    Atmospheric fine particulate matters (PM2.5) induce adverse human health effects through inhalation, and the harmful effects of PM2.5 are determined not only by its air concentrations, but also by the particle components varied temporally. To investigate seasonal differences of the aerosol toxicity effects including cell viability and membrane damage, cell oxidative stress and responses of inflammatory cytokines, the human lung epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to PM2.5 samples collected in both summer and winter by the in vitro toxicity bioassays. Toxicological results showed that, the PM2.5 led to the cell viability decrease, cell membrane injury, oxidative stress level increase and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. Temporally, the cytotoxicity of winter PM2.5 was higher than summer of this studied industrial area of Nanjing, China. According to the different contents of heavy metals accumulated in PM2.5, the transition metals such as Cu might be an important contributor to the aerosol cell toxicity.

    更新日期:2018-09-14
  • Cloning, characterization and expression analysis of metallothioneins from Ipomoea aquatica and their cultivar-dependent roles in Cd accumulation and detoxification
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Ying-Ying Huang, Fei-Yue Gong, Chuang Shen, Chun-Tao He, Hui-Ling Fu, Xue-Song Wang, Xiao Tan, Pei-Lin Xu, Zhong-Yi Yang
    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Impairment of bisphenol F on the glucose metabolism of zebrafish larvae
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Fei Zhao, Hongfang Wang, Penghao Wei, Guobin Jiang, Wei Wang, Xiaona Zhang, Shaoguo Ru

    Bisphenol F (BPF) is a substitute of bisphenol A in the production of epoxy resin and polycarbonate. Its extensive use in consumer products leads to a wide human exposure at high levels. Although the adverse effects of BPF on animal health are of increasing public concern, its risks on systematic glucose metabolism and blood glucose concentrations still remain largely unknown. Using zebrafish larvae as the model animal, we investigated the disturbance of BPF exposure on glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. Zebrafish larvae at 96 h post fertilization were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L of BPF for 48 h. Compared with the control group, glucose levels of larvae increased significantly in the 10 and 100 μg/L exposure groups, which are associated with enhancement of gluconeogenesis and suppression of glycolysis induced by high doses of BPF. Additionally, both mRNA expressions and protein levels of insulin increased significantly in the 10 and 100 μg/L exposure groups, while transcription levels of genes encoding insulin receptor substrates decreased significantly in these groups, indicating a possibly decreased insulin sensitivity due to impairment of insulin signaling transduction downstream of insulin receptor. Further, compared with BPF alone, co-exposure of larvae to BPF and rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, significantly attenuates increases in both glucose levels and mRNA expressions of a key gluconeogenesis enzyme. Our data therefore indicate impairing insulin signaling transduction may be the main mechanism through which BPF disrupts glucose metabolism and induces hyperglycemia. Results of the present study inform the health risk assessment of BPF and also suggest the use of zebrafish larvae in large-scale screening of chemicals with possible glucose metabolism disturbing effect.

    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • The metabolism distribution and effect of imidacloprid in chinese lizards (Eremias argus) following oral exposure
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Yinghuan Wang, Yongtao Han, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Wei Li, Xiangyun Wang
    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Green synthesis and optimization of nano-magnetite using Persicaria bistorta root extract and its application for rosewater distillation wastewater treatment
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Fatemeh Azadi, Ayoub Karimi-Jashni, Mohammad Mahdi Zerafat

    The aim of this research is to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles, using Persicaria bistorta root extract as the reducing agent, and to test its adsorption properties in the treatment of rosewater distillation wastewater. Taking advantage of Taguchi method, effect of synthesis parameters, including molar concentration of FeCl2, concentration of plant extract, temperature, and pH on crystallite size and magnetization strength is studied. Based on the successful synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles and characterization experiments, Persicaria bistorta root extract can be considered as a proper alternative as the reducing agent. Data analysis shows that crystallite size and magnetization are positively correlated with concentration of FeCl2 and pH, while inversely related to temperature and independent of plant extract concentration. The optimum values achieved for concentration of FeCl2, temperature, and pH are 0.15 M, 70 °C, and 11, respectively, with the production of nanoparticles with magnetite size of 45.5 nm and magnetization value of 62.5 emu/g. In addition, the application of as-synthesized magnetite nanoparticles as an adsorbent for treatment of rosewater distillation wastewater proved its high adsorption capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) up to 149 mg/g. Adsorption data also shows a good fitness with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.

    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • 更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of the backfilled region in the Wuda coal fire area, Inner Mongolia, China
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Ming Liang, Yanci Liang, Handong Liang, Zhu Rao, Hongfei Cheng
    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • 更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Carcinogenic profile, toxicity and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulated from urban road dust in Tokyo, Japan
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Rajendra Khanal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Chihiro Yoshimura

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments. Urban road dust (URD) generated by traffic is an important PAH accumulator. Twelve priority PAHs in < 2000 µm fraction of ten URD samples from Tokyo, Japan were characterized based on profile distributions, carcinogenicity, toxicity, and source apportionment by cluster analysis, biplot and diagnostic ratios. PAH concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) in arterial roads, highways, highway parking, highway drainage pit and residential area URD samples were 2.06–4.24, 0.25–3.37, 3.44, 4.94, and 5.26 respectively, dominated by the ∑4 rings (average 46%) and ∑5 + 6 rings (average 41%) PAHs. Biplot analysis revealed that the antecedent dry weather period, vehicle frequency and organic matter content were the dominant environmental factors governing PAH profiles of different road types. The total amount of carcinogenic PAHs in the residential URD (2.12 mg/kg) was higher than those in the arterial road (0.60–2.00 mg/kg) and highway (0.10–1.84 mg/kg) URD. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TECs) of residential, arterial road and highway URD were 0.54, (0.12–0.57), and (0.02–0.51) mg/kg, respectively. The dominant PAH sources were found to be petrogenic combustion in arterial road and highway URD, and pyrogenic combustion consisting of a mix of biomass, petroleum and traffic-related sources in the residential and highway drainage pit samples. This is also the first study to find that TEC-based toxicity should not be taken as a measure of URD toxicity.

    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Non-toxicity of nano alumina: A case on mung bean seedlings
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Nisha Shabnam, Hyunook Kim
    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • 更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Using solar cell to phytoremediate field-scale metal polluted soil assisted by electric field
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    Jie Luo, Dan Yang, Shihua Qi, Jian Wu, Xiaowen Sophie Gu

    Eucalyptus globulus were used to remediate a real scale site endangered by e-waste with electric fields supplied by solar cell and conventional storage battery. The capacity of the species to produce biomass, absorb pollutants and decontaminate metals, as well as the soil moisture of various layers under different treatments was compared. During the 3-month experiment, the output potential of solar cell influenced by weather conditions was less stable (ranging from 0 to 8.3 V) comparing with traditional power supply. Solar cell and storage battery stimulated the growth of the species from 5.92 in control to 7.21 and 7.38 kg per plant, respectively, demonstrating their similar improvement effect. Electric fields of either power source increased the metal concentrations of plant roots and shoots in equal proportions and subsequently greatly promoted the efficiency to decontaminate pollutants. Relative to the control without electric field, solar cell and storage battery treatments reduced the soil moisture of each corresponding layer and consequently, alleviated the leaching risk. At the termination of the experiment, metals tended to distribute in the surface layer under electric field assisted phytoremediation either by solar cell or storage battery. Comparing with conventional battery, solar cell has similar effect on improving remediation and mitigating leaching risk, but is less energy consuming and easier to manage, especially under real scale field. Solar cell treatment was suggested to be a suitable supplementary means to improve phytoremediation efficiency.

    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • 更新日期:2018-09-12
  • Plant leaf extracts as photocatalytic activity tailoring agents for BiOCl towards environmental remediation
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Seema Garg, Mohit Yadav, Amrish Chandra, Soniya Gahlawat, Pravin P. Ingole, Zsolt Pap, Klara Hernadi
    更新日期:2018-09-12
  • Toxicity evaluation of leached of sugarcane vinasse: Histopathology and immunostaining of cellular stress protein
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Maria Paula Mancini Coelho, Jorge Evangelista Correia, Louise Idalgo Vasques, Ana Claudia de Castro Marcato, Thays de Andrade Guedes, Miguel Alfaro Soto, Juliana Broggio Basso, Chang Kiang, Carmem Silvia Fontanetti

    Sugarcane vinasse is a residue generated at a rate fifteen times greater than the ethanol production. Because of its high organic and micronutrient content, this residue is used as a fertilizer on sugarcane crops. However, when used in large quantities, vinasse can saturate the soil and contaminate nearby water resources by percolation and leaching. Given the proven toxic potential of in natura vinasse, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxic potential of leached sugarcane vinasse using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as a test organism. A bioassay was performed after vinasse percolation in laboratory soil columns. The bioassay included one control group containing fresh water and two treatment groups, the first exposed to a 2,5% dilution of leached of vinasse and the second to a 2,5% dilution of in natura vinasse. After exposure, histopathological analysis was performed in gills and livers, and the latter were labelled for HSP70 proteins. No significant changes were detected in the gills of the exposed fish. However, in the liver, both in natura and leached vinasse induced statistically significant histopathological changes. These changes include hydropic degeneration, cell boundary losses, pyknotic nuclei and cellular disorganization. HSP70 expression significant increase in liver of both treatment groups were observed, being higher for the in natura vinasse exposed group. Results suggested that both leached vinasse and in natura vinasse were toxic, its still able to provoke histological changes and induce the cytoprotective response in exposed fish liver, evidenced by a immunostaining of cellular stress proteins. Thus, in order to reduce its environmental impact, appropriated effluent disposal is essential.

    更新日期:2018-09-12
  • Assessing chronic toxicity of aluminium, gallium and molybdenum in tropical marine waters using a novel bioassay for larvae of the hermit crab Coenobita variabilis
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Joost W. van Dam, Melanie A. Trenfield, Claire Streten, Andrew J. Harford, David Parry, Rick A. van Dam

    A novel bioassay is presented that allows for the estimation of the chronic toxicity of contaminants in receiving tropical marine environments. Relevant procedures to identify contaminants of concern and evaluate hazards associated with contamination in these environments have long remained inadequate. The 6-day bioassay is conducted using freshly hatched planktonic larvae of the hermit crab Coenobita variabilis and is targeted at generating environmentally relevant, chronic toxicity data. The developmental endpoint demonstrated consistently high control performance and was validated through the use of copper as a reference toxicant. In addition, the biological effects of aluminium, gallium and molybdenum were assessed. The endpoint expressed high sensitivity to copper (EC10 = 24 µg L−1) and moderate sensitivity to aluminium (EC10 = 312 µg L−1), whereas gallium and molybdenum elicited no obvious effects, even at high concentrations (EC10 > 6000 µg L−1), providing valuable information on the toxicity of these elements in tropical marine waters for derivation of water quality guidelines or testing of compliance limits.

    更新日期:2018-09-12
  • Pb speciation in rare earth minerals and use of entropy and fuzzy clustering methods to assess the migration capacity of Pb during mining activities
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Jin Hui Liu, Ling Kang Chen, Chuan Yi Liu, Lan Rong Qiu, Shu He

    Ionic rare earth mining is of strategic importance in China; however, the heavy metal pollution it causes is of great concern, both at home and abroad. Data on Pb speciation at a rare earth mine were used to analyse the migration capacity of Pb during the process of ore leaching. The major factors thought to influence the migration capacity of Pb, including the clay mineral content, soil pH, oxidation-reduction potential, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC), were quantified. Entropy and fuzzy clustering methods were used to identify the most predictive factors. The results showed that the clay mineral content of the soil exerts the strongest influence on the migration capacity of Pb in rare earth mines; the other factors demonstrated relatively weak influences on the transport processes. The results obtained from the classification of Pb per the potential migration index (PMI) approximated those obtained from fuzzy clustering, and the results of entropy analyses were consistent with those of fuzzy clustering. Thus, the methods upon which the proposed model is based are suitable for predicting the migration capacity of Pb in ore during the mining of ionic rare earth minerals.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feather and muscle of the birds of prey from Beijing, China
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Weiwen Yin, Ya Zhang, Pu Wang, Shucheng Zheng, Chaofei Zhu, Xu Han, Qinghua Zhang, Yong Liang, Guibin Jiang

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the feather and muscle of common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), eagle owls (Bubo bubo) and little owls (Athene noctua) collected from Beijing, China were investigated. The concentrations of ∑23PBDEs in the muscle and feather of all the birds of prey ranged from 46 to 7.77 × 104 ng/g lipid weight (lw; median 241 ng/g lw) and 1.50–191 ng/g dry weight (dw; median 21.1 ng/g dw), respectively. Higher brominated congeners, e.g., BDE-209, -153, -207 and -196 were the dominant congeners in both feather and muscle. However, the concentrations of lower brominated congeners in feather were significantly correlated with those in muscle (p < 0.05), which suggested that feather could efficiently reflect lower brominated BDEs in the internal tissue of birds of prey. The calculated hazard quotients (HQs) > 10 in common kestrel and little owl suggested that the high levels of PBDEs posed potentially high risk to some birds of prey living in Beijing area.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Inherent bacterial community response to multiple heavy metals in sediment from river-lake systems in the Poyang Lake, China
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Hua Zhang, Zhiwei Wan, Mingjun Ding, Peng Wang, Xiaoling Xu, Yinghui Jiang

    Sediment is the one of most important storage of heavy metal. Microbiotas in sediment can be used as the effective indicators of heavy metals. The goal of this study was to understand the bacterial communities responding to heavy metal enrichment in sediments and prioritize some factors that affected significantly to bacterial community. Sediments were sampled from five river-lake systems in the Poyang Lake in dry season, and the bacterial community was analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Relationships between sediment environment and the diversity and structure of bacterial communities were determined by correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). The result indicated that Cd and Sb were identified as the heavy metals of the great risk in sediments. Sediments from five river-lake systems shared 31.83% core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacterial communities. Proteobacteria (33.54% of total sequences) and Actinobacteria (15.04%) were the dominant phyla across all sites. High enrichment of heavy metals (MRI and mCd) resulted in low diversity of bacterial communities (Simpson index). The RDA revealed pH, OC, mCd, and Efs of As, Pb, Cd were major factors related to bacterial community structure changes. The dominant phylum Actinobacteria was regarded as tolerant bacteria, while the dominant phylum Proteobacteria was named as resistant bacteria in sediment with high anthropogenic Cd enrichment.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Macrophytes are highly sensitive to the herbicide diquat dibromide in test systems of varying complexity
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    V. Sesin, R.L. Dalton, C. Boutin, S.A. Robinson, A.J. Bartlett, F.R. Pick
    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • Tannic acid functionalized graphene hydrogel for organic dye adsorption
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Chun-Yan Tang, Peng Yu, Li-Sheng Tang, Qian-Yu Wang, Rui-Ying Bao, Zheng-Ying Liu, Ming-Bo Yang, Wei Yang
    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Dopamine receptor D2 gene polymorphism, urine fluoride, and intelligence impairment of children in China: A school-based cross-sectional study
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Yushan Cui, Bin Zhang, Jing Ma, Yang Wang, Liang Zhao, Changchun Hou, Jingwen Yu, Yang Zhao, Zushan Zhang, Junyan Nie, Tongning Gao, Guoli Zhou, Hongliang Liu

    ObjectiveWe aimed to study the association of urine fluoride with intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with a careful consideration of up to 30 potential confounding factors as well as possible heterogeneity of the relation between urine fluoride levels and IQ scores across children with different dopamine receptor-2 (DRD2) Taq 1A genotypes (CC, CT, and TT).MethodsA school-based cross-sectional study design was applied. A total of 323 children (2014–2015, 7–12 years old) were enrolled from four schools in both historical endemic and non-endemic areas of fluorosis in Tianjin of China using a cluster sampling method. Urine fluoride levels and age-specific IQ scores in children were measured at the enrollment. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods were used to genotype DRD2 Taq 1A polymorphism with genomic DNA isolated from whole blood collected at the enrollment. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the relationship between urine fluoride levels and IQ scores overall and within the DRD2 Taq 1A SNP = CC/CT and TT subgroups. Model robustness was tested through bootstrap, sensitivity analysis, and cross-validation techniques. A safety threshold of urine fluoride levels for IQ impairment was determined in the subgroup TT.ResultsIn overall participants, the DRD2 Taq 1A polymorphism itself was not related to IQ scores in children who had a high level of urine fluoride. In the CC/CT subgroup, urine fluoride levels and IQ scores in children were unrelated (adjusted β (95% confidence interval (CI)) = − 1.59 (− 4.24, 1.05), p = 0.236). Among the participants carrying the TT genotype, there was a strong and robust negative linear relationship between log-urine fluoride and IQ scores in children (adjusted β (95% CI) = − 12.31 (− 18.69, − 5.94), p < 0.001). Urine fluoride levels had a stronger association with IQ in children carrying the TT genotype (adjusted β = − 12.31, bootstrapped standard error (SE) = 1.28), compared to that in overall participants (adjusted β = − 2.47, bootstrapped SE = 3.75) (Z = 2.483 and bootstrapped p = 0.007). The safety threshold of urine fluoride levels in the subgroup TT was 1.73 mg/L (95% CI = (1.51, 1.97) (mg/L)).ConclusionsThere is heterogeneity in the relation between urine fluoride and IQ across children carrying different DRD2 Taq 1A genotypes. Large-scale epidemiological studies are needed to confirm our findings.

    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Effect of exogenous calcium on growth, nutrients uptake and plasma membrane H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities in soybean (Glycine max) seedlings under simulated acid rain stress
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Chanjuan Liang, Bingjie Zhang

    Calcium (Ca) is one of essential elements for plant growth and development, and also plays a role in regulating plant cell physiology and cellular response to the environment. Here, we studied whether calcium played a role in enhancing tolerance of plants to acid rain stress by hydroponics and simulating acid rain stress. Our results show that acid rain (pH 4.5/pH 3.0) caused decreases in dry weight biomass, chlorophyll content and uptake of nutrients elements (NO3-, P, K, Mg, Zn and Mo) and an increase in membrane permeability of root. However, all parameters in soybean treated with exogenous calcium (5 mM) and acid rain at pH 4.5 were closed to the control levels. In addition, exogenous calcium (5 mM) alleviated the inhibition induced by pH 3.0 acid rain on the activity of plasma membranes H+-ATPase and the expression of GmPHA1 at transcriptional level, being benefiting to maintaining uptake of nutrients (NO3-, P, K, Mg, and Zn), and then lower the decrease in dry weight biomass and chlorophyll content. After a 5-day recovery (without acid rain stress), all parameters in soybean treated with acid rain at pH 3.0 and exogenous calcium were still worse than those of the control, but obviously better than those treated with acid rain at pH 3.0. Higher activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in soybean treated with acid rain at pH 3.0 and exogenous calcium was good to uptake of nutrients and promoted the recovery of soybean growth, compared with soybean treated with acid rain at pH 3.0. In conclusion, exogenous calcium could alleviate the inhibition caused by acid rain on soybean growth by increasing the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase for providing driving force to nutrient absorption, and its regulating effect was limited by intensity of acid rain. Furthermore, the application of exogenous calcium can be one of ways to alleviate the damage caused by acid rain to plants.

    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Laccase production from sucrose by recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica and its application to decolorization of environmental pollutant dyes
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Farshad Darvishi, Marzieh Moradi, Claude Jolivalt, Catherine Madzak

    Laccases are used in decolorization and biodegradation of synthetic dyes, bioremediation of industrial wastewaters and delignification of lignocellulosic compounds. The aims of the present study were the optimization of a recombinant laccase production in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast using sucrose as a main carbon source, and the application of the resulting enzyme to decolorization of synthetic dyes, which are problematic environmental pollutants. Taguchi's experimental design method was employed to optimize medium compounds. Recombinant laccase production by Y. lipolytica YL4 strain increased to 900 U L−1 after optimization of sucrose, ammonium chloride, yeast extract and thiamine levels in the modified PPB medium. Furthermore, the production rate reached 6760 U L−1 in a 5 L bioreactor which represents 4.5- and 33.5-fold increases compared to cultures that were in shake-flask with optimized and primary media, respectively. The supernatant containing secreted recombinant laccase was applied for decolorization of seven dyes. The effects of pH, the amount of enzyme and incubation period were verified. The effect of incubation time on dye decolorization by recombinant laccase was important, which has an influence of greater extent than 90% after 48 h for all dyes. The Trametes versicolor laccase can be efficiently produced in Y. lipolytica and the recombinant enzyme has a considerable potential in the decolorization of pollutant synthetic dyes.

    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to ambient particulate matter
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Mohammad Miri, Ahmad Alahabadi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampush, Abolfazl Rad, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan Sheikhha, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    The aim of this study was to investigate spatial variation and health risk of the exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less) and PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less) in Sabzevar, Iran. PM2.5 and PM10 were measured during three campaigns from April to November 2017, in 26 sampling points. Spatial analysis was performed using kriging and autocorrelations (Moran's index) model in Arc GIS software. Relationship between exposure to the PM2.5 and PM10 and their health impacts were investigated by AirQ 2.2.3 software. The mean concentrations (and standard deviation) of PM 2.5 and PM10 over the entire study period were 32.54 (37.28) and 42.61 (47.76) μg/m3, respectively, which were higher than the guideline of World Health Organization. According to the spatial analysis, the maximum concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were around the main highway (beltway) which placed all over the south of Sabzevar. According to the Moran's index, the emission patterns for PM2.5 (Z-score = 2.53; P-value = 0.011) and PM10 (Z-score = 2.82; P-value = 0.004) were clustered. The attributable percentage (AP) of total mortality related to PM2.5 and PM10 were 3.544% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.623–4.447%) and 2.055% (95% CI: 1.379–2.721%) per increasing each 10 μg/m3 of these pollutants, respectively. According to observed results, it is suggested that the beltway and other pollution sources, such as industries, should be placed at a greater distance from the city, to reduce PM amounts in residential areas.

    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • 更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Effect of ionic strength on bioaccumulation and toxicity of silver nanoparticles in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Yaning Yang, Guangmin Xu, Shengmin Xu, Shaopeng Chen, An Xu, Lijun Wu

    The behavior of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is influenced by environmental factors which altered their bioaccumulation and toxicity. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the influence of ionic strength on the ecotoxicity of AgNPs to Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) through the transfer from Escherichia coli (E. coli). Three different exposure media (deionized water, EPA water and KM) were used to pretreat AgNPs. E. coli was then exposed to these transformed AgNPs and fed to C. elegans. Our results indicated that ionic strength significantly enhanced the reproductive toxicity (germ cell corpses, brood size and lifespan) and neurotoxicity (head trash and body bend) of AgNPs in C. elegans. Moreover, ICP-MS analysis showed that higher ionic strength increased bioaccumulation of AgNPs in E. coli and the resulting Ag body burden of E. coli affected the transfer of AgNPs to C. elegans, which might be responsible for the increased toxicity to nematodes. Furthermore, we also found that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in C. elegans was significantly increased after exposed to E. coli contaminated with ionic strength-treated AgNPs, which might play another important role for the enhanced toxicity of AgNPs. Overall, this study showed that the bioavailability and potential ecotoxicity of AgNPs are associated with the environmental factors.

    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Transcriptome analysis reveals complex response of the medicinal/ornamental halophyte Iris halophila Pall. to high environmental salinity
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Qingquan Liu, Jun Tang, Weilin Wang, Yongxia Zhang, Haiyan Yuan, Suzhen Huang

    The remediation and subsequent use of saline-alkaline land are of great significance to ecological environment construction and sustainable agricultural development. Iris halophila Pall. is a salt-tolerant medicinal and ornamental plant, which has good application prospects in the ecological construction of saline-alkaline land; therefore, study of the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in I. halophila has important theoretical and practical value. To evaluate the molecular mechanism of the response of I. halophila to salt toxicity, I. halophila seedlings were treated with salt (300 mM NaCl) and subjected to deep RNA sequencing. The clean reads were obtained and assembled into 297,188 unigenes. Among them, 1120 and 100 salt-responsive genes were identified in I. halophila shoots and roots, respectively. Among them, the key flavonoid and lignin biosynthetic genes, hormone signaling genes, sodium/potassium ion transporter genes, and transcription factors were analyzed and summarized. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis strengthened the reliability of the RNA sequencing results. This work provides an overview of the transcriptomic responses to salt toxicity in I. halophila and identifies the responsive genes that may contribute to its reduced salt toxicity. These results lay an important foundation for further study of the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in I. halophila and related species.

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Differential release of sewage sludge biochar-borne elements by common low-molecular-weight organic acids
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.974) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Danielle Vause, Natalie Heaney, Chuxia Lin

    Biochar materials originated from sewage sludge may contain elevated levels of potentially toxic elements. There was a lack of information on the mobility of biochar-borne elements, as driven by low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) contained in plant root exudates. A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of three common LMWOAs on the release of major elements and trace elements with a focus on various potentially toxic trace elements. The results showed that substantial amounts of Al, Mn, Fe, K, Na and Mg were extracted from two sewage sludge-derived biochar materials by the LMWOAs. A much higher release rate of potentially toxic trace elements was observed in the presence of LMWOAs, as compared to reported data using extractants not encountered in root exudates. The LMWOA-driven releasibility of various potentially toxic trace elements was in the following decreasing order: Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr >Co = Cd. Other trace elements that are subject to mobilization in the presence of LMWOAs included B, Ba, In, Li and Sr except Ba under oxalic acid extraction. Among the three LMWOAs, oxalic acid showed a generally stronger capacity to mobilize these metals. The findings obtained from this study provides new information that can be used for better evaluating the phyto-availability of trace elements bound to sewage sludge-originated biochar materials.

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • 更新日期:2018-09-09
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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