Habitat use strategy influences the tissue signature of trace elements including rare earth elements in an urban-adapted omnivorous bird Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Ludovick Brown, Maikel Rosabal, Manon Sorais, André Poirier, David Widory, Jonathan Verreault
Concentrations of trace elements vary naturally between geological environments and as a result of emissions from anthropogenic activities. Habitat use strategy is an important determinant of trace element concentrations in tissues and eggs of wild birds. However, a scarcity of studies have documented the relationships between individual bird movements related to foraging activities and exposure to contaminants including trace elements. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of habitat use strategy, determined using GPS-based telemetry, on the liver concentrations of selected trace elements including rare earth elements (REEs) as well as lead (Pb) isotope ratios in an urban-adapted omnivorous bird, the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis). Male (n = 20) and female (n = 18) ring-billed gulls breeding near Montreal (QC, Canada) in one of the largest colony in North America were tracked using miniature GPS devices to characterize their movements over a 10-days period. The time spent foraging by both male and female gulls in landfills and wastewater basins positively correlated with liver Pb concentrations. A positive correlation was also found between the time spent foraging in agricultural fields and liver concentrations of yttrium (Y) in male and female ring-billed gulls. Heavy REE concentrations were significantly greater in female gull liver relative to those of males, although this was not associated with the time spent in any foraging habitats. Pb isotope ratios (208Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/207Pb) in the liver of male ring-billed gulls tended to be lower in individuals that foraged in landfills, thus indicating that they may have been exposed to different Pb sources relative to birds that visited other sites. This study provided valuable information on the potential sources of trace elements at the landscape level in free-ranging birds spanning urbanized environments.
Preparing the next generation of health professionals to tackle climate change: Are China's medical students ready? Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-12 Wenmin Liao, Lianping Yang, Shuang Zhong, Jeremy J. Hess, Qiong Wang, Junzhe Bao, Cunrui Huang
Metal organic frameworks as potent treatment media for odorants and volatiles Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Vanish Kumar, Suresh Kumar, Ki-Hyun Kim, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Sang-Soo Lee
The presence of odorants/volatiles in the air exerted several negative impacts on environment. Their presence in indoor/outdoor above threshold level commonly affects human health and living standards. To maintain and enhance the quality of life, a better tool for the removal of these molecules is in great demand. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their associated materials are an excellent platform for the treatment of odorants/volatiles in air and water systems. The diversity of ligands and metal ions in their frame imparts large loading capacities and excellent selectivity for a variety of odorants. This review discusses the use of MOFs and their composites to treat odorant/volatile molecules in gaseous media, with extensive discussion of their adsorptive uptakes, along with methods for their synthesis and regeneration. Moreover, the progression of odorant/volatile removal by MOFs is considered, with a special note on future directions in this emerging research field.
Effluent trading planning and its application in water quality management: a factor-interaction perspective Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-04 J.L. Zhang, Y.P. Li, X.T. Zeng, G.H. Huang, Y. Li, Y. Zhu, F.L. Kong, M. Xi, J. Liu
In this study, a Bayesian risk-induced interval stochastic modeling framework (BRISF) is proposed for planning effluent trading program among point and nonpoint sources as well as identifying interactions of important trading factors under system risk. BRISF incorporates nutrient fate modeling with soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), Bayesian inference with random walk Metropolis algorithm (RWM), and constraint-violation risk-based two-stage stochastic programming (CRTSP) within a general framework. Bayesian inference is employed for uncertainty analysis of SWAT model parameters and uncertain prediction of nutrient loadings; this process provides the random inputs for optimization process. CRTSP is capable of dealing with multiple uncertainties in modeling effluent trading program as well as system risk of environmental allowance violation. BRISF is applied to a real case of Xiangxihe watershed in China for water quality management. Solutions for optimal trading scheme corresponding to different risk levels are generated. Thousands of scenarios are examined to analyze the individual and interactive effects of trading ratios and treatment rates on trading system. Comparison between cross-industry and intra-industry effluent trading scheme is also conducted. It is proved that cross-industry trading would bring about higher benefit with reduced pollution loading; cross-industry effluent trading scheme would be recommended to achieve optimal water quality management and system benefit.
Real World Cellular Phone Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Stephen Wall, Zhong-Min Wang, Thomas Kendig, Dina Dobraca, Michael Lipsett
In 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) from cellular phones as possibly carcinogenic to humans. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Ramazzini Institute have both reported that RF EMF significantly increases glioma and Schwannoma of the heart in rodent studies. Recent studies indicate that the RF EMF exposure from cellular phones have negative impact on animal cells and cognitive and/or behavior development in children. Case- controlled epidemiologic studies have found evidence for mobile phone use and increased risk for glioma and localization of the glioma associated with the consistent exposure site of regular mobile phone use. Understanding the exposure level, or power density, from RF EMF emitted by cell phones under real-world usage and signal reception conditions, as distinct from the published measurements of maximum Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values, may help cell phone users decide whether to take behavioral steps to reduce RF EMF exposure. Exposure measurements were conducted on phone models from four major mobile network operators (MNOs) in the USA for calls received under strong and weak reception signal conditions, near the phone face and at several distances up to 48 cm. RF EMF exposure from all phones were found to be greater under weak (1–2 display bars) than under strong (4–5 display bars) reception signal conditions by up to four orders of magnitude. Notably, RF EMF exposure levels under weak reception signal conditions at a distance of 48 cm from the phone were similar to or greater than those detected under strong reception signal conditions at a distance of 4 cm. Under weak reception signal conditions, power density reductions by 10 times occurred at 16 cm typical for speaker phone or texting modes over the 4 cm near ear exposure. Reduced and precautionary use of cell phones under weak signal conditions could lessen a user's RF EMF exposure by a factor of up to 10,000. Bluetooth headset power density exposures were 10 to 400 times lower than those of the phones to which they were connected and dependent on the headset rather than the connected mobile phone. The new CDPH guidance includes practical steps both adults and children could take to reduce exposure to radio frequency energy from cell phones.
Use of green spaces, self-satisfaction and social contacts in adolescents: a population-based CASPIAN-V study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Payam Dadvand, Sanam Hariri, Behzad Abbasi, Ramin Heshmat, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Xavier Basagaña, Roya Kelishadi
BackgroundA growing body of evidence has associated contact with green spaces with improved mental health and wellbeing in adults. Social contacts has been postulated as a potential mechanism underlying such effects. However, the available evidence on the association between green spaces and self-satisfaction and also the mediatory role of social contacts in health benefits of green spaces in adolescents is still very scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association of time spent in different types of green spaces with self-satisfaction and social contacts in adolescents. We also investigated the mediatory role of social contacts in the association of green space use and self-satisfaction.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on a population-representative sample of 10,856 adolescents (10 to 18 years old) living in urban and rural districts across 30 provinces of Iran (2015). Data on time spent in green spaces (separately for parks, forests and private gardens), self-satisfaction, social contacts (number of friends and time spent with friends), and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained through questionnaires from parents and children. Logistic mixed effects models with recruitment centre as the random effect were developed to estimate associations adjusted for relevant covariates.ResultsMore time spent in green spaces was associated with improved self-satisfaction and social contacts. While for the self-satisfaction association, there were no indication for effect modification by sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and urbanity, we observed stronger associations for older adolescents (> 14 years old). For social contacts, we found indications for stronger associations for boys, older adolescents, those residing in rural areas, and those from lowest and highest SES groups. Social contacts could explain more than half of the association between green spaces use and self-satisfaction.ConclusionsOur observed enhanced self-satisfaction and social contacts associated with more time spent in green spaces could provide policymakers with measures to improve mental wellbeing of adolescents. Further studies are required to replicate our findings in other populations with different climates, cultures and lifestyles.
The genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Ahmad Yahyazadeh, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Gamze Altun, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Devra Davis
Humans are exposed to increasing levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at various frequencies as technology advances. In this context, improving understanding of the biological effects of EMF remains an important, high priority issue. Although a number of studies in this issue and elsewhere have focused on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress caused by EMF, the precise understanding of the processes involved remains to be elucidated. Due to unclear results among the studies, the issue of EMF exposure in the literature should be evaluated at the genomic level on the reproductive system. Based on this requirement, a detail review of recently published studies is necessary. The main objectives of this study are to show differences between negative and positive effect of EMF on the reproductive system of animal and human. Extensive review of literature has been made based on well known data bases like Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus. This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF.
Absorption of wireless radiation in the child versus adult brain and eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 C. Fernández, A.A. de Salles, M.E. Sears, R.D. Morris, D.L. Davis
Children's brains are more susceptible to hazardous exposures, and are thought to absorb higher doses of radiation from cell phones in some regions of the brain. Globally the numbers and applications of wireless devices are increasing rapidly, but since 1997 safety testing has relied on a large, homogenous, adult male head phantom to simulate exposures; the “Standard Anthropomorphic Mannequin” (SAM) is used to estimate only whether tissue temperature will be increased by more than 1 Celsius degree in the periphery. The present work employs anatomically based modeling currently used to set standards for surgical and medical devices, that incorporates heterogeneous characteristics of age and anatomy. Modeling of a cell phone held to the ear, or of virtual reality devices in front of the eyes, reveals that young eyes and brains absorb substantially higher local radiation doses than adults’. Age-specific simulations indicate the need to apply refined methods for regulatory compliance testing; and for public education regarding manufacturers' advice to keep phones off the body, and prudent use to limit exposures, particularly to protect the young.
Transgenerational Effects of Historic Radiation Dose in Pale Grass Blue Butterflies Around Fukushima Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Meltdown Accident Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-01 Samuel Hancock, Nguyen T.K. Vo, Laila Omar-Nazir, Jordi Vives I Batlle, Joji M. Otaki, Atsuki Hiyama, Soo Hyun Byun, Colin B. Seymour, Carmel Mothersill
Low dose radiation effects have been investigated in Chernobyl for many years but there is uncertainty about initial doses received by many animal species. However, the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident opens an opportunity to study the effects of the initial low historic dose on directly exposed species and their progeny during a time where the contaminating radionuclides are decaying. In this paper, it is proposed that historic acute exposure and its resulting non-targeted effects (NTEs) may be partially involved in the high mortality/abnormality rates seen across generations of pale grass blue butterflies (Zizeeria maha) around Fukushima. Data from Hiyama et al. (2012) on the morphological abnormality frequencies in Z. maha collected around Fukushima and their progeny were used in this paper. Two dose reconstruction methods based on the Gaussian plume model were used to determine the external absorbed dose to the first exposed generation from both ground shine and plume shine. One method involved the use of the dose rate recorded at the time of collection and only took Cs-137 into account. The other involved using release rates and atmospheric conditions to determine the doses and considered Cs-137 and Cs-134. The reconstructed doses were plotted against the mortality rates and abnormality frequencies across generations. The mortality rates of the progeny from irradiated progenitors increased linearly with the increasing historic radiation doses reconstructed using both Cs-137 and Cs-134 sources. Additionally, a higher level of morphological abnormalities was observed in progeny than in the progenitors. The mean abnormality frequencies also increased throughout generations. As these results are a sign of NTEs being involved, it can be suggested that increasing mutation levels across generations may result, in part, from NTEs induced by the initial low dose received by the first exposed generation. However, continual accumulation of mutations over generations in their natural contaminated habitats remains a likely contributor into the observed outcome.
Association of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A with early pregnancy endpoints Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-01 Helen B. Chin, Anne Marie Jukic, Allen J. Wilcox, Clarice R. Weinberg, Kelly K. Ferguson, Antonia M. Calafat, D. Robert McConnaughey, Donna D. Baird
BackgroundPhthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are environmental contaminants that may affect early embryonic development.ObjectiveTo assess the association between phthalate metabolites and BPA with early pregnancy endpoints in a cohort of women followed from before conception.MethodsWe quantified 11 phthalate metabolites and BPA in 137 conception cycles from naturally conceived clinical pregnancies. Phthalate metabolites and BPA concentrations were measured in a pooled sample of three daily morning urine specimens. Daily urinary hormone measurements had previously been used to define ovulation, implantation, and corpus luteum rescue. We assessed associations between conception cycle exposures (phthalate biomarkers and BPA) and 1) time from ovulation to implantation; 2) type of corpus luteum rescue (timing and pattern of rise in progesterone: early, late, or no rise); and 3) rate of initial rise in hCG.ResultsMono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) were associated with earlier implantation (6–8 days vs. 9 days (the most commonly observed); per natural log-unit, OR (95% CI) = 2.8 (1.2, 6.7) and OR (CI) = 2.1 (1.2, 3.7), respectively). Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with later implantation (10–12 days vs. 9 days); OR (CI) = 1.5 (1.0, 2.1). Compared with implantation on day 9, BPA was significantly associated with both earlier and later implantation (OR=2.2 for both). Women with concentrations above the median of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (p=0.04) or above the median of the molar sum of four di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑DEHP) (p=0.08) had a slower initial rise in hCG. Increasing MCPP was associated with an increased odds of a late rise rescue (OR (CI) = 2.9 (1.0, 8.5); late rise vs. early rise), while increasing MEP was associated with a no rise rescue (OR (CI) = 1.6 (0.9, 2.8); no rise vs. early rise).ConclusionsThe reported associations varied in their direction of effect, some potentially protective, others adverse. This may reflect the complexity with which these potential endocrine disrupting chemicals can be acting, but chance findings are also possible. Given that women continue to be exposed to these compounds (or their precursors), continued research on the effects they may have on pregnancy is warranted.
Ambient urban dust particulate matter reduces pathologic T cells in the CNS and severity of EAE Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-10-01 Chelsea A. O’Driscoll, Leah A. Owens, Erica J. Hoffmann, Madeline E. Gallo, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H. Fechner, James J. Schauer, Christopher A. Bradfield, Joshua D. Mezrich
BackgroundAutoimmune diseases have increased in incidence and prevalence worldwide. While genetic predispositions play a role, environmental factors are a major contributor. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture composed of metals, nitrates, sulfates and diverse adsorbed organic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Exposure to atmospheric PM aggravates autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, among others. PAHs and dioxins are known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands. The AHR modulates T cell differentiation and directs the balance between effector and regulatory T cells in vitro and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of autoimmune disease. This study aims to identify pathways that contribute to autoimmune disease and their potential use as therapeutic targets to alleviate symptoms and the need for global immunosuppression. This study tests the hypothesis that atmospheric PM enhances effector T cell differentiation and aggravates autoimmune disease.ResultsAn atmospheric ambient urban dust PM sample, standard reference material (SRM)1649b, was tested for its effects on autoimmunity. SRM1649b PM enhanced Th17 differentiation in an AHR-dependent manner in vitro, however intranasal treatment of SRM1649b PM delayed onset of EAE and reduced cumulative and peak clinical scores. Chronic and acute intranasal exposure of SRM1649b PM delayed onset of EAE. Chronic intranasal exposure did not reduce severity of EAE while acute intranasal exposure significantly reduced severity of disease. Acute intranasal treatment of low dose SRM1649b PM had no effect on clinical score or day of onset in EAE. Delayed onset of EAE by intranasal SRM1649b PM was AHR-dependent in vivo. Oral gavage of SRM1649b PM, in the absence of AHR ligands in the diet, had no effect on day of disease onset or severity of EAE. Day 10 analysis of T cells in the CNS after intranasal treatment of SRM1649b PM showed a reduction of pathologic T cell subsets in vivo. Moreover, MOG-specific splenocytes require AHR to generate or maintain IL-10 producing cells and reduce IFNγ producing cells in vitro.ConclusionsThese results identify the AHR pathway as a potential target for driving targeted immunosuppression in the CNS in the context of atmospheric PM-mediated autoimmune disease. The effects of SRM1649b PM on EAE are dependent on route of exposure, with intranasal treatment reducing severity of EAE and delaying disease onset while oral gavage has no effect. Intranasal SRM1649b PM reduces pathologic T cells in the CNS, specifically Th1 cells and Th1Th17 double positive cells, leading to reduced severity of EAE and AHR-dependent delayed disease onset. Additionally, SRM1649b PM treatment of antigen-specific T cells leads to AHR-dependent increase in percent IL-10 positive cells in vitro. These findings may shed light on the known increase of infection after exposure to atmospheric PM and serve as the first step in identifying components of the AHR pathway responsible for Th1-mediated immunosuppression in response to atmospheric PM exposure.
Household fuel use and pulmonary tuberculosis in western Nepal: A case-control study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Michael N. Bates, Karl Pope, Tula Ram Sijali, Amod K. Pokhrel, Ajay Pillarisetti, Nicholas L. Lam, Sharat C. Verma
BackgroundWhether cooking with solid fuels, as occurs widely in developing countries, including Nepal, is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have produced variable results. This case-control study sought to resolve this issue with a large sample size and a population-based control group.MethodsPTB cases (N = 581), aged 18 to 70 were recruited from diagnostic centers in Kaski and neighboring districts of Nepal. Population-based controls (N = 1,226) were recruited. Persons who had previously been diagnosed with TB were excluded. Questionnaires were administered at participants’ homes.ResultsUsing liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as the cookstove reference fuel, for women the odds ratio (OR) for having a primary cookstove that used wood was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08,0.52); for men the corresponding OR was 0.80 (0.37, 1.74). For biogas, the OR for women was 0.24 (0.06,0.87) and for men, 1.41 (0.61, 3.23).ConclusionsThe unexpected finding of a higher risk for women using LPG cookstoves, relative to wood or biogas-burning cookstoves, may be attributable to excluding persons with prior TB. A possible explanation is that emissions, such as ultrafine particles, formed during LPG combustion promote PTB manifestation in infected people who have not previously had PTB. The damage from the initial PTB leaves them susceptible to the PTB-promoting effects of smoke from wood fires. Further studies, excluding participants who have previously had TB are needed to confirm these findings. Use of exhaust hoods to the outdoors for all stoves, well-ventilated kitchens, and gas stoves raised above ground would reduce exposures.
Dietary Patterns, Bone Lead and Incident Coronary Heart Disease among Middle-aged to Elderly Men Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Ning Ding, Xin Wang, Katherine L. Tucker, Marc G. Weisskopf, David Sparrow, Howard Hu, Sung Kyun Park
Targeted Metabolomics to Understand the Association between Arsenic Metabolism and Diabetes-Related Outcomes: Preliminary Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Miranda J. Spratlen, Maria Grau-Perez, Jason G. Umans, Joseph Yracheta, Lyle G. Best, Kevin Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Mary V. Gamble, Shelley A. Cole, Jinying Zhao, Ana Navas-Acien
BackgroundInorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. A more efficient arsenic metabolism profile (lower MMA%, higher DMA%) has been associated with reduced risk for arsenic-related health outcomes. This profile, however, has also been associated with increased risk for diabetes-related outcomes.ObjectivesThe mechanism behind these conflicting associations is unclear; we hypothesized the one-carbon metabolism (OCM) pathway may play a role.MethodsWe evaluated the influence of OCM on the relationship between arsenic metabolism and diabetes-related outcomes (HOMA2-IR, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose) using metabolomic data from an OCM-specific and P180 metabolite panel measured in plasma, arsenic metabolism measured in urine, and HOMA2-IR and FPG measured in fasting plasma. Samples were drawn from baseline visits (2001–2003) in 59 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study, a family-based cohort study of American Indians aged ≥14 years from Arizona, Oklahoma, and North/South Dakota.ResultsIn unadjusted analyses, a 5% increase in DMA% was associated with higher HOMA2-IR (geometric mean ratio (GMR)= 1.13 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.25)) and waist circumference (mean difference=3.66 (0.95, 6.38). MMA% was significantly associated with lower HOMA2-IR and waist circumference. After adjustment for OCM-related metabolites (SAM, SAH, cysteine, glutamate, lysophosphatidylcholine 18.2, and three phosphatidlycholines), associations were attenuated and no longer significant.ConclusionsThese preliminary results indicate that the association of lower MMA% and higher DMA% with diabetes-related outcomes may be influenced by OCM status, either through confounding, reverse causality, or mediation.
Adsorptive decontamination of diclofenac by three-dimensional graphene-based adsorbent: Response surface methodology, adsorption equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-26 Billie Yan Zhang Hiew, Lai Yee Lee, Kar Chiew Lai, Suyin Gan, Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Guan-Ting Pan, Thomas Chung-Kuang Yang
Pharmaceutical residues are emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment and their removal by conventional wastewater treatment methods has proven to be ineffective. This research aimed to develop a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (rGOA) for the removal of diclofenac in aqueous solution. The preparation of rGOA involved facile self-assembly of graphene oxide under a reductive environment of L-ascorbic acid. Characterisation of rGOA was performed by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The developed rGOA had a measured density of 20.39 ± 5.28 mg/cm3, specific surface area of 132.19 m2/g, cumulative pore volume of 0.5388 cm3/g and point of zero charge of 6.3. A study on the simultaneous interactions of independent factors by response surface methodology suggested dosage and initial concentration as the dominant parameters influencing the adsorption of diclofenac. The highest diclofenac adsorption capacity (596.71 mg/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 0.25 g/L dosage, 325 mg/L initial concentration, 200 rpm shaking speed and 30 °C temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data were best fitted to the Freundlich model with correlation coefficient (R2) varying from 0.9500 to 0.9802. The adsorption kinetic data were best correlated to the pseudo-first-order model with R2 ranging from 0.8467 to 0.9621. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the process was spontaneous (∆G = −7.19 to −0.48 kJ/mol) and exothermic (∆H = −12.82 to −2.17 kJ/mol). This research concluded that rGOA is a very promising adsorbent for the remediation of water polluted by diclofenac.
Comparison of health risks by heat wave definition: applicability of wet-bulb globe temperature for heat wave criteria Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-26 Seulkee Heo, Michelle L. Bell, Jong-Tae Lee
Despite the active applications of thermal comfort indices for heat wave definitions, there is lack of evaluation for the impact of extended days of high temperature on health outcomes using many of the indices. This study compared the impact of heat waves on health outcomes among different heat wave definitions based on thermal comfort and air temperature. We compared heat waves in South Korea (cities and provinces) for the warm season for 2011–2014, using air temperature, heat index (HI), and web-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Heat waves were defined as days with daily maximum values of each index at a specified threshold (literature-based, the 90th and 95th percentiles) or above. Distributed lag non-linear models and meta-analysis were used to estimate risk of mortality and hospitalization for all-causes, cardiovascular causes, respiratory causes and heat disorders during heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days. WBGT identified 1.15 times longer maximum heat wave duration for the study periods than air temperature when the thresholds were based on 90th and 95th percentiles. Over the study period, for heat waves defined by WBGT and HI, the Southwestern region showed the highest total number of heat wave days, whereas for air temperature the longest heat wave days were identified in the southeastern region. The highest and most significant impact of heat waves were found by WBGT for hospitalization from heat disorders (Relative risk=2.959, 95% CI: 1.566 – 5.594). In sensitivity analyses using different structure of lags and temperature metrics (e.g., daily mean and minimum), the impacts of heat waves on most health outcomes substantially increased by using WBGT for heat wave definitions. As a result, WBGT and its thresholds can be used to relate heat waves and heat-related diseases to improve the prevention effectiveness of heat wave warnings and give informative health guidelines according to the range of WBGT thresholds.
The tubercular badger and the uncertain curve:- the need for a multiple stressor approach in environmental radiation protection Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-26 Carmel Mothersill, Michael Abend, Francois Bréchignac, David Copplestone, Stanislav Geras’kin, Jessica Goodman, Nele Horemans, Penny Jeggo, William McBride, Timothy A. Mousseau, Anthony O’Hare, Rao V.L. Papineni, Gibin Powathil, Paul N. Schofield, Colin Seymour, Jill Sutcliffe, Brian Austin
Long-term exposure to ambient fine particles associated with asthma: a cross-sectional study among older adults in six low- and middle-income countries Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-24 Siqi Ai, Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Yanfei Guo, Yin Yang, Craig A. Rolling, Echu Liu, Fan Wu, Hualiang Lin
BackgroundAmbient PM2.5 is considered harmful to the respiratory system. However, little has been shown about the long-term association between ambient PM2.5 and asthma.MethodsA survey from 2007 to 2010 was conducted among adults over 50 years of age in six low- and middle- income countries (including China, India, Ghana, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa), which belonged to one part of a prospective cohort study - the Study on global AGEing and adult health. The yearly mean PM2.5 concentrations of the residential communities of participants were estimated from remote sensing data. A mixed effects model was applied to investigate the association between ambient PM2.5 and asthma.ResultsA total of 4,553 asthma patients were identified among the 29,249 participants in this study, producing a prevalence of 15.57%. For each 10 ug/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted prevalence ratio of asthma was 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.01, 1.08) after controlling for the effects of sex, age, BMI, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure. Further analyses showed that males and smokers might be particularly vulnerable populations. Additionally, it was estimated that about 5.12% of the asthma cases in the study population (95% Confidence Interval: 1.44%, 9.23%) could be attributed to long-term PM2.5 exposure.ConclusionLong-term exposure to PM2.5 might be an important risk factor of asthma. Effective air pollution reduction measures should be taken to reduce PM2.5 concentrations in order to reduce the associated asthma cases and disease burden.
Human health risks due to exposure to inorganic and organic chemicals from textiles: A review Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-24 Joaquim Rovira, José L. Domingo
It is well known that a number of substances used in the textile industry can mean not only environmental, but also health problems. The scientific literature regarding potential adverse health effects of chemical substances in that industry is mainly related with human exposure during textile production. However, information about exposure of consumers is much more limited. Although most research on the health effects of chemicals in textiles concern allergic skin reactions, contact allergy is not the only potential human health problem. In this paper, we have reviewed the current scientific information regarding human exposure to chemicals through skin-contact clothes. The review has been focused mainly on those chemicals whose probabilities of being detected in clothes were rather higher. Thus, we have revised the presence of flame retardants, trace elements, aromatic amines, quinoline, bisphenols, benzothiazoles/benzotriazoles, phthalates, formaldehyde, and also metal nanoparticles. Human dermal exposure to potentially toxic chemicals through skin-contact textiles/clothes shows a non-negligible presence in some textiles, which might lead to potential systemic risks. Under specific circumstances of exposure, the presence of some chemicals might mean non-assumable cancer risks for the consumers.
Cotton Pillows: A Novel Field Method for Assessment of Thirdhand Smoke Pollution Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Georg E. Matt, Eunha Hoh, Penelope J.E. Quintana, Joy M. Zakarian, Jayson Arceo
Self-reported myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease among oil spill workers and community members 5 years after Deepwater Horizon Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Jean Strelitz, Alexander P. Keil, David B. Richardson, Gerardo Heiss, Marilie D. Gammon, Richard K. Kwok, Dale P. Sandler, Lawrence S. Engel
BackgroundChemical, physical and psychological stressors due to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill may impact coronary heart disease (CHD) among exposed populations. Using longitudinal information from two interviews in the Gulf Long Term Follow-up (GuLF) STUDY, we assessed CHD among oil spill workers and community members.ObjectiveTo assess the associations between duration of oil spill clean-up work, residential proximity to the oil spill, and incidence of self-reported myocardial infarction or fatal CHD.MethodsAmong respondents with two GuLF STUDY interviews (n=21,256), there were 395 first incident heart disease events (self-reported myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) across 5 years. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for associations with duration of oil spill clean-up work and residential proximity to the oil spill. To assess potential impacts of non-response, we compared covariate distributions for those who did (n=21,256) and did not (n=10,353) complete the second interview and used inverse probability (IP) of censoring weights to correct for potential non-response bias.ResultsLiving in proximity to the oil spill (vs. living further away) was associated with heart disease, with [HR(95%CI)=1.30(1.01–1.67)] and without [1.29(1.00–1.65)] censoring weights. For work duration, hazard of heart disease appeared to be higher for those who worked >180 days (vs. 1–30 days), with and without censoring weights [1.43(0.91–2.25) and 1.36(0.88–2.11), respectively]. Associations persisted throughout the 5-year follow-up.ConclusionsResidential proximity to the spill and duration of clean-up work were associated with a suggested 29–43% higher hazard of heart disease events. Associations were robust to censoring.
Green Synthesis of CuO Nanomaterials and their Proficient Use for Organic Waste Removal and Antimicrobial Application Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-21 Moondeep Chauhan, Bindu Sharma, Rajeev Kumar, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Sandeep Kumar
Copper oxide (CuO) nanomaterials (NMs) of different size and morphology were synthesized by Chemical precipitation, Microwave irradiation and Hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, BET, FTIR, XRD and EDX analysis. As synthesized CuO NMs were utilized for elimination of harmful dyes viz. Direct Red 81 (DR-81) and Coomassie Brilliant blue R-250 (BBR-250) and pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus Aureus). Owing to their morphology, smaller size and relatively high surface area (40.320 m² g−1), CuO NMs prepared by chemical precipitation method were observed to show better adsorption capacity for both the dyes (68.70 (DR-81) and 73.04 (BBR-250) mg g−1). The influence of different experimental conditions was studied by the methodical assessments of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, concentration and contact time. Moreover, different adsorption isotherms and pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Langmuir model was found to be best fit thus confirming the monolayer adsorption process. To ensure the practical utility of CuO NMs for organic waste removal, the adsorption studies were performed in the presence of different inorganic ions and real water samples. In addition, recovery of the dye and NMs were also carried out effectively by simple method, thus avoiding the secondary pollution. CuO NMs were observed to exhibit significant antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria. These studies demonstrated that synthesized CuO NMs showed good adsorption efficiency for the removal of harmful dyes and antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, which vary as a function of size and surface area.
Effect of gamma radiation on the production of bystander signals from three earthworm species irradiated in vivo Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Andrej Rusin, Emmanuel Lapeid, Michelle Le, Colin Seymour, Deborah Oughton, Hallvard Haanes, Carmel Mothersill
The effect of gamma radiation delivered over 24hrs on the induction of bystander signals of three earthworm species exposed in vivo was investigated: A. chlorotica, A. caliginosa, and E. tetraedra. Worms were exposed to external gamma irradiation (Co-60 source) for 24 hours and samples of head, body, and clitellum were dissected from exposed and control worms and placed in culture medium for 24hrs at 19 C. The harvested medium was filtered and assayed for expression of bystander signals using both clonogenic and mitochondrial reporter assays. Different responses were observed in the different species and in the different tissues. A. chlorotica worm-treated reporters show insignificant mitochondrial response for all sections, yet a significant clonogenic reduction in survival for body sections. A. caliginosa worm-treated reporters show a significant mitochondrial response for some sections and insignificant mitochondrial response and insignificant reduction in clongenic survival for the rest. E. tetraedra worms from a control site show significant evidence of bystander signalling, measured by mitochondrial response in reporter cells, for all sections while those harvested from a contaminated site show insignificant changes in baseline signalling when exposed to the challenge dose. In vivo exposure of earthworm species shows evidence of bystander signalling using two different reporter assays. This effect varied between the different species and tissues. There is also evidence of attenuated bystander signalling in worms harvested from a site contaminated with radiation.
Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Ronald L. Melnick
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted two-year studies of cell phone radiation in rats and mice exposed to CDMA- or GSM-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at exposure intensities in the brain of rats that were similar to or only slightly higher than potential, localized human exposures from cell phones held next to the head. This study was designed to test the (null) hypothesis that cell phone radiation at non-thermal exposure intensities could not cause adverse health effects, and to provide dose-response data for any detected toxic or carcinogenic effects. Partial findings released from that study showed significantly increased incidences and/or trends for gliomas and glial cell hyperplasias in the brain and schwannomas and Schwann cell hyperplasias in the heart of exposed male rats. These results, as well as the findings of significantly increased DNA damage (strand breaks) in the brains of exposed rats and mice, reduced pup birth weights when pregnant dams were exposed to GSM- or CDMA-modulated RFR, and the induction of cardiomyopathy of the right ventricle in male and female rats clearly demonstrate that the null hypothesis has been disproved. The NTP findings are most important because the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a “possible human carcinogen” based largely on increased risks of gliomas and acoustic neuromas (which are Schwann cell tumors on the acoustic nerve) among long term users of cell phones. The concordance between rats and humans in cell type affected by RFR strengthens the animal-to-human association. This commentary addresses several unfounded criticisms about the design and results of the NTP study that have been promoted to minimize the utility of the experimental data on RFR for assessing human health risks. In contrast to those criticisms, an expert peer-review panel recently concluded that the NTP studies were well designed, and that the results demonstrated that both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR were carcinogenic to the heart (schwannomas) and brain (gliomas) of male rats.
Spatial distribution of heavy metals in crops in a wastewater irrigated zone and health risk assessment Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Andleeb Mehmood, Waseem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Nadeem Raza, Sang Soo Lee, Ming Zhang, Jin-Hong Lee, Muhammad Sarfraz
Industrialization and urbanization have produced a large amount of wastewater. Part of the municipal wastewater has been used as an irrigation source in urban/suburban areas. Its utilization, although economically beneficial, can significantly deteriorate the integrity of the ecological systems (e.g., in terms of quality of soil and food products). The objectives of this study are to investigate the spatial distribution and bio-accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in food crops (and topsoil) and associated health risks of their consumption in the area of Mangla Dam, Pakistan. To this end, studies were conducted to assess the risk factors such as the bioconcentration factor (BCF), health risk index (HRI), and daily intake of heavy metals (DIM). Accordingly, there was more contamination in Mangla Dam water irrigated zone (DWI) than in the groundwater irrigated zone (GWI). Co exhibited the maximum BCF of 7.45 for Eruca sativa and 6.61 for Brassica campestris in the GWI zone. Likewise, enhanced risk to human health was seen from of Cd, Cr, and Pb in Triticum aestivum and Eruca sativa grown in the DWI zone. It is recommended that the quality profile of wastewater discharge into freshwater ecosystems should be continuously monitored and regulated.
Treatment of Cheese Whey by a Cross-Flow Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor: Biological and Filtration Performance Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Recep Kaan Derelı, Frank P. van der Zee, Izzet Ozturk, Jules B. van Lıer
Wastewater used for urban agriculture in West Africa as a reservoir for antibacterial resistance dissemination Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Blaise P. Bougnom, Cheikna Zongo, Alan McNally, Vito Ricci, François X. Etoa, Sören Thiele-Bruhn, Laura J.V. Piddock
State of art metagenomics were used to investigate the microbial population, antibiotic resistance genes and plasmids of medical interest in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Wastewater samples were collected from three canals near agricultural fields in three neighbourhoods. Assessment of microbial population diversity revealed different microbial patterns among the different samples. Sequencing reads from the wastewaters revealed different functional specializations of microbial communities, with the predominance of carbohydrates and proteins metabolism functions. Eleven pathogen-specific and 56 orthologous virulence factor genes were detected in the wastewater samples. These virulence factors are usually found in human pathogens that cause gastroenteritis and/or diarrhoea. A wide range of antibiotic resistance genes was identified; 81 are transmissible by mobile genetic elements. These included seven different extended spectrum β-lactamase genes encoding synthesis of four enzyme families, including two metallo-β-lactamases (blaAIM-1 and blaGES-21). Ten different incompatibility groups of Enterobacteriaceae plasmid replicons (ColE, FIB, FIC, FII, P, Q, R, U, Y, and A/C), and 30 plasmid replicon types from Gram-positive bacteria. All are implicated in the wide distribution of antibiotic resistance genes. We conclude that wastewater used for urban agriculture in the city represents a high risk for spreading bacteria and antimicrobial resistance among humans and animals.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and incident pregnancy loss: The LIFE Study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Giehae Choi, Yu-Bo Wang, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Zhen Chen, Dana Boyd Barr, Germaine M. Buck Louis, Melissa M. Smarr
BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have not been studied in relation to incident pregnancy loss in human populations, despite their ubiquitous exposure and purported reproductive toxicity.ObjectivesTo investigate the association between preconception serum PBDE concentrations and incident pregnancy loss.MethodsA preconception cohort of 501 couples was followed while trying to become pregnant, and for whom serum concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners were measured using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Pregnancy was prospectively identified as a positive home pregnancy test on the day of expected menstruation. Incident pregnancy loss was defined for 344 singleton pregnancies as a conversion to a negative home pregnancy test, menses, or clinical diagnosis depending upon gestational age. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual and summed PBDEs and incident pregnancy loss, adjusting for relevant covariates and male partners’ information. In sensitivity analyses, inverse probability weighting was used to account for couples not becoming pregnant and, thereby, not at risk for loss.ResultsThe incidence of prospectively observed pregnancy loss was 28%, and the serum concentrations of PBDE congeners in females were consistently associated with a higher hazard of incident pregnancy loss. Specifically, statistically significant hazard ratios (HRs) for incident pregnancy loss were observed for lower brominated PBDE congeners: 17 (HR 1.23; CI: 1.07–1.42), 28 (HR 1.25; CI: 1.03–1.52), 66 (HR 1.23; CI: 1.07–1.42), and homolog triBDE (HR: 1.25; CI: 1.05–1.49). Findings were robust to various model specifications explored in sensitivity analyses.ConclusionsMaternal preconception serum concentrations of specific PBDE congeners may increase the hazard of incident pregnancy.
Significant Effects of Exposure to Relatively Low Level Ozone on Daily Mortality in 17 cities from three Eastern Asian Countries Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Wei-Heng Huang, Bing-Yu Chen, Ho Kim, Yasushi Honda, Yue Leon Guo
BackgroundStudies have examined the variation in mortality risk associated with ambient ozone. We conducted an international cooperation study for investigating the non-linear ozone–mortality association accounting for lag effect and for examining the ozone level with significant health effect.MethodsDaily counts of total non-accidental death and ambient air pollutant concentration were obtained in 17 cities from 3 Eastern Asian countries or regions (Taiwan, Korea, and Japan). The total study period was from 1979 to 2010 and differed by city based on data availability. The ozone–mortality association in each city was estimated by running a time-series quasi-Poisson regression model, allowing for overdispersion. The city-specific estimates were then pooled by country by using multivariate random effects meta-analysis.ResultsThe non-linear ozone exposure–mortality response curves were generated in 17 cities from Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. The association curves in the three countries all showed increased mortality with elevated ozone, and the significant mortality effects of ozone exposure were observed at level higher than 40, 50, and 40 ppb for Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, respectively. These associations are unaffected by co-pollutant of particulate matter in Taiwan and Japan. But the potential confounding effect of co-pollutant could not be ignorable in Korea.ConclusionsOur study provides evidence that exposure to a relative low level of ambient ozone is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Our results emphasize the continual need to examine the existing standard by documenting potential human adverse effects.
A comparison of figure of merit (FOM) for various materials in adsorptive removal of benzene under ambient temperature and pressure Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Azmatullah Khan, Jan E. Szulejko, Ki-Hyun Kim, Pallabi Sammadar, Sang Soo Lee, Xiao Yang, Yong Sik Ok
To effectively remove gaseous pollutants from air using sorbents, a thorough knowledge of the actual sorption performance is needed at ambient conditions rather than at unrealistically high-pressure conditions, as is commonly presented in the literature. To this end, the sorbent capacities of gaseous benzene were evaluated at a constant sorbent bed inlet pressure (50 ppm or ~5 Pa) in 1 atm of N2, room temperature (298 K), a fixed flow rate (50 mL min−1), and equal outlet sampling intervals (5 min). The benzene adsorption patterns were investigated against six sorbent types in a total of 17 different forms: 1- zeolite in five forms: beads (ZB), ground to 212 μm (ZG212), beads ground to 300 μm (ZG300), coarsely ground/washed zeolite (ZWc), and coarsely ground/washed/thermally treated zeolite (ZTc), 2- activated carbon in two forms: 212 μm (ACd212) and granular (ACdg), 3- Carbopack-X (CX), 4- Tenax TA (TA), 5- used black tea leaves of 150 or 300 μm in three forms: dry (TD150/TD300), wet (TW150/TW300), and wet dust (TWd), and 6- used ground coffee in either dry (CD) or wet forms (CW). Accordingly, the largest adsorption capacities at 5 Pa (e.g., >10 mg g−1) were observed for ACd212 (79.1) and ACdg (73.6). Moderate values (e.g., 5< < 10 mg g−1) were obtained for ZG212 (7.98), CX (6.79), ZG300 (5.70), and ZB (5.58), while the remainder were far lower at <5 mg g−1 (e.g., tea leaves, ground coffee, TA, ZWc, and ZTc). The experimental benzene capacities of the tested sorbents were further assessed by the Langmuir, Henry's law, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Elovich isotherm models. The linearized Langmuir adsorption isotherms of ACd212, ACdg, and CX showed the presence of more than one adsorption site (i.e., retrograde at the lowest pressures and two others at higher pressures). However, TA, zeolite, tea leaves, and ground coffee exhibited a type-V isotherm, wherein the sorption capacity continued to increase with loaded volume (i.e., multilayer adsorption). Thus, ACd212 has the best figure-of-merit based on a high 10% breakthrough volume (BTV) and low cost for real-world applications.
Arsenic in Groundwater in Private Wells in Rural North Dakota and South Dakota: Water Quality Assessment for an Intervention Trial Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 Martha Powers, Joseph Yracheta, David Harvey, Marcia O’Leary, Lyle G. Best, Annabelle Black Bear, Luke MacDonald, Jolie Susan, Khaled Hasan, Elizabeth Thomas, Camille Morgan, Pablo Olmedo, Rui Chen, Ana Rule, Kellogg Schwab, Ana Navas-Acien, Christine Marie George
Elevated exposure to arsenic disproportionately affects populations relying on private well water in the United States (US). This includes many American Indian (AI) communities where naturally occurring arsenic is often above 10 µg/L, the current US Environmental Protection Agency safety standard. The Strong Heart Water Study is a randomized controlled trial aiming to reduce arsenic exposure to private well water users in AI communities in North Dakota and South Dakota. In preparation for this intervention, 371 households were included in a community water arsenic testing program to identify households with arsenic ≥10 µg/L by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic ≥10 µg/L was found in 97/371 (26.1%) households; median water arsenic concentration was 6.3 µg/L, ranging from <1 to 198 µg/L. Silica was identified as a water quality parameter that could impact the efficacy of arsenic removal devices to be installed. A low-range field rapid arsenic testing kit evaluated in a small number of households was found to have low accuracy; therefore, not an option for the screening of affected households in this setting. In a pilot study of the effectiveness of a point-of-use adsorptive media water filtration device for arsenic removal, all devices installed removed arsenic below 1 µg/L at both installation and 9 months post-installation. This study identified a relatively high burden of arsenic in AI study communities as well as an effective water filtration device to reduce arsenic in these communities. The long-term efficacy of a community based arsenic mitigation program in reducing arsenic exposure and preventing arsenic related disease is being tested as part of the Strong Heart Water Study.
Urinary Concentration of Personal Care Products and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-control Study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 Jiayuan Gu, Tao Yuan, Ni Ni, Yuning Ma, Zhemin Shen, Xiaodan Yu, Rong Shi, Ying Tian, Wei Zhou, Jun Zhang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorder among females of reproductive age. Many emerging contaminants in personal care products have been confirmed with endocrine disruptive effects. We performed a case-control study to explore the association between the concentrations of certain emerging contaminants (organic UV filters, bisphenol A, and triclosan) and the risk of PCOS. Urine samples were collected from 40 women with PCOS (case group) and 83 healthy women (control group). No significant differences were found in detection rate or total concentrations of analytes in women with PCOS and controls (p > 0.05). In addition, no association was found between certain emerging contaminants and PCOS either in an unadjusted binary logistic regression model or in a model adjusted for potential confounders. However, with stratification according to body mass index, one organic UV filter - octocrylene(OC) was significantly associated with PCOS in obese women with BMI ≥ 24 (adjusted OR = 1.512, 95% CI: 1.043, 2.191). It's the first time to investigate the association between exposure of organic UV filters and PCOS risk. We conclude that there is positive association between OC and PCOS risk in women with BMI ≥ 24.
Assessment of penconazole exposure in winegrowers using urinary biomarkers Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Rosa Mercadante, Elisa Polledri, Federico Maria Rubino, Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic, Andrea Vaiani, Claudio Colosio, Angelo Moretto, Silvia Fustinoni
Penconazole (PEN) is a fungicide used in agriculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the exposure to PEN in vineyard workers focusing on urinary biomarkers.Twenty-two agricultural workers were involved in the study; they were investigated during PEN applications and re-entry work, performed for 1–4 consecutive working days, for a total of 42 mixing and applications and 12 re-entries. Potential and actual dermal exposure, including hand exposure, were measured using pads and hand washes. Urine samples were collected starting before the first application, continuing during the work shift, and ending 48 hours after the last shift. The determination of PEN in dermal samples and PEN metabolites in urine was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.Dermal potential body exposure and actual total exposure showed median levels ranging from 18 to 3356 and from 21 to 111 µg, respectively. Urinary monohydroxyl-derivative PEN-OH was the most abundant metabolite; its excretion rate peaked within 24 h after the work shift. In this period, median concentrations of PEN-OH and the carboxyl-derivative PEN-COOH ranged from 15.6 to 27.6 µg/L and from 2.5 to 10.2 µg/L, respectively. The concentration of PEN-OH during the work shift, in the 24 h after and in the 25–48 h after the work shift were correlated with actual body and total dermal exposure (Pearson's r from 0.279 to 0.562).Our results suggest that PEN-OH in the 24 h post-exposure urine is a promising candidate for biomonitoring PEN exposure in agricultural workers.
Salmonella enterica recovery from river waters of the Maryland Eastern Shore reveals high serotype diversity and some multidrug resistance Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Mary Theresa Callahan, Jo Ann Van Kessel, Shirley A. Micallef
The Delmarva Peninsula, a major agricultural and recreational region for the U.S. states of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, experiences recurrent salmonellosis disease. Previous studies point to water environments as a potential persistent environmental reservoir of Salmonella enterica. To evaluate this hypothesis, water from the four main rivers of the Maryland Eastern Shore on the Delmarva Peninsula was tested for the presence of S. enterica, and recovered isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance. Sampling was performed in autumn and spring to evaluate temporal persistence at twenty four sites along the Choptank, Nanticoke, Pocomoke and Wicomico Rivers. Water (10 L) was filtered through sterile modified Moore swabs in situ. Swabs were selectively enriched for S. enterica and presumptive salmonellae were confirmed by PCR amplification of the Salmonella-specific invA and hilA genes. The serogroup of 402 isolates was determined, followed by serotype characterization for 157 isolates selected to represent all the identified serogroups across all samples. S. enterica was isolated from all the rivers in both seasons and was detected in 35/46 (65%) of surface water samples, with equivalent recovery in spring (70%) and fall (61%). The likelihood of isolating S. enterica was higher for the Nanticoke and Pocomoke Rivers, χ2 (3, N=46) =12.75, p<0.01. In total, 18 serotypes of S. enterica were identified, and serotype diversity differed between the fall and spring samplings. Newport was the most frequently isolated serotype, both overall and in the fall, identified in 8/46 samples (17%). Typhimurium was the predominant serotype in spring. Some temporal and biogeographic patterns were observed in S. enterica recovery, but 6/18 serotypes were identified in both seasons. The majority (84%) of isolates were pan-susceptible, including all those tested from the Wicomico River (N=19). Twenty five isolates (16%) from 9 samples were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, including serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, Litchfield, III 17:z10:e,n,x,z15, III 60:I and IV_40:z4:z32:-. Of the isolates that were resistant to a single antimicrobial (N=12), resistance was to streptomycin or sulfisoxazole. Thirteen isolates were multidrug resistant, nine exhibiting resistance to ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and ceftriaxone, and four to sulfisoxazole and tetracycline. The widespread presence and diversity of S. enterica in Delmarva rivers are concerning given the frequent use of rivers and tributaries as a source of irrigation and for recreation. Future research should seek to determine specific point sources of S. enterica for surface river waters, and risks associated with acquisition of antimicrobial resistance traits.
Pregnancy exposure to wind turbine noise and adverse birth outcomes: a nationwide cohort study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-10 Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N. Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, Mette Sørensen
Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) may negatively affect health, as reported for traffic noise. We aimed to investigate whether residential WTN is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Based on national registries, we identified all Danish dwellings situated within ≤ 20 wt heights radius and a random selection of 25% of dwellings situated within 20–40 wt heights radius of a WT. We identified 135,795 pregnant women living in the dwellings from 1982 to 2013, and collected information on gestational age and birth weight from a national birth registry. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN at the dwellings of the pregnant women and aggregated as mean nighttime WTN during pregnancy. We used logistic regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates for the analyses. We did not find evidence suggesting that mean pregnancy or trimester-specific exposure to outdoor or indoor LF WTN were associated with any of the three adverse birth outcomes investigated: preterm birth (n = 13,003), term small for gestational age (n = 12,220) or term low birth weight (n = 1127). However, the number of cases in the highest exposure categories of ≥ 42 dB outdoor WTN or ≥ 15 dB indoor LF WTN were low for all outcomes (n between 0 and 31). The present study does not support an association between nighttime WTN and adverse birth outcomes. However, there were few cases in the high exposure groups and the results call for reproduction.
Stress axis variability is associated with differential ozone-induced lung inflammatory signaling and injury biomarker response Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Jith Thomas, Josée Guénette, Errol M. Thomson
Ozone (O3), a ubiquitous urban air pollutant, causes adverse pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects. A large variability in acute O3-induced effects has been observed; however, the basis for interindividual differences in susceptibility is unclear. We previously demonstrated a role for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis and glucocorticoid response in acute O3 toxicity. Glucocorticoids have important anti-inflammatory actions, and have been shown to regulate lung inflammatory responses. We hypothesised that a hyporesponsive HPA axis would be associated with greater O3-dependent lung inflammatory signaling. Two genetically-related rat strains with known differences in stress axis reactivity, highly-stress responsive Fischer (F344) and less responsive Lewis (LEW), were exposed for 4 h by nose-only inhalation to clean air or 0.8 ppm O3, and euthanized immediately after exposure. As expected, baseline (air-exposed) plasma corticosterone was significantly lower in the hypo-stress responsive LEW. Although O3 exposure increased plasma corticosterone in both strains, corticosterone remained significantly lower in LEW when compared to F334. LEW exhibited greater O3-induced inflammatory cytokine/chemokine signaling compared to F344, consistent with the lower corticosterone levels. Since we observed strain-specific differences in inflammatory signaling, we further investigated injury biomarkers (total protein, albumin and lactate dehydrogenase). Although the hyper-responsive F344 exhibited lower inflammatory signaling in response to O3 compared with LEW, they had greater levels of lung injury biomarkers. Our results indicate that stress axis variability is associated with differential O3-induced lung toxicity. Given the large variability in stress axis reactivity among humans, stress axis regulation could potentially be a determining factor underlying O3 sensitivity.
The challenge in preparing particle suspensions for aquatic microplastic research Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Lars Eitzen, Sophia Paul, Ulrike Braun, Korinna Altmann, Martin Jekel, Aki Sebastian Ruhl
The occurrence of small particles consisting of organic polymers, so-called microplastic (MP), in aquatic environments attracts increasing interest in both the public and science. Recent sampling campaigns in surface waters revealed substantial numbers of particles in the size range from a few micrometers to a few millimeters. In order to validate sample preparation, identification and quantification and to investigate the behavior of MP particles and potential toxic effects on organisms, defined MP model particles are needed. Many studies use spherical compounds that probably behave differently compared to irregularly shaped MP found in environmental samples. However, preparation and handling of MP particles are challenging tasks and have been systematically investigated in the present study. Polystyrene (PS) as a commonly found polymer with a density slightly above that of water was selected as polymer type for milling and fractionation studies. A cryogenic ball mill proved to be practical and effective to produce particles in the size range of from 1 to 200 µm. The yield of small particles increased with increasing pre-cooling and milling durations. Depending on the concentration and the size, PS particles do not completely disperse in water and particles partly creep vertically up along glass walls. Stabilized MP suspensions without use of surfactants that might harm organisms are needed for toxicological studies. The stabilization of PS particle suspensions with ozone treatment reduced the wall effect and increased the number of dispersed PS particles but increased the dissolved organic carbon concentration and changed the size distribution of the particles.
Genotoxicity of intermediate frequency magnetic fields in vitro and in vivo Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 Mikko Herrala, Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Jukka Luukkonen, Heikki Tanila, Jonne Naarala, Jukka Juutilainen
We assessed genotoxic effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) in vitro and in vivo. Rat primary astrocytes were exposed for 24 h to a 7.5 kHz MF at a magnetic flux density of 30 or 300 µT. Male C57BL/6 J mice were exposed continuously for 5 weeks to a 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT, and blood samples were collected for the genotoxicity assays. To evaluate possible co-genotoxicity, the in vitro experiments included combined exposure with menadione (an agent that induces mitochondrial superoxide production and DNA damage) and methyl methanesulfonate (an alkylating agent). DNA damage and DNA repair (in vitro) were measured using the alkaline Comet assay and formation of micronuclei was assessed microscopically (in vivo) or using flow cytometry (in vitro). The results did not support genotoxicity or co-genotoxicity of 7.5 kHz MFs at magnetic flux densities up to 300 µT in vitro or in vivo. On the contrary, there was some evidence that exposure to 7.5 kHz MFs might reduce the level of genetic damage. Strongest indication of any biological effects was obtained from measurements of relative cell number, which was significantly and consistently increased after MF exposure in all in vitro experiments. Health implications of this finding are unclear, but it suggests that 7.5 kHz MFs may stimulate cell proliferation or suppress cell death.
Ambient Wintertime Particulate Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in Monroe County, New York Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Vanessa Assibey-Mensah, J. Christopher Glantz, Philip K. Hopke, Todd A. Jusko, Kelly Thevenet-Morrison, David Chalupa, David Q. Rich
BackgroundPrevious studies have reported associations between ambient fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). However, none have examined whether ultrafine particles (UFP; <100 nm), accumulation mode particles (AMP; 100–500 nm), markers of traffic pollution (black carbon; BC), or wood burning (Delta-C; (30% of ambient wintertime PM2.5 in Monroe County, NY is from wood burning)) are associated with an increased odds of HDP. We estimated the odds of HDP associated with increased concentrations of PM2.5, UFP, AMP, BC, and Delta-C in each gestational month during winter months.MethodsElectronic medical records and birth certificate data were linked with land-use regression models in Monroe County, New York in 2009–2013 to predict monthly pollutant concentrations during winter (November-April) based on maternal residential address for 16,637 births. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the odds of HDP associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5, UFP, AMP, BC, and Delta-C concentrations during each gestational month, adjusting for maternal characteristics, birth hospital, temperature, and relative humidity.ResultsEach 0.52 µg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration during the 7th gestational month was associated with an increased odds of HDP (odds ratio (OR)=1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01, 1.45), with a similar sized estimate in month 8 (OR=1.18; 95%CI=0.98, 1.43). Non-statistically significant increased odds of HDP associated with IQR increases in BC concentrations during months 3 (OR=1.12; 95%CI=0.98, 1.28) and 7 (OR=1.12; 95%CI=0.96, 1.29) were observed. Increased odds of HDP were not observed for PM2.5, UFP, or AMP.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that maternal exposure to wood smoke in Monroe County during winter is associated with an increased odds of HDP during late gestation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effect of wood smoke on HDP and to explore effects on other pregnancy outcomes.
Risk Tradeoffs Associated with Traditional Food Advisories for Labrador Inuit Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Ryan S.D. Calder, Sabri Bromage, Elsie M. Sunderland
The traditional Inuit diet includes wild birds, fish and marine mammals, which can contain high concentrations of the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). Hydroelectric development may increase MeHg concentrations in traditional foods. Consumption advisories are often used to mitigate such risks and can result in reduced intake of traditional foods. Data from a dietary survey, MeHg exposure assessment and risk analysis for individuals in three Inuit communities in Labrador, Canada (n = 1,145) in 2014 indicate reducing traditional food intake is likely to exacerbate deficiencies in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins B12 and B2. Traditional foods accounted for < 5% of per-capita calories but up to 70% of nutrients consumed. Although consumption advisories could lower neurodevelopmental risks associated with an increase in MeHg exposure (90th-percentile ∆IQ = −0.12 vs. −0.34), they may lead to greater risks of cardiovascular mortality (90th-percentile increase: +58% to +116% vs. +25%) and cancer mortality (90th-percentile increase +2% to +4% vs. no increase). Conversely, greater consumption of locally caught salmon mostly unaffected by hydroelectric flooding would lower all these risks (90th-percentile ∆IQ = +0.4; cardiovascular risk: –45%; cancer risk: –1.4%). We thus conclude that continued consumption of traditional foods is essential for Inuit health in these communities.
Placental Concentrations of Essential, Toxic, and Understudied Metals and Relationships with Birth Outcomes in Chattanooga, TN Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Colleen K. Mikelson, Jacopo Troisi, Amy LaLonde, Steven J.K. Symes, Sally W. Thurston, Lauren M. Dire, C. David. Adair, Richard K. Miller, Sean M. Richards
BackgroundComprehensive examinations of placental metal concentrations and correlations with infant parameters are under-investigated. Chattanooga, Tennessee's consistently high incidence of low birth weight and potential for metal exposure provides an ideal opportunity to investigate potential correlations.ObjectivesTo investigate the associations between a wide variety of metals in placental tissue and multiple infant parameters.MethodsA total of 31 elements were screened via ICP-MS in 374 individual placental samples. Of those, 14 were quantifiable in >86% of the samples. We examined correlations between metal concentrations and infant parameters (birth weight, gestational age, birth weight centile, placental weight, birth length and head circumference). We fit multivariable regression models to estimate the covariate-adjusted associations of birth weight with ln-transformed concentrations of each of the 14 metals and used generalized additive models to examine nonlinear relationships.ResultsSome of the strongest relationships with infant parameters came from several lesser-studied metals. Placental rhodium concentrations were negatively correlated with almost all infant parameters. In the fully adjusted regression model, birth weight was significantly associated with several metals. On an IQR (25th to the 75th percentile) basis, estimated changes in birthweight were: for cobalt (82.5 g, IQR=6.05 µg/kg, p = 0.006), iron (−51.5 g, IQR=171800 µg/kg, p = 0.030), manganese (−27.2 g, IQR=152.1 µg/kg, p = 0.017), lead (−72.7 g, IQR=16.55 µg/kg, p = 0.004) and rhodium (−1365.5 g, IQR=0.33 µg/kg, p < 0.001). Finally, a generalized additive model showed significant nonlinear relationships between birth weight and concentrations of Co and Rh.ConclusionsOur comprehensive examination of placental metals illustrate many strong associations between lesser-studied metals and infant parameters. These data, in combination with our correlations of well-studied metals, illustrate a need to consider in utero exposure to a broad array of metals when considering fetal development.
Urinary bisphenol A in children, mothers and fathers from Slovenia: Overall results and determinants of exposure Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Janja Snoj Tratnik, Tina Kosjek, Ester Heath, Darja Mazej, Sulejma Ćehić, Spyros P. Karakitsios, Dimosthenis A. Sarigiannis, Milena Horvat
In the present study, urinary bisphenol A (BPA) levels were reported for the first time in the Slovenian general population and were evaluated with regard to dietary and non-dietary exposure sources, and compared according to age, gender and area of residence. First morning urine was collected from children (6–11 years), their mothers (30–52 years) and fathers (30–53 years), living in urban and rural areas of Slovenia. Besides basic questionnaire data on general population characteristics, socio-economic status and dietary habits, BPA-specific data was also collected, including consumption of food and beverages from plastic and canned containers, presence of white dental fillings, the use of specific consumer products and hormonal treatments. Urine samples were analysed for both free and conjugated BPA using GC-MS/MS. The urinary levels of total BPA in children, mothers and fathers were low, with geometric means of 1.51, 0.79, and 0.20 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The levels were comparable with the levels reported for other European countries and were all below the current health-based guidance values. In line with large-scale surveys, the data revealed age-dependant BPA urinary levels, with the highest levels in the youngest age group. In mothers, urinary levels of BPA were determined by hormonal interactions more than dietary sources, while a positive association between urinary BPA and diet was apparent in children (canned food/drink and food from plastic material) and fathers (canned food/drink). The study clearly shows that physiological and behavioural differences account for differences in levels of urinary BPA among study groups, a finding that sets the priorities for future research.
Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102) Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin, Devra Lee Davis
Epidemiology studies (case-control, cohort, time trend and case studies) published since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2011 categorization of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phones and other wireless devices as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) are reviewed and summarized. Glioma is an important human cancer found to be associated with RFR in 9 case-control studies conducted in Sweden and France, as well as in some other countries. Increasing glioma incidence trends have been reported in the UK and other countries. Non-malignant endpoints linked include acoustic neuroma (vestibular Schwannoma) and meningioma. Because they allow more detailed consideration of exposure, case-control studies can be superior to cohort studies or other methods in evaluating potential risks for brain cancer. When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1). Opportunistic epidemiological studies are proposed that can be carried out through cross-sectional analyses of high, medium, and low mobile phone users with respect to hearing, vision, memory, reaction time, and other indicators that can easily be assessed through standardized computer-based tests. As exposure data are not uniformly available, billing records should be used whenever available to corroborate reported exposures.
Full-scale composting of sewage sludge and market waste: Stability monitoring and odor dispersion modeling Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 M. Toledo, M.C. Gutiérrez, J.A. Siles, M.A. Martín
The aim of this study was to assess the odor immission derived from full-scale composting of different abundant and highly pollutant organic waste: sewage sludge with bulking agent (SL), sewage sludge pretreated through anaerobic digestion and supplemented with bulking agent (SL-AD), and market waste with olive leaves (MW-OL). The combination of dynamic olfactometry and Gaussian dispersion modeling allowed both the quantification of odor emissions from each waste and the evaluation of their global odorous impact in nearby urban areas. Wind speed, summer and winter seasons, and atmospheric conditions were considered in the dispersion model. The results revealed that high wind speed (2.6 m/s) increases the global odor immission in summer season, independently of atmospheric stability. However, the maximum odor immission concentration recommended for composting process was not exceeded in any case, which depends on each country/region. The experimental results also enable to evaluate the influence of several physico-chemical variables on odor emissions derived from composting. The removal of nitrogen and volatile solids was the main cause for odor generation. Moreover, the microbiological activity of each substrate was monitored throughout the process and different percentages of biodegradability were quantified depending on the type of substrate and pretreatment applied.
Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and cord blood homocysteine in newborns; results from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-31 Janneke G.F. Hogervorst, Narjes Madhloum, Nelly D. Saenen, Bram G. Janssen, Joris Penders, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Immaculata De Vivo, Karen Vrijens, Tim S. Nawrot
IntroductionParticulate air pollution is probably causally related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Plasma homocysteine is an established cardiovascular disease risk factor. Recent studies show that exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with plasma homocysteine levels in adults but no studies on the association between prenatal air pollution and neonatal homocysteine levels exist.MethodsIn 609 newborns of the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort, we investigated the association between prenatal particulate matter exposure with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and cord plasma homocysteine levels, and in a subset (n=490) we studied the interaction with 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes (CAT, COMT, GSTP1, SOD2, NQO1 and HFE), through multiple linear regression. PM2.5 levels were obtained using a high resolution spatial temporal interpolation method. Homocysteine levels were measured by the homocysteine enzymatic assay on a Roche/Hitachi cobas c system. SNPs were assessed on the Biotrove OpenArray SNP genotyping platform.ResultsIn multivariable-adjusted models, cord plasma homocysteine levels were 8.1% higher (95% CI: 1.9 to 14.3%; p=0.01) for each 5 µg/m³ increment in average PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy. With regard to pregnancy trimesters, there was only an association in the 2nd trimester: 3.6% (95% CI: 0.9% to 6.4%; p=0.01). The positive association between PM2.5 in and homocysteine was (borderline) statistically significantly modified by genetic variants in MnSOD (p interaction=0.02), GSTP1 (p interaction=0.07) and the sum score of the 3 studied SNPs in the CAT gene (p interaction=0.09), suggesting oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism of action.ConclusionsExposure to particulate air pollution in utero is associated with higher cord blood homocysteine levels, possibly through generating oxidative stress. Increased air pollution-induced homocysteine levels in early life might predispose for cardiovascular and other diseases later in life.
Environmental and take-home lead exposure in children living in the vicinity of a lead battery smelter in Serbia Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-31 Stefan Mandić-Rajčević, Zorica Bulat, Vesna Matović, Martin Popević, Milan Lepić, Bojana Mandić, Mića Jovanović, Vincent Haufroid, Miloš Žarković, Petar Bulat
Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been falling steadily worldwide due to restricted use of lead (Pb) and its compounds. although they remain above preindustrial Pb levels. Elevated BLL can still be found in children living near secondary Pb smelters that represent around 50% of Pb production. There have been no studies on Pb exposure in children living in Serbia ever since the 1980s. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BLLs in children living in two villages in Serbia (Zajača, the location of a secondary lead smelter, and Paskovac, 5 km away), identify the primary determinants of children’s BLLs, and investigate the impact of BLLs on children’s health symptoms and school achievement.The study was conducted in 2011 on 127 children, aged 1–18 years, whose BLLs were measured using inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).The median BLL in children was 12 μg/dl, with a significantly higher value of 17.5 μg/dl in Zajača, compared to 7.6 μg/dl in Paskovac. Only 1 out of 75 and 12 out of 52 children from Zajača and Paskovac, respectively, had BLLs below the CDC recommended 5 μg/dl level. Living near the smelter resulted in 19 times, and having a father who works in the plant 4 times higher odds of elevated BLLs. No significant effects of elevated BLLs health symptoms were seen in this study.BLLs of children living near a battery recycling plant in Serbia, an upper-middle income European country, were in the range and even higher than those of children living in developing countries. For the first time, the contribution of environmental and take-home lead exposure was quantified using mixed-effect modeling, and our results indicate a contribution of 25–40% of the take-home lead exposure to the BLLs of children living in the vicinity of a secondary lead smelter.
Bisphenol-A in breast adipose tissue of breast cancer cases and controls Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-31 Katherine W. Reeves, Sallie Schneider, Jingchuan Xue, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Holly Mason, Melissa Johnson, Grace Makari-Judson, Mary Díaz Santana
We evaluated whether bisphenol-A (BPA) could be quantified in breast adipose tissue samples provided by 36 breast cancer mastectomy patients and 14 reduction mammoplasty patients. Samples of breast adipose tissue were collected and BPA concentration was quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. BPA was detectable above the limit of quantitation of 0.38 ng/g in 30.6% of samples. BPA concentrations varied within- and between breasts and were similar between cases and controls (0.39 vs 0.41 ng/g, p = 0.74).
Association between floods and typhoid fever in Yongzhou, China: Effects and vulnerable groups Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 Zhidong Liu, Jiahui Lao, Ying Zhang, Yanyu Liu, Jing Zhang, Hui Wang, Baofa Jiang
BackgroundLittle information about the effects of floods on typhoid fever is available in previous studies. This study aimed to examine the relationships between floods and typhoid fever and to identify the vulnerable groups in Yongzhou, China.MethodsWeekly typhoid fever data, flood data and meteorological data during the flood season (April to September) from 2005 to 2012 were collected for this study. A Poisson generalized linear model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was conducted to quantify the lagged and cumulative effects of floods on typhoid fever, considering the confounding effects of long-term trend, seasonality, and meteorological variables. The model was also used to calculate risk ratios of floods for weekly typhoid fever cases among various subpopulations.ResultsAfter adjusting for long-term trend, seasonality, and meteorological variables, floods were associated with an increased number of typhoid fever cases with a risk ratio of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.10–1.92) at 1-week lag and a cumulative risk ratio of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.21–2.57) at lag 0–1 weeks. Males, people aged 0–4 years old, people aged 15–64 years old, farmers, and children appeared to be more vulnerable than the others.ConclusionsOur study indicates that floods could significantly increase the risks of typhoid fever with lag effects of 1 week in the study areas. Precautionary measures should be taken with a focus on the identified vulnerable groups in order to control the transmission of typhoid fever associated with floods.
Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) lymphocyte functions upon in vitro exposure Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-24 I. Peñín, M. Levin, K. Acevedo-Whitehouse, L. Jasperse, E. Gebhard, F.M.D. Gulland, S. De Guise
Polychorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are a cause for concern due to their persistence in the environment, their lipophilic properties that cause them to bio-accumulate in top predators, and their adverse effects on mammalian health. For example, the common urogenital carcinoma reported in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) is associated with high tissue levels of PCBs, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. This study investigated the effect of exposure to six PCB congeners and a congener mix at low and environmentally relevant concentrations on NK cell-like and T cell activity using in vitro assays on cryopreserved lymph node mononuclear cells isolated from dead CSL. Non dioxin-like congeners 153 and 180 increased lymphocyte proliferation at 5 and 10 ppm, while congener 138 decreased proliferation by up to 43% at 15 ppm. Dioxin-like PCBs 118 and 169 did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, while the effects of congener 105 depended on the mitogen concentration; these did not correlate with their predicted toxic equivalent factors. NK cell-like activity was affected only by the highest concentration of PCBs tested; it was increased by non-dioxin-like congeners 138 and 153, and decreased by dioxin-like congener 169. The PCB congener mix suggested that the effects of PCB congeners were not simply additive. Our results concur with effects of PCBs reported for other pinniped's lymphocytes and add further experimental support to the observation that dioxin-like PCBs are not the most toxic congeners for marine mammals, contrary to effects in other species. This is the first evidence of in vitro suppression of NK cell-like cytotoxicity by a dioxin-like congener in a pinniped. More importantly, the observed results suggest that PCBs can modulate the CSL immune system, increasing exposed individuals’ susceptibility to viral and oncogenic challenges.
Study of the Correlation between Outdoor and Indoor Electromagnetic Exposure near Cellular Base Stations in Leuven, Belgium Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-22 Rachel Nkem Iyare, Vladimir Volskiy, Guy Vandenbosch
A measuring campaign for the assessment of electromagnetic radiation near base stations in the city center of Leuven, Belgium, has been carried out. The main objective of this assessment is to study the correlation between the outdoor and the indoor exposure produced by cellular base stations and to investigate the changes of electromagnetic exposure within a typical day and over 1 month in the vicinity of these base stations. The study was also carried out as a function of location and time using highly precise measurement equipment. The measurements were performed in both public and private areas in sixty (30 indoor and 30 outdoor) different locations in Leuven. The measurement was focused on mobile communication networks: GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication, 900 MHz and 1800 MHz) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 2110 MHz) were the frequency bands of interest. The data at these frequencies were extracted from raw measurements in the 824 MHz to 2170 MHz frequency band. The results show that all analyzed locations are in compliance with the exposure limits recommended by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) and that the (maximum) indoor exposure correlates to the outdoor exposure with a factor of about 0.5.
The derivation of a Reference Dose (RfD) for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) based on immune suppression Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-08 Brian Pachkowski, Gloria B. Post, Alan H. Stern
Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is ubiquitous in populations and environments worldwide. Its long half-life in humans, indefinite persistence in the environment, and awareness of its widespread presence in drinking water make the human health assessment of PFOS a priority. While developmental, endocrine, and hepatic effects, and increased serum cholesterol are among the outcomes resulting from PFOS exposure, immunosuppression has also consistently emerged as an adverse effect. An in-depth review of the relevant scientific literature on the toxicology of PFOS has identified immunosuppression as a sensitive endpoint for PFOS toxicity. Here, we focus specifically on that endpoint and provide a detailed derivation of a Reference Dose (RfD) of 1.8 ×10-6 mg/kg/day for chronic human exposure to PFOS. This RfD is based on decreased plaque-forming cell (PFC) response in mice, an endpoint that reflects suppression of the immune response to a foreign antigen. We additionally identify two endpoints in the epidemiology literature, decreased vaccine response and increased incidence of childhood infections, that are associated with PFOS exposure and that are consistent with and support the decreased PFC response endpoint from animal studies. We provide a weight of evidence analysis integrating the evidence from animal and epidemiology endpoints. Finally, we compare this RfD to the PFOS RfD derived by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Water based on a developmental endpoint. Based on this comparison, and given our assessment, the USEPA RfD does not provide sufficient protection against the adverse health effects of PFOS. The RfD derived herein is intended to be public health protective and appropriately minimizes PFOS exposure based on available evidence.
Comments on “Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health” Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-31 Alberto Najera
This correspondence refers to the Environmental Research article by Martin L. Pall entitled "Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health". Author presented a biased review about 7 potential effects of Wi-Fi exposure. Most of articles cited are in vitro or in animals and lab conditions, not in humans. In this letter to the editor I analyse the articles cited in Pall's work in order to demonstrate that neither the conclusions nor the title are appropriate.
Effects of mobile phone exposure on metabolomics in the male and female reproductive systems Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Gamze Altun, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Devra Davis, Süleyman Kaplan
With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed. In addition, the present review also evaluates metabolomic effects of GSM-modulated EMFs on the male and female reproductive systems in recent human and animal studies. In this context, experimental and epidemiological studies which examine the impact of mobile phone radiation on the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis are examined in line with current approaches.
Capturing the spatial variability of noise levels based on a short-term monitoring campaign and comparing noise surfaces against personal exposures collected through a panel study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Masoud Fallah-Shorshani, Laura Minet, Rick Liu, Céline Plante, Sophie Goudreau, Tor Oiamo, Audrey Smargiassi, Scott Weichenthal, Marianne Hatzopoulou
Environmental noise can cause important cardiovascular effects, stress and sleep disturbance. The development of appropriate methods to estimate noise exposure within a single urban area remains a challenging task, due to the presence of various transportation noise sources (road, rail, and aircraft). In this study, we developed a land-use regression (LUR) approach using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) for LAeq (equivalent noise level) to capture the spatial variability of noise levels in Toronto, Canada. Four different model formulations were proposed based on continuous 20-min noise measurements at 92 sites and a leave one out cross-validation (LOOCV). Models where coefficients for variables considered as noise sources were forced to be positive, led to the development of more realistic exposure surfaces. Three different measures were used to assess the models; adjusted R2 (0.44–0.64), deviance (51−72%) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) (469.2–434.6). When comparing exposures derived from the four approaches to personal exposures from a panel study, we observed that all approaches performed very similarly, with values for the Fractional mean bias (FB), normalized mean square error (NMSE), and normalized absolute difference (NAD) very close to 0. Finally, we compared the noise surfaces with data collected from a previous campaign consisting of 1-week measurements at 200 fixed sites in Toronto and observed that the strongest correlations occurred between our predictions and measured noise levels along major roads and highway collectors. Our validation against long-term measurements and panel data demonstrates that manual modifications brought to the models were able to reduce bias in model predictions and achieve a wider range of exposures, comparable with measurement data.
Does the air pollution model influence the evidence of socio-economic disparities in exposure and susceptibility? Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Maxime Loizeau, Stéphane Buteau, Basile Chaix, Sara McElroy, Emilie Counil, Tarik Benmarhnia
Studies assessing socio-economic disparities in air pollution exposure and susceptibility are usually based on a single air pollution model. A time stratified case-crossover study was designed to assess the impact of the type of model on differential exposure and on the differential susceptibility in the relationship between ozone exposure and daily mortality by socio-economic strata (SES) in Montreal. Non-accidental deaths along with deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory causes on the island of Montreal for the period 1991–2002 were included as cases. Daily ozone concentration estimates at partictaipants’ residence were obtained from the five following air pollution models: Average value (AV), Nearest station model (NS), Inverse-distance weighting interpolation (IDW), Land-use regression model with back-extrapolation (LUR-BE) and Bayesian maximum entropy model combined with a land-use regression (BME-LUR). The prevalence of a low household income (< 20,000/year) was used as socio-economic variable, divided into two categories as a proxy for deprivation. Multivariable conditional logistic regressions were used considering 3-day average concentrations. Multiplicative and additive interactions (using Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction) as well as Cochran's tests were calculated and results were compared across the different air pollution models. Heterogeneity of susceptibility and exposure according to socio-economic status (SES) were found. Ratio of exposure across SES groups means ranged from 0.75 [0.74–0.76] to 1.01 [1.00–1.02], respectively for the LUR-BE and the BME-LUR models. Ratio of mortality odds ratios ranged from 1.01 [0.96–1.05] to 1.02 [0.97–1.08], respectively for the IDW and LUR-BE models. Cochran's test of heterogeneity between the air pollution models showed important heterogeneity regarding the differential exposure by SES, but the air pollution model was not found to influence heterogeneity regarding the differential susceptibility. The study showed air pollution models can influence the assessment of disparities in exposure according to SES in Montreal but not that of disparities in susceptibility.
Extracellular vesicle-enriched microRNAs interact in the association between long-term particulate matter and blood pressure in elderly men Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-09-05 Rodosthenis S. Rodosthenous, Itai Kloog, Elena Colicino, Jia Zhong, Luis A. Herrera, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz, Andrea A. Baccarelli, Diddier Prada
BackgroundSeveral studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter (PM) may lead to increased systemic blood pressure, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unknown. Emerging evidence shows that extracellular vesicle-enriched miRNAs (evmiRNAs) are associated with PM exposure and cardiovascular risk. In this study, we investigated the role of evmiRNAs in the association between PM and blood pressure, as well as their epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation.MethodsParticipants (n = 22, men) were randomly selected from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS). Long-term (1-year and 6-month average) PM2.5 exposure was estimated at 1 × 1-km resolution using spatio-temporal prediction models and BC was estimated using validated time varying land use regression models. We analyzed 31 evmiRNAs detected in ≥ 90% of all individuals and for statistical analysis, we used mixed effects models with random intercept adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, C-reactive protein, platelets, and white blood cells.ResultsWe found that per each 2-standard deviations increase in 6-month PM2.5 ambient levels, there was an increase in 0.19 mm Hg (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.11, 0.28 mmHg; p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Per each 2-standard deviations increase in 1-year PM2.5 levels, there was an increase in 0.11 mm Hg (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.03, 0.19 mmHg; p = 0.012) in SBP in older male individuals. We also found that both miR-199a/b (β = 6.13 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.87, 11.39; pinteraction = 0.07) and miR-223–3p (β = 30.17 mmHg; 95% CI: 11.96, 48.39 mmHg; pinteraction = 0.01) modified the association between 1-year PM2.5 and SBP. When exploring DNA methylation as a potential mechanism that could epigenetically regulate expression of evmiRNAs, we found that PM2.5 ambient levels were negatively associated with DNA methylation levels at CpG (cg23972892) near the enhancer region of miR-199a/b (β = −13.11; 95% CI: −17.70, −8.52; pBonferroni< 0.01), but not miR-223-3p.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that expression of evmiRNAs may be regulated by DNA methylation in response to long-term PM2.5 ambient levels and modify the magnitude of association between PM2.5 and systolic blood pressure in older individuals.
Association of maternal serum concentration of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls with maternal and neonatal thyroid hormones: The Hokkaido birth cohort study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-23 Sachiko Itoh, Toshiaki Baba, Motoyuki Yuasa, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Atsuko Araki, Seiko Sasaki, Jumboku Kajiwara, Tsuguhide Hori, Takashi Todaka, Kaori Fujikura, Sonomi Nakajima, Shizue Kato, Reiko Kishi
BackgroundEvidence on the toxicity of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) for thyroid hormones (TH) is limited, and the underlying mechanism remains unknown.ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate the effects of environmental prenatal exposure to OH-PCBs and maternal and neonatal TH levels, taking the maternal-fetal TH transfer into account.MethodsIn this prospective birth cohort (the “Hokkaido study”) we included 222 mother-neonate pairs. We measured five OH-PCB isomers in maternal serum samples either during pregnancy or within 5 days of delivery. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels were obtained from maternal blood samples at an early gestational stage (median; 11.1 weeks) and from heel prick samples of neonates between 4 and 7 days after birth. Multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed to investigate the associations between maternal OH-PCB and maternal and neonatal TH levels.ResultsMedian concentration of ∑OH-PCBs was 25.37 pg/g wet weight. The predominant isomer was 4-OH-CB187, followed by 4-OH-CB146+3-OH-CB153. In the fully adjusted linear regression analysis, maternal ∑OH-PCBs was positively associated with maternal FT4, and 4-OH-CB187 was positively associated with both maternal and neonatal FT4 levels. Maternal OH-PCBs showed no significant association with TSH among mothers and neonates. Path analysis indicated the indirect pathway from 4-OH-CB187 exposure to increased neonatal FT4, via maternal THs and neonatal TSH.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that maternal exposure to OH-PCBs during pregnancy may increase both maternal and neonatal FT4 levels. Neonatal FT4 is presumed to be increased by prenatal 4-OH-CB187 indirectly, and this process may be mediated by maternal THs and neonatal TSH.
Association between prenatal exposure to cooking oil fumes and full-term low birth weight is mediated by placental weight Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Pian Hu, Lijun Fan, Peng Ding, Yan-Hui He, Chuanbo Xie, Zhongzheng Niu, Fu-Ying Tian, Shixin Yuan, Deqin Jia, Wei-Qing Chen
ObjectiveEvidence regarding the association between prenatal exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) and full-term low birth weight (FTLBW) is still controversial, and the mechanism remains unclear. This study thus aims to explore the association of prenatal COF exposure with off-spring FT-LBW as well as the mediating role of placenta in their association.MethodsA case-control study enrolling 266 pregnant women delivering FTLBW newborns (cases) and 1420 delivering normal birth weight (NBW) newborns (controls) was conducted. Information on prenatal COF exposure, socio-demographics, and obstetric conditions were collected at the Women's and Children's Hospitals of Shenzhen and Foshan in Guangdong, China. Linear and hierarchical logistic regression models were undertaken to explore the associations among COF exposure, placenta and birth weight, as well as the mediation effect of placental weight.ResultsAfter controlling for potential confounders, prenatal COF exposure was significantly associated with the higher risk of FT-LBW (OR = 1.31, 95% CI= 1.06–1.63) and the lower placental weight (ß = −0.12, 95% CI= −0.23 ~ −0.005). Compared with mothers who never cooked, those cooking sometimes (OR= 2.99, 95% CI= 1.48–6.04) or often (OR= 3.41, 95% CI= 1.40–8.34) showed a higher risk of FT-LBW, and likewise, those cooking for less than half an hour (OR= 2.08, 95% CI= 1.14–3.79) or cooking between half to an hour (OR= 2.48, 95% CI= 1.44–4.29) were also more likely to exhibit FT-LBW. Different cooking methods including pan-frying (OR= 2.24, 95% CI= 1.30–3.85) or deep-frying (OR= 1.78, 95% CI= 1.12–2.85) during pregnancy were associated with increased FT-LBW risks as well. The further mediation analysis illustrated that placental weight mediated 15.96% (95% CI: 12.81~28.80%) and 15.90% (95% CI= 14.62%~16.66%) of the associations of cooking during pregnancy and frequency of prenatal COF exposure, respectively, with FT-LBW.
Persistent organic pollutants in fish from Charleston Harbor and tributaries, South Carolina, United States: A risk assessment Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Patricia A. Fair, Natasha D. White, Beth Wolf, Stephen A. Arnott, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Rajendiran Karthikraj, John E. Vena
Renal Function and exposure to Bisphenol A and phthalates in children with Chronic Kidney Disease Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Julia Malits, Teresa M. Attina, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Mrudula Naidu, Susan Furth, Bradley A. Warady, Suzanne Vento, Howard Trachtman, Leonardo Trasande
Rationale and objectiveExposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is ubiquitous among adults and children in the United States. Among children and adolescents, those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are potentially at greater risk of adverse effects from BPA and phthalate exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate BPA and phthalate exposure among children with CKD and evaluate associations with three measures of kidney function.Study designCross sectional study.Setting, participants, and measurementsThe CKD population was represented by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children with impaired kidney function in the US. The main outcome was assessment of the relationship between chemical exposures and clinical laboratory findings at enrollment into CKiD. Data collected at baseline from participants 1 to 17 years old (N = 538) were analyzed. Urinary BPA and phthalate levels were evaluated at this time point. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative pediatric population, were used for comparison to the CKiD cohort.ResultsUrinary BPA and phthalate levels in the CKiD population were consistently lower than levels detected in healthy children. Additionally, BPA was not significantly associated with blood pressure, proteinuria, or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Within the CKiD population, for select individual and combined phthalates, there was an inverse relationship with the urinary protein:creatinine ratio (LMW phthalates, − 9.53% change; 95% CI: − 14.21, − 4.21; p = 0.001), and in most cases, a positive relationship with eGFR (LMW phthalates, a 3.46 unit increase in eGFR, 95% CI: 1.85, 5.07; p < 0.001).LimitationsLack of longitudinal data, limited assessment of diet and nutritional status.ConclusionIn the study cohort, children with CKD did not have increased exposure to BPA and phthalates. Longitudinal studies with repeated measures are likely to be more informative about the possible health effects of prolonged exposure to BPA and phthalates in pediatric patients with CKD.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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