The inhalation effects of by-products from chlorination of heated indoor swimming pools on spinal development in pup mice Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Marianne E. McMaster, Christi Ashley-Sing, Adriana A. Dos Santos Tavares, Carlos Alcaide Corral, Katie McGill, Duncan McNeil, Maurits A. Jansen, A.H.R.W. Simpson
IntroductionIt has been postulated that swimming in heated indoor swimming pools in the first year of life is associated with the development of spinal deformity in children. We explored in pup mice whether exposure to certain disinfection by-products resulting from chlorination of heated pools would affect the future development of the spinal column.MethodsMice, from birth and for 28 consecutive days, were exposed to chemicals known to be created by disinfection by-products of indoor heated swimming pools. The study made use of a body fluid analogue and a chlorine source to recreate the conditions found in municipal pools. A cohort of 51 wild-type C57B6 mice, male and female, were divided into two groups: experimental (n = 29) and controls (n = 22). 24 mice were observed for 8 months (32 weeks), with 27 culled at 4 months (16 weeks). Serial CT scanning was used to assess the spines.ResultsExposure to disinfection by-products resulted in an increase in the normal thoracic kyphotic spinal angle of the mice when compared with their controls at 10 weeks; experimental mice kyphosis range 35–82° versus 29–38° in controls. At 14 weeks the kyphosis of the experimental mice had reduced in size but never to that of the control group.ConclusionWe have demonstrated the ability to influence spinal development in pup mice through environmental factors and shown that the developmental deformity became evident only after a significant latent period.
Effect on blood pressure and eye health symptoms in a climate-financed randomized cookstove intervention study in rural India Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Ther W. Aung, Jill Baumgartner, Grishma Jain, Karthik Sethuraman, Conor Reynolds, Julian D. Marshall, Michael Brauer
BackgroundAir pollution from cooking with solid fuels is a potentially modifiable risk factor for increased blood pressure and may lead to eye irritation.ObjectivesTo evaluate whether a climate motivated cookstove intervention reduced blood pressure and eye irritation symptoms in Indian women.MethodsHouseholds using traditional stoves were randomized to receive a rocket stove or continue using traditional stoves. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and self-reported eye symptoms were measured twice, pre-intervention and at least 124 days post-intervention in women > 25 years old in control (N = 111) and intervention (N = 111) groups in rural Karnataka, India. Daily (24-h) fine particle (PM2.5) mass and absorbance (Abs) were measured in cooking areas at each visit. Mixed-effect models were used to estimate before-and-after differences in SBP, DBP and eye symptoms.ResultsWe observed a lower SBP (−2.0 (−4.5, 0.5) mmHg) and DBP (−1.1 (−2.9, 0.6) mmHg) among exclusive users of intervention stove, although confidence intervals included zero. Stacking or mixed use of intervention and traditional stoves contributed to a small increase in SBP 2.6 (−0.4, 5.7) mmHg) and DBP (1.2 (−0.9, 3.3) mmHg). Exclusive and mixed stove users experienced higher post-intervention reductions, on average, in self-reported eye irritation symptoms for burning sensation in eyes, and eyes look red often compared to control. Median air pollutant concentrations increased post-intervention in all stove groups, with the lowest median PM2.5 increase in the exclusive intervention stove group.ConclusionsHealth benefits were limited due to stacking and lower-than-predicted efficiency of the intervention stove in the field. Stove adoption and use behavior, in addition to stove technology, affects achievement of health co-benefits. Carbon-financing schemes need to align with international guidelines that have been set based on health outcomes to maximize health co-benefits from cookstove interventions.
Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Angel M. Dzhambov, Iana Markevych, Terry Hartig, Boris Tilov, Zlatoslav Arabadzhiev, Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Penka Gatseva, Donka D. Dimitrova
Background A growing body of scientific literature indicates that urban green- and bluespace support mental health; however, little research has attempted to address the complexities in likely interrelations among the pathways through which benefits plausibly are realized. Objectives The present study examines how different plausible pathways between green/bluespace and mental health can work together. Both objective and perceived measures of green- and bluespace are used in these models. Methods We sampled 720 students from the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Residential greenspace was measured in terms of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover density, percentage of green areas, and Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Bluespace was measured in terms of its presence in the neighborhood and the Euclidean distance to the nearest bluespace. Mental health was measured with the 12-item form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The following mediators were considered: perceived neighborhood green/bluespace, restorative quality of the neighborhood, social cohesion, physical activity, noise and air pollution, and environmental annoyance. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Higher NDVI within a 300 m buffer around the residence was associated with better mental health through higher perceived greenspace; through higher perceived greenspace, leading to increased restorative quality, and subsequently to increased physical activity (i.e., serial mediation); through lower noise exposure, which in turn was associated with lower annoyance; and through higher perceived greenspace, which was associated with lower annoyance. Presence of bluespace within a 300 m buffer did not have a straightforward association with mental health owing to competitive indirect paths: one supporting mental health through higher perceived bluespace, restorative quality, and physical activity; and another engendering mental ill-health through higher noise exposure and annoyance. Conclusions We found evidence that having more greenspace near the residence supported mental health through several indirect pathways with serial components. Conversely, bluespace was not clearly associated with mental health.
Chronic toxicity of nanodiamonds can disturb development and reproduction of Acheta domesticus L Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Andrzej Kędziorski, Maria A. Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Marta Dziewięcka, Maria Augustyniak
The use of nanodiamonds in numerous materials designed for industry and medicine is growing rapidly. Consequently health and environmental risks associated with the exposure of humans and other biota to nanodiamonds-based materials are of the utmost importance. Scarcity of toxicological data for these particles led us to examine the potentially deleterious effects of nanodiamonds in model insect species, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera) chronically exposed to ND in its diet. Organism-level end-point indices (lifespan, body weight, consumption, caloric value of faeces, reproduction) revealed adverse changes in the treated crickets in comparison with the control. Preliminary studies of oxidative stress level in the offspring of ND-treated crickets suggest toxicity of these particles limited to the exposed individuals. EPR analysis showing increase of radical signal in the faeces of ND-fed crickets led us to propose novel mechanism of nanodiamonds toxicity that is discussed in the light of literature data. Capsule Development and reproduction of Acheta domesticus can be disturbed by the chronic exposure to nanodiamonds
Effects of carbon and silicon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers on marine microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 K.S. Pikula, A.M. Zakharenko, V.V. Chaika, A.A. Vedyagin, T.Yu. Orlova, I.V. Mishakov, V.L. Kuznetsov, S. Park, E.A. Renieri, A. Kahru, A.M. Tsatsakis, K.S. Golokhvast
The effect of carbon and silicon nanotubes (CNTs and SiNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) to microscopic marine algae Heterosigma akashiwo was studied, using algal growth inhibition for 3 days (acute effect) and 7 days (chronic effect) as toxicity endpoints. The criterion of the toxic effect was the statistically significant reduction of the number of algal cells in the exposed samples compared to the control. Samples did not demonstrate toxic effects at doses 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l. CNTs and SiNTs samples at 100 mg/l exhibited both acute and chronic toxic effects. We assume that the main cause of cell death in these samples was related to the mechanical damage of cell integrity. CNFs at concentrations of 100 mg/l did not inhibit algal growth, but cells with irregular shapes were observed, which were not observed after exposure to CNTs and SiNTs. Nickel impurities present in CNFs samples are presumably the main cause of observed cell deformations.
Toxic metal(loid)-based pollutants and their possible role in autism spectrum disorder Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-11 Geir Bjørklund, Anatoly V. Skalny, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Maryam Dadar, Heba A. Yassa, Jan Aaseth, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Margarita G. Skalnaya, Alexey A. Tinkov
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotypic behaviors. Many studies support a significant relationship between many different environmental factors in ASD etiology. These factors include increased daily exposure to various toxic metal-based environmental pollutants, which represent a cause for concern in public health. This article reviews the most relevant toxic metals, commonly found, environmental pollutants, i.e., lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and the metalloid arsenic (As). Additionally, it discusses how pollutants can be a possible pathogenetic cause of ASD through various mechanisms including neuroinflammation in different regions of the brain, fundamentally occurring through elevation of the proinflammatory profile of cytokines and aberrant expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Due to the worldwide increase in toxic environmental pollution, studies on the role of pollutants in neurodevelopmental disorders, including direct effects on the developing brain and the subjects’ genetic susceptibility and polymorphism, are of utmost importance to achieve the best therapeutic approach and preventive strategies.
Aloe arborescens juice prevents EMF-induced oxidative stress and thus protects from pathophysiology in the male reproductive system in vitro Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Przemyslaw Solek, Lena Majchrowicz, Marek Koziorowski
More and more studies suggest that prolonged exposure to EMF may cause adverse biological effects and point directly to a significantly negative correlation between EMF and human health, especially men fertility. In our previous study, we reported that this could be related to the EMF-induced reactive oxygen species formation, followed by DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. In this study, we decided to expand our research by the search for substances which would prevent EMF-induced damage in spermatogenic cells. Such an agent seems to be Aloe arborescens Mill. juice, which was shown to possess a wide range of protective properties. The administration of aloe extract helps among others to prevent the formation of free radicals by various biochemical pathways. Therefore, the main aim of our study was to provide a significant knowledge concerning the mechanism involved in the multi-pathway cytoprotective response of aloe juice against EMF. The study was carried out in an in vitro mouse spermatogenesis pathway cell lines (GC-1 spg and GC-2 spd). Our results suggest that the aloe juice has many positive effects, especially for the cellular antioxidant systems by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species pool induced by EMF. In consequence, aloe juice prevents DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and therefore the viability and metabolic activity of both cell line tested are preserved. In conclusion, our study provides new insight into the underlying mechanisms through which aloe juice prevents spermatogenic cells from cytotoxic and genotoxic events.
Low-dose developmental bisphenol A exposure alters fatty acid metabolism in Fischer 344 rat offspring Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Linda Dunder, Margareta Halin Lejonklou, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus, P. Monica Lind
Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor and also a suggested obesogen and metabolism-disrupting chemical. Accumulating data indicates that the fatty acid (FA) profile and their ratios in plasma and other metabolic tissues are associated with metabolic disorders. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and its activity can be estimated by dividing the FA product by its precursor measured in blood or other tissues. Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-dose developmental BPA exposure on tissue-specific FA composition including estimated SCD-1 activity, studied in 5- and 52-week (wk)-old Fischer 344 (F344) rat offspring. Methods Pregnant F344 rats were exposed to BPA via their drinking water corresponding to 0: [CTRL], 0.5: [BPA0.5], or 50 µg/kg BW/day: [BPA50], from gestational day 3.5 until postnatal day 22. Results BPA0.5 increased SCD-16 (estimated as the 16:1n-7/16:0 ratio) and SCD-18 (estimated as the 18:1n-9/18:0 ratio) indices in inguinal white adipose tissue triglycerides (iWAT-TG) and in plasma cholesterol esters (PL-CE), respectively, in 5-wk-old male offspring. In addition, BPA0.5 altered the FA composition in male offspring, e.g. by decreasing levels of the essential polyunsaturated FA linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in iWAT-and liver-TG. No differences were observed regarding the studied FAs in 52-wk-old offspring, although a slightly increased BW was observed in 52-wk-old female offspring. Conclusions Low-dose developmental BPA exposure increased SCD-16 in iWAT-TG and SCD-18 in PL-CE of male offspring, which may reflect higher SCD-1 activity in these tissues. Altered desaturation activity and signs of altered FA composition are novel findings that may indicate insulin resistance in the rat offspring. These aforementioned results, together with the observed increased BW, adds to previously published data demonstrating that BPA can act as a metabolism disrupting chemical.
The role of B7 costimulation in benzene immunotoxicity and its potential association with cancer risk Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Elisa Sauer, Bruna Gauer, Sabrina Nascimento, Jessica Nardi, Gabriela Göethel, Bárbara Costa, Douglas Correia, Ursula Matte, Mariele Charão, Marcelo Arbo, Albert Duschl, Angela Moro, Solange Cristina Garcia
Benzene is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there are still some gaps in the knowledge regarding the mechanism of toxicity of this organic solvent and potential early biomarkers for the damage caused by it. In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that the adhesion molecules of the immune system (B7.1 and B7.2) could be potential biomarkers in the early detection of immunotoxicity caused by benzene exposure. Therefore, this study was developed to deepen the understanding regarding this important topic, aiming to contribute to the comprehension of the benzene toxicity mechanism mediated by B7.1 and B7.2 and its potential association with the risk of carcinogenicity. B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression in blood monocytes and B7.1 and B7.2 gene expression in PBMCs were evaluated. Additionally, complement C3 and C4 levels in serum were measured, as well as p53 gene expression in PBMCs. Seventy-four gas station workers (GSW group) and 71 non-occupationally exposed subjects (NEG) were evaluated. Our results demonstrated decreased levels of B7.1 and B7.2 protein and gene expression in the GSW group compared to the NEG (n = 71) (p < 0.01). Along the same lines, decreased levels of the complement system were observed in the GSW group (p < 0.01), demonstrating the impairment of this immune system pathway as well. Additionally, a reduction was observed in p53 gene expression in the GSA group (p < 0.01). These alterations were associated with both the benzene exposure biomarker evaluated, urinary trans, trans-muconic acid, and with exposure time (p < 0.05). Moreover, strong correlations were observed between the gene expression of p53 vs. B7.1 (r = 0.830; p < 0.001), p53 vs. B7.2 (r = 0.685; p < 0.001), and B7.1 vs. B7.2 (r = 0.702; p < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate that the immune system co-stimulatory molecule pathway is affected by benzene exposure. Also, the decrease in p53 gene expression, even at low exposure levels, reinforces the carcinogenicity effect of benzene in this pathway. Therefore, our results suggest that the promotion of immune evasion together with a decrease in p53 gene expression may play an important role in the benzene toxicity mechanism. However, further and targeted studies are needed to confirm this proposition.
Toxicological assessment of mesoporous silica particles in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 Carolina Acosta, Jose M. Barat, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Félix Sancenón, Silvia Llopis, Nuria González, Salvador Genovés, Daniel Ramón, Patricia Martorell
Here we report the toxicological evaluation of mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) in the nematode C. elegans. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of bare micro- (M0) and nano-sized (N0) MSPs, and their corresponding functionalized particles with a starch derivative (Glu-N) (M1 and N1, respectively) on C. elegans ageing parameters. The toxicity of MSPs, their impact on C. elegans lifespan, movement capacity, progeny and ability to survive upon exposure to acute oxidative stress were assessed. This study demonstrated that both size particles assayed (M0 and N0), labeled with rhodamine and monitored through fluorescence microscopy, are ingested by the nematode. Moreover, toxicity assays indicated that bare nano-sized particles (N0) have a negative impact on the C. elegans lifespan, reducing mobility and progeny production. By contrast, micro-sized particles (M0) proved innocuous for the nematodes. Furthermore, functionalization of nanoparticles with starch derivative reduced their toxicity in C. elegans. Thus, oral intake of N1 comparatively increased the mean lifespan and activity rates as well as resistance to oxidative stress. The overall findings presented here demonstrate the influence of MSP size and surface on their potential toxicity in vivo and indicate the silica-based mesoporous particles to be a potential support for encapsulation in oral delivery applications. Furthermore, the good correlation obtained between healthy aging variables and viability (mean lifespan) validates the use of C. elegans as a multicellular organism for nanotoxicology studies of MSPs.
DNA damage protection by bulk and nano forms of quercetin in lymphocytes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exposed to the food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinolone (IQ) Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Khaled Habas, Mhamoued Abdulmwli, Eşref Demir, Badie K. Jacob, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Diana Anderson
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans, describes a group of lung conditions characterised by airflow limitation that is poorly reversible. The airflow limitation usually progresses slowly and is related to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to toxic particles. COPD is characterised by oxidative stress and an increased risk of lung carcinoma. The 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is one of a number of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines found mainly in well-cooked meats which are thus part of the regular diet. Antioxidants are very important in order to protect the cells against oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of IQ on the level of DNA damage and susceptibility to a potent mutagen in peripheral blood cells of COPD patients. DNA damage and the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) were evaluated using the Comet and micronucleus assays, respectively. Differential expressions of both mRNA and protein of the endogenous antioxidant enzyme catalase were evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of bulk and nano forms of quercetin and their combination with IQ were examined. Results of the present study clearly demonstrated that MNi frequency in the peripheral blood lymphocytes exhibited a positive correlation with the DNA damage as evident from the different Comet assay parameters. Increase of the endogenous antioxidant catalase also showed there was a stimulation of this enzyme system by IQ. Whereas, the endogenous antioxidant quercetin significantly reduced oxidative stress in COPD patients and healthy individuals.
Exploring the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diabetes among adults in the United States Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Sericea Stallings-Smith, Anna Mease, Tammie M. Johnson, Andrea Y. Arikawa
Objective To explore the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and diabetes and to determine whether effects are heterogeneous when examined by body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional data from 8664 participants were analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for years 2005–2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between urinary biomarkers of PAHs and diabetes. All models were adjusted for age, sex, race, poverty-income ratio, and serum cotinine. Results When compared with the lowest quintiles of exposure, the highest quintiles of exposure to 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and a summed variable of all low molecular weight PAHs (aOR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.17–2.55) showed a positive association with diabetes. Stratified analyses by BMI indicated that the positive association between PAHs and diabetes was found among both normal weight and obese participants. Conclusions High levels of exposure to PAHs are positively associated with diabetes in the U.S. general population and these effects are modified by BMI. These findings suggest the importance of strong environmental regulation of PAHs to protect population health.
Can explicit suggestions about the harmfulness of EMF exposure exacerbate a nocebo response in healthy controls? Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Adam Verrender, Sarah P. Loughran, Anna Dalecki, Frederik Freudenstein, Rodney J. Croft
While there has been consistent evidence that symptoms reported by individuals who suffer from Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) are not caused by EMF and are more closely associated with a nocebo effect, whether this response is specific to IEI-EMF sufferers and what triggers it, remains unclear. The present experiment tested whether perceived EMF exposure could elicit symptoms in healthy participants, and whether viewing an ‘alarmist’ video could exacerbate a nocebo response. Participants were randomly assigned to watch either an alarmist (N = 22) or control video (N = 22) before completing a series of sham and active radiofrequency (RF) EMF exposure provocation trials (2 open-label, followed by 12 randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced trials). Pre- and post-video state anxiety and risk perception, as well as belief of exposure and symptom ratings during the open-label and double-blind provocation trials, were assessed. Symptoms were higher in the open-label RF-ON than RF-OFF trial (p < .001). No difference in either symptoms (p = .183) or belief of exposure (p = .144) was observed in the double-blind trials. Participants who viewed the alarmist video had a significant increase in symptoms (p = .041), state anxiety (p < .01) and risk perception (p < .001) relative to the control group. These results reveal the crucial role of awareness and belief in the presentation of symptoms during perceived exposure to EMF, showing that healthy participants exhibit a nocebo response, and that alarmist media reports emphasizing adverse effects of EMF also contribute to a nocebo response.
Cold-related mortality vs heat-related mortality in a changing climate: A case study in Vilnius (Lithuania) Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Gerardo Sanchez Martinez, Julio Diaz, Hans Hooyberghs, Dirk Lauwaet, Koen De Ridder, Cristina Linares, Rocio Carmona, Cristina Ortiz, Vladimir Kendrovski, Dovile Adamonyte
Introduction Direct health effects of extreme temperatures are a significant environmental health problem in Lithuania, and could worsen further under climate change. This paper attempts to describe the change in environmental temperature conditions that the urban population of Vilnius could experience under climate change, and the effects such change could have on excess heat-related and cold-related mortality in two future periods within the 21st century. Methods We modelled the urban climate of Vilnius for the summer and winter seasons during a sample period (2009–2015) and projected summertime and wintertime daily temperatures for two prospective periods, one in the near (2030–2045) and one in the far future (2085–2100), under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. We then analysed the historical relationship between temperature and mortality for the period 2009–2015, and estimated the projected mortality in the near future and far future periods under a changing climate and population, assuming alternatively no acclimatisation and acclimatisation to heat and cold based on a constant-percentile threshold temperature. Results During the sample period 2009–2015 in summertime we observed an increase in daily mortality from a maximum daily temperature of 30 °C (the 96th percentile of the series), with an average of around 7 deaths per year. Under a no acclimatisation scenario, annual average heat-related mortality would rise to 24 deaths/year (95% CI: 8.4–38.4) in the near future and to 46 deaths/year (95% CI: 16.4–74.4) in the far future. Under a heat acclimatisation scenario, mortality would not increase significantly in the near or in the far future. Regarding wintertime cold-related mortality in the sample period 2009–2015, we observed increased mortality on days on which the minimum daily temperature fell below − 12 °C (the 7th percentile of the series), with an average of around 10 deaths a year. Keeping the threshold temperature constant, annual average cold-related mortality would decrease markedly in the near future, to 5 deaths/year (95% CI: 0.8–7.9) and even more in the far future, down to 0.44 deaths/year (95% C: 0.1–0.8). Assuming a “middle ground” between the acclimatisation and non-acclimatisation scenarios, the decrease in cold-related mortality will not compensate the increase in heat-related mortality. Conclusion Thermal extremes, both heat and cold, constitute a serious public health threat in Vilnius, and in a changing climate the decrease in mortality attributable to cold will not compensate for the increase in mortality attributable to heat. Study results reinforce the notion that public health prevention against thermal extremes should be designed as a dynamic, adaptive process from the inception.
The effect of flavor content in e-liquids on e-cigarette emissions of carbonyl compounds Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 Yao Qu, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E. Szulejko
The effect of flavors on carbonyl compound (CC) emission factors (EF) from electronic cigarettes (ECs) vaping was investigated at the default vaping (voltage) setting in all experiments using a total of 21 lab-made e-liquid samples (five different types of retail flavorant bases: beverage/dessert/fruit/mint/tobacco). Each flavorant base was added to a separate unflavored base composed of a 1:1 mixture of propylene glycol/vegetable glycerol (PG/VG) at four levels (5/10/30/50% (v/v)). The e-liquid CC levels increased linearly with flavorant base content, 1.3–10.5 times (R2: 0.762–0.999). The vaping CC EFs increased linearly with flavorant base content (if ≥ 10%) from 1.0 to 92 times (R2: 0.431–0.998). For flavorant base content of 0%, 5%, and 10%, the EFs ranged from undetected to 0.11 μg puff−1 (acetone). The 40-year cancer risk due to formaldehyde (70 kg EC user inhaling 5% flavorant base content e-liquid: 120 puffs day−1) is estimated to be 2.0E-06 (highest) compared to 1.0E-06 for the 1:1 PG:VG base. Most formaldehyde vaped from the fruit flavored e-liquid was the flavorant base. The CC concentrations in EC liquids (before vaping) were approximately linear with e-liquid flavorant base content. Retail e-liquid product information labels should be guided to provide a complete list of all ingredients, their concentrations, and carbonyl compound EFs.
Evaluation of NOx emissions of a retrofitted Euro 5 passenger car for the Horizon prize “Engine retrofit” Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Barouch Giechaskiel, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Tero Lähde, Michael Clairotte, Massimo Carriero, Pierre Bonnel, Maurizio Maggiore
Analyzing urban ecosystem variation in the City of Dongguan: A stepwise cluster modeling approach Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-18 J. Sun, Y.P. Li, P.P. Gao, C. Suo, B.C. Xia
In this study, a stepwise cluster modeling approach (SCMA) is developed for analyzing urban ecosystem variation via Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). NDVI is an indicator of vegetation growth and coverage and useful in reflecting urban ecosystem. SCMA is established on a cluster tree that can characterize the complex relationship between independent and dependent variables. SCMA is applied to the City of Dongguan for simulating the urban NDVI and identifying associated drivers of human activity, topography and meteorology without specific functions. Results show that SCMA performances better than conventional statistical methods, illustrating the ability of SCMA in capturing the complex and nonlinear features of urban ecosystem. Results disclose that human activities play negative effects on NDVI due to the destruction of green space for pursuing more space for buildings. NDVI reduces gradually from the south part to the north part of Dongguan due to increased gross domestic product and population density, indicating that the ecosystem in Dongguan is better in the south part. NDVI in the northeast part (dominated by agriculture) is sensitive to the growth of economy and population. More attention should be paid to this part for sustainable development, such as increasing afforestation, planting grass and constructing parks. Precipitation has a positive effect on NDVI due to the promotion of soil moisture that is beneficial to plants’ growth. Awareness of these complexities is helpful for sustainable development of urban ecosystem.
Framework for the assessment of PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) uncertainty Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Barouch Giechaskiel, Michael Clairotte, Victor Valverde-Morales, Pierre Bonnel, Zlatko Kregar, Vicente Franco, Panagiota Dilara
Survey on the micro-pollutants presence in surface water system of northern Serbia and environmental and health risk assessment Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-07 Biljana D. Škrbić, Kiwao Kadokami, Igor Antić
This study demonstrates the occurrence of 940 organic micro-pollutants in surface water of four rivers, one irrigation canal system, and two lakes in Vojvodina Province, the northern part of Serbia, summing in total eighteen samples. The number of detected chemicals ranged from 22 to 84, with 127 micro-pollutants detected at least once, representing 13% of the studied substances. The targeted compounds include n-alkanes, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, pharmaceutical active compounds, industrial chemicals, plasticizers, etc. Among the analysed compounds, sterols were the most dominant with maximum quantified concentrations. The substances which were quantified with frequency over 50% were two PAHs (2-methylnaphthalene, benzo(ghi)perylene), five sterols (cholesterol, cholestanol, stigmasterol, fucosterol, beta-sitosterol), three pharmaceuticals and personal care products (L-menthol, diethyltoluamide, caffeine), and ten household chemicals (4-tert-octylphenol, dimethyl phthalate, methyl palmitate, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-nonanol, alpha-terpineol, 2-phenoxy-ethanol, methyl myristate, acetophenone, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol). The list of priority substances under the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU includes 49 priority substances (PSs) out of which 34 were analysed. Among these, eleven PSs were quantified, and only two compounds (fluoranthene and benzo (a) pyrene) exceeded EU Environmental Quality Standards targeted values. The obtained results were compared with the previously published data that dealt with the same targeted number of micro-pollutants in sediment samples. This revealed connections between the same sampling locations. Environmental risk assessment showed the existence of potential ecological risk as 72% of the obtained values for the ecological hazard index (HI) at investigated locations were higher that the targeted value (HI > 1). Estimated values for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) for non-carcinogenic risk were lower than the targeted value, indicating no non-carcinogenic risk through dermal contact and non-intentional ingestion of water. Estimated values for cancer risk were all below 1 × 10−6, which is not considered to pose significant human health risk.
Influence of school environments on childhood obesity in California Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Alberto M. Ortega Hinojosa, Kara E. MacLeod, John Balmes, Michael Jerrett
Objective To conduct a state-wide examination of public schools and the school neighborhood as potential targets for environmental public health tracking to address childhood obesity. Methods We examined the relationship of social and physical environmental attributes of the school environment (within school and neighborhood) and childhood obesity in California with machine learning (Random Forest) and multilevel methods. We used data compiled from the California Department of Education, the U.S. Geological Survey, ESRI's Business Analyst, the U.S. Census, and other public sources for ecologic level variables for various years and assessed their relative importance to obesity as determined from the statewide Physical Fitness Test 2003 through 2007 for grades 5, 7, and 9 (n = 5,265,265). Results In addition to individual-level race and gender, the following within and school neighborhood variables ranked as the most important model contributors based on the Random Forest analysis and were included in multilevel regressions clustered on the county. Violent crime, English learners, socioeconomic disadvantage, fewer physical education (PE) and fully credentialed teachers, and diversity index were positively associated with obesity while academic performance index, PE participation, mean educational attainment and per capita income were negatively associated with obesity. The most highly ranked built or physical environment variables were distance to the nearest highway and greenness, which were 10th and 11th most important, respectively. Conclusions Many states in the U.S. do not have school-based surveillance programs that collect body mass index data. System-level determinants of obesity can be important for tracking and intervention. The results of these analyses suggest that the school social environment factors may be especially important. Disadvantaged and low academic performing schools have a higher risk for obesity. Supporting such schools in a targeted way may be an efficient way to intervene and could impact both health and academic outcomes. Some of the more important variables, such as having credentialed teachers and participating in PE, are modifiable risk factors.
Is there a link between cognitive abilities and environmental awareness? Cross-national evidence Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-05 Raufhon Salahodjaev
This article explores the effect of cognitive abilities on environmental awareness using data from 119 countries for the period 2005–2015. Our findings provide pioneering confirmation that a facet of human psychology, namely cognitive ability, is positively associated with environmentalism. The empirical estimations indicate that when cognitive abilities increase by one standard deviation, climate change awareness increases by approximately 19% (slightly less than one standard deviation). This positive association remains intact when we control for other determinants of environmentalism.
Association between noise exposure and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-10 Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Fariba Zare Sakhvidi, Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Maria Foraster, Payam Dadvand
Background The prevalence of diabetes is on rise worldwide and environmental factors are being increasingly recognized to be involved in this rise. An emerging body of evidence has evaluated the impact of long-term exposure to noise on diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need to synthesize this evidence. Objectives To systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of the available evidence on the association between long-term exposure to transport and occupational noise exposure and diabetes mellitus. Methods Selected databases were searched for available evidence published till September 13th, 2017 following MOOSE guidelines. The quality of articles was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis was applied to abstract combined estimates for diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure. We evaluated the heterogeneity applying Cochran's Q test and quantified it using I2 statistic. Meta-regressions were conducted to identify sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's test. Results Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria of which nine including five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and two case-control studies with a total number of 444460 adult participants and 17430 diabetes mellitus cases included in meta-analyses. We observed a 6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3%, 9%) increase in the risk of diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure regardless of its source. Source-specific analyses were suggestive for stronger associations for air traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29 per 5 dB increase in exposure) flowed by road traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12). We observed some indications of publication bias; however the findings were robust after trim and fill test. Meta-regression analyses showed that the adjustment in general, and not specifically related to air pollution, could predict the between-study heterogeneity in reported associations. Conclusions The results indicate an increased risk of diabetes mellitus associated with noise exposure, mainly related to air and road traffic.
The health benefits of the great outdoors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of greenspace exposure and health outcomes Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Caoimhe Twohig-Bennett, Andy Jones
Background The health benefits of greenspaces have demanded the attention of policymakers since the 1800s. Although much evidence suggests greenspace exposure is beneficial for health, there exists no systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesise and quantify the impact of greenspace on a wide range of health outcomes. Objective To quantify evidence of the impact of greenspace on a wide range of health outcomes. Methods We searched five online databases and reference lists up to January 2017. Studies satisfying a priori eligibility criteria were evaluated independently by two authors. Results We included 103 observational and 40 interventional studies investigating ~100 health outcomes. Meta-analysis results showed increased greenspace exposure was associated with decreased salivary cortisol −0.05 (95% CI −0.07, −0.04), heart rate −2.57 (95% CI −4.30, −0.83), diastolic blood pressure −1.97 (95% CI −3.45, −0.19), HDL cholesterol −0.03 (95% CI −0.05, <-0.01), low frequency heart rate variability (HRV) −0.06 (95% CI −0.08, −0.03) and increased high frequency HRV 91.87 (95% CI 50.92, 132.82), as well as decreased risk of preterm birth 0.87 (95% CI 0.80, 0.94), type II diabetes 0.72 (95% CI 0.61, 0.85), all-cause mortality 0.69 (95% CI 0.55, 0.87), small size for gestational age 0.81 (95% CI 0.76, 0.86), cardiovascular mortality 0.84 (95% CI 0.76, 0.93), and an increased incidence of good self-reported health 1.12 (95% CI 1.05, 1.19). Incidence of stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, asthma, and coronary heart disease were reduced. For several non-pooled health outcomes, between 66.7% and 100% of studies showed health-denoting associations with increased greenspace exposure including neurological and cancer-related outcomes, and respiratory mortality. Conclusions Greenspace exposure is associated with numerous health benefits in intervention and observational studies. These results are indicative of a beneficial influence of greenspace on a wide range of health outcomes. However several meta-analyses results are limited by poor study quality and high levels of heterogeneity. Green prescriptions involving greenspace use may have substantial benefits. Our findings should encourage practitioners and policymakers to give due regard to how they can create, maintain, and improve existing accessible greenspaces in deprived areas. Furthermore the development of strategies and interventions for the utilisation of such greenspaces by those who stand to benefit the most.
Air pollution and the fetal origin of disease: A systematic review of the molecular signatures of air pollution exposure in human placenta Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Leen J. Luyten, Nelly D. Saenen, Bram G. Janssen, Karen Vrijens, Michelle Plusquin, Harry A. Roels, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Tim S. Nawrot
Background Fetal development is a crucial window of susceptibility in which exposure-related alterations can be induced on the molecular level, leading to potential changes in metabolism and development. The placenta serves as a gatekeeper between mother and fetus, and is in contact with environmental stressors throughout pregnancy. This makes the placenta as a temporary organ an informative non-invasive matrix suitable to investigate omics-related aberrations in association with in utero exposures such as ambient air pollution. Objectives To summarize and discuss the current evidence and define the gaps of knowledge concerning human placental -omics markers in association with prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution. Methods Two investigators independently searched the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases to identify all studies published until January 2017 with an emphasis on epidemiological research on prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and the effect on placental -omics signatures. Results From the initial 386 articles, 25 were retained following an a priori set inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified eleven studies on the genome, two on the transcriptome, five on the epigenome, five on the proteome category, one study with both genomic and proteomic topics, and one study with both genomic and transcriptomic topics. Six studies discussed the triple relationship between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy, the associated placental -omics marker(s), and the potential effect on disease development later in life. So far, no metabolomic or exposomic data discussing associations between the placenta and prenatal exposure to air pollution have been published. Conclusions Integration of placental biomarkers in an environmental epidemiological context enables researchers to address fundamental questions essential in unraveling the fetal origin of disease and helps to better define the pregnancy exposome of air pollution.
The additive to background assumption in cancer risk assessment: A reappraisal Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Edward J. Calabrese
The assumption that chemical and radiation induced cancers act in a manner that is additive to background was proposed in the mid-1970s. It was adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1986 and then subsequently by other regulatory agencies worldwide for cancer risk assessment. It ensured that cancer risks at low doses act in a linear fashion. The additive to background process assumes that the mechanism(s) resulting in induced (i.e., treatment related) and spontaneous (i.e., control group) cancers are identical. This assumption could not be properly evaluated due to inadequate mechanistic data when it was proposed in the 1970s. Using the findings of modern molecular toxicology, including oncogene activation/mutation, gene regulation, and molecular pathway analyses, the additive to background assumption was evaluated in the present paper. Based on published studies with 45 carcinogens over 13 diverse mammalian models and for a broad range of tumor types compelling evidence indicates that carcinogen-induced tumors are mediated in general via mechanisms that are not identical to those affecting the occurrence of the same type of spontaneous tumors in appropriate control groups. These findings, which challenge a fundamental assumption of the additive to background concept, have significant implications for cancer risk assessment policy, regulatory agency practices, as well as fundamental concepts of cancer biology.
Vulnerability to heatwaves and implications for public health interventions – A scoping review Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Elisabeth Anne-Sophie Mayrhuber, Michel L.A. Dückers, Peter Wallner, Arne Arnberger, Brigitte Allex, Laura Wiesböck, Anna Wanka, Franz Kolland, Renate Eder, Hans-Peter Hutter, Ruth Kutalek
Background Heatwaves form a serious public health threat, especially for vulnerable groups. Interventions such as active outreach programs, exposure reduction measures and monitoring and mapping of at-risk groups are increasingly implemented across the world but little is known about their effect. Objectives To assess how vulnerable groups are identified and reached in heat health interventions, to understand the effectiveness and efficiency of those interventions, and to identify research gaps in existing literature. Methods We performed a literature search in relevant scientific literature databases and searched with a four element search model for articles published from 1995 onward. We extracted data on intervention measures, target group and evaluation of effectiveness and efficiency. Results We identified 23 eligible studies. Patterns exist in type of interventions 1) to detect and 2) to influence extrinsic and intrinsic risk and protective factors. Results showed several intervention barriers related to the variety and intersection of these factors, as well as the self-perception of vulnerable groups, and misconceptions and unfavorable attitudes towards intervention benefits. While modest indications for the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions were found, efficiency remains unclear. Discussion Interventions entailed logical combinations of measures, subsumed as packages. Evidence for effective and efficient intervention is limited by the difficulty to determine effects and because single measures are mutually dependent. Interventions prioritized promoting behavioral change and were based on behavioral assumptions that remain untested and mechanisms not worked out explicitly. Conclusions Multifaceted efforts are needed to tailor interventions, compiled in heat health warning systems and action plans for exposure reduction and protection of vulnerable populations, to fit the social, economic and geographical context. Besides adequately addressing relevant risk and protective factors, the challenge is to integrate perspectives of vulnerable groups. Future research should focus on intervention barriers and improving the methods of effectiveness and efficiency evaluation.
Integrating population connectivity into pollution assessment: Overwintering mixing reveals flame retardant contamination in breeding areas in a migratory raptor Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Guillermo Blanco, Fabrizio Sergio, Óscar Frías, Pablo Salinas, Alessandro Tanferna, Fernando Hiraldo, Damià Barceló, Ethel Eljarrat
Determining the exposure and magnitude at which various pollutants are differentially assimilated at the breeding and non-breeding grounds of migratory wildlife is challenging. Here, the possibility of applying the migratory connectivity framework to understanding contamination in birds is illustrated by considering flame retardants in inviable eggs of a migratory raptor, the black kite (Milvus migrans). The occurrence and concentration of legacy and emerging compounds in eggs from the southeastern peri-urban area of Madrid city, central Spain, were compared with those from Doñana National Park in southern Spain. A much higher occurrence and concentration of multiple polybrominated diphenyl ethers and Dechlorane 602 were found in Madrid than Doñana, but the opposite patterns were found for Dechlorane Plus. Individuals from these and other breeding areas in western Europe showed a strong intermixing pattern over widespread wintering areas in Africa, as assessed by ringing recoveries and movements tracked by satellite devices. This diffuse migratory connectivity reveals breeding areas as the main contamination grounds. High contamination burdens sequestered in eggs point to rapid assimilation of these compounds before laying, associated with important emission sources in Madrid, especially landfills of partially incinerated urban refuse, and other anthropogenic operations. Diet composition regarding aquatic vs. terrestrial prey, and bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes are suggested to explain differential assimilation of some compounds, especially Dechlorane Plus in Doñana, although a local emission source polluting this area cannot be ruled out. Insight from the migratory connectivity framework can help to disentangle large-scale patterns of contaminant uptake and refocus attention on key regions and potential causes of chemical hazards in declining migratory species and human populations.
Odor mitigation and bacterial community dynamics in on-site biocovers at a sanitary landfill in South Korea Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Jeonghee Yun, Hyekyeng Jung, Hee-Wook Ryu, Kyung-Cheol Oh, Jun-Min Jeon, Kyung-Suk Cho
Unpleasant odors emitted from landfills have been caused environmental and societal problems. For odor abatement, two pilot-scale biocovers were installed at a sanitary landfill site in South Korea. Biocovers PBC1 and PBC2 comprised a soil mixture with different ratios of earthworm casts as an inoculum source and were operated for 240 days. Their odor removal efficiencies were evaluated, and their bacterial community structures were characterized using pyrosequencing. In addition, the correlation between odor removability and bacterial community dynamics was assessed using network analysis. The removal efficiency of complex odor intensity in the two biocovers ranged from 81.1% to 97.8%. Removal efficiencies of sulfur-containing odors (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide), which contributed most to complex odor intensity, were greater than 91% in both biocovers. Despite the fluctuations in ambient temperature (−8.2 to 31.3 °C) and inlet complex odor intensity (10,000–42,748 of odor dilution ratio), biocovers PBC1 and PBC2 displayed stable deodorizing performance. A high ratio of earthworm casts as an inoculum source led to high odor removability during the first 25 days of operation, but different mixing ratios of earthworm casts did not significantly affect overall odor removability. A bacterial community analysis showed that Methylobacter, Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter, Rhodanobacter, and Pedobacter were the dominant genera in both biocovers. Network analysis results indicated that Steroidobacter, Cystobacter, Methylosarcina, Solirubrobacter, and Pseudoxanthomonas increased in relative abundance with time and were major contributors to odor removal, although these bacteria had a relatively low abundance compared to the overall bacterial community. These data contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between bacterial community dynamics and deodorizing performance in biocovers.
Modelling soil erosion in a Mediterranean watershed: Comparison between SWAT and AnnAGNPS models Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 O.M.M. Abdelwahab, G.F. Ricci, A.M. De Girolamo, F. Gentile
In this study, the simulations generated by two of the most widely used hydrological basin-scale models, the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were compared in a Mediterranean watershed, the Carapelle (Apulia, Southern Italy). Input data requirements, time and efforts needed for input preparation, strength and weakness points of each model, ease of use and limitations were evaluated in order to give information to users. Models were calibrated and validated at monthly time scale for hydrology and sediment load using a four year period of observations (streamflow and suspended sediment concentrations). In the driest year, the specific sediment load measured at the outlet was 0.89 t ha−1 yr−1, while the simulated values were 0.83 t ha−1 yr−1 and 1.99 t ha−1 yr−1 for SWAT and AnnAGNPS, respectively. In the wettest year, the specific measured sediment load was 7.45 t ha−1 yr−1, and the simulated values were 8.27 t ha−1 yr−1 and 6.23 t ha−1 yr−1 for SWAT and AnnAGNPS, respectively. Both models showed from fair to a very good correlation between observed and simulated streamflow and satisfactory for sediment load. Results showed that most of the basin is under moderate (1.4–10 t ha−1 yr−1) and high-risk erosion (> 10 t ha−1 yr−1). The sediment yield predicted by the SWAT and AnnAGNPS models were compared with estimates of soil erosion simulated by models for Europe (PESERA and RUSLE2015). The average gross erosion estimated by the RUSLE2015 model (12.5 t ha−1 yr−1) resulted comparable with the average specific sediment yield estimated by SWAT (8.8 t ha−1 yr−1) and AnnAGNPS (5.6 t ha−1 yr−1), while it was found that the average soil erosion estimated by PESERA is lower than the other estimates (1.2 t ha−1 yr−1).
Assessment of exposure to air pollution in children: Determining whether wearing a personal monitor affects physical activity Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir, Jennifer Lawrence, Kyung Hwa Jung, Andrew G. Rundle, Lori A. Hoepner, Beizhan Yan, Federica Perera, Matthew S. Perzanowski, Rachel L. Miller, Steve N. Chillrud
Personal air pollution monitoring in research studies should not interfere with usual patterns of behavior and bias results. In an urban pediatric cohort study we tested whether wearing an air monitor impacted activity time based on continuous watch-based accelerometry. The majority (71%) reported that activity while wearing the monitor mimicked normal activity. Correspondingly, variation in activity while wearing versus not wearing the monitor did not differ greatly from baseline variation in activity (P = 0.84).
Sleep disorders among Yusho patients highly intoxicated with dioxin-related compounds: A 140-case series Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Hideaki Kondo, Keiko Tanio, Yuki Nagaura, Mako Nagayoshi, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue, Takahiro Maeda
Purpose Patients with Yusho, a condition caused by exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, have diverse mental and physical complaints. However, the relationship between dioxins and sleep disorders has not yet been examined. This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate problems associated with sleep among patients with Yusho. Methods A total of 140 participants (52.9% men, average age: 67.1 ± 12.2 years) were examined using questionnaires and medical interviews by an expert on sleep medicine. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), which is the major cause of Yusho, were obtained from the results of recent surveys conducted by the Yusho Study Group. Results Moderate to severe symptoms of insomnia were present in 51.8% of the patients. The median Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (PSQI GS) was 8 (interquartile range: 5–11). The prevalence of restless legs syndrome/Willis–Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) was 30.7%; 24.3% of patients had severe RLS/WED (distressing symptoms with a frequency ≥ 1day per week). A higher blood concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (≥72.27 pg/g lipid) and severe RLS/WED were associated with higher odds of a PSQI GS ≥8, after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 4.84 [1.10–21.25] and 4.15 [1.53–11.28], respectively). Conclusions Symptoms of insomnia were frequent, and the prevalence of RLS/WED was high in patients with Yusho. In addition to the presence of RLS/WED, a higher blood concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was associated with lower subjective sleep quality.
Association between human and animal thermal comfort indices and physiological heat stress indicators in dairy calves Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 L. Kovács, F.L. Kézér, F. Ruff, O. Szenci, V. Jurkovich
Warm summer episodes have a significant effect on the overall health and well-being of young cattle; however, it is not known which temperature measure should be used for estimating heat stress in dairy calves. In this study, generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the relationships between thermal comfort indices and animal-based heat stress indicators in sixteen Holstein bull calves that were housed in individual calf hutches. Data were collected under continental weather characteristics over a 5-day period: day 1 (lower-temperature day), days 2 and 3 (heat stress days), and a 2-day post-stress period. Relative humidity, ambient temperature, the heat index, the humidex and five different temperature–humidity indices (THI) were used as thermal indices. Physiological variables monitored included respiratory rate, rectal temperature, ear skin temperature and heart rate. The heat index and the humidex measuring human thermal comfort were more closely associated with physiological measures than were the ambient temperature or the THIs (in case of heat index: R2 = 0.87 for respiratory rate, R2 = 0.63 for rectal temperature, R2 = 0.70 for ear skin temperature, and R2 = 0.78 for heart rate, respectively; in case of humidex: R2 = 0.85 for respiratory rate, R2 = 0.60 for rectal temperature, R2 = 0.68 for ear skin temperature, and R2 = 0.75 for heart rate, respectively). Based on our results, parameters of human outdoor comfort seem better to estimate heat stress in dairy calves in a continental region than those of THIs or ambient temperature.
Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels among pregnant women and sources of lead exposure in rural Bangladesh: A case control study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 Jenna E. Forsyth, M. Saiful Islam, Sarker Masud Parvez, Rubhana Raqib, M. Sajjadur Rahman, E. Marie Muehe, Scott Fendorf, Stephen P. Luby
Prenatal and early childhood lead exposures impair cognitive development. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh and to identify sources of lead exposure. We analyzed the BLLs of 430 pregnant women randomly selected from rural communities in central Bangladesh. Fifty-seven cases were selected with the highest BLLs, ≥ 7 μg/dL, and 59 controls were selected with the lowest BLLs, < 2 μg/dL. An exposure questionnaire was administered and soil, rice, turmeric, water, traditional medicine, agrochemical, and can samples were analyzed for lead contamination. Of all 430 women, 132 (31%) had BLLs > 5 μg/dL. Most women with elevated BLLs were spatially clustered. Cases were 2.6 times more likely than controls to consume food from a can (95% CI 1.0–6.3, p = 0.04); 3.6 times more likely to use Basudin, a specific brand of pesticide (95% CI 1.6–7.9, p = 0.002); 3.6 times more likely to use Rifit, a specific brand of herbicide (95% CI 1.7–7.9, p = 0.001); 2.9 times more likely to report using any herbicides (95% CI 1.2–7.3, p = 0.02); and 3.3 times more likely to grind rice (95% CI 1.3–8.4, p = 0.01). Five out of 28 food storage cans were lead-soldered. However, there was minimal physical evidence of lead contamination from 382 agrochemical samples and 129 ground and unground rice samples. Among 17 turmeric samples, one contained excessive lead (265 μg/g) and chromium (49 μg/g). Overall, we found evidence of elevated BLLs and multiple possible sources of lead exposure in rural Bangladesh. Further research should explicate and develop interventions to interrupt these pathways.
Association between exposure to desalinated sea water and ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer; A population-based study in Israel Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Meital Shlezinger, Yona Amitai, Amichay Akriv, Hagit Gabay, Michael Shechter, Maya Leventer-Roberts
Background Drinking water (DW) is an important dietary source of magnesium. Recently, Israel has increased its use of desalinated seawater (DSW) as DW country-wide. Its negligible magnesium content, however, raises concern that consumption of DSW may be associated with hypomagnesemia and increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and colorectal cancer (CRC). Objectives We tested whether there was a change in incidence of negative health outcomes (IHD, DM, and CRC) following the introduction of DSW supply in a population-based ecologic study in Israel. Methods A historical prospective analysis was applied to members aged 25–76 during 2004–2013 of Clalit Health Services (Clalit), the largest healthcare provider in Israel, using its electronic medical record database. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, and body mass index. Results An increased odds ratio was found for IHD (0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.99 at baseline and 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11 at the end of the follow-up period), but no time trend was observed. Conclusions We found that the risk for IHD increased during the study period. The risks for DM and CRC were unchanged. Long term studies are needed for assessing the risk for CRC due to the long latency. The higher risk for IHD has practical public health implications and raise the need to add magnesium to DSW.
Spatial modeling of daily concentrations of ground-level ozone in Montreal, Canada: A comparison of geostatistical approaches Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Yuddy Ramos, Weeberb J. Requia, Benoît St-Onge, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Yan Kestens, Audrey Smargiassi
Ground-level ozone (O3) is a powerful oxidizing agent and a harmful pollutant affecting human health, forests and crops. Estimating O3 exposure is a challenge because it exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. The aim in this study was to provide high-resolution maps (100 × 100 m) of O3 for the metropolitan area of Montreal, Canada. We assessed the kriging with external drift (KED) model to estimate O3 concentration by synoptic weather classes for 2010. We compared these results with ordinary kriging (OK), and a simple average of 12 monitoring stations. We also compared the estimates obtained for the 2010 summer with those from a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model reported in the literature (Adam-Poupart et al., 2014). The KED model with road and vegetation density as covariates showed good performance for all six synoptic classes (daily R2 estimates ranging from 0.77 to 0.92 and RMSE from 2.79 to 3.37 ppb). For the summer of 2010, the model using KED demonstrated the best results (R2 = 0.92; RMSE = 3.14 ppb), followed by the OK model (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 4 ppb). Our results showed that errors appear to be substantially reduced with the KED model. This may increase our capacity of linking O3 levels to health problems by means of improved assessments of ambient exposures. However, future work integrating the temporal dependency in the data is needed to not overstate the performance of the KED model.
Urinary tungsten and incident cardiovascular disease in the Strong Heart Study: An interaction with urinary molybdenum Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Anne E. Nigra, Barbara V. Howard, Jason G. Umans, Lyle Best, Kevin A. Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Richard Devereux, Ana Navas-Acien
Background Tungsten (W) interferes with molybdenum (Mo) binding sites and has been associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated if (1) W exposure is prospectively associated with incident CVD and (2) the association between urinary W levels and incident CVD is modified by urinary Mo levels. Methods We estimated multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CVD outcomes by increasing W levels for 2726 American Indian participants in the Strong Heart Study with urinary metal levels measured at baseline (1989–1991) and CVD events ascertained through 2008. Results Increasing levels of baseline urinary W were not associated with incident CVD. Fully-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of incident CVD comparing a change in the IQR of W levels for those in the lowest and highest tertile of urinary Mo were 1.05 (0.90, 1.22) and 0.80 (0.70, 0.92), respectively (p-interaction = 0.02); for CVD mortality, the corresponding HRs were 1.05 (0.82, 1.33) and 0.73 (0.58, 0.93), respectively (p-interaction = 0.03). Conclusions The association between W and CVD incidence and mortality was positive although non-significant at lower urinary Mo levels and significant and inverse at higher urinary Mo levels. Although prior cross-sectional epidemiologic studies in the general US population found positive associations between urinary tungsten and prevalent cardiovascular disease, our prospective analysis in the Strong Heart Study indicates this association may be modified by molybdenum exposure.
A respiratory health survey of a subsurface smoldering landfill Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Jennifer Kret, Lara Dalidowitz Dame, Nhial Tutlam, Richard W. DeClue, Spring Schmidt, Kate Donaldson, Roger Lewis, Steven E. Rigdon, Shameka Davis, Alan Zelicoff, Christopher King, Ying Wang, Sarah Patrick, Faisal Khan
In late 2010, a subsurface smoldering event was detected in the Bridgeton Sanitary Landfill in St. Louis County, Missouri. This was followed by complaints from nearby residents of foul odors emanating from the landfill. In 2016 a health survey was conducted of residents near the landfill and, as a comparison, other regions of St. Louis County. The survey was a two-stage cluster sample, where the first stage was census blocks, and the second stage was households within the census blocks. The health survey, which was conducted by face-to-face interviews of residents both near the landfill and away from the landfill, focused mainly on respiratory symptoms and diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The differences in the prevalence of asthma (26.7%, 95% CI 19.8–34.1 landfill vs 24.7%, 95% CI 15.7–33.6 comparison) and COPD (13.7%, 95% CI 7.2–20.3 landfill vs 12.5%, 95% CI 6.4–18.7 comparison) between the two groups were not statistically significant. Landfill households reported significantly more “other respiratory conditions,” (17.6%, 95% CI 11.1–24.1 landfill vs 9.5%, 95% CI 4.8–14.3 comparison) and attacks of shortness of breath (33.9%, 95% CI 25.1–42.8 landfill vs 17.9%, 95% CI 12.3–23.5). Frequency of odor perceptions and level of worry about neighborhood environmental issues was higher among landfill households (p < 0.001). We conclude that the results do not support the hypothesis that people living near the Bridgeton Landfill have elevated respiratory or related illness compared to those people who live beyond the vicinity of the landfill.
Methylmercury levels in commonly consumed fish and methylmercury exposure of children and women of childbearing age in Hong Kong, a high fish consumption community Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Peggy Hiu Ying Chan, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Albert Martin Li, Robert Chi Keung Cheung, Xin Ting Yu, Hugh Simon Lam
Background Despite high fish consumption levels of Hong Kong residents, little is known about the MeHg exposure levels of Hong Kong high-risk populations (i.e. young children and women of childbearing age). Objectives To investigate the MeHg levels in fish commonly consumed in Hong Kong and assess the exposure levels of local kindergarten children and women of childbearing age. Methods A community-based survey was conducted in randomly recruited local kindergartens. The MeHg concentrations of the most commonly consumed fish items were measured. Based on their fish consumption data, subjects’ MeHg exposure levels were estimated and compared with the reference dose (RfD) set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Results A total of 2917 mother-child pairs were recruited. The MeHg levels of the fish samples ranged from < 2–1498.7 ng/g. Six frozen cod fish samples contained MeHg levels exceeding the local legal limit of 500 ng/g. The median estimated MeHg intake for children and mothers were 0.29 and 0.22 µg/kg bw/wk, respectively. Approximately 16% children and 9% mothers exceeded the RfD. Conclusions Apart from frozen cod fish, most fish species commonly consumed in Hong Kong had low MeHg content. Although the majority of our subjects were exposed to low MeHg levels, high fish consumers could still exceed the RfD and are potentially at risk of MeHg toxicity. To avoid excessive MeHg exposure, we suggest that young children and their mothers may consume a variety of locally available fish, but avoid consumption of frozen cod fish.
Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia – results from the Betula project Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-14 John Andersson, Anna Oudin, Anna Sundström, Bertil Forsberg, Rolf Adolfsson, Maria Nordin
Background There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined. Objective We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia. Methods Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR). Results Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk. Conclusion We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.
More green space is related to less antidepressant prescription rates in the Netherlands: A Bayesian geoadditive quantile regression approach Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-21 Marco Helbich, Nadja Klein, Hannah Roberts, Paulien Hagedoorn, Peter P. Groenewegen
Body burden of toxic metals and rare earth elements in non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarette users Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-13 Mihaela Badea, Octavio P. Luzardo, Ana González-Antuña, Manuel Zumbado, Liliana Rogozea, Laura Floroian, Dana Alexandrescu, Marius Moga, Laura Gaman, Mariana Radoi, Luis D. Boada, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements. Concentration of 42 elements, including trace elements, elements in the ATSDR's priority pollutant list and rare earth elements (REE) were measured by ICP-MS in the blood serum of participants. Cigarette smokers showed the highest levels of copper, molybdenum, zinc, antimony, and strontium. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users presented the highest concentrations of selenium, silver, and vanadium. Beryllium, europium and lanthanides were detected more frequently among e-cigarette users (20.6%, 23.5%, and 14.7%) than in cigarette smokers (1.7%, 19.0%, and 12.1%, respectively); and the number of detected REE was also higher among e-cigarette users (11.8% of them showed more than 10 different elements). Serum levels of cerium and erbium increased as the duration of the use of e-cigarettes was longer. We have found that smoking is mainly a source of heavy metals while the use of e-cigarettes is a potential source of REE. However, these elements were detected at low concentrations.
Household fuel use and biomarkers of inflammation and respiratory illness among rural South African Women Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Ankita Misra, Matthew P. Longnecker, Kathie L. Dionisio, Riana M.S. Bornman, Gregory S. Travlos, Sukhdev Brar, Kristina W. Whitworth
Though literature suggests a positive association between use of biomass fuel for cooking and inflammation, few studies among women in rural South Africa exist. We included 415 women from the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB), recruited from 2010 to 2011. We obtained demographics, general medical history and usual source of cooking fuel (wood, electricity) via baseline questionnaire. A nurse obtained height, weight, blood pressure, and blood samples. We measured plasma concentrations of a suite of inflammatory markers (e.g., interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein). We assessed associations between cooking fuel and biomarkers of inflammation and respiratory symptoms/illness using crude and adjusted linear and logistic regression models. We found little evidence of an association between fuel-use and biomarkers of inflammation, pre-hypertension/hypertension, or respiratory illnesses. Though imprecise, we found 41% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72–2.77) higher odds of self-reported wheezing/chest tightness among wood-users compared with electricity-users. Though studies among other populations report positive findings between biomass fuel use and inflammation, it is possible that women in the present study experience lower exposures to household air pollution given the cleaner burning nature of wood compared with other biomass fuels (e.g., coal, dung).
Menstrual cycle characteristics as determinants of plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study) Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Alison B. Singer, Kristina W. Whitworth, Line S. Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Antti Impinen, Eleni Papadopoulou, Matthew P. Longnecker
Introduction Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are fluorinated organic compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. Menstruation is implicated as a possible route of elimination for PFASs in women. The overall purpose of this study was to examine menstrual cycle characteristics as determinants of plasma PFAS concentrations in women. Methods Our study sample consisted of 1977 pregnant women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study. The women were asked about menstrual cycle regularity in the year before the pregnancy and typical menstrual cycle length as well as other demographic and reproductive characteristics in a questionnaire completed during the pregnancy. Blood samples were collected around 17–18 weeks gestation and PFAS concentrations were measured in plasma. We examined the association between menstrual cycle characteristics and seven PFASs (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) using multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, education, income, parity, oral contraceptive use, inter-pregnancy interval, and breastfeeding duration. Results Irregular cycles were not associated with PFAS concentrations. Overall, we found no evidence of associations between menstrual cycle length and PFAS concentrations. In subgroup analyses we found some evidence, among parous women, of decreased PFHpS and PFOS with short menstrual cycles; we also found, among recent OC users (in the 12 months before the questionnaire) increased PFNA and PFUnDA with long cycle length. Limitations of our study include misclassification of menstrual cycle characteristics, small sample sizes in the sub-group analyses, and a lack of information on duration and volume of menses. Conclusions In the entire study sample, we found little evidence of menstrual cycle characteristics as determinants of PFAS concentrations. However, we observed some associations between cycle length and PFAS concentrations with some select PFAS compounds in subgroup analyses.
Decreasing trend in passive tobacco smoke exposure and association with asthma in U.S. children Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 Xiao Zhang, Natalie Johnson, Genny Carrillo, Xiaohui Xu
In this study, we assessed trends of serum cotinine levels over time among US children ages 3–11 years and compared the risk of asthma in groups exposed to passive tobacco smoke. We utilized National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected from 2003 to 2014 (n = 8064). Serum cotinine level, household smoker status, asthma status, and sociodemographic information were extracted for multiple regression analyses. The adjusted biannual change in log (cotinine) in comparison to earlier NHANES survey cycles was − 0.196 (p < 0.001) overall, − 0.055 (p = 0.089) among children with household smoker(s), and − 0.129 (p < 0.001) among children without. The proportion of children living with household smokers decreased from 24.9% in the 2003–2004 cycle to 11.4% in the 2013–2014 cycle. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for asthma were 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00–1.80; 2nd tertile vs 1st tertile) and 1.69 (95%CI: 1.25–2.29; 3rd tertile vs1st tertile), respectively. Highly exposed asthmatic children, in the 3rd cotinine tertile (>0.13 ng/mL), were primarily Non-Hispanic Black (61.0%) and whose family incomes were below poverty guidelines. Overall results reveal passive smoke exposure level among children ages 3–11 in the US decreased over the study period. Nevertheless, higher exposure to passive smoke is still associated with higher odds of childhood asthma. Targeted smoking cessation interventions in clinical practices are needed to reduce tobacco smoke exposure and related asthma risk in children, particularly in low-income and minority groups.
Comparing dietary and non-dietary source contribution of BPA and DEHP to prenatal exposure: A Catalonia (Spain) case study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 M.A. Martínez, J. Rovira, R. Prasad Sharma, M. Nadal, M. Schuhmacher, V. Kumar
Bisphenol A (BPA) and Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are two wide spread chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors (ED). The present study aims to estimate the non-dietary (dermal, non-dietary ingestion and inhalation) exposure to BPA and DEHP for a pregnant women cohort. In addition, to assess the prenatal exposure for the fetus, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used. It was adapted for pregnancy in order to assess the internal dosimetry levels of EDs (BPA and DEHP) in the fetus. Estimates of exposure to BPA and DEHP from all pathways along with their relative importance were provided in order to establish which proportion of the total exposure came from diet and which came from non-dietary exposures. In this study, the different oral dosing scenarios (dietary and non-dietary) were considered keeping inhalation as a continuous exposure case. Total non-dietary mean values were 0.002 µg/kgbw/day (0.000; 0.004 µg/kgbw/day for 5th and 95th percentile, respectively) for BPA and 0.597 µg/kgbw/day (0.116 µg/kgbw/day and 1.506 µg/kgbw/day for 5th and 95th percentile, respectively) for DEHP. Indoor environments and especially dust ingestion were the main non-dietary contributors to the total exposure of BPA and DEHP with 60% and 81%. However, as expected, diet showed the higher contribution to total exposure with > 99.9% for BPA and 63% for DEHP. Although diet was considered the primary source of exposure to BPA and phthalates, it must be taken into account that with non-dietary sources the first-pass metabolism is lacking, so these may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources. The present study is in the framework of “Health and environmental-wide associations based on large population surveys” (HEALS) project (FP7–603946).
Factors affecting the exposure of passengers, service staff and train drivers inside trains to airborne particles Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 Yingying Cha, Minghui Tu, Max Elmgren, Sanna Silvergren, Ulf Olofsson
This study investigated train air conditioning filters, interior ventilation systems, tunnel environments and platform air quality as factors affecting the concentrations of airborne particles inside trains and provides information on the exposure of passengers, train drivers and service staff to particles. Particle sampling was done inside the passenger cabin, the driver cabin and the service staff cabin during on-board measurement campaigns in 2016 and 2017. The results show that interior ventilation plays a key role in maintaining cleaner in-train air. Noticeable increases in PM10 and PM2.5 levels were observed for all of the measured cabins when the train was running in the newly opened tunnel. The increases occurred when the doors of the passenger cabin and the service staff cabin were open at underground stations. The door to the driver cabin, which remained closed for the entire measurement period, acted as a filter for coarse particles (PM2.5–10). The highest particle exposure occurred in the passenger cabin, followed by the service staff cabin, while the driver had the lowest exposure. The highest deposition dose occurs for the service staff and the lowest for commuters.
Legionella pneumophila recurrently isolated in a Spanish hospital: Two years of antimicrobial resistance surveillance Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Tiscar Graells, Marta Hernández-García, Josefa Pérez-Jové, Lionel Guy, Emma Padilla
Objectives The aim of this study was to monitor the spread, persistence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Legionella spp. strains found in a hospital water distribution system. These environmental studies are intended to help detect the presence of antibiotic resistant strains before they infect patients. Methods: Antimicrobial surveillance tests were performed at 27 different sampling points of the water network of a large Spanish hospital over two years. Water samples were screened for Legionella according to ISO 11731:2007. Legionella spp. isolates were identified by serotyping and by mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Epidemiological molecular typing was done by Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion and ETEST®. Results Legionella spp. were recurrently isolated for 2 years. All isolates belonged the same group, L. pneumophila serogroups 2–14. Isolates were all attributed by SBT to sequence type (ST) ST328, although PFGE revealed 5 different patterns. No significant change in antibiotic susceptibility could be observed for this study period, irrespectively of the method used. Conclusion Colonization of water systems by Legionella spp. is still occurring, although all the prevention rules were strictly followed. Antibiotic resistance monitoring may help us to find resistance in bacteria with environmental reservoirs but difficult to isolate from patients. The knowledge of the antibiotic susceptibility in environmental strains may help us to predict changes in clinical strains. This study might also help reconsidering Legionnaires’ disease (LD) diagnostic methods. L. pneumophila serogroups 2–14 present all along the time of the investigation in the water distribution system can cause LD. However, they may not be detected by routine urine tests run on patients, thereby missing an ongoing LD infection.
Assessment of heat- and cold-related emergency department visits in cities of China and Australia: Population vulnerability and attributable burden Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Jian Cheng, Yongming Zhang, Wenyi Zhang, Zhiwei Xu, Hilary Bambrick, Wenbiao Hu, Shilu Tong
Background Non-optimal ambient temperature has detrimental impacts on mortality worldwide, but little is known about the difference in population vulnerability to non-optimal temperature and temperature-related morbidity burden between developing and developed countries. Objectives We estimated and compared the associations of emergency department visits (EDV) with non-optimal temperature in terms of risk trigger temperature, the average slope of exposure-risk function and attributable risk in 12 cities from China and Australia. Methods We modelled the associations of EDV with heat during warm season and with cold during cold season, separately, using generalized additive model. Population vulnerability within a given region was quantified with multiple risk trigger points including minimum risk temperature, increasing risk temperature and excessive risk temperature, and average coefficient of exposure-risk function. Fraction of EDV attributable to heat and cold was also calculated. Results We found large between- and within-country contrasts in the identified multiple risk trigger temperatures, with higher heat and cold trigger points, except excessive risk temperature, observed in Australia than in China. Heat was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.009 [95% confidence interval (CI):1.007, 1.011] in China, which accounted for 5.9% of EDV. Higher RR of heat was observed in Australia (1.014, 95% CI: 1.010, 1.018), responsible for 4.0% of EDV. For cold effects, the RR was similar between two countries, but the attributable fraction was higher in China (9.6%) than in Australia (1.5%). Conclusions Exposure to heat and cold had adverse but divergent impacts on EDV in China and Australia. Further mitigation policy efforts incorporating region-specific population vulnerability to temperature impacts are necessary in both countries.
Short-and medium-term associations of particle number concentration with cardiovascular markers in a Puerto Rican cohort Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-30 Christina H. Fuller, Marie S. O’Neill, Jeremy A. Sarnat, Howard H. Chang, Katherine L. Tucker, Doug Brugge
Air pollution has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes; however, susceptibility may vary by population. Puerto Rican adults living in the US may be a susceptible group due to a high rate of adverse cardiovascular events. We evaluated the effect of changes in ambient particle number concentration (PNC, a measure of ultrafine particles) and effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS), a longitudinal cohort (n = 1499). Ambient PNC was measured at a fixed site between 2004 and 2013 and daily mean concentrations were used to construct PNC metrics, including lags of 0, 1 and 2 days and moving averages (MAs) of 3, 7 and 28 days. We examined the association of each metric with C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood pressure. Each model included subject-specific random intercepts to account for multiple measurements. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PNC was associated with CRP for all metrics, notably a 3-day increase in PNC was associated with a 7.1% (95% CI: 2.0%, 12.2%) increase in CRP. Significant associations with CRP were seen in women, but not men; with current and former (but not non-) smokers; participants younger (but not older) than 65 y; those without diabetes (but not with), and those with (but not without), hypertension. Our study extends knowledge about the health effects of air pollution to a vulnerable population that has been understudied.
Impact of meteorological factors on mumps and potential effect modifiers: An analysis of 10 cities in Guangxi, Southern China Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-29 Guoqi Yu, Rencong Yang, Dongmei Yu, Jiansheng Cai, Jiexia Tang, Wenwen Zhai, Yi Wei, Shiyi Chen, Quanhui Chen, Ge Zhong, Jian Qin
Background In the current context of global climate change, understanding the impact of climate on respiratory infectious diseases such as mumps and the potential modified factors is crucial, especially in developing countries. However, research on the climate-related incidence of mumps is rare, inconsistent and mainly limited to a single city or region. Methods Daily mumps cases and meteorological variables of 10 cities in Guangxi, Southern China were collected for 2005–2017. Two-stage analyses were performed to assess the relationship between meteorological factors and mumps incidence during two time-periods: 2005–2012 and 2013–2017, separately. First, a Poisson regression model that allows over-dispersion was used to estimate the city-specific climate-related morbidity after controlling for temporal trends, day of week, and national statutory holidays. Then, we used a multivariate meta-analytical model to pool the city-specific effect estimates and conducted subgroup analyses. Multivariate meta-regression was applied to detect potential effect modifiers. Results Non-linear relationships were observed among mean temperature, wind speed, and mumps incidence in 2005–2012. The impact of high temperature on mumps incidence was short and rapid, whereas the impact of low temperature was long and slow. The total cumulative relative risk (RR) associated with hot temperature was 1.18 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.93, 1.48], which was calculated by comparing the incidence of mumps above the 90th percentile of temperature with its incidence at the median temperature at lag of 0–30 days. Meanwhile, the RR associated with cold temperature was calculated to be 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.10) by comparing the incidence of mumps below the 10th percentile of temperature with its incidence at the median temperature. Similarly, the RRs associated with windless and windy conditions for the total population were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.46) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.02), respectively. Effects based on extreme temperature and wind speed conditions were more prominent in males than in females. Compared with children and adults, adolescents (5–14 years old) were more sensitive to extreme weather conditions. Geographical latitude, Population density, GDP per capita, Number of health institutions, Highly educated population and Inoculation rate were considered the most likely associated modifiers. In addition, the correlation between meteorological factors and the incidence of mumps and modification of socioeconomic factors after 2013 showed similar curves compared with results in 2005–2012, but the cumulative effect was not statistically significant. Conclusions Meteorological factors, such as temperature and wind speed, exert a significant impact on the incidence of mumps. The relationship varies depending on gender and age. Socioeconomic factors such as vaccination, GDP, geographical latitude, etc. may substantially affect the weather-related mumps incidence.
Cross sectional association of arsenic and seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection in the United States (NHANES 2003–2014) Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Andres Cardenas, Ellen Smit, Barrett M. Welch, Jeff Bethel, Molly L. Kile
Background Arsenic alters immunological parameters including antibody formation and antigen-driven T-cell proliferation. Objective We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between urinary arsenic and the seroprevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) infection in the United States using data from six pooled cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2014, N = 12,447). Methods Using serological data, participants were classified as susceptible, immune due to vaccination, or immune due to past natural infection. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the association between urinary DMA and HBV classification. A sensitivity analysis using total urinary arsenic (TUA) was also conducted. Both DMA and TUA were adjusted for arsenobetaine using a residual regression method Results A 1-unit increase in the natural logarithm (ln) of DMA was associated with 40% greater adjusted odds of having immunity due to natural infection compared to being susceptible (Odds Ratio [aOR]: 1.40, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.15, 1.69), 65% greater odds of having immunity due to a natural infection (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.04) and 18% greater odds of being susceptible (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.33) compared to being immune due to vaccination after adjusting for creatinine, age, sex, race, income, country of birth, BMI, survey cycle, serum cotinine, recent seafood intake, and self-reported HBV immunization status. Conclusion In the U.S. general public, higher urinary arsenic levels were associated with a greater odds of having a serological classification consistent with a past natural hepatitis B infection after adjusting for other risk factors. Additionally, higher urinary arsenic levels were linked to a greater odds of not receiving hepatitis B vaccinations. Given the cross-sectional nature of this analysis, more research is needed to test the hypothesis that environmentally relevant exposure to arsenic modulates host susceptibility to hepatitis B virus.
Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols and their association with type 2 diabetes in a population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Adela Jing Li, Jingchuan Xue, Shao Lin, Abdulrahman Labeed Al-Malki, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi, Taha A. Kumosani, Kurunthachalam Kannan
A few epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, little is known about association between other phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and T2DM. In this case-control study, we measured urinary concentrations of 23 phenolic EDCs in 101 individuals from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to examine the association of parabens, antimicrobials, bisphenols, benzophenones and bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers with T2DM. Urine samples were collected from 54 T2DM cases and 47 non-diabetic individuals (controls), aged 28–68 years old, during 2015–2016. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate odd ratios (ORs) for the association between diabetes and EDC exposures after adjusting for confounders including age, gender, nationality, smoking status and occupation. Age from 40 to 59 years (OR 5.56, 95% CI 2.20–14.0) and smoking status (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.25–6.79) showed significant positive associations with T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that T2DM cases had high urinary levels of parabens (i.e., methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP) and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB)), bisphenols (i.e., bisphenols A (BPA) and F (BPF)), and benzophenone (i.e., 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP)) relative to the controls. Individuals in the 4th quartile for urinary concentrations of MeP, EtP, PrP, 4-HB and BPF and in the 3rd quartile for BPA and 4-OH-BP showed over a 6-fold increase in the odds of having diabetes compared with those in the first quartile. Overall, our study shows that urinary levels of multiple phenolic EDCs were associated with increased risk for diabetes. Further prospective studies are required to verify these associations.
Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and associations with serum thyroid hormones in a remote population of Alaska Natives Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Samuel C. Byrne, Pamela Miller, Samarys Seguinot-Medina, Vi Waghiyi, C. Loren Buck, Frank A. von Hippel, David O. Carpenter
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are known to accumulate in traditional food animals of the Arctic, and arctic indigenous peoples may be exposed via consumption of subsistence-harvested animals. PFASs are suspected of disrupting thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between serum PFASs and thyroid function in a remote population of Alaska Natives. Serum samples were collected from 85 individuals from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The concentrations of 13 PFASs, as well as free and total thyroxine (T4), free and total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyrotropin (TSH) were quantified in serum samples. The relationships between circulating concentrations of PFASs and thyroid hormones were assessed using multiple linear regression fit with generalized estimating equations. Several PFASs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), were positively associated with TSH concentrations when modeled individually. PFOS and PFNA were significantly associated with free T3 and PFNA was significantly associated with total T3 in models with PFAS*sex interactive terms; these associations suggested negative associations in men and positive associations in women. PFASs were not significantly associated with concentrations of free or total T4. Serum PFASs are associated with circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in a remote population of Alaska Natives. The effects of PFAS exposure on thyroid hormone homeostasis may differ between sexes.
Associations between environmental quality and adult asthma prevalence in medical claims data Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Christine L. Gray, Danelle T. Lobdell, Kristen M. Rappazzo, Yun Jian, Jyotsna S. Jagai, Lynne C. Messer, Achal P. Patel, Stephanie A. DeFlorio-Barker, Christopher Lyttle, Julian Solway, Andrey Rzhetsky
As of 2014, approximately 7.4% of U.S. adults had current asthma. The etiology of asthma is complex, involving genetics, behavior, and environmental factors. To explore the association between cumulative environmental quality and asthma prevalence in U.S. adults, we linked the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Quality Index (EQI) to the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. The EQI is a summary measure of five environmental domains (air, water, land, built, sociodemographic). We defined asthma as having at least 2 claims during the study period, 2003–2013. We used a Bayesian approach with non-informative priors, implementing mixed-effects regression modeling with a Poisson link function. Fixed effects variables were EQI, sex, race, and age. Random effects were counties. We modeled quintiles of the EQI comparing higher quintiles (worse quality) to lowest quintile (best quality) to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and credible intervals (CIs). We estimated associations using the cumulative EQI and domain-specific EQIs; we assessed U.S. overall (non-stratified) as well as stratified by rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC) to assess rural/urban heterogeneity. Among the 71,577,118 U.S. adults with medical claims who could be geocoded to county of residence, 1,147,564 (1.6%) met the asthma definition. Worse environmental quality was associated with increased asthma prevalence using the non-RUCC-stratified cumulative EQI, comparing the worst to best EQI quintile (PR:1.27; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.34). Patterns varied among different EQI domains, as well as by rural/urban status. Poor environmental quality may increase asthma prevalence, but domain-specific drivers may operate differently depending on rural/urban status.
Multiple-metal exposure, diet, and oxidative stress in Uruguayan school children Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Katarzyna Kordas, Aditi Roy, Marie Vahter, Julia Ravenscroft, Nelly Mañay, Fabiana Peregalli, Gabriela Martínez, Elena I. Queirolo
Oxidative stress (OS) is an important consequence of exposure to toxic metals but it is unclear to what extent low-level metal exposures contribute to OS in children. We examined the cross-sectional association between urinary concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) and urinary markers of OS: F2–8α isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG). We also tested effect modification by dietary intakes. Of the 211 children aged 6–8 years living in Montevideo who were eligible for the study because they had at least one OS marker measured via ELISA, 143 were included in a complete-case analysis. Urinary metals were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS: Pb, Cd) and high-performance liquid chromatography online with hydride generation ICP-MS (As-metabolites); concentrations were log2-transformed. All urinary markers were adjusted for specific gravity of urine. Two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted to estimate children's dietary intakes, including total fruit and vegetable consumption and vitamin C, zinc and fiber intake. Ordinary least square (OLS) and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regressions were used to estimate the association between metals and each OS marker as outcome. Metal exposure was generally low: median urinary As, Cd, Pb 9.6 μg/L, 0.06 μg/L and 1.9 μg/L, respectively. Median 8-isoprostane concentration was 1.1 and 8-OHdG 39.6 ng/mL. Log2-transformed urinary As concentrations were positively associated with 8-OHdG concentrations (10.90 [3.82, 17.97]) in covariate-adjusted OLS models which also took account of exposure to Cd and Pb. In WQS, a mixture index was also associated with higher 8-OHdG (8.71 [1.12, 16.3] for each 25% increase in index value), mostly driven by As exposure. There was little evidence of effect modification by dietary antioxidants. In sum, even at low-level, As exposure is associated with detectable oxidative damage to the DNA.
Associations between urinary cotinine and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Kyoung Min Kim, Myung Ho Lim, Ho-Jang Kwon, Seung-Jin Yoo, Eun-jung Kim, Jun Won Kim, Mina Ha, Ki Chung Paik
Background The present study investigated associations between urinary cotinine levels as a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods A total of 520 child participants (200 with ADHD, 67 with ASD, and 253 normal control subjects) were assessed using the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale (K-ARS), Autism spectrum screening questionnaire (ASSQ), and Behavioral Assessment System for Children, second edition (BASC-2). The Korean version of the computer-based continuous performance test was used to assess cognitive function. Urinary cotinine was evaluated as a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure. Results Urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with K-ARS score (B = 4.00, p < 0.001), ASSQ score (B = 1.71, p = 0.030), the behavioral problem subscales of the BASC-2 (B = 1.68–3.52, p < 0.001–0.045), and omission and commission errors in the continuous performance test (B = 6.21–8.42, p < 0.001–0.019). Urinary cotinine levels were also associated with the increased odds ratio of ADHD (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.05–2.30, p = 0.028) and ASD (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.12–3.21, p = 0.018). Conclusion Urinary cotinine levels were associated with lower behavioral adaptation and cognitive function and increased odds ratios of ADHD and ASD, indicating a negative effect of secondhand smoke exposure on the symptomatic manifestation of ADHD and ASD.
Effects of incomplete residential histories on studies of environmental exposure with application to childhood leukaemia and background radiation Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-23 Atte Nikkilä, Gerald Kendall, Jani Raitanen, Ben Spycher, Olli Lohi, Anssi Auvinen
When evaluating environmental exposures, residential exposures are often most relevant. In most countries, it is impossible to establish full residential histories. In recent publications, childhood leukaemia and background radiation have been studied with and without full residential histories. This paper investigates the consequences of lacking such full data. Data from a nationwide Finnish Case-Control study of Childhood Leukaemia and gamma rays were analysed. This included 1093 children diagnosed with leukaemia in Finland in 1990–2011. Each case was matched by gender and year of birth to three controls. Full residential histories were available. The dose estimates were based on outdoor background radiation measurements. The indoor dose rates were obtained with a dwelling type specific conversion coefficient and the individual time-weighted mean red bone marrow dose rates were calculated using age-specific indoor occupancy and the age and gender of the child. Radiation from Chernobyl fallout was included and a 2-year latency period assumed. The median separation between successive dwellings was 3.4 km and median difference in red bone marrow dose 2.9 nSv/h. The Pearson correlation between the indoor red bone marrow dose rates of successive dwellings was 0.62 (95% CI 0.60, 0.64). The odds ratio for a 10 nSv/h increase in dose rate with full residential histories was 1.01 (95% CI 0.97, 1.05). Similar odds ratios were calculated with dose rates based on only the first dwelling (1.02, 95% CI 0.99, 1.05) and only the last dwelling (1.00, 95% CI 0.98, 1.03) and for subjects who had lived only in a single dwelling (1.05, 95% CI 0.98, 1.10). Knowledge of full residential histories would always be the option of choice. However, due to the strong correlation between exposure estimates in successive dwellings and the uncertainty about the most relevant exposure period, estimation of overall exposure level from a single address is also informative. Error in dose estimation is likely to cause some degree of classical measurement error resulting in bias towards the null.
Pathways linking residential noise and air pollution to mental ill-health in young adults Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Angel M. Dzhambov, Iana Markevych, Boris Tilov, Zlatoslav Arabadzhiev, Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Penka Gatseva, Donka D. Dimitrova
Background Recent years have seen growing, but still tentative, evidence of the potential associations of environmental noise and air pollution with mental disorders. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between residential noise and air pollution exposures and general mental health in young adults with a focus on underlying processes Methods We sampled 720 students (18–35 years) from one university in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Residential noise (LAeq; day equivalent noise level) and air pollution (NO2) were assessed at participant's residential address by land use regression models. General mental health was measured with a short form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The following putative mediators were considered: annoyance from environmental pollution, sleep disturbance, restorative quality of the neighborhood, neighborhood social cohesion, and commuting/leisure time physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the theoretically-indicated interplay between exposures, mediators, and GHQ. Results We observed an association between higher LAeq and GHQ, in which environmental annoyance and neighborhood restorative quality emerged as key mediators. First, LAeq was associated with higher annoyance, and through it with lower restorative quality, and then in turn with lower physical activity, and thus with higher GHQ. Simultaneously, higher annoyance was associated with higher sleep disturbance, and thereby with higher GHQ. NO2 had no overall association with GHQ, but it was indirectly associated with it through higher annoyance, lower restorative quality, and lower physical activity working in serial. Conclusion We found evidence that increased residential noise was related to mental ill-health through several indirect pathways. Air pollution was associated with mental health only indirectly.
PM10 exposure is associated with increased hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis among infants in Lombardy, Italy Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Michele Carugno, Francesco Dentali, Giovanni Mathieu, Andrea Fontanella, Jacopo Mariani, Lorenzo Bordini, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Dario Consonni, Matteo Bonzini, Valentina Bollati, Angela Cecilia Pesatori
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary cause of acute lower respiratory infections in children, bronchiolitis in particular. Airborne particulate matter (PM) may influence the children's immune system and foster the spread of RSV infection. We aimed to verify whether PM10 exposure is associated with hospitalization due to RSV bronchiolitis. We selected hospital discharge records (HRD) with ICD-9-CM code 466.11 of infants < 1 year of age, occurring in the epidemic seasons of two years (2012–2013) in Lombardy, Italy. Cases were assigned daily PM10 and apparent temperature levels of the capital city of their residential province. Different exposure windows were considered: single days preceding hospitalization (lag 0 to 30), their average estimates (lag 0–1 to 0–30), and the four weeks preceding hospitalization (week 1 to 4). Negative binomial regression models adjusted for apparent temperature and season were applied to the daily counts of hospitalizations in each province. Results were expressed as incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 concentration. Random effects meta-analyses of province-specific IRR were performed to obtain regional estimates. 2814 HRD met our inclusion criteria; males represented about 55% of the cases. A 6% increased risk of hospitalization (95%CI: 1.03–1.10) was found at lag 0 and an almost overlapping 7% increase at lag 1. IRR ranged from 1.03 to 1.05 between lags 2 and 11. No increased risk was observed from lag 12. When considering averaged daily lags, risk estimates gradually increased in the two weeks preceding hospitalization from 1.08 (1.04–1.12) at lag 0–1 to 1.15 (1.08–1.23) between lags 0–11 and 0–13. Analyses on weekly lags showed a risk increase of 6% (1.01–1.12) during week 1 and of 7% (1.02–1.13) during week 2. Our study found a clear association between short- and medium-term PM10 exposures and increased risk of hospitalization due to RSV bronchiolitis among infants.
Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of multiple sclerosis: A population-based cohort study Environ. Res. (IF 4.732) Pub Date : 2018-06-22 Li Bai, Richard T. Burnett, Jeffrey C. Kwong, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Jeffrey R. Brook, Karen Tu, Ray Copes, Mark S. Goldberg, Randall V. Martin, Brian J. Murray, Alexander Kopp, Hong Chen
Background Evidence of the adverse neurological effects of exposure to ambient air pollution is emerging, but little is known about its effect on the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Objectives To investigate the associations between MS incidence and long-term exposures to fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the associations between long-term exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 and the incidence of MS. Our study population included all Canadian-born residents aged 20–40 years who lived in the province of Ontario, Canada from 2001 to 2013. Incident MS was ascertained from a validated registry. We assigned estimates of annual concentrations of these pollutants to the residential postal codes of subjects for each year during the 13 years of follow-up. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each pollutant separately using random-effects Cox proportional hazards models. We conducted various sensitivity analyses, such as lagging exposure up to 5 years and adjusting for access to neurological care, annual average temperature, and population density. Results Between 2001 and 2013, we identified 6203 incident cases of MS. The adjusted HR of incident MS was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for PM2.5, 0.91(95% CI: 0.81–1.02) for NO2, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.98–1.23) for O3. These results were robust to various sensitivity analyses conducted. Conclusions In this large population-based cohort, we did not observe significant associations between MS incidence and long-term exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 in adults in Ontario, 2001–2013.
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