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  • Contaminant mixtures interact to impair predator-avoidance behaviours and survival in a larval amphibian
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Michael Sievers, Robin Hale, Stephen E. Swearer, Kirsten M. Parris

    Global declines in amphibian populations are a significant conservation concern, and environmental contamination is likely a contributing driver. Although direct toxicity may be partly responsible, contaminants are often present at sub-lethal concentrations in the wild. Behavioural end-points are becoming an increasingly useful method to estimate the impact of contaminants, particularly if the behavioural responses manifest to affect individual fitness (i.e. survival, growth, or reproduction). In the wild, most animals are affected by multiple stressors, and determining how these interact to affect behaviour is critical for understanding the ecological implications of contaminant exposure. Here, we examined the individual and interactive effect of the heavy metal copper and the insecticide imidacloprid on mortality rates and anti-predator behaviours of spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis) tadpoles. This common species frequently occupies and breeds in contaminated stormwater and agricultural wetlands, where copper and imidacloprid are often present. These contaminants may alter behaviour via physiological and neurological pathways, as well as affecting how tadpoles respond to chemical cues. Tadpoles suffered unexpectedly high mortality rates when exposed to imidacloprid concentrations well below published LC50 concentrations. Only unexposed tadpoles significantly avoided predator cues. Copper and imidacloprid reduced swimming speed and distance, and escape responses, while increasing erratic swimming. We observed an interactive effect of imidacloprid and copper on erratic swimming, but in general imidacloprid and copper did not act synergistically. Our results suggest that as contaminants enter waterbodies, tadpoles will suffer considerable direct mortality, reduced foraging capacity, and increased susceptibility to predation. Our results provide the first evidence of imidacloprid affecting amphibian behaviour, and highlight both the adverse effects of copper and imidacloprid, and the importance of exploring the effect of multiple contaminants simultaneously.

    更新日期:2018-06-16
  • Effect and mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticles on the photosynthesis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Ayyaraju Middepogu, Jie Hou, Xuan Gao, Daohui Lin
    更新日期:2018-06-16
  • Bacterial toxicity of exfoliated black phosphorus nanosheets
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Zhiqiang Xiong, Xuejiao Zhang, Siyu Zhang, Lei Lei, Wei Ma, Dengyu Li, Weidong Wang, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing
    更新日期:2018-06-16
  • Apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by zinc pyrithione via mitochondrial dysfunction pathway: Involvement of zinc accumulation and oxidative stress
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Jiezhang Mo, Derun Lin, Jingzhen Wang, Ping Li, Wenhua Liu

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is widely used as a substitute booster biocide for tributyltin and is also an additive to antidandruff shampoos and medical cosmetic products. ZPT and pyrithione have been detected in different environmental matrices and biota, suggesting that it may pose health threats to aquatic organisms and even humans. The present study used HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line, to study the hepatotoxicity of ZPT (0.1–5.0 μM). ZPT treatment caused marked viability reduction and induced apoptosis depending on its dose used. ZPT-induced apoptosis involved an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and enhanced caspase-9/-3 activity. In addition, a significant elevation in the amount of zinc ions and oxidative stress was evident. The involvement of these in ZPT-induced apoptosis was confirmed by toxicity comparison with analogs of ZPT and the observation that pretreatment with antioxidants afforded protection. Overall, these results suggest that ZPT induces zinc accumulation, oxidative stress, and subsequent apoptosis by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly, ROS was an initial and prolonged signal in ZPT-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    更新日期:2018-06-16
  • 更新日期:2018-06-15
  • Promoting the productivity and quality of brinjal aligned with heavy metals immobilization in a wastewater irrigated heavy metal polluted soil with biochar and chitosan
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Veysel Turan, Shahbaz Ali Khan, Mahmood-ur-Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Maryam Fatima

    Depleting aquifers, lack of planning and low socioeconomic status of Pakistani farmers have led them to use wastewater (WW) for irrigating their crops causing food contamination with heavy metals and ultimately negative effects on human health. This study evaluates the effects of chitosan (CH) and biochar (BC) on growth and nutritional quality of brinjal plant together with in situ immobilization of heavy metals in a soil polluted with heavy metals due to irrigation with wastewater (SPHIW) and further irrigated with the same WW. Both CH and BC were applied at three different rates i.e. low rate [(LR), BC0.5%, CH0.5% and BC0.25%+CH0.25%], medium rate [(MR), BC1%, CH1% and BC0.5%+CH0.5%] and high rate [(HR), BC1.5%, CH1.5% and BC0.75%+CH0.75%]. Result revealed that brinjal growth, antioxidant enzymes, and fruit nutritional quality significantly improved from LR to HR for each amendment, relative to control. However, these results were more prominent with BC alone and BC+CH, compared with CH alone at each rate. Similarly, with few exceptions, significant reduction in Ni, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb concentrations in the root, shoot and fruit were found in sole CH treatment both at LR and MR but in both CH and BC+CH treatments at HR, relative to control. Interestingly, the concentrations of Fe in the roots, shoots and fruit were more pronounced at BC treatments relative to CH and BC+CH treatments at each rate, compared to control. Overall, the BC+CH treatment at HR was the most effective treatment for in situ immobilization of heavy metals in SPHIW and further irrigated with the same WW, compared to rest of the treatments. This study indicates that BC0.75%+CH0.75% treatment can be used to reduce mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in SPHIW and facilitates plant growth by improving the antioxidant system. However, the feasibility of BC0.75%+CH0.75% treatment should also be tested at the field scale.

    更新日期:2018-06-13
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure impairs pre-migratory fuelling in captively-dosed Sanderling (Calidris alba)
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-11
    Kristin Bianchini, Christy A. Morrissey

    Efficient fuelling is essential for migratory birds because fuel loads and fuelling rates affect individual fitness and survival during migration. Many migrant shorebirds are exposed to oil pollution and its toxic constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at migratory staging sites, which has the potential to interfere with avian refuelling physiology. In this study, we orally dosed shorebirds with environmentally-relevant PAH mixtures to simulate dietary exposure during staging. Forty-nine wild-caught Sanderling (Calidris alba) were exposed to 0 (control), 12.6 (low), 126 (medium), or 1260 (high) μg total PAH/kg body weight/day. Birds were dosed during a 21-day period of autumn pre-migratory fuelling to mimic the typical staging duration of Sanderling. We measured daily changes in mass and fat loads, as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, serum biochemical profiles, and liver mass and lipid content following dosing. All dose groups gained fat and increased in mass (size-corrected) during the study period, with females having a higher average body mass than males. However, mass gain was 3.9, 5.4, and 3.8 times lower in the low, medium, and high dose groups, respectively, relative to controls, and body mass in the medium and high dose groups significantly declined near the end of the experiment. EROD activity showed a dose-dependent increase and was significantly elevated in the high dose group relative to controls. Higher individual EROD activity was associated with reduced serum bile acid and elevated serum creatine kinase concentrations in both sexes, and with elevated serum lipase concentrations in females. These results suggest that PAH exposure in Sanderling can interfere with mechanisms of lipid transport and metabolism, can cause muscle damage, and can lead to reduced overall fat loads that are critical to staging duration, departure decisions, migratory speed, and flight range. Given that many shorebirds migrate thousands of kilometers between the breeding and wintering grounds and frequently aggregate at key staging sites that are subject to contamination, PAH exposure likely represents a significant threat to shorebird migratory success.

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Boric acid as a reference substance in avoidance behaviour tests with Porcellio dilatatus (Crustacea: Isopoda)
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-11
    J.C. Niemeyer, L.S.C. Carniel, T.M. Pech, L.P. Crescencio, O. Klauberg-Filho
    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Water quality criteria derivation and ecological risk assessment for triphenyltin in China
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Jingjing Wen, Xiaoying Cui, Mark Gibson, Zhengyan Li

    Triphenyltin (TPT) is one of the most toxic chemicals artificially discharged into aquatic environment with human activities. Due to its intensive use in antifouling paints and adverse effects on non-target species, TPT has aroused wide concern in both saltwater and freshwater environment. Nevertheless, the water quality criteria (WQC) are not available in China, which impedes the risk assessment for this emerging pollutant. This study aims to establish the WQC of TPT for both freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. With the derived WQC, a four-level tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach was employed to assess the ecological risks of this emerging pollutant in Chinese waters. Through the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) methodology, the freshwater criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and criterion continuous concentration (CCC) were derived as 396 ng Sn L-1 and 5.60 ng Sn L-1, respectively, whereas the saltwater CMC and CCC were 66.5 ng Sn L-1 and 4.11 ng Sn L-1, respectively. The ecological risk assessment for TPT demonstrated that the acute risk was negligible whereas the chronic risk was significant with HQ (Hazard Quotient) values of up to 5.669 and 57.1% of coastal waters in China facing clear risk. TPT contamination in coastal environment, therefore, warrants further concern.

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Spatial distribution of and seasonal variations in endosulfan concentrations in soil, air, and biota around a contaminated site
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 
    Yanyan Fang, Zhiqiang Nie, Jinzhong Yang, Qingqi Die, Yajun Tian, Feng Liu, Jie He, Jianyuan Wang, Qifei Huang
    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Billings reservoir water used for human consumption presents microbiological contaminants and induces both behavior impairments and astrogliosis in zebrafish
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-11
    Ednilse Leme, Ericka P. Silva, Paula S. Rodrigues, Igor R. Silva, Maria F.M. Martins, Eduardo F. Bondan, Maria M. Bernardi, Thiago B. Kirsten

    The Billings reservoir is the largest water-storage facility in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region, with only a small part of the reservoir used for water supply. Recently, the São Paulo Metropolitan Region has experienced the greatest water collapse ever recorded. Thus, the intensification of use of the Billings reservoir should be considered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the water from different areas of the Billings reservoir related to human consumption (water supply and fishing): Rio Pequeno, Rio Grande, and Bororé rivers. We performed microbiological and physical studies on one water sample collected at each of these sites. Adult zebrafish were exposed to such water samples and their behaviors were evaluated. Finally, we studied central glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, which is related to neuroinflammatory processes. Water samples from Rio Pequeno, Rio Grande, and Bororé presented microbiological contamination for Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria. Water from the Rio Pequeno river induced both motor/exploratory impairments and anxiogenic-like behavior in zebrafish. Water from the Bororé river induced behaviors in zebrafish related to respiratory impairments (hypoxia) as well as higher alarm reaction. Zebrafish exposed to water from the Bororé also presented astrogliosis, which seems to have happened in detrimental of the high heterotrophic bacterial contamination. Rio Grande and Bororé water increased the lethality rates. Considering the present results of microbiological contaminants and behavior impairments, lethality, as well as astrogliosis in zebrafish, the water from Rio Pequeno, Rio Grande, and Bororé rivers should be considered unacceptable for human use in their untreated state. The Basic Sanitation Company of the State of Sao Paulo should consider adopting rigorous processes of microbiological water treatment. Authorization for fishing at Bororé river should be reconsidered.

    更新日期:2018-06-12
  • Heavy metal tolerance in contrasting ecotypes of Alyssum montanum
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Ewa Muszyńska, Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Ewa Znojek

    The response of metallicolous (M) and nonmetallicolous (NM) Alyssum montanum ecotypes to multi-metal stress was investigated under in vitro condition and compared in this study. Shoot cultures were simultaneously treated with 0.7 mM ZnSO4, 3.0 μM Pb(NO3)2 and 16.4 μM CdCl2 for 8 weeks and evaluated for their morphogenetic and ultrastructural reaction, growth tolerance as well as ability to Zn, Pb, and Cd uptake. Moreover, tissue localization and concentrations of antioxidant compounds were determined in order to elucidate the potential role of ROS-scavenging machinery in plant tolerance to metal toxicity. The results clearly demonstrated that M specimens treated with heavy metals showed less phytotoxic symptoms and low level of lipid peroxidation than reference NM one. The enhanced tolerance of M ecotype resulted from heavy metals detoxification in trichomes and intracellular leaf compartments as well as balanced ROS accumulation. The inactivation of ROS in M plants was based on peroxidase-flavonoid system, while in NM plants such relationship was not detected and amounts of antioxidant enzymes or phenolic compounds was comparable to untreated specimens or decreased significantly. Considering the procumbent growth of such hemicryptophyte which reproduce effectively in the presence of heavy metals but is characterized by low biomass production, it is proposed to exploit M ecotype of A. montanum in revegetation schemes of polluted calamine wastes to provide the prompt stabilization of areas prone to erosion.

    更新日期:2018-06-10
  • 更新日期:2018-06-10
  • Acute and Subacute toxicity study of Olaquindox by feeding to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Qian Yang, Jie He, Sheng-yu He, Kai-yu Wang, Yi Geng, De-fang Chen, Xiao-li Huang, Ping Ou-yang

    Olaquindox, is a growth-promoting feed additive for food-producing animals. As the banned medicinal feed additive, olaquindox in animal feed and water must be concerned as an important hazard index. To improve studies of the toxicity of olaquindox, we provide a toxicological effects of olaquindox on a common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio L. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 7d-LD50 of olaquindox administered by feeding for common carp was determined to be 3746.3 mg/kg. We also found that the accumulation coefficient of olaquindox in carp was 1.45–1.9. Based on the studied hematological and blood biochemical parameters (RBCs count, hemoglobin content, ALT, AST and SOD activity), we found that olaquindox induced significant alterations in all studied parameters. Regarding bioaccumulation, the results showed that olaquindox had more efficiency to internalize fish tissues (liver, kidneys and muscle). The histopathological investigation of tissues from poisoning fish revealed various alterations that varied between adaptation responses and permanent tissue damage. Our results indicate that olaquindox are toxic to common carp and have obvious accumulation, and all the data from acute and subacute toxicity experiments in common carp may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of olaquindox to aquatic organisms.

    更新日期:2018-06-10
  • Kinetin alleviates chromium toxicity on growth and PS II photochemistry in Nostoc muscorum by regulating antioxidant system
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Sanjesh Tiwari, Anuradha Patel, Sheo Mohan Prasad

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the metal toxicity alleviating effects of kinetin (KN, 10 nM) on growth, photosynthetic pigments and photochemistry of PS II in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum exposed to chromium (CrVI) stress (100 and 150 µM). Chromium declined growth, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, phycocyanin and carotenoids), photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and parameters of fluorescence kinetics (ϕP0, FV/F0, ϕE0, Ψ0 and PIABS except F0/FV) in concentration dependent manner, while stimulating effects on respiration, energy flux parameters (ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC), oxidative stress biomarkers i.e., superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS contents) and antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were observed. However, upon addition of KN in the growth medium an alleviating effect against chromium induced toxicity on growth, photosynthetic pigments and photochemistry of PS II was recorded. This had occurred due to substantial reduction in levels of oxidative stress biomarkers: SOR, H2O2 and TBARS contents with concomitant rise in activity of antioxidative enzymes: SOD, POD, CAT and GST and appreciable lowering in the cellular accumulation of chromium. The overall results demonstrate that KN application significantly alleviated chromium induced toxicity on growth performance of the cyanobacterium N. muscorum due to significant improvement in photosynthetic pigments and photochemistry of PS II by up-regulating the activity of antioxidative enzymes, and declining cellular accumulation of chromium. Furthermore, Cr induced toxicity at lower dose (100 µM) was found to be ameliorated more efficiently in N. muscorum following supplementation of KN.

    更新日期:2018-06-10
  • Simultaneous exposure of sulphur and calcium hinder As toxicity: Up-regulation of growth, mineral nutrients uptake and antioxidants system
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Sheo Mohan Prasad

    The current study was carried out to investigate the role of exogenous sulphur (K2SO4: S; 60 mg S kg−1 sand) and calcium (CaCl2: Ca; 250 mg Ca kg−1 sand) individually as well as in combination (S + Ca) in ameliorating the inhibitory effect of As (Na2HAsO4·7H2O: As1; 15 mg As kg−1 sand and As2; 30 mg As kg−1 sand) by analyzing biomass accumulation, mineral nutrients uptake, photosynthetic pigments content, redox status of the cell, enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system in Brassica juncea L. seedlings. Biomass accumulation, uptake of mineral nutrients, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) content and the activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) declined with increasing accumulation of As in root as well as leaves in As dose dependent manner. Contrary to this, exogenous application of S, Ca and S + Ca, markedly reduced the negative impact of As on above captioned traits except ProDH activity. On the other hand, ROS and their biomarkers (superoxide radical; O₂˙ˉ, hydrogen peroxide; H2O2, malondialdehyde; MDA equivalents content and membrane damage; electrolyte leakage), activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase; SOD, peroxidase; POD, catalase; CAT and glutathione-S-transferase; GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant i.e. proline (Pro) content and its enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS activity were increased in root and leaves under As stress. While, exogenous application of S, Ca and S + Ca, further enhanced the activities of above mentioned enzymes and Pro content thereby causing considerable reduction in O₂˙ˉ, H2O2, MDA equivalents content and electrolyte leakage. This study suggests that exogenous application of S and/or Ca efficiently (particularly S + Ca) lowered the negative impact of As on biomass accumulation in Brassica seedlings by improving the uptake of essential mineral nutrients’, content of photosynthetic pigments, activities of enzymatic and content of non-enzymatic antioxidants.

    更新日期:2018-06-10
  • 更新日期:2018-06-10
  • Malathion induced oxidative stress leads to histopathological and biochemical toxicity in the liver of rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) at acute concentration
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li, Zaigham Hasan, Shahid Ullah Khan, Shah Fahad

    Organophosphorus pesticides form a diverse group of chemicals, having a wide range of physicochemical properties with crucial toxicological actions and endpoints. These are extensively used to control pests of different food (fruits, vegetables, tea, etc.) and non-food (tobacco, cotton, etc.) crops. Malathion is an important widely used organophosphorus pesticide but its hepatotoxic effects on fish are not well studied. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the hepatotoxic effects of Malathion on rohu (Labeo rohita) fish in a semi-static system using different parameters. The LC50 of Malathion was found to be 5 µg/L for rohu for 96 h through Probit analysis and was used for further toxicity testing. To find the hepatotoxic effects of Malathion, changes in different biochemical indices including protein contents, Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), activities of four protein metabolic enzymes [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Alanine Aminotransferase (AlAT), and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH)], seven antioxidant enzymes [Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Reductase (GR), Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px)], DNA damage [in term of comet tail length, tail moment, DNA percentage in tail, and olive tail moment], reactive oxygen species (ROS), and Histopathological alterations were assayed. Malathion exposure led to a time-reliant significant (P < 0.05) decrease in protein contents and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in ROS, LPO, enzymatic activities, and DNA damage. The histopathological examination of the liver showed different changes including hepatic necrosis, fatty infiltration, hemorrhage vacuolation, glycogen vacuolation, congestion, and cellular swelling. The current study clearly revealed Malathion as a potent hepatotoxic pesticide; therefore the injudicious, indiscriminate and extensive use of Malathion should be prohibited or at least reduced and strictly monitored.

    更新日期:2018-06-08
  • “Assessing the potential of biochar and aged biochar to alleviate aluminum toxicity in an acid soil for achieving cabbage productivity”
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Qingyi Lin, Lin Zhang, Muhammad Riaz, Mengyang Zhang, Hao Xia, Bo Lv, Cuncang Jiang

    Biochar has a significant effect on alleviating acid soil aluminum (Al) toxicity and promoting plant growth. The potential effects of aged biochar (long-term applied biochar in soil) on soil amendment have attracted increasing attention. Here, the effects of biochar and aged biochar were evaluated through a pot experiment. The seedlings of cabbage were grown in red soil for 45 days with the following four biochar treatments: CK (0% biochar), PB (2% primary biochar), WB (2% water washed biochar) and AB (2% acidulated biochar) to investigate the potential effect of biochar and aged biochar on mitigating red soil aluminum toxicity and improving cabbage growth. Results indicated that biochar increased the content of available potassium, available phosphorus, and organic carbon in red soil and improved cabbage growth. Biochar not only increased the pH of red soil by 0.42 units, but also reduced exchangeable acid and exchangeable hydrogen (H+) content by 52.74% and 2.86% respectively compared with CK. Additionally, the amount of the total active aluminum and exchangeable Al3+ were reduced by 26.74% and 66.09%, respectively. However, water washed biochar and acidulated biochar decreased the effect of relieving the acidity substantially as compared to the primary biochar. Moreover, acidulated biochar treatment increased the Al3+ content by 8.07% and trend of increasing soil available nutrients was declined with aged biochar. Taken together, it is concluded that biochar can reduce aluminum toxicity by increasing pH of acid soil and available nutrients, thus improves cabbage growth. However, aged biochar had a negative effect on aluminum toxicity reduction and acidic soil improvement, thus inhibited plant growth.

    更新日期:2018-06-08
  • Chemical and ecotoxicological effects of the use of drinking-water treatment residuals for the remediation of soils degraded by mining activities
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    P. Alvarenga, C. Ferreira, C. Mourinha, P. Palma, A. de Varennes

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of drinking-water treatment residuals (DWTR) in the amendment of a soil affected by mining activities (Aljustrel mine, Portuguese sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt), considering the effects on its chemical, biochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics. The DWTR had neutral characteristics (pH 6.7) and an organic matter (OM) content of 575 g kg−1 dry matter (DM), which makes them a potential amendment for the remediation of mine degraded soils, as they may correct soil acidity and reduce the extractable metal fraction. An incubation assay, with soil and DWTR, with or without lime, was carried out to test the doses to be used in the assisted-phytostabilization experiment. Based on the results obtained, the doses of DWTR used were the equivalent to 48, 96, and 144 t DM ha−1, with and without lime application (CaCO3 11 t DM ha−1). Agrostis tenuis Sibth was used as the test plant. Some amendments doses were able to improve soil characteristics (pH and OM content), to decrease metal extractability by 0.01 M CaCl2 (especially for Cu and Zn), and to allow plant growth, that did not occur in the non-amended soil. Copper, Pb and Zn concentrations in the plant material were lower than the maximum tolerable level for cattle feed, used as an indicator of risk of entry of those metals into the human food chain. The simultaneous application of DWTR (96 and 144 t ha−1), with lime, allowed a reduction in the mine soil ecotoxicity, as evaluated by some lethal and sub-lethal bioassays, including luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna acute immobilization test, mortality of Thamnocephalus platyurus, and 72-h growth inhibition of the green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. However, DWTR were unable to increase soil microbial activity, evaluated by dehydrogenase activity, an important soil-health indicator. Also, OM content and NKjeldahl, concentrations increased slightly but remained low or very low (P and K extractable concentrations were not affected). In general, the bioassays highlighted a decrease in soil ecotoxicity with the presence of lime and DWTR (144 t DM ha−1). In conclusion, DWTR are recommended to amend acidic soils, with high concentrations of trace elements, but an additional application of organic or mineral fertilizers should be considered.

    更新日期:2018-06-08
  • Effects of nitrogen nutrients on the volatile organic compound emissions from Microcystis aeruginosa
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Zhaojiang Zuo, Lin Yang, Silan Chen, Chaolin Ye, Yujie Han, Sutong Wang, Yuandan Ma

    Cyanobacteria release abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can poison other algae and cause water odor. To uncover the effects of nitrogen (N) nutrients on the formation of cyanobacteria VOCs, the cell growth, VOC emission and the expression of genes involving in VOC formation in Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated under different N conditions. With the supplement of NaNO3, NaNO2, NH4Cl, urea, Serine (Ser) and Arginine (Arg) as the sole N source, NaNO3, urea and Arg showed the best effects on M. aeruginosa cell growth, and limited N supply inhibited the cell growth. M. aeruginosa released 26, 25, 23, 27, 23 and 25 compounds, respectively, in response to different N forms, including furans, sulfocompounds, terpenoids, benzenes, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and esters. Low-N especially Non-N condition markedly promoted the VOC emission. Under Non-N condition, four up-regulated genes involving in VOC precursor formation were identified, including the genes of pyruvate kinase, malic enzyme and phosphotransacetylase for terpenoids, the gene of aspartate aminotransferase for benzenes and sulfocompounds. In eutrophic water, cyanobacteria release different VOC blends using various N forms, and the reduction of N amount caused by cyanobacteria massive growth can promote algal VOC emission by up-regulating the gene expression.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Differential biochemical responses to metal/metalloid accumulation in organs of an edible fish (Centropomus parallelus) from Neotropical estuaries
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Iara da C. Souza, Mariana Morozesk, Marina M. Bonomo, Vinicius C. Azevedo, Marise M. Sakuragui, Michael Elliott, Silvia T. Matsumoto, Daniel A. Wunderlin, María V. Baroni, Magdalena V. Monferrán, Marisa N. Fernandes
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Target and non-target toxicity of fern extracts against mosquito vectors and beneficial aquatic organisms
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Paramasivam Deepak, Govindasamy Balasubramani, Sengodan Karthi, Dhayalan Arul, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Vadivel Amutha, Elangovan Vimalkumar, Damodaran Mathivanan, Sundaram Renjitham Suseem, Chanthini Kanagaraj Muthu-Pandian, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Pachiappan Perumal
    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Protection of Danio rerio from cadmium (Cd2+) toxicity using biological iron sulfide composites
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Wei Yuan, Yajie Liang, Xiang Xia, Yifei Xie, Shuhuan Lan, Xudong Li

    Cadmium (Cd2+) pollution has become a global environmental problem. This study is the first to demonstrate the feasibility and effects of applying biological iron sulfide composites (BISC) for the protection of Cd2+ exposed fish, aiming at remediation of Cd2+ polluted waters during emergency pollution events. Experimental results indicate that BISC can remove Cd2+ efficiently and significantly protect Cd2+ exposed Danio rerio, by increasing its overall survival rates. Meanwhile, the protective effect of BISC is significantly enhanced with optimized BISC dosing ratios of 2.4 or more, as well as with more rapid onset of BISC dosing following Cd2+ exposure and in water with higher pH levels in the range of 6–8, with D. rerio survival rates increased by more than 90% (P = 0.05). Additionally, BISC confers advantages over SRB and combinations of its constituents, with effective removal of Cd2+ and increasing survival rates of Cd2+ exposed D. rerio.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • 更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Investigation the cytotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity of carbon dot on yeast cell
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-07
    Zeinab Bagheri, Hamide Ehtesabi, Zahra Hallaji, Hamid Latifi, Ebrahim Behroodi

    Carbon dots (CDs) as a new fluorescent material with excellent water solubility, chemical inertness, and easy surface modification are a good candidate for bioimaging and biosensing due to their low toxicity and good biocompatibility. Although carbon is not an intrinsically toxic substance, carbon nanomaterials such as CDs may cause risks to human health and the potentially hazardous effects of CDs on various living systems must be completely determined. So far, cytotoxicity studies of CDs have focused on human cells and are mainly conducted on limited cell lines. In the present study, toxicity assessment of CDs was evaluated on yeast cells Pichia pastoris as a unicellular eukaryotic model. Results revealed dose-dependent toxicity of CDs on yeast cells and less relative cell growth in 25 mg/ml of CDs as compared to the control group. CDs binding curve confirmed the interaction between CDs and surface of yeast cells. SEM images showed that the CDs caused cell shrinkage and hole formation on the surface of yeast cells and also induced slightly cell deformation. It was demonstrated that CDs could generate the ROS dose-dependently. Finally, results showed the growth inhibition and ROS generation effects of CDs were enhanced at light exposure, as an important environmental factor. These findings could have important implications for applications of CDs.

    更新日期:2018-06-07
  • 更新日期:2018-06-07
  • Cytotoxicity induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in human cardiomyocytes
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Xiaozhe Yang, Lin Feng, Yannan Zhang, Hejing Hu, Yanfeng Shi, Shuang Liang, Tong Zhao, Yang Fu, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun

    Although the strongly causal associations were between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease, the toxic effect and potential mechanism of PM2.5 on heart was poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac toxicity of PM2.5 exposure on human cardiomyocytes (AC16). The cell viability was decreased while the LDH release was increased in a dose-dependent way after AC16 exposed to PM2.5. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were increased followed by the decreasing in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The damage of mitochondria was observed by ultra-structural analysis and MMP measurement. The apoptotic rate of AC16 were markedly elevated which was triggered by PM2.5. In addition, the proteins involved in mitochondria- mediated apoptosis pathway were measured. The protein levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 was down-regulated after AC16 exposed to PM2.5. In summary, our results demonstrated that mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway played a critical role in PM2.5-induced myocardial cytotoxicity in AC16, which suggested that PM2.5 may contribute to cardiac dysfunction.

    更新日期:2018-06-06
  • 更新日期:2018-06-06
  • Assessment of tools for protection of quality of water: Uncontrollable discharges of pollutants
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Mohsen Dehghani Darmian, Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared, Gholamreza Azizyan, Shane A. Snyder, John P. Giesy
    更新日期:2018-06-06
  • Influence of lethal and sublethal exposure to clothianidin on the seven-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Jiangong Jiang, Zhengqun Zhang, Xin Yu, Dicheng Ma, Caihong Yu, Feng Liu, Wei Mu

    The seven-spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., as a dominant predator of aphids, has played a crucial role in integrated pest management (IPM) strategies in agricultural ecosystems. To study the risk of insecticides to C. septempunctata, the neonicotinoid clothianidin was selected for evaluation of its influence on C. septempunctata at lethal and sublethal doses. The LR50 (application rate causing 50% mortality) in the exposed larvae decreased from 19.94 to 5.91 g a.i. ha−1, and the daily HQ (hazard quotient) values increased from 3.00 to 10.15, indicating potential intoxication risks. We also determined NOERs (No Observed Effect application Rates) of clothianidin on the total developmental time (10 g a.i. ha−1), survival (2.5 g a.i. ha−1) and pupation (5 g a.i. ha−1). Moreover, clothianidin at a NOER of 2.5 g a.i. ha−1 did not profoundly affect adult emergence, fecundity or egg hatchability. The total effect (E) assessment also showed that clothianidin at 2.5 g a.i. ha−1 was slightly harmful to C. septempunctata. These results suggested that clothianidin would impair C. septempunctata when applied at over 2.5 g a.i. ha−1 in the field. Conservation of this biological control agent in agricultural ecosystems thus requires further measures to decrease the applied dosages of clothianidin.

    更新日期:2018-06-06
  • Al2O3 nanoparticle impact on the toxic effect of Pb on the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Ji Hu, Zhechao Zhang, Cai Zhang, Shuxia Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Dong Li, Jun Zhao, Zhengbing Han, Xiaoya Liu, Jianming Pan, Wei Huang, Minhui Zheng

    The rapid development and application of nanotechnology have led to increasing concern about the environmental implications of released nanomaterials and potential risks to public health and aquatic ecosystems. Information on the joint effect of nanomaterials and co-existing contaminants such as heavy metals is still inadequate. Our work investigated the effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs; nano-Al2O3) on the toxic effect of Pb in the unicellular marine phytoplankton Isochrysis galbana. Results showed that a dose–response effect of nano-Al2O3 was found. Significant enhancement of fluorescence in cell cytoplasm rather than cell membrane occurred in the presence of nano-Al2O3, indicating that nano-Al2O3 can penetrate cells and affect the fluorescence emitted from the chloropigments inside them. The presence of nano-Al2O3 has no impact on the toxic effect of Pb at an NP concentration of 1 mg/L but increased that at NP concentrations of 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L. A synergistic effect was also found for the toxic effect of Pb in the presence of 10 mg/L nano-Al2O3. The presence of 100 mg/L nano-Al2O3 significantly increased the bio-uptake of Pb in the range of 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 mg/L Pb, and the maximum accumulated Pb in algae can reach up to 18.22 ng/105 cells with 100 mg/L nano-Al2O3 compared with Pb alone at 2.0 mg/L(12.53 ng/105 cells). Inside cells, Pb loaded onto nano-Al2O3 can be more toxic than the same amount of free Pb species. The results of toxicity tests and accumulated Pb in algae imply that, in addition to the total Pb cell content, the bioavailability of Pb inside algae should be taken into consideration in evaluating the joint toxicity effect. Our work enhances understanding of the combined toxicity of NPs and co-existing heavy metals and is of practical significance in the natural environment.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • 更新日期:2018-06-05
  • How do root exudates of bok choy promote dibutyl phthalate adsorption on mollisol?
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Yulong Lin, Lei Wang, Rui Li, Songbo Hu, Yifan Wang, Yuewen Xue, Hui Yu, Yaqi Jiao, Yahui Wang, Ying Zhang
    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Pollutants removal from synthetic wastewater by the combined electrochemical, adsorption and sequencing batch reactor (SBR)
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Amin Mojiri, Akiyoshi Ohashi, Noriatsu Ozaki, Tomonori Kindaichi
    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Health risks of heavy metal exposure through vegetable consumption near a large-scale Pb/Zn smelter in central China
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Xinyu Li, Zhonggen Li, Che-Jen Lin, Xiangyang Bi, Jinling Liu, Xinbin Feng, Hua Zhang, Ji Chen, Tingting Wu
    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Time and temperature dependent adsorption-desorption behaviour of pretilachlor in soil
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Paawan Kaur, Pervinder Kaur

    Understanding and quantifying the adsorption-desorption behaviour of herbicide in soil is imperative for predicting their fate and transport in the environment. In the present study, the effect of time and temperature on the adsorption–desorption behaviour of pretilachlor in soils was investigated using batch equilibration technique. The adsorption–desorption kinetics of pretilachlor in soils was two step process and was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Freundlich model accurately predicted the sorption behaviour of pretilachlor. The adsorption–desorption of pretilachlor varied significantly with the concentration, temperature and properties of soil viz. organic matter and clay content. All the studied soils had non-linear slopes (n < 1) and degree of nonlinearity increased with increase in clay, organic matter content and temperature (p < 0.05). Desorption of pretilachlor was hysteretic in studied soils and hysteresis coefficient varied from 0.023 to 0.275. Thermodynamic analysis showed that pretilachlor adsorption onto soils was a feasible, spontaneous and endothermic process which becomes more favourable at high temperature. It could be inferred that the adsorption of pretilachlor on soils was physical in nature.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno, Southern Italy: Status, sources and ecological risk
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Chengkai Qu, Jiji Li, Stefano Albanese, Annamaria Lima, Menghan Wang, Marco Sacchi, Flavia Molisso, Benedetto De Vivo

    This study investigated the spatial distribution, potential sources, and toxic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of the Gulfs of Naples and Salerno (NaSa Gulfs), Southern Italy. The investigation focused on the coastal sea sediments of the Bagnoli brownfield site within the Gulf of Naples. The ∑16PAHs in the sediments of the NaSa Gulfs outside of the Bagnoli brownfield site have concentrations that ranged from 9.58 to 15,818 μg/kg, with a geometric mean (Gmean) of 234 μg/kg. High-molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) contributed to over 80% of the ∑16PAHs. The concentration of ∑16PAHs in the Gulf of Naples was twice as high as that in Salerno (768 μg/kg and 317 μg/kg, respectively), and the ∑16PAHs levels in the Bagnoli brownfield site exceeded that in the NaSa Gulfs by over three orders of magnitude. The molecular distributions of PAHs studies suggested biomass/coal combustion as their main sources. Based on the analysis of the toxic equivalent quantity and sediment quality guideline quotient, the contamination of PAHs in sediments may pose significant toxicity and biological risks to marine organisms.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • 更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Stability of immobilization remediation of several amendments on cadmium contaminated soils as affected by simulated soil acidification
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Fuyu Guo, Changfeng Ding, Zhigao Zhou, Gaoxiang Huang, Xingxiang Wang

    Chemical immobilization is a practical approach to remediate heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils. However, the potential remobilization risks of immobilized metals are a major environmental concern, especially in acid rain zones. In the present study, changes in the immobilization efficiency of several amendments as affected by simulated soil acidification were investigated to evaluate the immobilization remediation stability of several amendments on two cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. Amendments (hydrated lime, hydroxyapatite and biochar) effectively immobilized Cd, except for organic fertilizer, and their immobilizations were strongly decreased by the simulated soil acidification. The ratio of changes in CaCl2-extractable Cd: pH (△CaCl2-Cd/△pH) can represent the Cd remobilization risk of different amended soils. Hydroxyapatite and biochar had a stronger durable immobilizing effect than did hydrated lime, particularly in soil with a lower pH buffering capacity, which was further confirmed by the Cd concentration and accumulation in lettuce. These results can be attributed to that hydroxyapatite and biochar transformed greater proportions of exchangeable Cd to other more stable fractions than lime. After 48 weeks of incubation, in soil with a lower pH buffering capacity, the immobilization efficiencies of lime, hydroxyapatite, biochar and organic fertilizer in the deionized water group (pH 6.5) were 71.7%, 52.7%, 38.6% and 23.9%, respectively, and changed to 19.1%, 33.6%, 26.5% and 5.0%, respectively, in the simulated acid rain group (pH 2.5). The present study provides a simple method to preliminarily estimate the immobilization efficiency of amendments and predict their stability in acid rain regions before large-scale field application. In addition, hydrated lime is recommended to be combined with other acid-stable amendments (such as hydroxyapatite or biochar) to remediate heavy metal-contaminated agricultural soils in acid precipitation zones.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • DNA methylation: A critical epigenetic mechanism underlying the detrimental effects of airborne particulate matter
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Baiyang Sun, Yanfeng Shi, Xiaozhe Yang, Tong Zhao, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) does great harm to the health of human beings. To date, PM exposure has been closely associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as some types of cancer. As the associations of PM with the adverse health effects are well documented in literatures, the underlying mechanisms have not been completely clarified. With the field of epigenetics rising in recent years, PM-associated epigenetic alterations have gradually turned into the hot research topic. DNA methylation is one of the earliest-discovered and best-studied epigenetic mechanisms, of which the alteration can influence the transcription initiation of genes. A number of studies have been published to demonstrate that PM exposure is linked with DNA methylation patterns in the human genome. DNA methylation is the potential regulator of the biological effects of PM exposure. In the present review, DNA methylation related to PM exposure was elaborated on genome-wide and gene-specific methylation. In particular, genome-wide DNA methylation was composed of the alterations in global methylation content and genome-wide methylation profile; gene-specific methylation included the methylation changes in mechanism-related and disease-specific genes. Representative epidemiological and experimental studies were cited to elucidate the viewpoints, focusing on both PM-related methylation changes and the mediating effects of DNA methylation between PM and the health impacts. This review will provide advantageous clues for subsequent studies on the DNA methylation in relation to PM exposure.

    更新日期:2018-06-05
  • Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by tetrachlorobisphenol A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Zhihua Ji, Yaxian Zhang, Juan Tian, Fengbang Wang, Maoyong Song, Hao Li

    Tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), which is widely used as flame retardant, can be released into various environments, thereby being absorbed by wildlife or human beings through food chain's bio-magnification and causing some adverse influences on wildlife or human beings. However, limited data are currently available on TCBPA-associated cytotoxicity and related mechanisms. Here, the cytotoxicity induced by different concentrations of TCBPA (i.e., 5, 10 and 20 μM) was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a simple eukaryotic model organism. TCBPA treatment inhibited the growth and survival rate of yeast cell in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TCBPA promoted the increasing of intracellular oxidative stress by enhancing accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation degree (represented by malondialdehyde (MDA) content) and DNA damage degree (represented by 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) content) in yeast cell also increased after TCBPA treatment. However, yeast cell mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) decreased after TCBPA treatment. It was noteworthy that there was no significant inhibitory effect on yeast cell growth or survival rate in 5 μM TCBPA-treated cells, but the intracellular MDA content and Δψm level changed significantly, suggesting the potential cell damage secondary to the relative low dose of TCBPA exposure. Results presented here would highlight our knowledge about TCBPA-associated cytotoxicity in organisms.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Toxicity evaluation of selected ionic liquid compounds on embryonic development of Zebrafish
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Nadin Younes, Rola Salem, Maha Al-Asmakh, Tausif Altamash, Gianfranco Pintus, Majeda Khraisheh, Gheyath K. Nasrallah

    Hydrate formation in seafloor pipelines is considered an economic and flow assurance issue for the oil and gas industries. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been recently used as potential hydrate inhibitors. Although branded as green compounds, their ecotoxicity in case of leakage from pipelines onto the aquatic environment needs more deep evaluations. Here, we investigate the impacts of three ILs previously used as successful thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors namely choline chloride (ChC1), 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium triflate (PMPy [triflate]) and tetra-methyl ammonium acetate (TMAA). Mortality (including LC50), teratogenicity, locomotion and neurotoxicity, and hatching rate were utilized to investigate any potential acute toxicity of these ILs on embryonic development of zebrafish. No significant mortality or teratogenic effects were found for all tested compounds in a concentration range between 50 and 200 mg/L. The LC50 was significantly higher than the tested dose >200 mg/L. While, up to 200 mg/L all compound had no impact on the survival rate, ChCl showed a significant effect on neuromuscular development as judged by the increase of spontaneous tail coiling activity (25 VS 4 burst/ minutes of the negative control-treated embryos). Further, apart from PMPy [triflate], ChC1 and TMAA had a significant adverse effect on the hatching rate of the treated embryos at concentrations of 200 mg/L. However, this effect was very mild at lower concentrations (≤100 mg/L). Our data indicate that within the tested concentrations both TMAA and PMPy [triflate] had no or little potential harmful effect on embryonic development of aquatic fauna “green”, while ChC1 should be used with caution.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Spirulina platensis attenuates furan reprotoxicity by regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in testis of rats
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Yasmina M. Abd El-Hakim, Wafaa A. Mohamed, Abeer E. El-Metwally

    Furan is a common food contaminant and environmental pollutant. Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue–green algae extensively used as therapeutic and health supplements. This study aimed to explore the probable beneficial role of SP against the influence of furan on reproductive system of male rats. Adult male rats were divided into control, vehicle control, SP (300 mg/kg bwt/ day, 7 days), furan (16 mg/kg bwt/ day,30 day), SP/furan, furan/SP and furan+SP groups. Hematology, sperm count, sperm morphology, serum testosterone (TES), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), testicular enzymes, and pro inflammatory cytokines were estimated. In addition, histopathology of testis and seminal vesicles and apoptosis were evaluated. Anaemia, leukocytosis, and reduced gonadosomatic index were observed in the furan treated group. TES, LH, FSH, E2, and GSH were significantly decreased following furan treatment. MDA, testicular enzymes, and pro inflammatory cytokines were significantly incremented in testis of furan treated rats. Furan induced apoptic changes in testis. SP significantly counteracted furan reprotoxic impacts, particularly at co-exposure. Conclusively, these findings verified that SP could be candidate therapy against furan reprotoxic impacts.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Higher biomolecules yield in phytoplankton under copper exposure
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Jaqueline Carmo Silva, Pedro Echeveste, Ana Teresa Lombardi

    Copper is an important metal for industry, and its toxic threshold in natural ecosystems has increased since the industrial revolution. As an essential nutrient, it is required in minute amounts, being toxic in slightly increased concentrations, causing great biochemical transformation in microalgae. This study aimed at investigating the physiology of Scenedesmus quadricauda, a cosmopolitan species, exposed to copper concentrations including those that trigger intracellular biochemical modifications. The Cu exposure concentrations tested ranged from 0.1 to 25 µM, thus including environmentally important levels. Microalgae cultures were kept under controlled environmental conditions and monitored daily for cell density, in vivo chlorophyll a, and photosynthetic quantum yield (ΦM). After 24 h growth, free Cu2+ ions were determined, and after 96 h, cellular Cu concentration, total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and cell volume were determined. The results showed that both free Cu2+ ions and cellular Cu increased with Cu increase in culture medium. Microalgae cell abundance and in vivo chlorophyll a were mostly affected at 2.5 µM Cu exposure (3.8 pg Cu cell−1) and above. Approximately 31% decrease of photosynthetic quantum yield was obtained at the highest Cu exposure concentration (25 µM; 25 pg Cu cell−1) in comparison with the control. However, at environmentally relevant copper concentrations (0.5 µM Cu; 0.4 pg Cu cell−1) cell volume increased in comparison with the control. Considering biomolecules accumulation per unit cell volume, the highest carbohydrates and proteins yield was obtained at 1.0 µM Cu (1.1 pg Cu cell−1), while for lipids higher Cu was necessary (2.5 µM Cu; 3.8 pg Cu cell−1). This study is a contribution to the understanding of the effects of environmentally significant copper concentrations in the physiology of S. quadricauda, as well as to biotechnological approach to increase biomolecule yield in microalgae production.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Soil mineral alters the effect of Cd on the alkaline phosphatase activity
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Xiangping Tan, Yike He, Ziquan Wang, Chenghui Li, Long Kong, Haixia Tian, Weijun Shen, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Wenxiang He

    The toxicity of heavy metals (HMs) to soil enzymes is directly influenced by the status of the enzyme (free vs. immobilized on minerals) and the duration of exposure. However, little information is available on the interaction effect of HMs, mineral, and exposure time on soil enzyme activities. We investigated the interaction mechanism of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with minerals (montmorillonite and goethite) and the response of free and immobilized ALP to cadmium (Cd) toxicity under different exposure times. The adsorption isotherms of ALP on both minerals were L-type. The maximum adsorption capacity of goethite for ALP was 3.96 times than montmorillonite, although both had similar adsorption constant (K). Goethite showed a greater inhibitory effect on ALP activity than montmorillonite. The toxicity of Cd to free- and goethite-ALP was enhanced with increasing exposure time, indicating a time-dependent inhibition. However, Cd toxicity to montmorillonite-ALP was not affected by the exposure time. The inhibition of Cd to soil enzyme activity is influenced by the properties of mineral complexes and the duration of exposure. A further understanding of the time pattern of HMs toxicity is helpful for accurately assessing the hazards of HMs to soil enzyme activity.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Exploring the differences of antibiotic resistance genes profiles between river surface water and sediments using metagenomic approach
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Haoyu Jiang, Renjun Zhou, Mengdi Zhang, Zhineng Cheng, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Baowei Chen, Shichun Zou, Ying Yang
    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Metagenomic insights into the effect of oxytetracycline on microbial structures, functions and functional genes in sediment denitrification
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-06-02
    Yong Zou, Manxia Lin, Wenguang Xiong, Mei Wang, Jiaxuan Zhang, Mianzhi Wang, Yongxue Sun
    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Asparagus densiflorus in a vertical subsurface flow phytoreactor for treatment of real textile effluent: A lab to land approach for in situ soil remediation
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Anuprita D. Watharkar, Suhas K. Kadam, Rahul V. Khandare, Parag D. Kolekar, Byong-Hun Jeon, Jyoti P. Jadhav, Sanjay P. Govindwar
    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Effect of Cd on growth, physiological response, Cd subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Koelreuteria paniculata
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Lan Peng Yang, Jian Zhu, Ping Wang, Jing Zeng, Rong Tan, Yu Zhong Yang, Zhi Ming Liu

    Koelreuteria paniculata were cultivated in nutrient solution with different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, 150, 250 and 500 µM) and sampled after 90 days. The resistance, translocation, accumulation and stress responses in Koelreuteria paniculata were investigated by hydroponic experiments. The results showed that Koelreuteria paniculata is an efficient Cd excluder that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd (up to 150–250 µM of Cd). The concentration of Cd never exceeds 5 ppm in leaves and 10 ppm in roots. The high concentration of Cd (≥ 250 µM) had a toxic effect on K. paniculata and significantly restricted the plant growth. The accumulation ability of Cd by different plant tissues followed the sequence of roots > leaves > stems. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors both were less than 1. Cd has the highest content in the cell wall and is migrated to soluble fractions and organelles at high concentrations. Undissolved Cd phosphate, pectates and protein-bound Cd were the predominant forms. The low concentration of Cd (≤150 µM) promoted the synthesis of soluble proteins, AsA and GSH, while high concentration of Cd clearly inhibited the physiological and biochemical process, caused membrane lipid peroxidation and severe membrane damages, and increased MDA and H2O2 contents. POD, CAT and SOD exhibited positive and effective responses to low concentration Cd stress, but could not remove the toxicity caused by high concentration Cd stress. The content of IAA, GA and ZT decreased and ABA content was significantly increased under high-concentration Cd stress.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Anti-inflammatory potential of alginic acid from Sargassum horneri against urban aerosol-induced inflammatory responses in keratinocytes and macrophages
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    I.P. Shanura Fernando, Thilina U. Jayawardena, K.K. Asanka Sanjeewa, Lei Wang, You-Jin Jeon, Won Woo Lee
    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • 更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Effects on the hepatic transcriptome of chicken embryos in ovo exposed to phenobarbital
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Jiahua Guo, Shohei Ito, Hoa Thanh Nguyen, Kimika Yamamoto, Hisato Iwata

    This work aimed at evaluating the toxic effects of in ovo exposure to phenobarbital (PB) and unveiling the mode of action by transcriptome analysis in the embryonic liver of a model avian species, chicken (Gallus gallus). Embryos were initially treated with saline or 1 μg PB /g egg at Hamburger Hamilton Stage (HHS) 1 (1st day), followed by 20 days of incubation to HHS 46. At 21st day, chicks that pipped successfully were euthanized and dissected for assessing the PB caused effects on phenotypes and the liver transcriptome in both genders. In the PB treatment group, a 7% attenuation in tarsus length was found in females. While no adverse phenotypic effect on the liver somatic index (LSI) was observed, PB caused significant changes in the expressions of 52 genes in males and 516 genes in females (False Discovery Rate < 0.2, p value < 0.05, and absolute fold change > 2). PB exposure modulated the genes primarily enriched in the biological pathways of the cancer, cardiac development, immune response, lipid metabolism, and skeletal development in both genders, and altered expressions of genes related to the cellular process and neural development in females. However, mRNA expressions of chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR)-mediated CYP genes were not induced in the PB treatment groups, regardless of males and females. On the contrary, PB exposure repressed the mRNA expressions of CYP2AC2 in males and CYP2R1, CYP3A37, and CYP8B1 in females. Although transcription factors (TFs) including SREBF1 and COUP-TFII were predicted to be commonly activated in both genders, some TFs were activated in a gender-dependent manner, such as PPARa in males and BRCA1 and IRF9 in females. Taken together, our results provided an insight into the mode of action of PB on the chicken embryos.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
  • Effects of acute and chronic exposures of fluoxetine on the Chinese fish, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva
    Ecotox. Environ. Safe. (IF 3.743) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Hongxing Chen, Xiangfeng Zeng, Lei Mu, Liping Hou, Bin Yang, Jianliang Zhao, Daniel Schlenk, Wu Dong, Lingtian Xie, Qianru Zhang

    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used as an antidepressant and has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. However, its effects in fish from Asia remain relatively less studied. In this study, the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva was exposed to 0, 50, and 200 µg/L of fluoxetine for 4 h and 42 d. The effects of fluoxetine on biometrics were compared to biochemical endpoints indicative of stress in different fish tissues (brain, liver, gills and intestine) following exposures. In fish exposed for 42 d, lipid peroxidation endpoints were enhanced 80% in the liver and gills. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was increased 40% after exposure to 50 µg/L and 55% at 200 µg/L following 4 h exposure. In contrast AChE was increased 26% (at 50 µg/L) after 42 d of exposures. Enhanced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) was detected only in fish exposed to 50 µg/L of fluoxetine for 4 h. The activity of α-glucosidase (α-Glu) was also induced (at 200 µg/L) after 4 h of exposure. After 4 h of exposure, the activities of proteases in the intestine were generally inhibited at 200 µg/L. Both 4 h and 42 d exposures resulted in an increased hepatosomatic index (HSI) but did not affect the condition factor (CF). Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine significantly altered biochemical endpoints in P. parva after acute exposure and the morphological changes in liver size were not observed until 42 d of exposure.

    更新日期:2018-06-04
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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