Soil contamination and sources of phthalates and its health risk in China: A review ☆ Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Huixiong Lü, Ce-Hui Mo, Hai-Ming Zhao, Lei Xiang, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Yan-Wen Li, Quan-Ying Cai, Ming-Hung Wong
The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Kit Granby, Sandra Rainieri, Rie Romme Rasmussen, Michiel J.J. Kotterman, Jens Jørgen Sloth, Tommy Licht Cederberg, Alex Barranco, António Marques, Bodil Katrine Larsen
Dietary transfer of zinc oxide particles from algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) to daphnia (Ceriodaphnia dubia) Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 M. Bhuvaneshwari, V. Iswarya, S. Vishnu, N. Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
The rapid increase in production and usage of ZnO particles in recent years has instigated the concerns regarding their plausible effects on the environment. Current study explores the trophic transfer potential of ZnO particles of different sizes (50, 100 nm and bulk particles) from algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) to daphnia (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and the contribution of ZnO(ions) (effect of dissolved Zn ions that remain in test medium after separation NPs) to the overall toxicity of ZnO(total) (impact of both particle and dissolved Zn ions). Toxicity and uptake of ZnO(total) and ZnO(ions) in algae were found to be dependent on the concentration and particle size. Feeding of Zn accumulated algae (517 ± 28, 354.7 ± 61 and 291 ± 20 µg/g dry wt.) post-exposure to 61 µM of ZnO(total) of 50, 100 nm and bulk ZnO particles caused a significant decrease in the survival (15–20%) of daphnia. A significant amount of Zn accumulation was observed in daphnia even after the 48 h depuration period. Biomagnification factor was found to be nearly 1 for all the sizes of ZnO particles tested. For 50 nm ZnO, the BMF was higher when compared to other two sizes, reaching the mean value of 1.06 ± 0.01 at 61 µM. Further analysis revealed that the dietary uptake of different sizes of ZnO particles caused ultra-structural damages and degradation of internal organs in daphnia.
Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites among 3-year-old children from Krakow, Poland Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Elżbieta Sochacka-Tatara, Renata Majewska, Frederica P. Perera, David Camann, John Spengler, Kylie Wheelock, Agata Sowa, Ryszard Jacek, Elżbieta Mróz, Agnieszka Pac
A study of telomere length, arsenic exposure, and arsenic toxicity in a Bangladeshi cohort Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Chenan Zhang, Muhammad G. Kibriya, Farzana Jasmine, Shantanu Roy, Jianjun Gao, Mekala Sabarinathan, Justin Shinkle, Dayana Delgado, Alauddin Ahmed, Tariqul Islam, Mahbubul Eunus, Md. Tariqul Islam, Rabiul Hasan, Joseph H. Graziano, Habibul Ahsan, Brandon L. Pierce
Background Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk for arsenical skin lesions, cancer, and other adverse health outcomes. One potential mechanism of arsenic toxicity is telomere dysfunction. However, prior epidemiological studies of arsenic exposure, telomere length (TL), and skin lesion are small and cross-sectional. We investigated the associations between arsenic exposure and TL and between baseline TL and incident skin lesion risk among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2000–2009). Methods Quantitative PCR was used to measure the average TL of peripheral blood DNA collected at baseline. The association between baseline arsenic exposure (well water and urine) and TL was estimated in a randomly-selected subcohort (n = 1469). A nested case-control study (466 cases and 464 age- and sex-matched controls) was used to estimate the association between baseline TL and incident skin lesion risk (diagnosed < 8 years after baseline). Results No association was observed between arsenic exposure (water or urine) and TL. Among incident skin lesion cases and matched controls, we observed higher skin lesion risk among individuals with shorter TL (Ptrend = 1.5 × 10−5) with odds ratios of 2.60, 1.59, and 1.10 for the first (shortest), second, and third TL quartiles compared to the fourth (longest). Conclusions Arsenic exposure was not associated with TL among Bangladeshi adults, suggesting that leukocyte TL may not reflect a primary mode of action for arsenic's toxicity. However, short TL was associated with increased skin lesion risk, and may be a biomarker of arsenic susceptibility modifying arsenic's effect on skin lesion risk.
Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Janessa Pickering, Teck Hui Teo, Ruth B. Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Graeme R. Zosky, Holly D. Clifford
Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10) is the component of air pollution that is commonly associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses. We treated airway bronchial epithelial cells (NuLi-1) with UV-irradiated geogenic dust PM10 from six remote Western Australian towns. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 production were observed, as well as persistent microbial growth. 16 S rRNA sequencing of the growth identified the microbe as Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM10. We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM10 (p < 0.0001). Whilst treatment of cells with B. licheniformis increased inflammation, this did not make the cells more susceptible to NTHi infection. This study highlights that geogenic dust PM10 can harbour viable bacterial spores that induce inflammation in respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory health from inhalation of bacterial spores in PM10 in arid environments may be underestimated. Further investigation into the contribution of B. licheniformis and the wider dust microbiome to respiratory infection is warranted.
Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urine from young children in Queensland, Australia and associations with environmental and behavioural factors Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Chang He, Karin English, Christine Baduel, Phong Thai, Paul Jagals, Robert S. Ware, Yan Li, Xianyu Wang, Peter D. Sly, Jochen F. Mueller
In recent years, the production and usage volumes of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased substantially. Certain OPFRs are suspected reproductive toxins, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic. Insufficient information is available on human exposure pathways to these chemicals, particularly in Australia. We aim to assess the association between OPFR concentrations in the urine of children to environmental and behavioural risk factors. Concentrations of eight OPFRs and eleven metabolites were measured in the urine of 51 children, aged 3–29 months, in Southeast Queensland, Australia and compared to their behavioural and environmental risk factor data obtained by an online questionnaire. Of the 11 OPFR metabolites analysed, 55% were frequently detected in the majority (> 80%) of samples. The most frequently detected metabolite was bis(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) (detected in 100% of samples), followed by 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) (96%), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) (94%) and bis(1-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (BCIPP) (86%). In multivariable modelling, age was positively associated with concentrations of bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) and negatively associated with concentrations of BCIPP and BCIPHIPP. Other non-age related factors, including vacuuming frequency, hand-washing frequency and presence and number of some electrical appliances in the home were also associated with concentrations of OPFR metabolites.
Development of an integrated model for energy systems planning and carbon dioxide mitigation under uncertainty – Tradeoffs between two-level decision makers Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 S.W. Jin, Y.P. Li, L.P. Xu
A bi-level fuzzy programming (BFLP) method was developed for energy systems planning (ESP) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation under uncertainty. BFLP could handle fuzzy information and leader-follower problem in decision-making processes. It could also address the tradeoffs among different decision makers in two decision-making levels through prioritizing the most important goal. Then, a BFLP-ESP model was formulated for planning energy system of Beijing, in which the upper-level objective is to minimize CO2 emission and the lower-level objective is to minimize the system cost. Results provided a range of decision alternatives that corresponded to a tradeoff between system optimality and reliability under uncertainty. Compared to the single-level model with a target to minimize system cost, the amounts of pollutant/CO2 emissions from BFLP-ESP were reduced since the study system would prefer more clean energies (i.e. natural gas, LPG and electricity) to replace coal fuel. Decision alternatives from BFLP were more beneficial for supporting Beijing to adjust its energy mix and enact its emission-abatement policy. Results also revealed that the low-carbon policy for power plants (e.g., shutting down all coal-fired power plants) could lead to a potentially increment of imported energy for Beijing, which would increase the risk of energy shortage. The findings could help decision makers analyze the interactions between different stakeholders in ESP and provide useful information for policy design under uncertainty.
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Bo-Yi Yang, Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Shanshan Li, Shujun Fan, Gongbo Chen, Kevin M. Syberg, Hong Xian, Si-Quan Wang, Huimin Ma, Duo-Hong Chen, Mo Yang, Kang-Kang Liu, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Li-Wen Hu, Yuming Guo, Guang-Hui Dong
Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤ 10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3)). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00–1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00–1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08–1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02–1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12–1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01–1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles.
The burden of ischemic heart disease related to ambient air pollution exposure in a coastal city in South China Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Jing Huang, Guoxing Li, Xujun Qian, Guozhang Xu, Yan Zhao, Jian Huang, Qichen Liu, Tianfeng He, Xinbiao Guo
Objective Air pollution is considered one of the most important risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which is a major public health concern. The disease burden of IHD has continued to rise in China in the past two decades. However, epidemiological studies examining the associations between air pollution and IHD have been scarce in China, and the only studies were conducted in severe air pollution areas, where air pollution levels seriously exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines. Whether the influence of air pollution on IHD in areas with relatively low levels of air pollution differs from the influence of high pollution levels in heavily studied areas was unknown until now. Furthermore, the estimation of the disease burden of IHD related to air pollution has been very limited. Methods We conducted a time-series study to estimate the short-term burden of ambient air pollution on IHD using the indicator of years of life lost (YLL), based on 10 322 IHD deaths from 2011 to 2015 in Ningbo, a coastal city in South China. Results The mean concentrations of fine particle (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were 49.58 μg/m3, 21.34 μg/m3 and 43.41 μg/m3, respectively. A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 was associated with changes in YLL of 0.71 (95%CI: − 0.21,1.64), 3.31 (95%CI: 0.78, 5.84), and 2.27 (95%CI: 0.26, 4.28) years, respectively. Relatively stronger impacts were found for gaseous pollutants than PM2.5. A larger increase in YLL was found in the younger population than in the older population for NO2 exposure. In addition, estimations of the effects of SO2 and NO2 on YLL were higher for males than females. SO2 exposure was positively associated with YLL in widowed group. Conclusions The findings highlighted the importance of stringent air pollution control, especially for gaseous pollutants. Furthermore, using the indicator of YLL, considering the occurrence of death at different ages, provided more information for resource allocation and protection of vulnerable populations.
Whole blood mercury and the risk of cardiovascular disease among the Greenlandic population Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Trine Jul Larsen, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen, Inger Katrine Dahl-Petersen, Pernille Falberg Rønn, Peter Bjerregaard, Stine Byberg
Background Studies have found mercury to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), however, primarily in populations with low exposure. The highest levels, and variations in the levels, of whole blood mercury (WBM) worldwide have been found in Greenland. We prospectively assessed the association between WBM and the risk of developing CVD in the Greenlandic population. Methods We assessed the effects of WBM levels on incident CVD among 3083 Greenlandic Inuit, participating in a population-based cohort study conducted from 2005 to 2010. WBM was measured at baseline. Participants were followed in the National Patient Registries for Denmark and Greenland and in the causes of death register for CVD events from inclusion in the study until CVD event, emigration, death or end of follow-up (30/9–2013). Using Cox regression analyses, we calculated the incidence rates and the hazard ratio of CVD events according to WBM levels. Potential interactions with sex were also investigated. Results The highest levels of WBM were found in men, who had a significantly higher median level (19 μg/L (IQR:1–44)), compared with women (15 μg/L (IQR: 1–32), (p < 0.001)). The crude hazard ratio (HR) for incident CVD was 1.00 (95% CI 1.00–1.00) for 5 µg/l increase in WBM. After adjusting for several potential confounders, there was still no association between WBM and incident CVD (HR 0.99; 95%CI:0.99–1.00). We found no interactions with sex. Conclusions In a population with high levels of WBM, we found no association between WBM and the risk of developing CVD in Greenland.
Increase of lifetime cadmium intake dose-dependently increased all cause of mortality in female inhabitants of the cadmium-polluted Jinzu River basin, Toyama, Japan Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Kazuhiro Nogawa, Yasushi Suwazono, Muneko Nishijo, Masaru Sakurai, Masao Ishizaki, Yuko Morikawa, Yuuka Watanabe, Teruhiko Kido, Hideaki Nakagawa
Background Exposure to cadmium (Cd) via food is supposed to affect life prognosis of inhabitants of Cd-polluted area in Japan. However, there have been few reports demonstrating a significant relationship between the amount of Cd intake and mortality. We aimed to investigate the relationship between mortality and individual lifetime Cd intake (LCd) in inhabitants of the polluted Jinzu River basin, Toyama, Japan. Methods We conducted a 26-year follow-up survey in 2407 inhabitants (1208 men and 1199 women) who participated in health examinations for screening of renal dysfunction from 1979 to 1984. The calculation of LCd in each inhabitant was based on the formula of Nogawa (Nogawa et al., 1989): (mean Cd concentration in rice of the present hamlet × 333.5 g/day + 34 μg/day) × 365 days/year × number of years of residence in the present hamlet + 50 μg/day × 365 days/year × number of years living in Cd non-polluted regions. In this formula, 333.5 g/day is the 1970 average daily intake of rice in this area, 34 µg/day is the Cd intake from foods other than rice in this area, and 50 μg/day is the average intake of Cd in non-polluted areas in Japan. Mortality risk ratios of LCd for all and specific causes were estimated after adjustments for age at baseline, smoking status, and history of hypertension using a Cox hazard model or Fine and Gray competing risks regression model. Results The mortality risk ratios of LCd (+ 1 g) for all causes in women were significantly dose-dependently increased (risk ratio: 1.08). Relative risk of LCd for kidney and urinal tract disease, renal diseases, renal failure and toxic effects of cadmium were significantly higher in women. Conclusions The present study documents that individual LCd dose-dependently decreased life prognosis over long-term observation in women. LCd was significantly related to the increased mortality for renal disease and toxic effect of Cd in women. The result provides clear evidence that life prognosis was adversely affected by Cd-exposure, especially in women.
Hyperpigmentation and higher incidence of cutaneous malignancies in moderate-high PCB- and dioxin exposed individuals Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Marike M. Leijs, André Esser, Philipp M. Amann, Thomas Schettgen, Monika Gube, Hans F. Merk, Thomas Kraus, Jens M. Baron
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are well known persistent and toxic environmental pollutants. Our aim was to identify effects of moderate-high exposure to dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl)-PCBs on the skin in order to provide more insight in the pathophysiological effects of these compounds. We performed a dermatological examination on 92 former workers from a transformer recycling company with known elevated serum PCB and/or dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furan (PCDD/F)) levels. In addition, we performed a skin cancer screening over a period of seven years (2010–2016) on resp. 268, 271, 210, 149, 92, 129 and 79 participants. We found a higher incidence of acne and malignancies of the skin (malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and mycosis fungoides) in the workers compared to normal population. The probability of having hyperpigmentation on the skin was statistically significantly higher in workers with higher sumPCBs- (OR:1.09(1.12–2.17)), dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs- (OR:1.56(1.12–2.17)) and dioxin (PCDD/Fs) (OR:1.09(1.02–1.16)) levels. Age was a confounding factor in this model. Formation of hyperpigmentation could be an indicator for (moderate-high) exposure to toxic compounds like PCBs. The higher incidence of cutaneous malignancies found in the workers might be associated with PCB- and dioxin exposure, warranting further investigation on larger cohorts.
The association between endotoxin in house dust with atopy and exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with asthma Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Oluwafemi Oluwole, Donna C. Rennie, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Roland Dyck, Anna Afanasieva, Shelley Kirychuk, George Katselis, Joshua A. Lawson
Background Studies have reported protective and adverse associations between microbial exposure and childhood asthma. However, among children with asthma the relationships between endotoxin and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is less clear. Objective We investigated the association between exposure to endotoxin in house dust with atopy and EIB in children with asthma. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren (aged 7–17 years) in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. A subpopulation with asthma (n = 116) were identified from 335 participants using a validated asthma algorithm. We determined atopy among the asthma subpopulation by skin prick testing (SPT) while EIB was evaluated using exercise challenge testing (ECT). Dust samples were collected from mattress and play area floors, and endotoxin was measured in dust extracts. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore associations between endotoxin with atopy and EIB. Results Among the 116 children with asthma, 99 completed SPT and all had completed ECT. Of these, 71/99 (71.7%) were atopic and 26/116 (22.4%) had EIB. Exposure to high play area endotoxin concentration [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.85] and load (aOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.02–0.73) were negatively associated with atopy. In contrast, EIB was positively associated with high mattress endotoxin concentration (aOR = 6.01, 95% CI: 1.20–30.13). Conclusion Indoor microbial endotoxin exposure has varied associations with atopy and exercise-induced bronchospasm among children with asthma.
Validity of self-reported indicators to assess secondhand smoke exposure in the home Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Teresa Arechavala, Xavier Continente, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, Esteve Fernández, Núria Cortés-Francisco, Anna Schiaffino, Francesc Centrich, Glòria Muñoz, María José López
Introduction Questionnaires are widely used to assess secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, the validity of self-reported SHS exposure indicators has been rarely assessed. We aimed to assess correlations, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values between self-reported SHS exposure indicators and airborne nicotine concentrations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 175 homes in Barcelona and Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Airborne nicotine samples were collected from participants’ homes and a self-administered questionnaire was completed on SHS exposure in the home. Spearman correlations coefficients and sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were assessed between self-reported SHS exposure indicators and nicotine concentrations in the home. Results All self-reported SHS exposure indicators correlated moderately strongly with airborne nicotine concentrations (Spearman correlations coefficient ranging from 0.58 to 0.65). Moreover, sensitivities and negative predictive values between self-reported indicators and the presence of nicotine in the home were below 66.4% while specificities and positive predictive values were over 78.4%. The “number of people usually smoking in the home” showed the best results (rs = 0.65, p < 0.001; sensitivity = 50.4%, specificity = 95.2%, PPV = 95.0, NPV = 51.3). Conclusions The self-reported SHS indicators assessed in this study showed moderate and strong correlations, low sensitivities, and high specificities. Among them, the best results were obtained with the “number of people usually smoking in the home”.
Phytoremediation of sewage sludge contaminated by trace elements and organic compounds Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Werther Guidi Nissim, Alessandra Cincinelli, Tania Martellini, Laura Alvisi, Emily Palm, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello
Impact of informal electronic waste recycling on metal concentrations in soils and dusts Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Chimere May Ohajinwa, Peter M. van Bodegom, Martina G. Vijver, Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg
Selenium contamination, consequences and remediation techniques in water and soils: A review Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yangzhuo He, Yujia Xiang, Yaoyu Zhou, Yuan Yang, Jiachao Zhang, Hongli Huang, Cui Shang, Lin Luo, Jun Gao, Lin Tang
Selenium (Se) contamination in surface and ground water in numerous river basins has become a critical problem worldwide in recent years. The exposure to Se, either direct consumption of Se or indirectly may be fatal to the human health because of its toxicity. The review begins with an introduction of Se chemistry, distribution and health threats, which are essential to the remediation techniques. Then, the review provides the recent and common removal techniques for Se, including reduction techniques, phytoremediation, bioremediation, coagulation-flocculation, electrocoagulation (EC), electrochemical methods, adsorption, coprecipitation, electrokinetics, membrance technology, and chemical precipitation. Removal techniques concentrate on the advantages, drawbacks and the recent achievements of each technique. The review also takes an overall consideration of experimental conditions, comparison criteria and economic aspects.
Perchlorate contamination in Chile: Legacy, challenges, and potential solutions Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Marcela Vega, Robert Nerenberg, Ignacio T. Vargas
This paper reviews the unique situation of perchlorate contamination in Chile, including its sources, presence in environmental media and in the human population, and possible steps to mitigate its health impacts. Perchlorate is a ubiquitous water contaminant that inhibits thyroid function. Standards for drinking water range from 2 to 18 µg L−1 in United States and Europe. A major natural source of perchlorate contamination is Chile saltpeter, found in the Atacama Desert. High concentrations of perchlorate have presumably existed in this region, in soils, sediments, surface waters and groundwaters, for millions of years. As a result of this presence, and the use of Chile saltpeter as a nitrogen fertilizer, perchlorate in Chile has been found at concentrations as high as 1480 µg L−1 in drinking water, 140 µg/kg−1 in fruits, and 30 µg L−1 in wine. Health studies in Chile have shown concentrations of 100 µg L−1 in breast milk and 20 µg L−1 in neonatal serum. It is important to acknowledge perchlorate as a potential health concern in Chile, and assess mitigation strategies. A more thorough survey of perchlorate in Chilean soils, sediments, surface waters, groundwaters, and food products can help better assess the risks and potentially develop standards. Also, perchlorate treatment technologies should be more closely assessed for relevance to Chile. The Atacama Desert is a unique biogeochemical environment, with millions of years of perchlorate exposure, which can be mined for novel perchlorate-reducing microorganisms, potentially leading to new biological treatment processes for perchlorate-containing waters, brines, and fertilizers.
Results of lifespan exposure to continuous and intermittent extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF) administered alone to Sprague Dawley rats Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 L. Bua, E. Tibaldi, L. Falcioni, M. Lauriola, L. De Angelis, F. Gnudi, M. Manservigi, F. Manservisi, I. Manzoli, I. Menghetti, R. Montella, S. Panzacchi, D. Sgargi, V. Strollo, A. Vornoli, D. Mandrioli, F. Belpoggi
Background Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0.1 Gy) (Soffritti et al., 2016a) (Soffritti et al., 2016b). The same doses of known carcinogenic agents (50 mg/l formaldehyde, or acute 0.1 Gy γ-radiation), when administered alone, previously failed to induce any statistically significant increase in the incidence of total and specific malignant tumors in rats of the same colony. Objectives A lifespan whole-body exposure study was conducted to evaluate the possible carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF exposure administered alone to Sprague-Dawley rats, as part of the integrated project of the Ramazzini Institute (RI) for studying the effects on health of ELFEMF alone or in combination with other known carcinogens. Methods Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 19 h/day to continuous sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic fields (S-50 Hz MF) at flux densities of 0 (control group), 2, 20, 100 or 1000µT, and to intermittent (30 min on/30 min off) S-50 Hz MF at 1000 µT, from prenatal life until natural death. Results Survival and body weight trends in all groups of rats exposed to ELFEMF were comparable to those found in sex-matched controls. The incidence and number of malignant and benign tumors was similar in all groups. Magnetic field exposure did not significantly increase the incidence of neoplasias in any organ, including those sites that have been identified as possible targets in epidemiological studies (leukemia, breast cancer, and brain cancer). Conclusions Life-span exposures to continuous and intermittent sinusoidal-50 Hz ELFEMFs, when administered alone, did not represent a significant risk factor for neoplastic development in our experimental rat model. In light of our previous results on the carcinogenic effects of ELFEMF in combination with formaldehyde and γ-radiation, further experiments are necessary to elucidate the possible role of ELFEMF as cancer enhancer in presence of other chemical and physical carcinogens.
Diphenyl diselenide regulates Nrf2/Keap-1 signaling pathway and counteracts hepatic oxidative stress induced by bisphenol A in male mice ☆ Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Sabrina G. Müller, Natália S. Jardim, Caroline B. Quines, Cristina W. Nogueira
Plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) enhances cockroach allergen extract-driven airway inflammation by enhancing pulmonary Th2 as well as Th17 immune responses in mice Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Ali S. Alfardan, Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F. Ahmad, Naif O. Al-Harbi, Mohammad M. Al-Harbi, Shakir D. AlSharari
In recent decades, there has been a gradual increase in the prevalence of asthma. Various factors including environmental pollutants have contributed to this phenomenon. Plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is one of the commonest environmental pollutants due to its association with plastic products. DEHP gets released from plastic products easily leading to respiratory exposure in humans. As a consequence, DEHP is associated with allergic asthma in humans and animals. DEHP is reported to act as an adjuvant in ovalbumin-induced mouse models of asthma at high doses. However, these studies mostly looked into the role of DEHP on Th2 cytokines/eosinophilic inflammation without investigating the role of airway epithelial cells (AECs)/dendritic cells (DCs)/Th17 cells. Its adjuvant activity with natural allergens such as cockroach allergens at tolerable daily intake needs to be explored. Cockroach allergens and DEHP may be inhaled together due to their coexistence in work place as well as household environments. Therefore, effect of DEHP was assessed in cockroach allergens extract (CE)-induced mouse model of asthma. Airway inflammation, histopathology, mucus secretion, and immune responses related to Th2/Th17/DCs and AECs were assessed in mice with DEHP exposure alone and in combination with CE. Our study shows that DEHP converts CE-induced eosinophilic inflammation into mixed granulocytic inflammation by promoting Th2 as well as Th17 immune responses. This was probably due to downregulation of E-cadherin in AECs, and enhancement of costimulatory molecules (MHCII/CD86/CD40)/pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6/MCP-1) in DCs by DEHP. This suggests that DEHP facilitates development of mixed granulocytic airway inflammation in the presence of a natural allergen.
Ecological and human exposure assessment to PBDEs in Adige River Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Monica Giulivo, Nicoleta Alina Suciu, Ethel Eljarrat, Marina Gatti, Ettore Capri, Damia Barcelo
The interest for environmental issues and the concern resulting from the potential exposure to contaminants were the starting point to develop methodologies in order to evaluate the consequences that those might have over both the environment and human health. Considering the feature of POPs, including PBDEs, such as bioaccumulation, biomagnification, long-range transport and adverse effects even long time after exposure, risk assessment of POPs requires specific approaches and tools. In this particular context, the MERLIN-Expo tool was used to assess the aquatic environmental exposure of Adige River to PBDEs and the accumulation of PBDEs in humans through the consumption of possible contaminated local aquatic food. The aquatic food web models provided as output of the deterministic simulation the time trend of concentrations for twenty years of BDE-47 and total PBDEs, expressed using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, in aquatic organisms of the food web of Adige River. For BDE-47, the highest accumulated concentrations were detected for two benthic species: Thymallus thymallus and Squalius cephalus whereas the lowest concentrations were obtained for the pelagic specie Salmo trutta marmoratus. The trend obtained for the total PBDEs, calculated using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, follows the one of BDE-47. For human exposure, different BDE-47 and total PBDEs concentration trends between children, adolescent, adults and elderly were observed, probably correlated with the human intake of fish products in the daily diet and the ability to metabolize these contaminants. In detail, for the adolescents, adults and elderly a continuous accumulation of the target contaminants during the simulation's years was observed, whereas for children a plateau at the end of the simulation period was perceived.
Critical age windows in the impact of lifetime smoking exposure on respiratory symptoms and disease among ever smokers Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Bircan Erbas, Toril Mørkve Knudsen, Christer Janson, Roy M. Nilsen, Simone Accordini, Bryndis Benediktdottir, Julia Dratva, Joachim Heinrich, Debbie Jarvis, Benedcite Leynaert, Melanie C. Matheson, Dan Norbäck, Francisco G. Real, Chantal Raherison-Semjen, Simona Villani, S.C. Dharmage, C. Svanes
Background Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. Methods Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire. The associations of maternal smoking in utero, maternal smoking during childhood, age of smoking debut and pack-years of smoking with respiratory symptoms, obstructive diseases and bronchial hyperreactivity were analysed using generalized linear regression, non-linearity between age of smoking debut and outcomes were assessed by Generalized additive mixed models. Results Respiratory symptoms and asthma were more frequent in adults if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and, in men, also if mother smoked in childhood. Wheeze and ≥3 respiratory symptoms declined with later smoking debut among women [≤10 years: OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.26, 9.73; 11–12 years: 1.57[1.01–2.44]; 13–15 years: 1.11[0.94–1.32] and ≤10 years: 3.74[1.56–8.83]; 11–12 years: 1.76[1.19–2.56]; 13–15 years: 1.12[0.94–1.35], respectively]. Effects of increasing number of packyears were pronounced in women (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): OR/10 packyears women: 1.33 [1.18, 1.50], men: 1.14 [1.04, 1.26] pinteraction = 0.01). Conclusions Among ever smokers, smoking exposure in each stage of the lifespan show persistent harmful effects for adult respiratory health, while women appeared to be more vulnerable to an early age of smoking debut and amount of smoking in adulthood.
Impact of wastewater effluent containing aged nanoparticles and other components on biological activities of the soil microbiome, Arabidopsis plants, and earthworms Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Jia Liu, Philip C. Williams, Jane Geisler-Lee, Boyd M. Goodson, Masoud Fakharifar, Meisam Peiravi, Da Chen, David A. Lightfoot, Max E. Gemeinhardt
The amount of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment has been increasing due to their industrial and commercial applications. Different types of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been detected in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The effluents have been reclaimed for crop irrigation in many arid and semi-arid areas. Here, a soil micro-ecosystem was established including a microbiome, 4 Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and 3 Eisenia fetida earthworms, for a duration of 95 days. The impact of wastewater effluent (WE) containing aged NPs was studied. WE was taken from a local WWTP and exhibited the presence of Ti, Ag, and Zn up to 97.0 ± 9.4, 27.4 ± 3.9, and 4.1 ± 3.6 µg/L, respectively, as well as the presence of nanoscale particles (1–100 nm in diameter). The plants were irrigated with WE or deionized water (DIW). After 95 days, significantly higher concentrations of extractable Ti and Zn (439.2 ± 24.4 and 9.0 ± 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) were found in WE-irrigated soil than those in DIW-irrigated soil (161.2 ± 2.1 and 4.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg). The extractable Ag concentrations did not differ significantly between the WE- and DIW-irrigated soil. Although microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were not significantly reduced, the population distribution of the microbial communities was shifted in WE-irrigated soil compared to the control. The abundance of cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta) was increased by 12.5% in the WE-irrigated soil as manifested mainly by an increase of Trichodesmium spp., and the abundance of unknown archaea was enhanced from 26.7% in the control to 40.5% in the WE-irrigated soil. The biomasses of A. thaliana and E. fetida were not significantly changed by WE exposure. However, A. thaliana had a noticeable shortened life cycle, and corrected total cell fluorescence was much higher in the roots of WE-irrigated plants compared to the control. These impacts on the soil micro-ecosystem may have resulted from the aged NPs and/or the metal ions released from these NPs, as well as other components in the WE. Taken together, these results should help inform the reuse of WE containing aged NPs and other components in sustainable agriculture.
Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Xinyi Zhao, Hongguang Cheng, Siyuan He, Xiangfen Cui, Xiao Pu, Lu Lu
Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O3) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O3. The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system.
Persistent organic pollutants and organophosphate esters in feathers and blood plasma of adult kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard – associations with body condition and thyroid hormones Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 N.B. Svendsen, D. Herzke, M. Harju, C. Bech, G.W. Gabrielsen, V.L.B. Jaspers
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were assessed in blood plasma and feathers of 19 adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding in two colonies (Blomstrandhalvøya and Krykkjefjellet) at the Arctic archipelago, Svalbard. Potential associations with body condition index (BCI) and thyroid hormones were investigated. All compound classes were detected in both blood plasma and feathers, but due to low sample size and volumes, OPEs could only be quantified in four individuals, warranting larger follow-up studies. Kittiwakes breeding at Blomstrandhalvøya had significantly higher concentrations of organic pollutants in blood plasma than kittiwakes breeding at Krykkjefjellet (p < 0.001). Concentrations in blood plasma and feathers did not significantly correlate for any of the investigated compounds, and feather concentrations did not differ significantly between the colonies. This suggests that pollutant levels in adult kittiwake feathers do not reflect local contamination at breeding sites and are as such not useful to monitor local contamination at Svalbard. Significant negative associations between BCI and most pollutants were found in both populations, whereas significant correlations between the BCI, the ratio of total triiodothyronine to free triiodothyronine (TT3:fT3), and several pollutants were only found for kittiwakes from Blomstrandhalvøya (all r ≥ −0.60 and p ≤ 0.05). This indicates that higher levels of circulating pollutants during the breeding period covary with the TT3: fT3 ratio, and may act as an additional stressor during this period.
Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study ☆ Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance. Other physical health consequences include impaired vision and reduced bone density. Psychological effects: internalizing and externalizing behavior is related to poor sleep. Depressive symptoms and suicidal are associated to screen time induced poor sleep, digital device night use, and mobile phone dependency. ADHD-related behavior was linked to sleep problems, overall screen time, and violent and fast-paced content which activates dopamine and the reward pathways. Early and prolonged exposure to violent content is also linked to risk for antisocial behavior and decreased prosocial behavior. Psychoneurological effects: addictive screen time use decreases social coping and involves craving behavior which resembles substance dependence behavior. Brain structural changes related to cognitive control and emotional regulation are associated with digital media addictive behavior. A case study of a treatment of an ADHD diagnosed 9-year-old boy suggests screen time induced ADHD-related behavior could be inaccurately diagnosed as ADHD. Screen time reduction is effective in decreasing ADHD-related behavior. Conclusions Components crucial for psychophysiological resilience are none-wandering mind (typical of ADHD-related behavior), good social coping and attachment, and good physical health. Excessive digital media use by children and adolescents appears as a major factor which may hamper the formation of sound psychophysiological resilience.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioaccessibility in seafood: Culinary practices effects on dietary exposure Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Fabíola Helena dos Santos Fogaça, Cristina Soares, Marta Oliveira, Ricardo N. Alves, Ana L. Maulvault, Vera L. Barbosa, Patrícia Anacleto, João Avelar Magalhães, Narcisa M. Bandarra, Maria João Ramalhosa, Simone Morais, António Marques
This work aimed to determine the effect of culinary practices on the contamination level and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood. The selected farmed seafood species (marine shrimp, clams and seaweed) were commercially available in Portugal. The mean concentrations of PAHs varied between 0.23 and 51.8 µg kg−1, with the lowest value being observed in raw shrimp and the highest in dried seaweed. The number of compounds detected in seaweed and clams (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) were higher than in shrimp (fluorene and pyrene). Among the PAHs measured, fluorene was the predominant one. There was a significant interaction effect between species and culinary treatment (p < 0.05), thus boiled and dried seaweed samples presented the lowest and the highest levels of fluorene (0.13 and 1.8 µg kg−1), respectively. The daily intake of PAHs decreased with bioaccessibility, varying from 22% for benzo(k)fluoranthene (in raw clam) to 84% for phenanthrene (in steamed clam). According to the potency equivalent concentrations, screening values and bioaccessibility of PAHs, the consumption of marine shrimp, clam and seaweed is considered as safe for consumers.
Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Patrícia Anacleto, Cátia Figueiredo, Miguel Baptista, Ana Luísa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Luísa M.P. Valente, António Marques, Rui Rosa
Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0–67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3–16.0% and U: 2.3–3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future warming and chemical contamination conditions, fish energy budget was greatly affected, which may dictate negative cascading impacts at population and community levels. Further research combining other climate change stressors (e.g. acidification and hypoxia) and emerging chemical contaminants are needed to better understand and forecast such biological effects in a changing ocean.
Epigenetic alteration of mismatch repair genes in the population chronically exposed to arsenic in West Bengal, India Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Pritha Bhattacharjee, Tamalika Sanyal, Sandip Bhattacharjee, Pritha Bhattacharjee
Sources of household air pollution: The association with lung function and respiratory symptoms in middle-aged adult Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Laurent Devien, Jonathan Giovannelli, Damien Cuny, Régis Matran, Philippe Amouyel, Sébastien Hulo, Jean Louis Edmé, Luc Dauchet
Introduction The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sources of household air pollution, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Methods 3039 adults aged from 40 to 65 participated in the 2011–2013 ELISABET cross-sectional survey in northern France. Lung function was measured using spirometry. During a structured interview, respiratory symptoms, household fuels, exposure to moulds, and use of ventilation were recorded on a questionnaire. Results The self-reported presence of mould in at least two rooms (not including the bathroom and the kitchen) was associated with a 2.5% lower predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (95% confidence interval, −4.7 to −0.29; p-trend <0.05) and a higher risk of wheezing (p-trend < 0.001). Visible condensation was associated with wheezing (p < .05) and chronic cough (p < .05). There were no significant associations with the type of household fuel or inadequate ventilation/aeration. Similar results were found when the analyses were restricted to participants without known respiratory disease. Conclusion Our results suggest that the presence of mould (known to be associated with more severe asthma symptoms) could also have an impact on respiratory symptoms and lung function in the general population and in populations without known respiratory disease.
Spatiotemporal analysis of PM2.5 and pancreatic cancer mortality in China Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Yanhong Wang, Mengmeng Li, Xia Wan, Yuanyuan Sun, Kailiang Cheng, Xinyu Zhao, Yuan Zheng, Gonghuan Yang, Li Wang
Background Previous studies have reported that the development of pancreatic cancer (PC) may be associated with environment pollution. But the relationship between ambient air pollution and PC remains unclear. Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between PC mortality and exposure of fine particular matter. Methods We used PC mortality data from 103 continuous points in national Disease Surveillance Point system from 1991 to 2009 in China. The annual concentrations of PM2.5 at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for each points were estimated based on the context of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. A spatial age-period-cohort model was used to examine the relative risks of PC mortality associated with PM exposure, after adjusting gender, urban/rural status, spatial variation as well as age, period and cohort effect. Results The relative risks of PC mortality related to 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.20) for all the population, 1.08 (1.05,1.13) for those aged 40–64 years, 1.21 (1.17,1.25) for those aged 65–84 years, 1.14 (1.10,1.18) for the male, 1.19 (1.14,1.24) for the female, 1.23 (1.16,1.30) for the urban population and 1.29 (1.22, 1.37) for the rural population. Conclusions Ambient PM2.5 may raise the risk of mortality from PC, especially in older population. Pollution control policy should be further strengthened to reduce the health damages.
Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and respiratory health in 7-year old children Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Robert B. Gunier, Rachel Raanan, Rosemary Castorina, Nina T. Holland, Kim G. Harley, John R. Balmes, Laura Fouquette, Brenda Eskenazi, Asa Bradman
Objectives To examine the relationship between residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and respiratory symptoms and lung function in 7-year old children. Methods Participants were 294 children living in the agricultural Salinas Valley, California and enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children Of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. We obtained information on respiratory symptoms and asthma medication use from maternal questionnaires and children performed spirometry to determine the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow 25–75% (FEF25–75) at 7-years of age. We estimated agricultural fumigant use within 3, 5 and 8 km of residences during pregnancy and from birth to age 7 using California's Pesticide Use Report data. We evaluated the association between prenatal and postnatal residential proximity to agricultural use of methyl bromide, chloropicrin, metam sodium and 1,3-dichloropropene with respiratory symptoms and use of asthma medication with logistic regression models and continuous lung function measurements with linear regression models adjusted for confounders. Results There were no significant associations between residential proximity to use of fumigants and respiratory symptoms or use of asthma medication. We did not observe any adverse relationships between residential proximity to fumigant use and lung function measurements. Unexpectedly, we observed suggestive evidence of improved FEV1 and FEF25–75 with higher use of methyl bromide and chloropicrin during the prenatal period. For example, for each 10-fold increase in methyl bromide use during the prenatal development period we observed higher FEV1 (β = 0.06 L/s; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.12) and higher FEF25–75 (β = 0.15 L/s; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.27). Maternal report of child allergies (runny nose without a cold during the previous year) modified the relationship between FEV1 and prenatal proximity to methyl bromide use (p = .07) and we only observed higher FEV1 among children without allergies (β = 0.08 L/s; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14 for a 10-fold increase in methyl bromide use during the prenatal period). Conclusions Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use during pregnancy and childhood did not adversely affect respiratory health in the children through 7 years of age. These findings should be explored in larger studies.
Maternal use of personal care products during pregnancy and risk of testicular germ cell tumors in sons Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Armen A. Ghazarian, Britton Trabert, Kim Robien, Barry I. Graubard, Katherine A. McGlynn
Background The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is poorly understood, however, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to increased risk. Personal care products, some of which contain EDCs, are widely used on a daily basis and are known to cross the placenta, be present in breastmilk, and are capable of inducing reproductive tract abnormalities. To determine the association between personal care product use during pregnancy and breastfeeding and TGCT risk, an analysis among mothers of TGCT cases and controls was conducted. Methods The US Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants (STEED) study enrolled TGCT cases and controls and their mothers between 2002 and 2005. The current analysis examined personal care product use during pregnancy among 527 mothers of TGCT cases and 562 mothers of controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for identified covariates. Results Maternal use of face lotion more than one time per week was associated with a significantly increased risk of TGCT (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86, p-trend: 0.01). None of the other products examined (perfume, hairspray, nail polish, hair dye, permanent wave, body lotion, deodorant, sunscreen) were associated with TGCT risk. Conclusions Frequent exposure to face lotion during pregnancy and while breastfeeding may be associated with increased TGCT risk. Further investigation into the endocrine disrupting effects of personal care products is warranted.
Spatio-temporal variation of trematode parasites community in Cerastoderma edule cockles from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Luísa Magalhães, Simão Correia, Xavier de Montaudouin, Rosa Freitas
Cerastoderma edule (edible cockle) is among the most exploited bivalves in Europe playing an important socio-economic role. Cockles live in estuaries and lagoons where their population is controlled by several environmental factors including parasitism. Parasites represent an important part of the world known biodiversity but are often neglected. Trematodes are the most prevalent macroparasites of cockles being able to exert an impact both at the individual and population levels. Therefore, it is of prime relevance to recognize and understand the parasite-host system dynamics in order to better predict potential conservation threats to bivalve populations and to maximize the success of stock and disease episodes management. Cockle monitoring was conducted in 2012 and 2016, in six and eight stations, respectively, at the Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon, Portugal. Cockles were sampled in one single occasion in 2012 and seasonally in 2016. The tested hypothesis is that the trematode community in cockles was spatially and seasonally heterogeneous but stable over time. The main result showed that despite a relative homogeneity of the parasite community structure in cockles, the among-years heterogeneity of trematode communities was higher than among-stations and among-seasons heterogeneity rejecting the postulated hypothesis. Results demonstrated that trematode communities from the Ria de Aveiro are characterized by low abundance, which resulted in a spatial and seasonal trematode homogeneity (despite an overall channel difference and a slight downstream-upstream gradient). The interannual analysis showed a worrisome loss of trematode diversity and prevalence which consequently indicates an important loss of overall diversity and/or environmental conditions reflecting the negative effects of global change (mean temperature rise and overharvesting, among others). The present study highlighted the importance of trematodes in characterising their associated environment and respective biodiversity which might be helpful to assess ecosystem ecological status and to identify threatened areas.
Meeting the imperative to accelerate environmental bioelectromagnetics research Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Lance McKee
A cross-sectional study of general cognitive abilities among Uruguayan school children with low-level arsenic exposure, potential effect modification by methylation capacity and dietary folate Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Gauri Desai, Gabriel Barg, Elena I. Queirolo, Marie Vahter, Fabiana Peregalli, Nelly Mañay, Katarzyna Kordas
Background Few studies have evaluated the association between low-level arsenic (As) exposure and cognitive performance among children. Objectives In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the association between low-level As exposure and cognitive performance among 5–8 year-old children in Montevideo, and tested effect modification by As methylation capacity and children's dietary folate intake. Methods We measured total urinary As (UAs) concentrations and the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in the urine of 328 children. Seven subtests of the standardized Woodcock-Muñoz cognitive battery were used to assess cognitive performance, from which, the general intellectual abilities (GIA) score was derived. Total folate intake was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regression analyses were performed. Effect modification was assessed by stratifying at the median %MMA value and tertiles of total folate intake calculated as micrograms (µg) of dietary folate equivalents (dfe). Results The median UAs was 11.9 µg/l (range = 1.4–93.9), mean folate intake was 337.4 (SD = 123.3) µg dfe, and median %MMA was 9.42 (range = 2.6–24.8). There was no association between UAs and cognitive abilities, and no consistent effect modification by %MMA. UAs was associated inversely with concept formation, and positively with cognitive efficiency and numbers reversed subtest in the lowest folate intake tertile; UAs was also positively associated with sound integration in the second tertile and concept formation in the highest tertile of folate intake. There was no consistent pattern of effect modification by %MMA or folate intake. Conclusion There was no association between low-level As exposure and general cognitive abilities.
Combining biotechnology with circular bioeconomy: From poultry, swine, cattle, brewery, dairy and urban wastewaters to biohydrogen Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Alice Ferreira, Paula Marques, Belina Ribeiro, Paula Assemany, Henrique Vieira de Mendonça, Ana Barata, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Alberto Reis, Helena M. Pinheiro, Luisa Gouveia
Contributions of burner, pan, meat and salt to PM emission during grilling Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Saltanat Ospanova, Aknur Baibatyrova, Shynggys Nurbay, Gulaina Zhanakhmet, Dhawal Shah
Grilling ground beef meat was conducted in two locations at Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan. The experiments were designed such that only particles from beef meat were isolated. A similar experimental protocol was applied at both locations. The average particle number and mass emission rates for grilling pure meat itself (excluding particles from pan and burner) were found to be 9.4 × 1012(SD = 7.2 × 1012 particle min−1 and 7.6 × 10 (SD = 6.3 × 10) mg.min−1, respectively. The PM emissions (number and mass) from the burner were found to be negligible compared to the pan and meat emissions. Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations from the heated pan itself were comparable to those of grilled meat. However, the particle mass concentrations from the pan itself were negligible. Approximately an hour of continuous heating resulted in zero emissions from the pan.
Personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and respiratory inflammation of common residents in Hong Kong Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Zhanlan Fan, Vivian C. Pun, Xiao-Cui Chen, Qiu Hong, Linwei Tian, Steven Sai-Hang Ho, Shun-Cheng Lee, Lap Ah Tse, Kin-Fai Ho
Background Given the lack of research on the personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) in Hong Kong, we examined the association between short-term personal exposure to PM2.5 and their constituents and inflammation in exhaled breath in a sample of healthy adult residents. Method Forty-six participants underwent personal PM2.5 monitoring for averagely 6 days to obtain 276 samples. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of inflammation in exhaled breath, was measured at the end of each 24-h personal monitoring. PM2.5 chemical constituents, including organic carbon, elemental carbon, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 6 phthalate esters, were speciated from the personal samples collected. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate the association of PM2.5 and their constituents with FeNO. The comparison was also made with parallel analyses using ambient concentrations. Results Personal exposures to PM2.5 (28.1 ± 23.3 μg/m3) were higher than the ambient levels (13.3 ± 6.4 μg/m3) monitored by stations. The composition profile and personal-to-ambient concentration ratio varied among subjects with different occupations. An interquartile range (IQR) change in personal exposure to PM2.5 was positively associated with 12.8% increase in FeNO (95% confidence interval, CI: 5.5–20.7%), while nil association was found for ambient PM2.5. Among the constituents measured, only the carcinogenic PAHs were significantly associated with 12% increase in FeNO responses (95% CI, 0.0–25.6%). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides the first understanding about personal exposure to PM2.5 and possible sources in Hong Kong. The results also showed that personal exposure to PM2.5 and c-PAHs were linked to increased FeNO levels among healthy adults.
In vivo maternal and in vitro BPA exposure effects on hypothalamic neurogenesis and appetite regulators Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Mina Desai, Monica G. Ferrini, Guang Han, Juanita K. Jellyman, Michael G. Ross
In utero exposure to the ubiquitous plasticizer, bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with offspring obesity. As food intake/appetite is one of the critical elements contributing to obesity, we determined the effects of in vivo maternal BPA and in vitro BPA exposure on newborn hypothalamic stem cells which form the arcuate nucleus appetite center. For in vivo studies, female rats received BPA prior to and during pregnancy via drinking water, and newborn offspring primary hypothalamic neuroprogenitor (NPCs) were obtained and cultured. For in vitro BPA exposure, primary hypothalamic NPCs from healthy newborns were utilized. In both cases, we studied the effects of BPA on NPC proliferation and differentiation, including putative signal and appetite factors. Maternal BPA increased hypothalamic NPC proliferation and differentiation in newborns, in conjunction with increased neuroproliferative (Hes1) and proneurogenic (Ngn3) protein expression. With NPC differentiation, BPA exposure increased appetite peptide and reduced satiety peptide expression. In vitro BPA-treated control NPCs showed results that were consistent with in vivo data (increase appetite vs satiety peptide expression) and further showed a shift towards neuronal versus glial fate as well as an increase in the epigenetic regulator lysine-specific histone demethylase1 (LSD1). These findings emphasize the vulnerability of stem-cell populations that are involved in life-long regulation of metabolic homeostasis to epigenetically-mediated endocrine disruption by BPA during early life.
A new approach to modeling temperature-related mortality: Non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Cameron C. Lee, Scott C. Sheridan
Temperature-mortality relationships are nonlinear, time-lagged, and can vary depending on the time of year and geographic location, all of which limits the applicability of simple regression models in describing these associations. This research demonstrates the utility of an alternative method for modeling such complex relationships that has gained recent traction in other environmental fields: nonlinear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models). All-cause mortality data and multiple temperature-based data sets were gathered from 41 different US cities, for the period 1975–2010, and subjected to ensemble NARX modeling. Models generally performed better in larger cities and during the winter season. Across the US, median absolute percentage errors were 10% (ranging from 4% to 15% in various cities), the average improvement in the r-squared over that of a simple persistence model was 17% (6–24%), and the hit rate for modeling spike days in mortality (>80th percentile) was 54% (34–71%). Mortality responded acutely to hot summer days, peaking at 0–2 days of lag before dropping precipitously, and there was an extended mortality response to cold winter days, peaking at 2–4 days of lag and dropping slowly and continuing for multiple weeks. Spring and autumn showed both of the aforementioned temperature-mortality relationships, but generally to a lesser magnitude than what was seen in summer or winter. When compared to distributed lag nonlinear models, NARX model output was nearly identical. These results highlight the applicability of NARX models for use in modeling complex and time-dependent relationships for various applications in epidemiology and environmental sciences.
Development of an approach to correcting MicroPEM baseline drift Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Ting Zhang, Steven N. Chillrud, Masha Pitiranggon, James Ross, Junfeng Ji, Beizhan Yan
Background Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with various adverse health outcomes. The MicroPEM (RTI, NC), a miniaturized real-time portable particulate sensor with an integrated filter for collecting particles, has been widely used for personal PM2.5 exposure assessment. Five-day deployments were targeted on a total of 142 deployments (personal or residential) to obtain real-time PM2.5 levels from children living in New York City and Baltimore. Among these 142 deployments, 79 applied high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the field at the beginning and end of each deployment to adjust the zero level of the nephelometer. However, unacceptable baseline drift was observed in a large fraction (> 40%) of acquisitions in this study even after HEPA correction. This drift issue has been observed in several other studies as well. The purpose of the present study is to develop an algorithm to correct the baseline drift in MicroPEM based on central site ambient data during inactive time periods. Method A running baseline & gravimetric correction (RBGC) method was developed based on the comparison of MicroPEM readings during inactive periods to ambient PM2.5 levels provided by fixed monitoring sites and the gravimetric weight of PM2.5 collected on the MicroPEM filters. The results after RBGC correction were compared with those using HEPA approach and gravimetric correction alone. Seven pairs of duplicate acquisitions were used to validate the RBGC method. Results The percentages of acquisitions with baseline drift problems were 42%, 53% and 10% for raw, HEPA corrected, and RBGC corrected data, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis of duplicates showed an increase in the coefficient of determination from 0.75 for raw data to 0.97 after RBGC correction. In addition, the slope of the regression line increased from 0.60 for raw data to 1.00 after RBGC correction. Conclusions The RBGC approach corrected the baseline drift issue associated with MicroPEM data. The algorithm developed has the potential for use with data generated from other types of PM sensors that contain a filter for weighing as well. In addition, this approach can be applied in many other regions, given widely available ambient PM data from monitoring networks, especially in urban areas.
Mercury exposure and health impacts in dental personnel Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Jan Aaseth, Bjørn Hilt, Geir Bjørklund
Based on toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological knowledge, the present paper reviews the status regarding possible deleterious health effects from occupational exposure to metallic mercury (Hg) in dental practice. Symptoms from the central nervous system are among the health problems that most often are attributed to Hg exposure in dentists and dental nurses working with amalgam. Uncharacteristic symptoms of chronic low-level Hg vapor exposure including weakness, fatigue, and anorexia have been observed in numerous studies of dental personnel. It is crucial to protect both human health and the environment against negative effects of Hg. In line with this, the use of dental amalgam in industrial countries is about to be phased out. In Norway and Sweden, the use of the filling material is banned.
Dynamic assessment of urban economy-environment-energy system using system dynamics model: A case study in Beijing Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Desheng Wu, Shuang Ning
Economic development, accompanying with environmental damage and energy depletion, becomes essential nowadays. There is a complicated and comprehensive interaction between economics, environment and energy. Understanding the operating mechanism of Energy-Environment-Economy model (3E) and its key factors is the inherent part in dealing with the issue. In this paper, we combine System Dynamics model and Geographic Information System to analyze the energy-environment-economy (3E) system both temporally and spatially, which explicitly explore the interaction of economics, energy, and environment and effects of the key influencing factors. Beijing is selected as a case study to verify our SD-GIS model. Alternative scenarios, e.g., current, technology, energy and environment scenarios are explored and compared. Simulation results shows that, current scenario is not sustainable; technology scenario is applicable to economic growth; environment scenario maintains a balanced path of development for long term stability. Policy-making insights are given based on our results and analysis.
Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Shuzhen Chen, Desheng Wu
Ecological risk assessment can address requirements of natural resource damage assessment by quantifying the magnitude of possible damages to the ecosystem. This paper investigates an approach to assess water damages from pollution incident on the basis of concentrations of contaminants. The baseline of water pollution is determined with not-to-exceed concentration of contaminants required by water quality standards. The values of damage cost to water quality are estimated through sewage treatment cost. To get a reliable estimate of treatment cost, DEA is employed to classify samples of sewage plants based on their efficiency of sewage treatment. And exponential fitting is adopted to determine the relation between treatment cost and the decrease of COCs. The range of damage costs is determined through the fitting curves respectively based on efficient and inefficient samples.
Modulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by radiation- induced biophotons Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Michelle Le, Fiona E. McNeill, Colin B. Seymour, Andrej Rusin, Kevin Diamond, Andrew J. Rainbow, James Murphy, Carmel E. Mothersill
Radiation-induced biophotons are an electromagnetic form of bystander signalling. In human cells, biophoton signalling is capable of eliciting effects in non-irradiated bystander cells. However, the mechanisms by which the biophotons interact and act upon the bystander cells are not clearly understood. Mitochondrial energy production and ROS are known to be involved but the precise interactions are not known. To address this question, we have investigated the effect of biophoton emission upon the function of the complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The exposure of bystander HCT116 p53 +/+ cells to biophoton signals emitted from β-irradiated HCT116 p53 +/+ cells induced significant modifications in the activity of Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) such that the activity was severely diminished compared to non-irradiated controls. The enzymatic assay showed that the efficiency of NADH oxidation to NAD+ was severely compromised. It is suspected that this impairment may be linked to the photoabsorption of biophotons in the blue wavelength range (492–455 nm). The photobiomodulation to Complex I was suspected to contribute greatly to the inefficiency of ATP synthase function since it resulted in a lower quantity of H+ ions to be available for use in the process of chemiosmosis. Other reactions of the ETC were not significantly impacted. Overall, these results provide evidence for a link between biophoton emission and biomodulation of the mitochondrial ATP synthesis process. However, there are many aspects of biological modulation by radiation-induced biophotons which will require further elucidation.
Sperm quality biomarkers complement reproductive and endocrine parameters in investigating environmental contaminants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Lake Mead National Recreation Area ☆ Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jill A. Jenkins, Michael R. Rosen, Rassa O. Draugelis-Dale, Kathy R. Echols, Leticia Torres, Carla M. Wieser, Constance A. Kersten, Steven L. Goodbred
Declines in adult blood lead levels in New York City compared with the United States, 2004–2014 Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Alexis Feinberg, Wendy McKelvey, Paromita Hore, Rania Kanchi, Patrick J. Parsons, Christopher D. Palmer, Lorna E. Thorpe
Objectives To assess changes in lead exposure in the New York City (NYC) adult population over a 10-year period and to contrast changes with national estimates, overall, and by socio-demographics and smoking status. Methods We used measurements of blood lead levels (BLLs) from NYC resident adults who participated in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (HANES) in 2004 and 2013–2014. We compared estimates of geometric means (GM), 95th percentiles, and prevalence of BLL ≥ 5 µg/dL overall and by subgroups over time, with adults who participated in the National HANES (NHANES) 2001–2004 and 2011–2014. Results The GM BLLs among NYC adults declined from 1.79 µg/dL in 2004 to 1.13 µg/dL in 2013–2014 (P < .0001). The declines over this period ranged from 30.1% to 43.2% across socio-demographic groups and smoking status (P < .0001 for all comparisons), and were slightly greater than declines observed nationally. The drop in prevalence of elevated BLLs (≥ 5 µg/dL) was also greater in NYC (4.8–0.5%), compared with NHANES (3.8–2.0%). By 2013–2014, NYC adults with lower annual family income (< $20,000) no longer had higher GM BLLs relative to those with higher incomes (≥ $75,000), a disparity improvement not observed nationally. Likewise, GM BLLs and 95th percentiles for non-Hispanic black adults in NYC were lower than GM BLLs for non-Hispanic white adults. Non-Hispanic Asian adults had the highest GM BLLs compared with other racial/ethnic groups, both in NYC in 2013–14 and nationally in 2011–2014 (1.37 µg/dL, P = .1048 and 1.22 µg/dL, P = .0004, respectively). Conclusion The lessening of disparity in lead exposure across income groups and decreasing exposure at the high end of the distribution among non-Hispanic black and Asian adults in NYC suggest that regulatory and outreach efforts have effectively targeted these higher exposure risk groups. However, Asian adults still had the highest average BLL, suggesting a need for enhanced outreach to this group. Local surveillance remains an important tool to monitor BLLs of local populations and to inform initiatives to reduce exposures in those at highest risk.
Organochlorine concentrations in adipose tissue and survival in postmenopausal, Danish breast cancer patients Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Nina Roswall, Mette Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Background Several studies have investigated an association between organochlorine-concentrations and breast cancer incidence, whereas few have investigated an association with breast cancer mortality. Methods We used Cox Proportional Hazards Models to estimate the association between adipose organochlorine-concentrations and mortality after breast cancer in a survivor-cohort of 399 postmenopausal women. During a median follow-up of 16.1 years, 177 women died; 119 from breast cancer. Results There was a general inverse association with PCB-concentration (e.g. ΣPCBs: Mortality Rate Ratio (MRR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.64–0.98) per inter-quartile range (IQR)), and for all pesticides, except β-Hexachlorocyclohexane, which was not associated with mortality (MRR 1.02(0.87–1.18) per IQR), and dieldrin, which was associated with a significantly increased risk of death (MRR 1.22(1.05–1.41) per IQR). We found an interaction with prognostic factors for all PCBs, confining the inverse association to those with adverse prognostic factors. Results for pesticides suggested a similar, but mostly non-significant interaction. Dieldrin diverged from the general picture by being associated with increased mortality across all strata. Conclusion A higher concentration of PCBs and several organochlorine pesticides may be inversely associated with breast cancer mortality among women with adverse prognostic factors. Further studies are required to investigate if this is a causal association. Dieldrin was associated with a higher mortality, regardless of prognostic factors. Impact This is the first study to investigate an association between organochlorine concentrations in adipose tissue and breast cancer mortality. A prominent finding is a strong interaction with prognostic factors. The unexpected direction of association for most organochlorines encourages further studies of the role of individual metabolism of the organochlorines and a potentially stronger effect of the metabolites on mortality.
Associations of urinary phthalate metabolites and lipid peroxidation with sperm mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Alexandra M. Huffman, Haotian Wu, Allyson Rosati, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K. Sites, Brian W. Whitcomb, J. Richard Pilsner
Background Phthalates, a chemical class of plasticizers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been associated with oxidative stress. Mitochondria DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and DNA deletions (mtDNAdel) are emerging biomarkers for cellular oxidative stress and environment exposures. Objectives To examine associations of urinary phthalate metabolite and isoprostane concentrations on sperm mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel in male partners undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Ninety-nine sperm samples were collected from male partners undergoing ART at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, MA as part of the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study (SEEDS). Seventeen urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control using tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane concentrations, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, were measured using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A triplex qPCR method was used to determine the relative quantification of mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel. Results Sperm mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel were positively correlated (Spearman rho = 0.31; p = .002). Adjusting for age, BMI, current smoking, race, and measurement batch, urinary monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCNP) concentrations were positively associated with mtDNAcn (β = 1.63, 95% CI: 0.14, 3.11). Other urinary phthalate metabolite and isoprostane concentrations were not associated with sperm mtDNAcn or mtDNAdel. Conclusions Among this cohort of male ART participants, those with higher MCNP had higher mtDNAcn; other phthalate metabolites and isoprostane were not associated with mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel. Given our relatively small sample size, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future research is needed to replicate the findings in larger studies and among sperm samples obtained from the general population.
Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in swine and swine workplace environments on industrial and antibiotic-free hog operations in North Carolina, USA: A One Health pilot study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Meghan F. Davis, Nora Pisanic, Sarah M. Rhodes, Alexis Brown, Haley Keller, Maya Nadimpalli, Andrea Christ, Shanna Ludwig, Carly Ordak, Kristoffer Spicer, David C. Love, Jesper Larsen, Asher Wright, Sarah Blacklin, Billy Flowers, Jill Stewart, Kenneth G. Sexton, Ana M. Rule, Christopher D. Heaney
Occupational exposure to swine has been associated with increased Staphylococcus aureus carriage, including antimicrobial-resistant strains, and increased risk of infections. To characterize animal and environmental routes of worker exposure, we optimized methods to identify S. aureus on operations that raise swine in confinement with antibiotics (industrial hog operation: IHO) versus on pasture without antibiotics (antibiotic-free hog operation: AFHO). We associated findings from tested swine and environmental samples with those from personal inhalable air samplers on worker surrogates at one IHO and three AFHOs in North Carolina using a new One Health approach. We determined swine S. aureus carriage status by collecting swab samples from multiple anatomical sites, and we determined environmental positivity for airborne bioaerosols with inhalable and impinger samplers and a single-stage impactor (ambient air) cross-sectionally. All samples were analyzed for S. aureus, and isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, absence of scn (livestock marker), and spa type. Seventeen of twenty (85%) swine sampled at the one IHO carried S. aureus at >1 anatomical sites compared to none of 30 (0%) swine sampled at the three AFHOs. All S. aureus isolates recovered from IHO swine and air samples were scn negative and spa type t337; almost all isolates (62/63) were multidrug resistant. S. aureus was recovered from eight of 14 (67%) ambient air and two (100%) worker surrogate personal air samples at the one IHO, whereas no S. aureus isolates were recovered from 19 ambient and six personal air samples at the three AFHOs. Personal worker surrogate inhalable sample findings were consistent with both swine and ambient air data, indicating the potential for workplace exposure. IHO swine and the one IHO environment could be a source of potential pathogen exposure to workers, as supported by the detection of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) with livestock-associated spa type t337 among swine, worker surrogate personal air samplers and environmental air samples at the one IHO but none of the three AFHOs sampled in this study. Concurrent sampling of swine, personal swine worker surrogate air, and ambient airborne dust demonstrated that IHO workers may be exposed through both direct (animal contact) and indirect (airborne) routes of transmission. Investigation of the effectiveness of contact and respiratory protections is warranted to prevent IHO worker exposure to multidrug-resistant livestock-associated S. aureus and other pathogens.
Ambient air pollution and semen quality Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Carrie J. Nobles, Enrique F. Schisterman, Sandie Ha, Keewan Kim, Sunni L. Mumford, Germaine M. Buck Louis, Zhen Chen, Danping Liu, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
Background Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Methods Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Results Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including −0.22 (95% CI −0.34, −0.11) µm2 for area, −0.06 (95% CI −0.09, −0.03) µm for length and −0.09 (95% CI −0.19, −0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Conclusions Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality.
The timeline of blood pressure changes and hemodynamic responses during an experimental noise exposure Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Katarina Paunović, Branko Jakovljević, Vesna Stojanov
Background Noise exposure increases blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance in both genders in an experimental setting, as previously reported by the authors. Objectives The aim of this re-analysis was to present the minute-by-minute timeline of blood pressure changes and hemodynamic events provoked by traffic noise in the young and healthy adults. Methods The experiment consisted of three 10-min phases: rest in quiet conditions before noise (Leq = 40 dBA), exposure to recorded road-traffic noise (Leq = 89 dBA), and rest in quiet conditions after noise (Leq = 40 dBA). Participants’ blood pressure, heart rate, and hemodynamic parameters (cardiac index and total peripheral resistance index) were concurrently measured with a thoracic bioimpedance device. The raw beat-to-beat data were collected from 112 participants, i.e., 82 women and 30 men, aged 19–32 years. The timeline of events was created by splitting each experimental phase into ten one-minute intervals (30 intervals in total). Four statistical models were fitted to answer the six study questions what is happening from one minute to another during the experiment. Results Blood pressure decreased during quiet phase before noise, increased in the first minute of noise exposure and then decreased gradually toward the end of noise exposure, and continued to decline to baseline values after noise exposure. The cardiac index showed a gradual decrease throughout the experiment, whereas total vascular resistance increased steadily during and after noise exposure. Conclusions The timeline of events in this 30-min experiment provides insight into the hemodynamic processes underlying the changes of blood pressure before, during and after noise exposure.
Air pollution and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: A multi-city case crossover study Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Termeh Kousha, Jessica Castner, Robert Dales
Increasing evidence suggests that ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease exacerbations and emergencies. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient air pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory conditions in nine districts across the province of Ontario in Canada. Health, air pollutant (PM2.5, NO2, O3, and SO2), and meteorological data were retrieved from April 2004 to December 2011. Respiratory diseases were categorized as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including bronchiectasis) and acute upper respiratory diseases. A case-crossover design was used to test the associations between ED visits and ambient air pollutants, stratified by sex and season. For COPD among males, positive results were observed for NO2 with lags of 3–6 days, for PM2.5 with lags 1–8, and for SO2 with lags of 4–8 days. For COPD among females, positive results were observed for O3 with lags 2–4 days, and for SO2 among lags of 3–6 days. For upper respiratory disease emergencies among males, positive results were observed for NO2 (lags 5–8 days), for O3, (lags 0–6 days), PM2.5 (all lags), and SO2 (lag 8), and among females, positive results were observed for NO2 for lag 8 days, for O3, PM2.5 among all lags. Our study provides evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and increased risk of ED visits for upper and lower respiratory diseases in an environment where air pollutant concentrations are relatively low.
Mortality among rescue and recovery workers and community members exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks, 2003–2014 Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Hannah T. Jordan, Cheryl R. Stein, Jiehui Li, James E. Cone, Leslie Stayner, James L. Hadler, Robert M. Brackbill, Mark R. Farfel
Background Multiple chronic health conditions have been associated with exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks (9/11). We assessed whether excess deaths occurred during 2003–2014 among persons directly exposed to 9/11, and examined associations of 9/11-related exposures with mortality risk. Materials and methods Deaths occurring in 2003–2014 among members of the World Trade Center Health Registry, a cohort of rescue/recovery workers and lower Manhattan community members who were exposed to 9/11, were identified via linkage to the National Death Index. Participants’ overall levels of 9/11-related exposure were categorized as high, intermediate, or low. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMR) using New York City reference rates from 2003 to 2012. Proportional hazards were used to assess associations of 9/11-related exposures with mortality, accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity and other potential confounders. Results We identified 877 deaths among 29,280 rescue/recovery workers (3.0%) and 1694 deaths among 39,643 community members (4.3%) during 308,340 and 416,448 person-years of observation, respectively. The SMR for all causes of death was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–0.74] for rescue/recovery workers and 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.90) for community members. SMRs for diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were significantly lower than expected in both groups. SMRs for several other causes of death were significantly elevated, including suicide among rescue recovery workers (SMR 1.82, 95% CI 1.35–2.39), and brain malignancies (SMR 2.25, 95% CI 1.48–3.28) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR 1.79, 95% CI 1.24–2.50) among community members. Compared to low exposure, both intermediate [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.67] and high (AHR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06–1.88) levels of 9/11-related exposure were significantly associated with all-cause mortality among rescue/recovery workers (p-value for trend 0.01). For community members, intermediate (AHR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.27), but not high (AHR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94–1.39) exposure was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (p-value for trend 0.03). AHRs for associations of overall 9/11-related exposure with heart disease- and cancer-related mortality were similar in magnitude to those for all-cause mortality, but with 95% CIs crossing the null value. Conclusions Overall mortality was not elevated. Among specific causes of death that were significantly elevated, suicide among rescue/recovery workers is a plausible long-term consequence of 9/11 exposure, and is potentially preventable. Elevated mortality due to other causes, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain cancer, and small but statistically significant associations of 9/11-related exposures with all-cause mortality hazard warrant additional surveillance.
Long-term nitrogen dioxide exposure assessment using back-extrapolation of satellite-based land-use regression models for Australia Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Luke D. Knibbs, Craig.P. Coorey, Matthew J. Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Michael G. Hewson, Bin Jalaludin, Geoff G. Morgan, Adrian G. Barnett
Assessing historical exposure to air pollution in epidemiological studies is often problematic because of limited spatial and temporal measurement coverage. Several methods for modelling historical exposures have been described, including land-use regression (LUR). Satellite-based LUR is a recent technique that seeks to improve predictive ability and spatial coverage of traditional LUR models by using satellite observations of pollutants as inputs to LUR. Few studies have explored its validity for assessing historical exposures, reflecting the absence of historical observations from popular satellite platforms like Aura (launched mid-2004). We investigated whether contemporary satellite-based LUR models for Australia, developed longitudinally for 2006–2011, could capture nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations during 1990–2005 at 89 sites around the country. We assessed three methods to back-extrapolate year-2006 NO2 predictions: (1) ‘do nothing’ (i.e., use the year-2006 estimates directly, for prior years); (2) change the independent variable ‘year’ in our LUR models to match the years of interest (i.e., assume a linear trend prior to year-2006, following national average patterns in 2006–2011), and; (3) adjust year-2006 predictions using selected historical measurements. We evaluated prediction error and bias, and the correlation and absolute agreement of measurements and predictions using R2 and mean-square error R2 (MSE-R2), respectively. We found that changing the year variable led to best performance; predictions captured between 41% (1991; MSE-R2 = 31%) and 80% (2003; MSE-R2 = 78%) of spatial variability in NO2 in a given year, and 76% (MSE-R2 = 72%) averaged over 1990–2005. We conclude that simple methods for back-extrapolating prior to year-2006 yield valid historical NO2 estimates for Australia during 1990–2005. These results suggest that for the time scales considered here, satellite-based LUR has a potential role to play in long-term exposure assessment, even in the absence of historical predictor data.
Exposure to bisphenols and parabens during pregnancy and relations to steroid changes Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Lucie Kolatorova, Jana Vitku, Richard Hampl, Karolina Adamcova, Tereza Skodova, Marketa Simkova, Antonin Parizek, Luboslav Starka, Michaela Duskova
Background The harmful effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on human health are generally well-known, and exposure during fetal development may have lasting effects. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been recently relatively well-studied; however, less is known about alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF), which have started to appear in consumer products. Parabens are another widespread group of EDCs, with confirmed transplacental passage. The usage of many cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products during the pregnancy that may contain parabens and bisphenols has led to the need for investigation. Objectives To shed more light into the transplacental transport of BPA, its alternatives, and parabens, and to study their relation to fetal steroidogenesis. Methods BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben and 15 steroids including estrogens, corticoids, androgens and immunomodulatory ones were determined in 27 maternal (37th week of pregnancy) and cord plasma samples using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods. Results In cord blood, significantly higher BPA levels (p=0.0455) were observed compared to maternal plasma. The results from multiple regression models showed that in cord blood, methylparaben (β=−0.027, p=0.027), propylparaben (β=−0.025, p=0.03) and the sum of all measured parabens (β=−0.037, p=0.015) were inversely associated with testosterone levels. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the simultaneous detection of BPA, alternative bisphenols, parabens and steroids in maternal and cord plasma. Our study confirmed the transplacental transport of BPA, with likely accumulation in the fetal compartment. The negative association of cord blood parabens and testosterone levels points to possible risks with respect to importance of testosterone for prenatal male development.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals in seminal plasma and couple fecundity Environ. Res. (IF 3.835) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Germaine M. Buck Louis, Melissa M. Smarr, Liping Sun, Zhen Chen, Masato Honda, Wei Wang, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Jennifer Weck, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Growing evidence supports the importance of men's exposure to non-persistent endocrine disruptors (EDCs) and couple fecundability, as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP). This evolving literature contrasts with the largely equivocal findings reported for women's exposures and fecundity. While most evidence relies upon urinary concentrations, quantification of EDCs in seminal plasma may be more informative about potential toxicity arising within the testes. We analyzed 5 chemical classes of non-persistent EDCs in seminal plasma for 339 male partners of couples who were recruited prior to conception and who were followed daily until pregnant or after one year of trying. Benzophenones, bisphenols, parabens, and phthalate metabolites and phthalate diesters were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) except for phthalate diesters, which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cox regression with discrete-time was used to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each chemical to estimate the probability of pregnancy. While most EDCs were detected in seminal plasma, concentrations were lower than urinary concentrations previously analyzed for the cohort. None of the EDCs were significantly associated with fecundability even after covariate adjustment, though benzophenones consistently yielded FORs <1.0 (ranging from 0.72 to 0.91) in couple-adjusted models suggestive of diminished fecundity (longer TTP). The findings underscore that a range of EDCs can be quantified in seminal plasma, but the lower concentrations may require a large cohort for assessing couple fecundability, as well as the need to consider other fecundity outcomes such as semen quality.
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