The deepwater horizon oil spill coast guard cohort study: A cross-sectional study of acute respiratory health symptoms Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Melannie Alexander, Lawrence S. Engel, Nathan Olaiya, Li Wang, John Barrett, Laura Weems, Erica G. Schwartz, Jennifer A. Rusiecki
Introduction Over 8500 United States Coast Guard (USCG) personnel were deployed in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill; however, human respiratory effects as a result of spill-related exposures are relatively unknown. Methods USCG personnel who responded to the DWH oil spill were queried via survey on exposures to crude oil and oil dispersant, and acute respiratory symptoms experienced during deployment. Adjusted log binomial regressions were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), investigating the associations between oil spill exposures and respiratory symptoms. Results 4855 USCG personnel completed the survey. More than half (54.6%) and almost one-fourth (22.0%) of responders were exposed to crude oil and oil dispersants, respectively. Coughing was the most prevalent symptom (19.4%), followed by shortness of breath (5.5%), and wheezing (3.6%). Adjusted analyses showed an exposure-response relationship between increasing deployment duration and likelihood of coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing in the pre-capping period. A similar pattern was observed in the post-capping period for coughing and wheezing. Adjusted analyses revealed increased PRs for coughing (PR=1.92), shortness of breath (PR=2.60), and wheezing (PR=2.68) for any oil exposure. Increasing frequency of inhalation of oil was associated with increased likelihood of all three respiratory symptoms. A similar pattern was observed for contact with oil dispersants for coughing and shortness of breath. The combination of both oil and oil dispersants presented associations that were much greater in magnitude than oil alone for coughing (PR=2.72), shortness of breath (PR=4.65), and wheezing (PR=5.06). Conclusions Results from the present study suggested strong relationships between oil and oil dispersant exposures and acute respiratory symptoms among disaster responders. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm these findings.
Nanoadsorbents based on conducting polymer nanocomposites with main focus on polyaniline and its derivatives for removal of heavy metal ions/dyes: A review Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-09 Ehsan Nazarzadeh Zare, Ahmad Motahari, Mika Sillanpää
Impact of particle size on distribution and human exposure of flame retardants in indoor dust Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Rui-Wen He, Yun-Zi Li, Ping Xiang, Chao Li, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma
Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and ischemic stroke onset in Barcelona, Spain Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo, Gregory Wellenius, Xavier Basagaña, Marta Cirach, Alejandra Gómez González, Pablo de Ceballos, Ana Zabalza, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Carolina Soriano-Tarraga, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer, Jaume Roquer
Objective To assess the relationship between short-term exposure to outdoor ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and black carbon [BC]), ischemic stroke (IS) and its different subtypes, and the potential modifying effect of neighborhood greenspace and noise. Methods This time-stratified case-crossover study was based on IS and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) recorded in a hospital-based prospective stroke register (BASICMAR 2005–2014) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Daily and hourly pollutant concentrations and meteorological data were obtained from monitoring stations in the city. Time-lags (from previous 72 h to acute stroke onset) were analyzed. Greenness and noise were determined from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and daily average noise level at the street nearest to residential address, respectively. Results The 2742 cases with known onset date and time, living in the study area, were analyzed. After adjusting for temperature, no statistically significant association between pollutants exposure and overall stroke risk was found. In subtype analysis, an association was detected between BC exposure at 24–47 h (odds ratio, 1.251; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–1.552; P = 0.042) and 48–72 h (1.211; 95% CI, 0.988–1.484; P = 0.065) time-lag prior to stroke onset and large-artery atherosclerosis subtype. No clear modifying effect of greenness or noise was observed. Conclusions Overall, no association was found between PM2.5 and BC exposure and acute IS risk. By stroke subtype, large-artery atherosclerotic stroke could be triggered by daily increases in BC, a diesel fuel-related pollutant in the study area.
Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios ☆ Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Boya Zhang, Guoxing Li, Yue Ma, Xiaochuan Pan
Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5–10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities.
A comparative study on the binary and ternary mixture toxicity of antibiotics towards three bacteria based on QSAR investigation Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Dali Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Zhifen Lin, Yangyang Ding
Antibiotics have become common pollutants in the environment. In most cases, the antibiotics in the environment exist as mixtures, posing joint effects on the organisms. Therefore, the mixture toxicity of the antibiotics can better reflect their environmental risks. In this paper, three types of commonly used antibiotics, i.e., sulfonamides (SAs), SA potentiators (SAPs) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for their binary and tertiary mixture toxicity on three bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Vibrio fischeri (V. fischeri) and Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis). It was found that SA-SAP mixtures and SA-SAP-TC mixtures presented synergetic effects on the three bacteria, while SA-TC and SAP-TC mixtures showed antagonistic effects. QSAR investigation suggested that the actual concentration ratio of the components in a mixture could vary a lot from the designed concentration ratio; moreover, the TCs in the ternary mixtures altered the toxic ratio of SAs and SAPs, which lead to the varying joint effects of the ternary mixtures on different bacteria. The present research proposes a novel idea for the mechanistic study of the mixture toxicity, both theoretically and methodologically; and the QSAR studies provide a reference for the prediction of the mixture toxicity, which could be helpful to the risk assessment on joint exposure to antibiotic mixtures.
Combined effects of microplastics and chemical contaminants on the organ toxicity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Bodil K. Larsen, Kit Granby, Alejandro Barranco
Microplastics contamination of the aquatic environment is considered a growing problem. The ingestion of microplastics has been documented for a variety of aquatic animals. Studies have shown the potential of microplastics to affect the bioavailability and uptake route of sorbed co-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood. To address this, we have subjected zebrafish to four different feeds: A) untreated feed; B) feed supplemented with microplastics (LD-PE 125–250 µm of diameter); C) feed supplemented with 2% microplastics to which a mixture of PCBs, BFRs, PFCs and methylmercury were sorbed; and D) feed supplemented with the mixture of contaminants only. After 3 weeks of exposure fish were dissected and liver, intestine, muscular tissue and brain were extracted. After visual observation, evaluation of differential gene expression of some selected biomarker genes in liver, intestine and brain were carried out. Additionally, quantification of perfluorinated compounds in liver, brain, muscular tissue and intestine of some selected samples were performed. The feed supplemented with microplastics with sorbed contaminants produced the most evident effects especially on the liver. The results indicate that microplastics alone does not produce relevant effects on zebrafish in the experimental conditions tested; on the contrary, the combined effect of microplastics and sorbed contaminants altered significantly their organs homeostasis in a greater manner than the contaminants alone.
Ciguatoxins activate the Calcineurin signalling pathway in Yeasts: Potential for development of an alternative detection tool? Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-01-04 Hélène Martin-Yken, Camille Gironde, Sylvain Derick, Hélène Taiana Darius, Christophe Furger, Dominique Laurent, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are lipid-soluble polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Gambierdiscus spp. typically found in tropical and subtropical zones. This endemic area is however rapidly expanding due to environmental perturbations, and both toxic Gambierdiscus spp. and ciguatoxic fishes have been recently identified in the North Atlantic Ocean (Madeira and Canary islands) and Mediterranean Sea. Ciguatoxins bind to Voltage Gated Sodium Channels on the membranes of sensory neurons, causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in humans, a disease characterized by a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological, neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms. Although CFP is the most frequently reported non bacterial food-borne poisoning worldwide, there is still no simple and quick way of detecting CTXs in contaminated samples. In the prospect to engineer rapid and easy-to-use CTXs live cells-based tests, we have studied the effects of CTXs on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular model which displays a remarkable conservation of cellular signalling pathways with higher eukaryotes. Taking advantage of this high level of conservation, yeast strains have been genetically modified to encode specific transcriptional reporters responding to CTXs exposure. These yeast strains were further exposed to different concentrations of either purified CTX or micro-algal extracts containing CTXs. Our data establish that CTXs are not cytotoxic to yeast cells even at concentrations as high as 1 μM, and cause an increase in the level of free intracellular calcium in yeast cells. Concomitantly, a dose-dependent activation of the calcineurin signalling pathway is observed, as assessed by measuring the activity of specific transcriptional reporters in the engineered yeast strains. These findings offer promising prospects regarding the potential development of a yeast cells-based test that could supplement or, in some instances, replace current methods for the routine detection of CTXs in seafood products.
Using hair and fingernails in binary logistic regression for bio-monitoring of heavy metals/metalloid in groundwater in intensively agricultural areas, Thailand Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Pokkate Wongsasuluk, Srilert Chotpantarat, Wattasit Siriwong, Mark Robson
Short-term particulate matter exposure influences nasal microbiota in a population of healthy subjects Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Jacopo Mariani, Chiara Favero, Andrea Spinazzè, Domenico Maria Cavallo, Michele Carugno, Valeria Motta, Matteo Bonzini, Andrea Cattaneo, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
Background Exposure to air pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), represents a growing health problem. The aim of our study was to investigate whether PM could induce a dysbiosis in the nasal microbiota in terms of α-diversity and taxonomic composition. Methods We investigated structure and characteristics of the microbiota of 40 healthy subjects through metabarcoding analysis of the V3–V4 regions of the 16s rRNA gene. Exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 was assessed with a personal sampler worn for 24 h before sample collection (Day −1) and with measurements from monitoring stations (from Day −2 to Day −7). Results We found an inverse association between PM10 and PM2.5 levels of the 3rd day preceding sampling (Day −3) and α-diversity indices (Chao1, Shannon and PD_whole_tree). Day −3 PM was inversely associated also with the majority of analyzed taxa, except for Moraxella, which showed a positive association. In addition, subjects showed different structural profiles identifying two groups: one characterized by an even community and another widely dominated by the Moraxella genus. Conclusions Our findings support the role of PM exposure in influencing microbiota and altering the normal homeostasis within the bacterial community. Whether these alterations could have a role in disease development and/or exacerbation needs further research.
Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Arno Thielens, Matthias Van den Bossche, Christopher Brzozek, Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Michael J. Abramson, Geza Benke, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
The aims of this study were to: i) investigate the repeatability and representativeness of personal radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure measurements, across different microenvironments, ii) perform simultaneous evaluations of personal RF-EMF exposures for the whole body and the head, iii) validate the data obtained with a head-worn personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) against those obtained with an on-body worn personal exposimeter (PEM). Data on personal and head RF-EMF exposures were collected by performing measurements across 15 microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia. A body-worn PEM and a head-worn PDE were used for measuring body and head exposures, respectively. The summary statistics obtained for total RF-EMF exposure showed a high representativeness (r2 > 0.66 for two paths in the same area) and a high repeatability over time (r2 > 0.87 for repetitions of the same path). The median head exposure in the 900 MHz downlink band ranged between 0.06 V/m and 0.31 V/m. The results obtained during simultaneous measurements using the two devices showed high correlations (0.42 < r2 < 0.94). The highest mean total RF-EMF exposure was measured in Melbourne's central business district (0.89 V/m), whereas the lowest mean total exposure was measured in a suburban residential area (0.05 V/m). This study shows that personal RF-EMF microenvironmental measurements in multiple microenvironments have high representativeness and repeatability over time. The personal RF-EMF exposure levels (i.e. body and head exposures) demonstrated moderate to high correlations.
Assessment of the combination of temperature and relative humidity on kidney stone presentations Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Michelle E. Ross, Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera, Robert E. Kopp, Lihai Song, David S. Goldfarb, Jose Pulido, Steven Warner, Susan L. Furth, Gregory E. Tasian
Temperature and relative humidity have opposing effects on evaporative water loss, the likely mediator of the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. However, prior studies considered only dry-bulb temperatures when estimating the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. We used distributed lag non-linear models and repeated 10-fold cross-validation to determine the daily temperature metric and corresponding adjustment for relative humidity that most accurately predicted kidney stone presentations during hot and cold periods in South Carolina from 1997 to 2015. We examined three metrics for wet-bulb temperatures and heat index, both of which measure the combination of temperature and humidity, and for dry-bulb temperatures: (1) daytime mean temperature; (2) 24-h mean temperature; and (3) most extreme 24-h temperature. For models using dry-bulb temperatures, we considered four treatments of relative humidity. Among 188,531 patients who presented with kidney stones, 24-h wet bulb temperature best predicted kidney stone presentation during summer. Mean cross-validated residuals were generally lower in summer for wet-bulb temperatures and heat index than the corresponding dry-bulb temperature metric, regardless of type of adjustment for relative humidity. Those dry-bulb models that additionally adjusted for relative humidity had higher mean residuals than other temperature metrics. The relative risk of kidney stone presentations at the 99th percentile of each temperature metric compared to the respective median temperature in summer months differed by temperature metric and relative humidity adjustment, and ranged from an excess risk of 8–14%. All metrics performed similarly in winter. The combination of temperature and relative humidity determine the risk of kidney stone presentations, particularly during periods of high heat and humidity. These results suggest that metrics that measure moist heat stress should be used to estimate the temperature-dependence of kidney stone presentations, but that the particular metric is relatively unimportant.
Neurocognitive and physical functioning in the Seveso Women's Health Study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Jennifer Ames, Marcella Warner, Paolo Brambilla, Paolo Mocarelli, William A. Satariano, Brenda Eskenazi
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is neurotoxic in animals but few studies have investigated its effects on the human brain. Related dioxin-like compounds have been linked to poorer cognitive and motor function in older adults, with effects more pronounced in women, perhaps due to the loss of neuro-protective estrogen in menopause. On 10 July 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, resulted in one of the highest known residential exposures to TCDD. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study, a retrospective cohort study of the health of the women who were newborn to 40 years old in 1976. Here, we investigate whether TCDD exposure is associated with physical functioning and working memory more than 20 years later. Individual TCDD concentration (ppt) was measured in archived serum collected soon after the explosion. In 1996 and 2008, we measured physical functioning (n=154) and working memory (n=459), respectively. We examined associations between serum TCDD and motor and cognitive outcomes with multivariate linear regression and semi-parametric estimators. A 10-fold increase in serum TCDD was not associated with walking speed (adjusted β=0.0006 ft/s, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.13, 0.13), upper body mobility (adjusted β=−0.06, 95% CI: −0.36, 0.23), or manual dexterity (adjusted β=0.34, 95% CI: −0.65, 1.33). We observed an inverted U-shaped association in grip strength, with poorer strength in the lowest and highest TCDD exposure levels. There was no association between TCDD and the Wechsler digit and spatial span tests. Neither menopause status at assessment nor developmental timing of exposure modified associations between TCDD and working memory. Our findings, in one of the only studies of TCDD's effects on neuropsychological and physical functioning in women, do not indicate an adverse effect on these domains, with the exception of a U-shaped relationship with grip strength. Given the limited assessment and relative youth of the women at this follow-up, future work examining additional neuropsychological outcomes is warranted.
Asthma prevalence and school-related hazardous air pollutants in the US-México border area Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-23 Genny Carrillo, Maria J. Perez Patron, Natalie Johnson, Yan Zhong, Rose Lucio, Xiaohui Xu
Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children and has been linked to high levels of ambient air pollution and certain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Outdoor pollutants such as benzene, released by car emissions, and organic chemicals found in diesel exhaust, as well as particles and irritant gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), contribute to an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: 1) conduct a screening survey to identify high risk for asthma among school-age children in Hidalgo County, and, 2) study the potential health impact of school-related exposure to HAPs pertaining to asthma risk. Methods We carried out a quantitative cross-sectional study combining a school-based asthma screening survey across 198 schools in Hidalgo County, Texas, with information on school neighborhood environments, including census tract-level information on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and socioeconomic status (SES) in the respective school neighborhoods. HAPs levels were assessed based on the EPA 2011 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) while SES information was assessed using data from the 2010–2014 American Community Survey. Results 2930 students completed the asthma screening survey and results showed an overall asthma prevalence of 9.4%, slightly higher than the national and state prevalence. Participants in the 14–18 years old age group showed a much higher asthma prevalence of 16.7%. When assessing school-neighborhood characteristics, our results revealed no significant differences in asthma prevalence across census tracts with different SES levels. For HAPs, in the single-pollutant model, chlorine levels showed a significant linear trend for prevalence of asthma (p=0.03) while hydrochloric acid had a marginally significant linear trend (p=0.08). The association with chlorine remained significant in the multi-pollutant model. Conclusions Asthma prevalence among school-age children in Hidalgo County, Texas, is 9.4%, which is slightly higher than the state rate, especially among young adults, ages 14–18 years who had an asthma rate of 16.7%. Results support an association between exposures to school-neighborhood HAPs and risk for pediatric asthma, especially as related to chlorine. No significant effects of school-level SES on asthma risk were observed.
Exposure to DDT and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among South African women from an indoor residual spraying region: The VHEMBE study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Jennifer Murray, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Fraser W. Gaspar, Madelein Crause, Muvhulawa Obida, Jonathan Chevrier
Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), the use of insecticides inside residences for malaria control, may cause elevated exposure to insecticides such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT). Evidence suggests that DDT exposure may increase blood pressure but no study has investigated associations with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in an IRS area. We measured the serum concentration of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethylene (DDE) at the time of delivery among 733 rural South African women participating in the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE). We also collected data on HDP diagnosis through questionnaires administered to participants and medical record abstraction. We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the relation between DDT/E and HDP. p,p′-DDT and p,p′-DDE serum concentrations were associated with HDP based on self-report (OR = 1.50; 95%CI = 1.10, 2.03 for p,p′-DDT and OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.09, 2.28 for p,p′-DDE) and medical records (OR = 1.32; 95%CI = 0.99, 1.75 for p,p′-DDT and OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.03, 2.09 for p,p′-DDE). p,p′-DDE was also associated with gestational hypertension (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.07). Exposure to DDT and DDE may be associated with elevated risks of HDP in South African women residing in an area sprayed for malaria control.
What’s hot about mercury? Examining the influence of climate on mercury levels in Ontario top predator fishes Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Miranda M. Chen, Lianna Lopez, Satyendra P. Bhavsar, Sapna Sharma
Mercury (Hg) levels in Ontario top predator fishes have been increasing in recent decades. These increases may be a result of many additive factors, including global climate change. Only recently has research been conducted on how climate change may impact Hg levels in freshwater fishes at large-scales. We examined the relationship between Hg trends and (1) local weather, (2) large-scale climate drivers, and (3) anthropogenic Hg emissions, in native cool water (walleye and northern pike) and warm water (smallmouth bass and largemouth bass) predatory fishes in Ontario, Canada, for historical (1970–1992) and recent (1993–2014) time periods. For each fish species studied, > 25% of Ontario's secondary watersheds shifted from historically declining to recently increasing fish Hg trends, and ≥ 50% of watersheds experienced increasing trends between 1993 and 2014. Recent fish Hg increased at up to 0.20 µg/g/decade; which were significant (p < 0.05) for walleye, northern pike and smallmouth bass. Multiple linear regressions revealed a complex interplay of local weather, large-scale climate drivers, and anthropogenic Hg emissions influencing fish Hg levels. Recent Hg levels for walleye and largemouth bass increased with changes in global climate drivers, while higher precipitation influenced smallmouth bass Hg levels the most. Walleye Hg levels increased during the positive phases of global climate drivers, reflecting the local influence of local temperatures and precipitation indirectly. Differentiating the effects of climate-related parameters and emissions is increasingly crucial to assess how changing multiple environmental stressors may impact health of wildlife and humans consuming fish.
Persistent organic pollutants, skull size and bone density of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland 1892–2015 and Svalbard 1964–2004 Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F. Rigét, Robert J. Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Thea Bechshoft, Øystein Wiig, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Cino Pertoldi, Eline D. Lorenzen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892–2015 in East Greenland and 1964–2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p < 0.01) indicating that adult male skulls collected in the early pre-pollution period had the highest BMD. A similar decrease in BMD over time was not found for the East Greenland adult females. However, there was a non-significant trend that the skull size of adult East Greenland females was negatively correlated with collection year 1892–2015 (linear regression: p = 0.06). No temporal change was found for BMD or skull size in Svalbard polar bears (ANOVA: all p > 0.05) nor was there any significant difference in BMD between Svalbard and East Greenland subpopulations. Skull size was larger in polar bears from Svalbard than from East Greenland (two-way ANOVA: p = 0.003). T-scores reflecting risk of osteoporosis showed that adult males from both East Greenland and Svalbard are at risk of developing osteopenia. Finally, when correcting for age and sex, BMD in East Greenland polar bears increased with increasing concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) i.e. ΣPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), ΣHCH (hexachlorohexane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene) and ΣPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) while skull size increased with ΣHCH concentrations all in the period 1999–2014 (multiple linear regression: all p < 0.05, n = 175). The results suggest that environmental changes over time, including exposure to POPs, may affect bone density and size of polar bears.
Microbial source tracking markers associated with domestic rainwater harvesting systems: Correlation to indicator organisms Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 M. Waso, S. Khan, W. Khan
Systemic inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular disease and acute and chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) among US NHANES adults with metabolic syndrome Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Arvind Dabass, Evelyn O. Talbott, Judith R. Rager, Gary M. Marsh, Arvind Venkat, Fernando Holguin, Ravi K. Sharma
Background There has been no investigation to date of adults with metabolic syndrome examining the association of short and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution with cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker (WBC and CRP) levels in a nationally representative sample. The goal of this study is to assess the susceptibility of adults with metabolic syndrome to PM2.5 exposure as suggested by increased cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory marker levels. Methods A cross sectional analysis of adult National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants (2000–2008) was carried out with linkage of CDC WONDER meteorological data and downscaler modeled USEPA air pollution data for census tracts in the continental United States. Participants were non-pregnant NHANES adults (2000–2008) with complete data for evaluating presence of metabolic syndrome and laboratory data on WBC and CRP. Exposures studied included short (lags 0–3 days and their averages), long-term (30 and 60 day moving and annual averages) PM2.5 exposure levels at the census tract level in the continental United States. The main outcomes included CRP and WBC levels the day of NHANES study visit analyzed using multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, smoking status, history of any cardiovascular disease, maximum apparent temperature and ozone level, for participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Results A total of 7134 NHANES participants (35% with metabolic syndrome) met the inclusion criteria. After adjusting for confounders, we observed a significant effect of PM2.5 acutely at lag day 0 on CRP level; a 10 µg/m3 rise in lag day 0 PM2.5 level was associated with a 10.1% increase (95% CI: 2.2–18.6%) in CRP levels for participants with metabolic syndrome. For those without metabolic syndrome, the change in CRP was −1.3% (95% CI −8.8%, 6.8%). There were no significant associations for WBC count. In this first national study of the effect of PM2.5 air pollution on levels of cardiovascular-disease related inflammatory markers in adults with metabolic syndrome, CRP levels were found to be significantly increased in those with this condition with increased fine particulate matter levels at lag day 0. With one third of US adults with metabolic syndrome, the health impact of PM2.5 in this sensitive population may be significant.
Association between prenatal bisphenol A and phthalate exposures and fetal metabolic related biomarkers: The Hokkaido study on Environment and Children's Health Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Machiko Minatoya, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Yu Ait Bamai, Sachiko Itoh, Jun Yamamoto, Yu Onoda, Kazuki Ogasawara, Toru Matsumura, Reiko Kishi
Bisphenol A and phthalates are widely detected in human urine, blood, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Both bisphenol A and phthalates have been suggested as playing a role in obesity epidemics. Exposure to these chemicals during fetal development, and its consequences should be concerning because they can cross the placenta. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association between prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates, and cord blood metabolic-related biomarkers. Maternal serum was used during the first trimester, to determine prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates. Levels of metabolic-related biomarkers in the cord blood were also determined. Linear regression models were applied to the 365 participants with both, exposure and biomarker assessments, adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, education, and sex of the child. The level of bisphenol A was negatively associated with the leptin level (β = −0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.11, −0.01), but was positively associated with the high-molecular-weight adiponectin level, with marginal significance (β = 0.03, 95%CI: 0.00, 0.06). The mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and summation of MEHP and MECPP to represent DEHP exposure (∑DEHPm) levels were inversely associated with the leptin levels (β=−0.14, 95%CI: −0.27, −0.01; β = −0.12, 95%CI: −0.24, 0.00 with marginal significance; β=0.08, 95%CI: −0.14, −0.03; and β = −0.09, 95%CI: −0.16, −0.03, respectively). The present study provided some evidence that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and certain phthalates may modify fetal adiponectin and leptin levels.
Lead exposure in young children over a 5-year period from urban environments using alternative exposure measures with the US EPA IEUBK model – A trial Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Brian Gulson, Alan Taylor, Marc Stifelman
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model has been widely used to predict blood lead (PbB) levels in children especially around industrial sites. Exposure variables have strongly focussed on the major contribution of lead (Pb) in soil and interior dust to total intake and, in many studies, site-specific data for air, water, diet and measured PbB were not available. We have applied the IEUBK model to a comprehensive data set, including measured PbB, for 108 children monitored over a 5-year period in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. To use this data set, we have substituted available data (with or without modification) for standard inputs as needed. For example, as an alternative measure for soil Pb concentration (μg/g), we have substituted exterior dust sweepings Pb concentration (μg/g). As alternative measures for interior dust Pb concentration (μg/g) we have used 1) 30-day cumulative petri dish deposition data (PDD) (as µg Pb/m2/30days), or 2) hand wipe data (as μg Pb/hand). For comparison, simulations were also undertaken with estimates of dust Pb concentration derived from a prior regression of dust Pb concentration (μg/g) on dust Pb loading (μg/ft2) as concentration is the unit specified for the Model. Simulations for each subject using observed data aggregated over the 5-year interval of the study, the most usual application of the IEUBK model, showed using Wilcoxon tests that there was a significant difference between the observed values and the values predicted by the Model containing soil with hand wipes (p < 0.001), and soil and PDD (p = 0.026) but not those for the other two sets of predictors, based on sweepings and PDD or sweepings and wipes. Overall, simulations of the Model using alternative exposure measures of petri dish dust (and possibly hand wipes) instead of vacuum cleaner dust and dust sweepings instead of soil provide predicted PbB which are generally consistent with each other and observed values. The predicted geometric mean PbBs were 2.17 ( ± 1.24) μg/dL for soil with PDD, 1.95 ( ± 1.17) μg/dL for soil with hand wipes, 2.36 ( ± 1.75) μg/dL for sweepings with PDD, and 2.15 ( ± 1.69) for sweepings with hand wipes. These results are in good agreement with the observed geometric mean PbB of 2.46 ( ± 0.99) μg/dL. In contrast to all other IEUBK model studies to our knowledge, we have stratified the data over the age ranges from 1 to 5 years. The median of the predicted values was lower than that for the observed values for every combination of age and set of measures; in some cases, the difference was statistically significant. The differences between observed and predicted PbB tended to be greatest for the soil plus wipes measure and for the oldest age group. Use of ‘default dust’ values calculated from the site-specific soil values, a common application of the IEUBK model, results in predicted PbB about 22% (range 0 to 52%) higher than those from soil with PDD data sets. Geometric mean contributions estimated from the Model to total Pb intake for a child aged 1–2 years was 0.09% for air, 42% for diet, 5.3% for water and 42% for soil and dust. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use alternative measures of soil and dust exposure to provide reliable predictions of PbB in urban environments.
Production of new activated bio-carbons by chemical activation of residue left after supercritical extraction of hops Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Aleksandra Bazan-Wozniak, Piotr Nowicki, Robert Pietrzak
A technology of activated bio-carbons production from the residue left after supercritical extraction of hops is described. The effect of the variant of chemical activation and impregnation ratio on the physicochemical properties as well as sorption capacity towards toxic gas of acidic character (nitrogen dioxide), basic organic dye (aqueous solution of methylene blue - MB) and iodine was investigated. The materials obtained were activated bio-carbons of well-developed surface area ranging between 897 and 1095 m2/g, showing clearly acidic character of the surface. The sorption tests results proved that chemical activation of the residue left after supercritical extraction of hops allows obtaining activated bio-carbons with very high sorption capacity towards nitrogen dioxide, reaching to 77.2 and 155.3 mg/g in dry and wet conditions, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the adsorbents towards methylene blue was 328.75 mg/g, while towards iodine 1815 mg/g. The equilibrium data for aqueous solution of MB were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models, whereas the kinetics of the adsorption process was studied using pseudo-first and second-order models. According to the obtained data, the adsorption of MB from aqueous solution is better described by Langmuir model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Studies on influence of process parameters on simultaneous biodegradation of atrazine and nutrients in aquatic environments by a membrane photobioreactor Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Zahra Derakhshan, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi, Mohammad Faramarzian, Mansooreh Dehghani, Saeed Yousefinejad, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, S. Mehran Abtahi
A Lab scale algal-bacterial membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) was designed and operated under 12-h light and 12-h dark conditions with a light intensity of 8000 lx, in order to investigate the effects of initial concentrations of atrazine, carbon concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the ability of this photobioreactor in simultaneous removal of atrazine and nutrients in the continuous mode. The removal efficiencies of atrazine (ATZ), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus (PO43--P) and nitrogen (NOx) in optimum condition was more than 95%, 99%, 98% and 97% when the maximum removal rates were 9.5 × 10−3, 99.231, 11.773 and 7.762 mg/L-day, respectively. Results showed that the quality of the effluent was reduced by the increase of atrazine concentration. The outcomes on the hydraulic and toxic shocks indicated that the system has a relatively good resistance to the shocks and can return to the stable conditions. Microalgae showed a great deal of interest and capability in cultivating and attaching to the surface of the membrane and bioreactor, and the total biomass accumulated in the system was greater than 6 g/L. The kinetic coefficients of atrazine removal were also studied using various kinetic models. The maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by the modified Stover-Kincannon model. The results approved the ability of the MPBR reactor in wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation and growth. The decline of atrazine concentration in this system could be attributed to the algal-bacterial symbiosis and co-metabolism process. Accordingly, the MPBR reactor is a practical, simple, economical and therefore suitable process for simultaneous biodegradation of chlorinated organic compounds and nutrients removal from aquatic environments.
Genotoxicity assessment of a selected cytostatic drug mixture in human lymphocytes: A study based on concentrations relevant for occupational exposure Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Goran Gajski, Carina Ladeira, Marko Gerić, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Susana Viegas
Cytostatic drugs are highly cytotoxic agents used in cancer treatment and although their benefit is unquestionable, they have been recognized as hazardous to healthcare professionals in occupational settings. In a working environment, simultaneous exposure to cytostatics may occur creating a higher risk than that of a single substance. Hence, the present study evaluated the combined cyto/genotoxicity of a mixture of selected cytostatics with different mechanisms of action (MoA; 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel) towards human lymphocytes in vitro at a concentration range relevant for occupational as well as environmental exposure. The results suggest that the selected cytostatic drug mixture is potentially cyto/genotoxic and that it can induce cell and genome damage even at low concentrations. This indicates not only that such mixture may pose a risk to cell and genome integrity, but also that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient for the prediction of toxicity in a complex working environment. The presence of drugs in different amounts and with different MoA suggests the need to study the relationship between the presence of genotoxic components in the mixture and the resulting effects, taking into account the MoA of each component by itself. Therefore, this study provides new data sets necessary for scientifically-based risk assessments of cytostatic drug mixtures in occupational as well as environmental settings.
Prevalence of various environmental intolerances in a Swedish and Finnish general population Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Kirsi Karvala, Markku Sainio, Eva Palmquist, Maj-Helen Nyback, Steven Nordin
Objective To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine. Methods In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Österbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds. The respondents were asked whether they react with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms or have a physician-diagnosed EI attributed to the corresponding exposures. Prevalence rates were determined for different age and sex groups and the Swedish and Finnish samples in general. Results In the Swedish sample (n = 3406), 12.2% had self-reported intolerance to chemicals, 4.8% to certain buildings, 2.7% to EMFs, and 9.2% to sounds. The prevalence rates for the Finnish sample (n = 1535) were 15.2%, 7.2%, 1.6%, and 5.4%, respectively, differing statistically significantly from the Swedish. EI to chemicals and certain buildings was more prevalent in Finland, while EI to EMFs and sounds more prevalent in Sweden. The prevalence rates for EI with CNS-symptoms were lower and physician-diagnosed EIs considerably lower than self-reported EIs. Women reported EI more often than men and the young (18–39 years) to a lesser degree than middle-aged and elderly. Conclusions The findings reflect the heterogeneous nature of EI. The differences in EI prevalence between the countries might reflect disparities concerning which exposures people perceive harmful and focus their attention to.
Ambient ultrafine particles activate human monocytes: Effect of dose, differentiation state and age of donors Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Bishop Bliss, Kevin Ivan Tran, Constantinos Sioutas, Arezoo Campbell
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. Activation of both inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways has been observed and may be a probable cause of these outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that in human monocytes, PM-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses are interrelated. A human monocytic cell line (THP-1) was used to determine if dose and differentiation state plays a role in the cellular response after a 24hr exposure to particles. Primary human monocytes derived from eight female, non-smoker donors (aged: 21, 24, 27, 28, 48, 49, 54 & 60yo) were used to determine if the age of donors modulates the response. Cells were treated with aqueous suspensions of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP, defined as smaller than 0.2 µm in size) or a media control for 24hr. After exposure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was increased irrespective of dose or differentiation state of THP-1 cells. In the primary human monocytes, ROS formation was not significantly changed. The release of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), was dose-dependent and greatest in differentiated compared to undifferentiated THP-1 cells exposed to UFP. In the Primary human monocytes, TNF-α secretion was increased irrespective of the age of the donor. Our results suggest that after a 24hr exposure to particles, general reactive oxygen species formation was nonspecific and uncorrelated to cytokine secretion which was consistently enhanced. Cytokines play an important role in orchestrating many immune responses and thus the ability of ambient particles to enhance robust secretion of a proinflammatory cytokine from primary human monocytes, and how this may influence the response to pathogens and alter disease states, needs to be further evaluated.
Lifetime exposure to ambient air pollution and methylation of tumor suppressor genes in breast tumors Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Catherine L. Callahan, Matthew R. Bonner, Jing Nie, Daikwon Han, Youjin Wang, Meng-Hua Tao, Peter G. Shields, Catalin Marian, Kevin H. Eng, Maurizio Trevisan, Jan Beyea, Jo L. Freudenheim
Background We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with early life exposure to two measures of air pollution exposure, total suspended particulates (TSP) and traffic emissions (TE), possible proxies for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to PAHs has been shown to be associated with aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Exposure to PAHs and methylation in breast tumor tissue has received little attention. We examined the association of early life exposure to TSP and TE with patterns of DNA methylation in breast tumors. Methods We conducted a study of women enrolled in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study. Methylation of nine genes (SFN, SCGB3A1, RARB, GSTP1, CDKN2A CCND2, BRCA1, FHIT, and SYK) was assessed using bisulfite-based pyrosequencing. TSP exposure at each woman's home address at birth, menarche, and when she had her first child was estimated. TE exposure was modeled for each woman's residence at menarche, her first birth, and twenty and ten years prior to diagnosis. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate odds ratios (OR) of having methylation greater than the median value, adjusting for age, secondhand smoke exposure before age 20, current smoking status, and estrogen receptor status. Results Exposure to higher TSP at a woman's first birth was associated with lower methylation of SCGB3A1 (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23–0.99) and higher methylation of SYK (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03–3.35). TE at menarche was associated with increased methylation of SYK (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.05–5.33). TE at first birth and ten years prior to diagnosis was associated with decreased methylation of CCND2 (OR ten years prior to diagnosis=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26–0.89). Although these associations were nominally significant, none were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < 0.01). Conclusions We observed suggestive evidence that exposure to ambient air pollution throughout life, measured as TSP and TE, may be associated with DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes in breast tumor tissue. Future studies with a larger sample size that assess methylation of more sites are warranted.
Accounting for adaptation and intensity in projecting heat wave-related mortality Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Yan Wang, Francesco Nordio, John Nairn, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel D. Schwartz
Background How adaptation and intensity of heat waves affect heat wave-related mortality is unclear, making health projections difficult. Methods We estimated the effect of heat waves, the effect of the intensity of heat waves, and adaptation on mortality in 209 U.S. cities with 168 million people during 1962–2006. We improved the standard time-series models by incorporating the intensity of heat waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and estimating adaptation empirically using interactions with yearly mean summer temperature (MST). We combined the epidemiological estimates for heat wave, intensity, and adaptation with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset to project heat wave-related mortality by 2050. Results The effect of heat waves increased with its intensity. Adaptation to heat waves occurred, which was shown by the decreasing effect of heat waves with MST. However, adaptation was lessened as MST increased. Ignoring adaptation in projections would result in a substantial overestimate of the projected heat wave-related mortality (by 277–747% in 2050). Incorporating the empirically estimated adaptation into projections would result in little change in the projected heat wave-related mortality between 2006 and 2050. This differs regionally, however, with increasing mortality over time for cities in the southern and western U.S. but decreasing mortality over time for the north. Conclusions Accounting for adaptation is important to reduce bias in the projections of heat wave-related mortality. The finding that the southern and western U.S. are the areas that face increasing heat-related deaths is novel, and indicates that more regional adaptation strategies are needed.
Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese adolescents Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Tanya L. Alderete, Roshonda B. Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S. Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D. Gilliland, Michael I. Goran
Background Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. Objectives The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study. The secondary aim was to examine whether gut microbial taxa correlated with TRAP were also correlated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes (e.g., fasting glucose levels). We additionally explored whether correlations between TRAP and these metabolic risk factors could be explained by the relative abundance of these taxa. Methods Participants (17–19 years; n=43) were enrolled between 2014 and 2016 from Southern California. The CALINE4 line dispersion model was used to model prior year residential concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) as a marker of traffic emissions. The relative abundance of fecal microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and spearman partial correlations were examined after adjusting for body fat percent. Results Freeway TRAP was correlated with decreased Bacteroidaceae (r=−0.48; p=0.001) and increased Coriobacteriaceae (r=0.48; p<0.001). These same taxa were correlated with fasting glucose levels, including Bacteroidaceae (r=−0.34; p=0.04) and Coriobacteriaceae (r=0.41; p<0.01). Further, freeway TRAP was positively correlated fasting glucose (r=0.45; p=0.004) and Bacteroidaceae and Coriobacteriaceae explained 24% and 29% of the correlation between TRAP and fasting glucose levels. Conclusions Increased TRAP exposure was correlated with gut microbial taxa and fasting glucose levels. Gut microbial taxa that were correlated with TRAP partially explained the correlation between TRAP and fasting glucose levels. These results suggest that exposure to air pollutants may negatively impact metabolic health via alterations in the gut microbiota.
Acute particulate matter affects cardiovascular autonomic modulation and IFN-γ methylation in healthy volunteers Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Eleonora Tobaldini, Valentina Bollati, Marta Prado, Elisa M. Fiorelli, Marica Pecis, Giorgio Bissolotti, Benedetta Albetti, Laura Cantone, Chiara Favero, Chiara Cogliati, Paolo Carrer, Andrea Baccarelli, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Nicola Montano
Aims Air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Altered autonomic functions play a key role in PM-induced cardiovascular disease. However, previous studies have not address the impact of PM on sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart function, independently, and using controlled conditions, i.e., increasing titration of PM of known composition, in absence of other potential confounding factors. To fill this gap, here we used symbolic analysis that is capable of detecting non-mutual changes of the two autonomic branches, thus considering them as independent, and concentrations of PM as they could be measured at peak levels in Milan during a polluted winter day. Methods and results In this randomized, cross-over study, we enrolled 12 healthy subjects who underwent two random sessions: inhalation of filtered air mixture or inhalation of filtered air containing particulate mixture (PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1.0 and PM 0.5 µm). ECG and respiration for autonomic analysis and blood sample for DNA Methylation were collected at baseline (T1), after air exposure (T2) and after 2 h (T3). Spectral and symbolic analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) were performed for autonomic control of cardiac function, while alterations in DNA methylation of candidate genes were used to index pro-inflammatory modifications. In the PM expose group, autonomic analysis revealed a significant decrease of 2UV%, index of parasympathetic modulation (14% vs 9%, p = 0.0309), while DNA analysis showed a significant increase of interferon γ (IFN- γ) methylation, from T1 to T3. In a mixed model using T1, T2 and T3, fine and ultrafine PM fractions showed significant associations with IFN- γ methylation and parasympathetic modulation. Conclusions Our study shows, for the first time, that in healthy subjects, acute exposure to PM affects parasympathetic control of heart function and it increases methylation of a pro-inflammatory gene (i.e. methylation of interferon γ). Thus, our study suggests that, even in absence of other co-factors and in otherwise healthy individuals, PM per se is sufficient to trigger parasympathetic dysautonomia, independently from changes in sympathetic control, and inflammation, in a dose-dependent manner.
Assessment of long-term spatio-temporal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Sam Aerts, Joe Wiart, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
As both the environment and telecommunications networks are inherently dynamic, our exposure to environmental radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) at an arbitrary location is not at all constant in time. In this study, more than a year's worth of measurement data collected in a fixed low-cost exposimeter network distributed over an urban environment was analysed and used to build, for the first time, a full spatio-temporal surrogate model of outdoor exposure to downlink Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) signals. Though no global trend was discovered over the measuring period, the difference in measured exposure between two instances could reach up to 42 dB (a factor 12,000 in power density). Furthermore, it was found that, taking into account the hour and day of the measurement, the accuracy of the surrogate model in the area under study was improved by up to 50% compared to models that neglect the daily temporal variability of the RF signals. However, further study is required to assess the extent to which the results obtained in the considered environment can be extrapolated to other geographic locations.
Urban upbringing and childhood respiratory and allergic conditions: A multi-country holistic study ☆ Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Christina Tischer, Payam Dadvand, Xavier Basagana, Elaine Fuertes, Anna Bergström, Olena Gruzieva, Erik Melen, Dietrich Berdel, Joachim Heinrich, Sibylle Koletzko, Iana Markevych, Marie Standl, Dorothea Sugiri, Lourdes Cirugeda, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Amparo Ferrero, Jesus Ibarlueza, Aitana Lertxundi, Adonina Tardón, Jordi Sunyer, Josep M. Anto
Objective We integratively assessed the effect of different indoor and outdoor environmental exposures early in life on respiratory and allergic health conditions among children from (sub-) urban areas. Methods This study included children participating in four ongoing European birth cohorts located in three different geographical regions: INMA (Spain), LISAplus (Germany), GINIplus (Germany) and BAMSE (Sweden). Wheezing, bronchitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis throughout childhood were assessed using parental-completed questionnaires. We designed “environmental scores” corresponding to different indoor, green- and grey-related exposures (main analysis, a-priori-approach). Cohort-specific associations between these environmental scores and the respiratory health outcomes were assessed using random-effects meta-analyses. In addition, a factor analysis was performed based on the same exposure information used to develop the environmental scores (confirmatory analysis, data-driven-approach). Results A higher early exposure to the indoor environmental score increased the risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the first year of life (combined adjusted odds ratio: 1.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.13–1.27] and 1.28 [1.18–1.39], respectively). In contrast, there was an inverse association with allergic rhinitis between 6 and 8 years (0.85 [0.79–0.92]). There were no statistically significant associations for the outdoor related environmental scores in relation to any of the health outcomes tested. The factor analysis conducted confirmed these trends. Conclusion Although a higher exposure to indoor related exposure through occupants was associated with an increased risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the 1st year, it might serve as a preventive mechanism against later childhood allergic respiratory outcomes in urbanized environments through enhanced shared contact with microbial agents.
Source identification of human exposure to lead in nine Cree Nations from Quebec, Canada (Eeyou Istchee territory) Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Eric N. Liberda, Leonard J.S. Tsuji, Ian D. Martin, Pierre Ayotte, Elizabeth Robinson, Eric Dewailly, Evert Nieboer
While policies to decrease lead in the environment have been implemented to reduce human exposure to various lead sources, the use of lead ammunition to harvest wild game may continue to contribute significantly to human blood lead levels (BLLs). As part of a multi-community environment-and-health study, BLLs representing all age groups were evaluated in the nine Cree Nations located in the James and Hudson Bay regions of Quebec, Canada. Personal, market food, traditional food and 24-h recall questionnaires were administered. Predictor variables were assessed for various exposure sources, including diet and hunting practices. Elevated BLLs were observed in association with increased hunting status, use of firearms and leaded ammunition, and consumption of traditional foods. Significant differences were observed between all communities, age groups and sexes. Recommendations include educational campaigns that promote switching to non-lead ammunition and, if lead ammunition continues to be used, careful removal from tissues of pellets, bullet fragments and ammunition paths.
Determination of UV filters in human breast milk using turbulent flow chromatography and babies’ daily intake estimation Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Daniel Molins-Delgado, María del Mar Olmo-Campos, Gemma Valeta-Juan, Vanessa Pleguezuelos-Hernández, Damià Barceló, M. Silvia Díaz-Cruz
UV filters (UV-Fs) are a group of hormonally active chemical compounds used to protect against the deleterious effects of UVA and UVB solar radiation, which are currently present in most consumer goods (personal care products, plastics, fabrics, paints, etc). Last years the concern about these emerging contaminants has been on the rise, and increasing efforts are being taken in order to properly asses the hazard that the exposure to these compounds in the early stages of life may pose. In this study, a new method for the analysis of 11 UV-Fs residues in human breast milk samples has been developed. The method is based on turbulent flow chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TFC-HPLC-MS/MS). The validated method was successfully applied to 79 human breast milk samples from mothers in Barcelona (Spain). Twenty-four per cent of the samples contained UV-Fs, with major contributors being oxybenzone (benzophenone 3, BP3), its metabolite 4,4′-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB), and UV320 showing maximum concentrations of 779.9, 73.3, and 523.6 ng g−1 milk, respectively. Additionally, the plastic containers of the milks were also analysed, revealing high concentrations of BP3 and 4DHB, up to 10.6 µg g−1 plastic. The calculated mean ΣUV-Fs were useful to estimate the daily intake (EDI) by babies, which were 69.1 µg d−1kg−1 body weight.
Associations between maternal triclosan concentrations in early pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, gestational weight gain and fetal markers of metabolic function Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Gabriel D. Shapiro, Tye E. Arbuckle, Jillian Ashley-Martin, William D. Fraser, Mandy Fisher, Maryse F. Bouchard, Patricia Monnier, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Adrienne S. Ettinger, Linda Dodds
Bisphenol and phthalate concentrations and its determinants among pregnant women in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands, 2004–5 Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Elise M. Philips, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Alexandros G. Asimakopoulos, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Eric A.P. Steegers, Susana Santos, Leonardo Trasande
Background Exposure to bisphenols and phthalates in pregnancy may lead to adverse health effects in women themselves and their offspring. Objective To describe first trimester bisphenol and phthalate urine concentrations, including bisphenol and phthalate replacements, and determine nutritional, socio-demographic and lifestyle related determinants. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort of 1396 mothers, we measured first trimester bisphenol, phthalate and creatinine urine concentrations (samples collected in 2004–2005, median gestational age 12.9 weeks [inter-quartile range (IQR) 12.1–14.4]). We examined associations of potential determinants with log-transformed bisphenol and phthalate concentrations. Outcomes were back-transformed. Nutritional analyses were performed in a subgroup of 642 Dutch participants only, as the Food Frequency Questionnaire was aimed at Dutch food patterns. Results Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and bisphenol F were detected in 79.2%, 67.8% and 40.2% of the population, respectively. Mono-n-butylphthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate and monobenzylphthalate were detected in > 90% of the population. Nutritional intake was not associated with bisphenol and phthalate concentrations after correction for multiple testing was applied. Obesity was associated with higher high-molecular-weight phthalate concentrations and the lack of folic acid supplement use with higher di-n-octylphthalate concentrations (respective mean differences were 46.73 nmol/l [95% CI 14.56–93.72] and 1.03 nmol/l [0.31–2.06]). Conclusion Bisphenol S and F exposure was highly prevalent in pregnant women in the Netherlands as early as 2004–5. Although associations of dietary and other key factors with bisphenol and phthalate concentrations were limited, adverse lifestyle factors including obesity and the lack of folic acid supplement use seem to be associated with higher phthalate concentrations in pregnant women. The major limitation was the availability of only one urine sample per participant. However, since phthalates are reported to be quite stable over time, results concerning determinants of phthalate concentrations are expected to be robust.
Soil contamination from lead battery manufacturing and recycling in seven African countries Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Perry Gottesfeld, Faridah Hussein Were, Leslie Adogame, Semia Gharbi, Dalila San, Manti Michael Nota, Gilbert Kuepouo
Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential soil contamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118 soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were ~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were ~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a legacy of lead contamination that will impact millions in communities throughout Africa.
Degradation of triclosan and triclocarban and formation of transformation products in activated sludge using benchtop bioreactors Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Dana L. Armstrong, Nuria Lozano, Clifford P. Rice, Mark Ramirez, Alba Torrents
Benchtop bioreactors were run aerobically with activated sludge samples collected from a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to understand how increased hydraulic retention time (HRT), sludge retention time (SRT), and varying treatment temperatures (21 °C and 30 °C) impact concentrations of the endocrine disrupting antimicrobials triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), and their transformation products. Samples from the reactors were collected periodically over a 122–196 h period and the solid and liquid fraction were separately quantitated for TCS, TCC, and methyltriclosan (MeTCS) and scanned qualitatively for six other transformation products. Results indicated that TCS, TCC and MeTCS were predominately associated with the solids fraction of the activated sludge with only nominal concentrations in the liquids fraction. TCS was degraded in the solids fraction, with increased rates at 30 °C (−0.0224 ± 0.007 h−1) when compared to reactors run at 21 °C (− 0.0170 ± 0.003 h−1). Conversely, TCC concentrations did not significantly change in solids samples from reactors run at 21 °C, while an increase in reactor temperature to 30 °C resulted in TCC degradation at an average rate of − 0.0158 ± 0.012 h−1. Additionally, MeTCS formation in the solids fraction was observed in three out of four reactors run - indicating a notable transformation of TCS. Qualitative appearance of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloroanaline was observed in the liquids fraction of all reactor samples. The remaining four qualitatively scanned compounds were not detected. These experiments demonstrate that increased HRT, SRT, and temperature result in enhanced removal of TCS and TCC from wastewater during the activated sludge process. Furthermore, a substantial formation of TCS into MeTCS was observed.
Assessment of temperature and ultraviolet radiation effects on sunburn incidence at an inland U.S. Beach: A cohort study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Jason W. Marion, Jiyoung Lee, James S. Rosenblum, Timothy J. Buckley
Background Increases in outdoor temperature may lead to increases in sunburn, outdoor exposure, and skin cancer in human populations. Objective This study aimed to quantify sunburn incidence and risk for Ohio beachgoers exposed to varying outdoor conditions. Methods Sunburn incidence data were obtained through a prospective cohort study at East Fork Lake (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA). Recruitment occurred over 26 weekend days. Beach interviews and follow-up telephone interviews obtained exposure and health information. New sunburns were self-reported 8–9 days post-enrollment. Survey data were paired with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) index and temperature data for statistical analysis. Results Among 947 beachgoers, new sunburns were reported in 18% of swimmers. Sunburn incidence was associated with temperature (odds ratio = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1 – 1.4) and UVR index (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0 – 2.5) in models adjusted for water exposure, arrival time, and beach visit frequency. Some evidence of a temperature+UVR interaction was observed. Limitations Exposure and sunburn data were self-reported without clinical diagnosis and date of onset. The follow-up period enabled sunburns to be reported from a variety of days rather than only the beach visit day thereby limiting interpretation. Sun protection behaviors were not evaluated. Conclusions Temperature and UVR influence sunburn frequency. Temperature, however was more strongly associated with sunburn in beachgoers than the nearest measured UVR index, suggesting future investigations are needed to better understand how temperature effects sunburn development. Interventions for decreasing sunburn are needed.
Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birthweight in a rural-urban, mother-child cohort in Tamil Nadu, India Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-26 Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
Background Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter
A game theory approach for assessing risk value and deploying search-and-rescue resources after devastating tsunamis Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Cheng-Kuang Wu
The current early-warning system and tsunami protection measures tend to fall short because they always underestimate the level of destruction, and it is difficult to predict the level of damage by a devastating tsunami on uncertain targets. As we know, the key to minimizing the total number of fatalities after a disaster is the deployment of search and rescue efforts in the first few hours. However, the resources available to the affected districts for emergency response may be limited. This study proposes two game theoretic models that are designed for search-and-rescue resource allocation. First, the interactions between a compounded disaster and a response agent in the affected district are modelled as a non-cooperative game, after which the risk value is derived for each district from the Nash equilibrium. The risk value represents the threat, vulnerability, and consequence of a specific disaster for the affected district. Second, the risk values for fifteen districts are collected for calculation of each district's Shapley value. Then an acceptable plan for resource deployment among all districts is made based on their expected marginal contribution. The model is verified in a simulation based upon 2011 tsunami data. The experimental results show the proposed approach to be more efficient than the proportional division of rescue resources, for dealing with compounded disaster, and is feasible as a method for planning the mobilization of resources and to improve relief efforts against devastating tsunamis.
Resin-based dental sealants as a source of human exposure to bisphenol analogues, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and its derivatives Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Jingchuan Xue, Pranav Kannan, Taha A. Kumosani, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Behavioural phenotypes in mice after prenatal and early postnatal exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-22 Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Capstick Myles, Naarala Jonne, Viluksela Matti, Tanila Heikki, Juutilainen Jukka
Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer, and induction heating cooking hobs. However, there are limited data on possible health effects of exposure to IF magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we set out to assess cognitive and behavioural effects of IF MF in mice exposed during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Pregnant female mice were exposed continuously to 7.5 kHz MFs at 12 and 120 μT, from mating until weaning of pups. Sham exposed pregnant mice were used as a control group. A behavioural teratology study was conducted on the male offspring at two months of age to detect possible effects on the developing nervous system. Body weight development did not differ between the exposure groups. The exposure did not alter spontaneous motor activity when exploring a novel cage or anxiety in novelty-suppressed feeding or marble burying tests. Improved performance in the Rotarod task was observed in the 12 µT group, while the 120 μT exposure group swam more slowly than the sham exposed group in the Morris swim navigation task. However, indices of learning and memory (path length and escape latency during task acquisition and search bias during the probe test) did not differ between the exposure groups. Furthermore, the passive avoidance task did not indicate any impairment of long-term memory over a 48 h interval in the exposed groups. In a post-mortem histopathological analysis, there was no evidence for an effect of IF MF exposure on astroglial reactivity or hippocampal neurogenesis. The results suggest that the IF MF used did not have detrimental effects on spatial learning and memory or histological markers of tissue reaction. The two statistically significant findings that were observed (improved performance in the Rotarod task in the 12 µT group and decreased swimming speed in the 120 µT group) are likely to be chance findings, as they do not form an internally consistent, dose-dependent pattern indicative of specific developmental effects.
Trends in urinary arsenic among the U.S. population by drinking water source: Results from the National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey 2003–2014 Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Barrett Welch, Ellen Smit, Andres Cardenas, Perry Hystad, Molly L. Kile
BackgroundIn 2001, the United States revised the arsenic maximum contaminant level for public drinking water systems from 50 µg/L to 10 µg/L. This study aimed to examine temporal trends in urinary arsenic concentrations in the U.S. population from 2003 to 2014 by drinking water source among individuals aged 12 years and older who had no detectable arsenobetaine - a biomarker of arsenic exposure from seafood intake.MethodsWe examined data from 6 consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2014; N=5848). Total urinary arsenic (TUA) was calculated by subtracting arsenobetaine’s limit of detection and detectable arsenocholine from total arsenic. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted using a second total urinary arsenic index (TUA2, calculated by adding arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid). We classified drinking water source using 24-h dietary questionnaire data as community supply (n=3427), well or rain cistern (n=506), and did not drink tap water (n=1060).ResultsGeometric means (GM) of survey cycles were calculated from multivariate regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI, income, creatinine, water source, type of water consumed, recent smoking, and consumption of seafood, rice, poultry, and juice. Compared to 2003–2004, adjusted TUA was 35.5% lower in 2013–2014 among the general U.S. population. Stratified analysis by smoking status indicated that the trend in lower TUA was only consistent among non-smokers. Compared to 2003–2004, lower adjusted TUA was observed in 2013–2014 among non-smoking participants who used community water supplies (1.98 vs 1.16 µg/L, p<0.001), well or rain cistern users (1.54 vs 1.28 µg/L, p<0.001) and who did not drink tap water (2.24 vs 1.53 µg/L, p<0.001). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results for participants who used a community water supplier and to a lesser extent those who did not drink tap water. However, the sensitivity analysis showed overall exposure stayed the same or was higher among well or rain cistern users. Finally, the greatest decrease in TUA was among participants within the highest exposure percentiles (e.g. 95th percentile had 34% lower TUA in 2013/2014 vs 2003/2004, p<0.001).ConclusionsOverall, urinary arsenic levels in the U.S. population declined over a 12-year period that encompassed the adoption of the revised Arsenic Rule. The most consistent trends in declining exposure were observed among non-smoking individuals using public community water systems. These results suggest regulation and prevention strategies to reduce arsenic exposures in the U.S. may be succeeding.
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure of neuronal in vitro networks Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Tim Köhler, Maximilian Wölfel, Manuel Ciba, Ulrich Bochtler, Christiane Thielemann
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a worldwide common mobile communication standard, used by authorities and organizations with security tasks. Previous studies reported on health effects of TETRA, with focus on the specific pulse frequency of 17.64 Hz, which affects calcium efflux in neuronal cells. Likewise among others, it was reported that TETRA affects heart rate variability, neurophysiology and leads to headaches. In contrast, other studies conclude that TETRA does not affect calcium efflux of cells and has no effect on people's health.In the present study we examine whether TETRA short- and long-term exposure could affect the electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks. Experiments were performed with a carrier frequency of 395 MHz, a pulse frequency of 17.64 Hz and a differential quaternary phase-shift keying (π/4 DQPSK) modulation. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.17 W/kg and 2.21 W/kg were applied.In conclusion, the present results do not indicate any effect of TETRA exposure on electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks, neither for short-term nor long-term exposure. This applies to the examined parameters spike rate, burst rate, burst duration and network synchrony.
Maternal and paternal serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the secondary sex ratio: A population-based preconception cohort study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Jisuk Bae, Sungduk Kim, Dana Boyd Barr, Germaine M. Buck Louis
Recent declines in the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of males to females at birth, in some industrialized countries may be attributed to exposure to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This study aimed to evaluate the association of couples’ preconception exposure to POPs with the SSR. The study cohort comprised 235 couples who were enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study between 2005 and 2009 prior to conception and prospectively followed through delivery of a singleton birth. Upon enrollment, couples’ serum concentrations (ng/g) were measured for 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl, 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Birth outcome data including infant sex were collected upon delivery. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of a male birth for each chemical. Of the 56 POPs examined, maternal PCB 128 and paternal hexachlorobenzene were significantly associated with a female excess (RRs, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.60–0.94] and 0.81 [95% CI, 0.68–0.97] per 1 SD increase in log-transformed serum chemical concentrations, respectively), whereas maternal mirex and paternal PCB 128 and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene were significantly associated with a male excess (RR range, 1.10–1.22 per 1 SD increase in log-transformed serum chemical concentrations). After adjusting for multiple comparisons, only maternal mirex remained significantly associated with the SSR. This exploratory study on multiple classes of POPs demonstrated no conclusive evidence on the association between parental preconception exposure to POPs and the SSR.
Aqueous aggregation behavior of citric acid coated magnetite nanoparticles: Effects of pH, cations, anions, and humic acid Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Juanjuan Liu, Chong Dai, Yandi Hu
Differential exposure and acute health impacts of inhaled solid-fuel emissions from rudimentary and advanced cookstoves in female CD-1 mice Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-01 Eugene A. Gibbs-Flournoy, M. Ian Gilmour, Mark Higuchi, James Jetter, Ingrid George, Lisa Copeland, Randy Harrison, Virginia C. Moser, Janice A. Dye
Background There is an urgent need to provide access to cleaner end user energy technologies for the nearly 40% of the world's population who currently depend on rudimentary cooking and heating systems. Advanced cookstoves (CS) are designed to cut emissions and solid-fuel consumption, thus reducing adverse human health and environmental impacts. Study premise We hypothesized that, compared to a traditional (Tier 0) three-stone (3-S) fire, acute inhalation of solid-fuel emissions from advanced natural-draft (ND; Tier 2) or forced-draft (FD; Tier 3) stoves would reduce exposure biomarkers and lessen pulmonary and innate immune system health effects in exposed mice. Results Across two simulated cooking cycles (duration ~ 3 h), emitted particulate mass concentrations were reduced 80% and 62% by FD and ND stoves, respectively, compared to the 3-S fire; with corresponding decreases in particles visible within murine alveolar macrophages. Emitted carbon monoxide was reduced ~ 90% and ~ 60%, respectively. Only 3-S-fire-exposed mice had increased carboxyhemoglobin levels. Emitted volatile organic compounds were FD ≪ 3-S-fire ≤ ND stove; increased expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (COX-2, NQO1, CYP1a1) was detected only in ND- and 3-S-fire-exposed mice. Diminished macrophage phagocytosis was observed in the ND group. Lung glutathione was significantly depleted across all CS groups, however the FD group had the most severe, ongoing oxidative stress. Conclusions These results are consistent with reports associating exposure to solid fuel stove emissions with modulation of the innate immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. Lower respiratory infections continue to be a leading cause of death in low-income economies. Notably, 3-S-fire-exposed mice were the only group to develop acute lung injury, possibly because they inhaled the highest concentrations of hazardous air toxicants (e.g., 1,3-butadiene, toluene, benzene, acrolein) in association with the greatest number of particles, and particles with the highest % organic carbon. However, no Tier 0–3 ranked CS group was without some untoward health effect indicating that access to still cleaner, ideally renewable, energy technologies for cooking and heating is warranted.
Temporal trends in air pollution exposure inequality in Massachusetts Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Anna Rosofsky, Jonathan I. Levy, Antonella Zanobetti, Patricia Janulewicz, M. Patricia Fabian
Mounting evidence over the past several decades has demonstrated inequitable distribution of pollutants of ambient origin between sociodemographic groups in the United States. Most environmental inequality studies to date are cross-sectional and used proximity-based methods rather than modeled air pollution concentrations, limiting the ability to examine trends over time or the factors that drive exposure inequalities. In this paper, we use 1 km2 modeled PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations in Massachusetts over an 8-year period and Census demographic data to quantify inequality between sociodemographic groups and to develop a more nuanced understanding of the drivers and trends in longitudinal air pollution inequality. Annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were highest for urban non-Hispanic black populations (11.8 µg/m3 in 2003 and 8.4 µg/m3 in 2010, vs. 11.3 µg/m3 and 8.1 µg/m3 for urban non-Hispanic whites) and urban Hispanic populations (15.9 ppb in 2005 and 13.0 ppb in 2010, vs. 13.0 ppb and 10.2 ppb for urban non-Hispanic whites), respectively. While population groups experienced similar absolute decreases in exposure over time, disparities in population-weighted concentrations increased over time when quantified by the Atkinson Index, a relative inequality measure. Exposure inequalities were approximately one order of magnitude greater for NO2 compared to PM2.5, were more pronounced in urban compared to rural geographies, and between racial/ethnic groups compared to income and educational attainment groups. Our results also revealed similar longitudinal PM2.5 and NO2 inequality trends using Census 2000 and Census 2010 data, indicating that spatio-temporal shifts in air pollution may best explain observed trends in inequality. These findings enhance our understanding of factors that contribute to persistent inequalities and underscore the importance of targeted exposure reduction strategies aimed at vulnerable populations and neighborhoods.
Urinary bisphenol A concentrations are associated with reproductive parameters in young men Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Evdochia Adoamnei, Jaime Mendiola, Fernando Vela-Soria, Mariana F. Fernández, Nicolás Olea, Niels Jørgensen, Shanna H. Swan, Alberto M. Torres-Cantero
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pervasive environmental toxicant with known reproductive effects on sperm parameters and hormone levels. Several observational studies have investigated the associations between BPA exposure and male reproductive function, but findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between urinary BPA concentrations and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study with 215 healthy young university students (18–23 years old), investigated between 2010 and 2011 in Southern Spain (Murcia Region). All subjects provided urine, blood serum and semen samples on a single day. Urinary BPA concentrations were measured by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Semen quality was evaluated by measuring volume, concentration, motility, morphology and total sperm count (TSC). Serum samples were analyzed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, inhibin B and estradiol. Relationships between urinary BPA concentrations and semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels were examined using linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and covariates. Ninety-five percent of the men had detectable urinary BPA concentrations with unadjusted median (5th–95th) of 2.8 (0.16–11.5) ng/mL. After adjustment for important covariates, there was a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and serum LH levels (β = 0.07, 95%CI: 0.02;0.12, p-value < 0.01). Urinary BPA concentration was also significantly and inversely associated with sperm concentration (β = − 0.04, 95%CI: − 0.07;− 0.02, p-value < 0.01) and TSC (β = − 0.05, 95%CI: − 0.08;− 0.02, p-value < 0.01). No significant associations were found between BPA and other semen parameters or reproductive hormone levels. Our results support the hypothesis that BPA exposure may be associated with a reduction in Leydig cell capacity (increased LH levels) and decreased sperm counts in young men.
Housing conditions and birth outcomes: The National Child Development Study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Emily W. Harville, Felicia A. Rabito
Background Despite their importance to respiratory and other health outcomes, housing conditions have been little-studied with respect to perinatal outcomes. Methods 1927 participants in the British National Child Development Study reported on housing conditions and pregnancy outcomes, including presence/severity of mold/dampness; type of heating; and whether remodeling of various sorts had been conducted. Crowding, based on the number of people in the residence and the number of rooms, was also considered. Outcomes assessed were low birthweight (< 2500 g), preterm birth (< 37 weeks), and small-for-gestational-age (< 10th percentile for gestational age). Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for maternal, sociodemographic, and housing factors was conducted. Results Women who reported serious problems with mold were more likely to give birth to a low birthweight (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.13–3.47) or small-for-gestational-age (2.06, 1.25–3.38) baby; no consistent associations were seen with preterm birth. Crowding was associated only with small-for-gestational-age (1.73, 1.11–2.76). Conclusions Exposure to mold or dampness, and housing conditions generally, is a potentially important but under-investigated aspect of women's lives during pregnancy. Future studies should more thoroughly investigate housing characteristics and their relationship with birth outcomes.
A kriging and entropy-based approach to raingauge network design Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Pengcheng Xu, Dong Wang, Vijay P. Singh, Yuankun Wang, Jichun Wu, Lachun Wang, Xinqing Zou, Jiufu Liu, Ying Zou, Ruimin He
Hydrological data, such as precipitation, is fundamental for planning, designing, developing, and managing water resource projects as well as for hydrologic research. An optimal raingauge network leads to more accurate estimates of mean or point precipitation at any site over the watershed. Some studies in the past have suggested increasing gauge network density for reducing the estimation error. However, more stations mean more cost of installation and monitoring. This study proposes an approach on the basis of kriging and entropy theory to determine an optimal network design in the city of Shanghai, China. Unlike the past studies using kriging interpolation and entropy theory for network design, the approach developed in the current study not only used the kriging method as an interpolator to determine rainfall data at ungauged locations but also incorporated the minimum kriging standard error (KSE) and maximum net information (NI) content. The approach would thus lead to an optimal network and would enable the reduction of kriging standard error of precipitation estimates throughout the watershed and achieve an optimum rainfall information. This study also proposed an NI-KSE-based criterion which is dependent on a single-objective optimization. To evaluate the final optimal gauge network, areal average rainfall was estimated and its accuracy was compared with that obtained with the existing rain gauge network.
Toward dynamic urban environmental exposure assessments in mental health research Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-12 Marco Helbich
The association between ambient temperature and mortality in South Africa: A time-series analysis Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Noah Scovronick, Francesco Sera, Fiorella Acquaotta, Diego Garzena, Simona Fratianni, Caradee Y. Wright, Antonio Gasparrini
Background There is an extensive literature describing temperature-mortality associations in developed regions, but research from developing countries, and Africa in particular, is limited. Methods We conducted a time-series analysis using daily temperature data and a national dataset of all 8.8 million recorded deaths in South Africa between 1997 and 2013. Mortality and temperature data were linked at the district municipality level and relationships were estimated with a distributed lag non-linear model with 21 days of lag, and pooled in a multivariate meta-analysis. Results We found an association between daily maximum temperature and mortality. The relative risk for all-age all-cause mortality on very cold and hot days (1st and 99th percentile of the temperature distribution) was 1.14 (1.10,1.17) and 1.06 (1.03,1.09), respectively, when compared to the minimum mortality temperature. This “U” shaped relationship was evident for every age and cause group investigated, except among 25–44 year olds. The strongest associations were in the youngest (< 5) and oldest (> 64) age groups and for cardiorespiratory causes. Heat effects occurred immediately after exposure but diminished quickly whereas cold effects were delayed but persistent. Overall, 3.4% of deaths (~ 290,000) in South Africa were attributable to non-optimum temperatures over the study period. We also present results for the 52 district municipalities individually. Conclusions An assessment of the largest-ever dataset for analyzing temperature-mortality associations in (South) Africa indicates mortality burdens associated with cold and heat, and identifies the young and elderly as particularly vulnerable.
Health impacts quantification of ambient air pollutants using AirQ model approach in Hamadan, Iran Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Farshad Bahrami Asl, Mostafa Leili, Yaser Vaziri, Soheila Salahshour Arian, Antonio Cristaldi, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante
Iranian western cities, including Hamadan, have been experiencing Middle East Dust Storms (MEDS) phenomenon problems in recent years, so the air quality is getting worse every year in these cities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human health impacts of criteria air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 on the citizens of Hamadan using AirQ model software 2.2.3. Considering the determined baseline incidence (BI) and relative risk (RR) rate, the attributable proportion (AP) of deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory mortality attributed to PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, and CO pollutants was estimated to be 4.42%, 3.37%, 1.75%, 1.74% and 0.92% (95% CI) of the total mortality and the excess death cases were respectively estimated to be 131.9, 100.4, 52.1, 51.9 and 27.3 persons. In addition, cardiovascular mortality brings more contribution than respiratory mortality in total death number. The results of our study also showed that PM2.5 poses the greatest health effects on the citizens. Analyzing the average seasonal concentrations of studied pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and NO2) and the mean seasonal temperature values revealed a positive linear correlation. Significant negative correlations were observed between the studied pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) and relative humidity, and between PM and wind speed. This study, therefore, provides additional data in decision-makings for the development of strategies for reduction of ambient air pollution which will result in improvements of air quality.
Exposure to arsenic in tap water and gestational diabetes: A French semi-ecological study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-21 Cécile Marie, Stéphanie Léger, Aline Guttmann, Olivier Rivière, Nathalie Marchiset, Didier Lémery, Françoise Vendittelli, Marie-Pierre Sauvant-Rochat
A cross-disciplinary evaluation of evidence for multipollutant effects on cardiovascular disease Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Thomas J. Luben, Barbara J. Buckley, Molini M. Patel, Tina Stevens, Evan Coffman, Kristen M. Rappazzo, Elizabeth O. Owens, Erin P. Hines, Danielle Moore, Kyle Painter, Ryan Jones, Laura Datko-Williams, Adrien A. Wilkie, Meagan Madden, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
Background The current single-pollutant approach to regulating ambient air pollutants is effective at protecting public health, but efficiencies may be gained by addressing issues in a multipollutant context since multiple pollutants often have common sources and individuals are exposed to more than one pollutant at a time. Objective We performed a cross-disciplinary review of the effects of multipollutant exposures on cardiovascular effects. Methods A broad literature search for references including at least two criteria air pollutants (particulate matter [PM], ozone [O3], oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide) was conducted. References were culled based on scientific discipline then searched for terms related to cardiovascular disease. Most multipollutant epidemiologic and experimental (i.e., controlled human exposure, animal toxicology) studies examined PM and O3 together. Discussion Epidemiologic and experimental studies provide some evidence for O3 concentration modifying the effect of PM, although PM did not modify O3 risk estimates. Experimental studies of combined exposure to PM and O3 provided evidence for additivity, synergism, and/or antagonism depending on the specific health endpoint. Evidence for other pollutant pairs was more limited. Conclusions Overall, the evidence for multipollutant effects was often heterogeneous, and the limited number of studies inhibited making a conclusion about the nature of the relationship between pollutant combinations and cardiovascular disease.
Improving human health outcomes with a low-cost intervention to reduce exposures from lead acid battery recycling: Dong Mai, Vietnam Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 Bret Ericson, Thi To Duong, John Keith, Trong Cuu Nguyen, Deborah Havens, William Daniell, Catherine J. Karr, Doan Ngoc Hai, Lo Van Tung, Tran Thi Nhi Ha, Brian Wilson, David Hanrahan, Gerry Croteau, Mark Patrick Taylor
This study details the first comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of a soil lead mitigation project in Dong Mai village, Vietnam. The village's population had been subject to severe lead poisoning for at least a decade as a result of informal Used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling. Between July 2013 to February 2015, Pure Earth and the Centre for Environment and Community Development (Hanoi, Vietnam) implemented a multi-faceted environmental and human health intervention. The intervention consisted of a series of institutional and low-cost engineering controls including the capping of lead contaminated surface soils, cleaning of home interiors, an education campaign and the construction of a work-clothes changing and bathing facility. The mitigation project resulted in substantial declines in human and environmental lead levels. Remediated home yard and garden areas decreased from an average surface soil concentration of 3940 mg/kg to <100 mg/kg. One year after the intervention, blood lead levels in children (<6 years old) were reduced by an average of 67%—from a median of 40.4 μg/dL to 13.3 μg/dL. The Dong Mai project resulted in significantly decreased environmental and biological lead levels demonstrating that low-cost, rapid and well-coordinated interventions could be readily applied elsewhere to significantly reduce preventable human health harm.
The association between exposure to air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide concentration and the relative risk of developing STEMI: A case-crossover design Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-24 Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh, Isa Khaheshi, Amirsina Sharifi, Negin Yousefi, Mohammadreza Naderian, Mohammad Hasan Namazi, Morteza Safi, Hossein Vakili, Habibollah Saadat, Saeed Alipour Parsa, Negin Nickdoost
Background Unfavorable associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction are broadly investigated in recent studies and some of them revealed considerable associations; however, controversies exists between these investigations with regard to culprit components of air pollution and significance of correlation between myocardial infarction risk and air pollution. Methods The association between exposure to PM10, PM2.5, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide concentration of background air that residents of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, which is ranked as the most air polluted city of Iran and the relative risk of developing ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were investigated by a case-crossover design. Our study included 208 patients admitted with a diagnosis of STEMI and undergone primary percutaneous intervention. Air pollutant concentration was averaged in 24-h windows preceding the time of onset of myocardial infarction for the case period. Besides, the mean level of each element of air pollution of the corresponding time in one week, two weeks and three weeks before onset of myocardial infarction, was averaged separately for each day as one control periods. Thus, 624 control periods were included in our investigation such that. Each patient is matched and compared with him/herself. Results The mean level of PM10 in case periods (61.47 µg/m3) was significantly higher than its level in control periods (57.86 µg/m3) (P-value = 0.019, 95% CI: 1.002–1.018, RR = 1.010). Also, the mean level of PM2.5 in case periods (95.40 µg/m3) was significantly higher than that in control days (90.88 µg/m3) (P-value = 0.044, 95% CI: 1.001–1.011, RR = 1.006). The level of other components including NO2, SO2, CO and O3 showed no significant differences between case and control periods. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and PM2.5 would result in 10.10% and 10.06% increase in STEMI event, respectively. Furthermore, the results of sub-group analysis showed that older patients (equal or more than 60 year-old), diabetic patients, non-hypertensive ones and patients with more than one diseased vessel may be more vulnerable to the harmful effect of particular matters including PM10 and PM2.5 on development of STEMI. Conclusion Air pollution is a worldwide pandemic with great potential to cause terrible events especially cardiovascular ones. PM2.5 and PM10 are amongst ambient air pollutant with a high risk of developing STEMI. Thus, more restrictive legislations should be applied to define a safe level of indoor and outdoor air pollutant production.
An information diffusion technique to assess integrated hazard risks Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2017-11-03 Chongfu Huang, Yundong Huang
An integrated risk is a scene in the future associated with some adverse incident caused by multiple hazards. An integrated probability risk is the expected value of disaster. Due to the difficulty of assessing an integrated probability risk with a small sample, weighting methods and copulas are employed to avoid this obstacle. To resolve the problem, in this paper, we develop the information diffusion technique to construct a joint probability distribution and a vulnerability surface. Then, an integrated risk can be directly assessed by using a small sample. A case of an integrated risk caused by flood and earthquake is given to show how the suggested technique is used to assess the integrated risk of annual property loss.
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