Multi-route – Multi-pathway exposure to trihalomethanes and associated cumulative health risks with response and dose addition J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Mesut Genisoglu, Ceyda Ergi-Kaytmaz, Sait C. Sofuoglu
Cumulative health risk estimation for exposure to mixtures is a current issue, which would present a useful tool for environmental and public health management. Cumulative risks were estimated with response and dose addition methods for individual multi-route – multi-pathway exposure to trihalomethanes and associated carcinogenic toxic risks in Izmir, Turkey. Exposure levels were estimated for ingestion, dermal, and inhalation routes using measured tap water and bottled water THM concentrations. Drinking, showering, hand and dish washing were the considered pathways. THM concentrations in air during the showering were modeled with two-resistance theory using tap water concentration data. The estimated carcinogenic risk levels for ingestion route were in the range of safe (<10−6) to low priority (<10−4), for dermal route all were in the safe zone (<10−6), and for inhalation route were in the range of safe to high priority (>10−4) zones, indicating ingestion and inhalation routes were of similar significance ahead of dermal exposure. Cumulative carcinogenic risks of THM compounds were estimated using simple (response) addition and dose addition using cumulative relative potency factor (CRPF) methods. CRPF method estimated the risks at lower levels compared to the simple addition, which originated from the use two different risk factor values for the index chemical in the method. Cumulative chronic-toxic risks were also assessed, rendering below the threshold risk levels for all routes. This study showed that multi-route – multi-pathway exposure assessment and cumulative risk assessment should together be considered for better environmental and public health management.
Characteristics and mechanisms of cadmium adsorption onto biogenic aragonite shells-derived biosorbent: Batch and column studies J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Huu Tap Van, Lan Huong Nguyen, Van Dang Nguyen, Xuan Hoan Nguyen, Thanh Hai Nguyen, Tien Vinh Nguyen, Saravanamuth Vigneswaran, Jörg Rinklebe, Hai Nguyen Tran
Pyrogenic organic matter from palaeo-fires during the Holocene: A case study in a sequence of buried soils at the Central Ebro Basin (NE Spain) J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Cecilia María Armas-Herrera, Fernando Pérez-Lambán, David Badía-Villas, José Luis Peña-Monné, José Antonio González-Pérez, Jesús Vicente Picazo Millán, Nicasio T. Jiménez-Morillo, María Marta Sampietro-Vattuone, Marta Alcolea Gracia
We studied the fire record and its environmental consequences during the Holocene in the Central Ebro Basin. This region is very sensitive to environmental changes due to its semiarid conditions, lithological features and a continuous human presence during the past 6000 years. The study area is a 6 m buried sequence of polycyclic soils developed approximately 9500 years ago that is exceptionally well preserved and encompasses four sedimentary units. The content and size distribution of macroscopic charcoal fragments were determined throughout the soil sequence and the analysis of the composition of charcoal, litter and sediments via analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). The high amount of charcoal fragments recovered in most horizons highlights the fire frequencies since the beginning of the Neolithic, most of which were probably of anthropogenic origin. In some soil horizons where charcoal was not found, we detected a distribution pattern of lipid compounds that could be related to biomass burning. On the other hand, the low number of pyrolysates in the charcoal could be attributed to high-intensity fires. No clear pattern was found in the composition of pyrolysates related to the age of sediments or vegetation type. The most ancient soil (Unit 1) was the richest in charcoal content and contains a higher proportion of larger fragments (>4 mm), which is consistent with the burning of a relatively dense vegetation cover. This buried soil has been preserved in situ, probably due to the accumulation of sedimentary materials because of a high-intensity fire. In addition, the pyrogenic C in this soil has some plant markers that could indicate a low degree of transformation. In Units 2–4, both the amount of charcoals and the proportions of macrofragments >4 mm are lower than those in Unit 1, which coincides with a more open forest and the presence of shrubs and herbs. The preservation of this site is key to continuing with studies that contribute to a better assessment of the consequences of future disturbances, such as landscape transformation and climate change.
Investigation on the carbon sequestration capacity of vegetation along a heavy traffic load expressway J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Dafang Fu, Bei Bu, Jiaguo Wu, Rajendra Prasad Singh
Soil hydraulic properties as the main driver in the establishment of biomass crops in contaminated soils J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Paula Madejón, María T. Domínguez, Elena Fernández-Boy, Patricia Paneque, Ignacio Girón, Engracia Madejón
In recent years increasing attention has been given to the potential use of contaminated lands for biofuel production, because these degraded soils cannot be used for food production. To establish these crops in Mediterranean contaminated areas, where the soil quality is usually very poor, the addition of soil amendments might be necessary to improve soil productivity. In addition, the use of crops with low water demands, adapted to these particular conditions of climate and soil contamination, is a key requirement. We studied the development of Cynara cardunculus and Silybum mariamun crops (both suitable for the production of biomass for biofuel uses under a Mediterranean climate) in trace element contaminated soils under field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first such work under these particular experimental conditions (soil contamination and field trial). Soil physical (hydraulic), chemical, and biochemical properties were monitored for one year in experimental plots, where we tested the effects of the addition of two different amendments (sugar lime and biosolid compost) on soil functioning and crop productivity. Seed germination and plant biomass production were low, although amendment addition improved both parameters. The chemical and biological indicators (enzyme activities, PLFA profiles, and soil respiration) tended to be slightly improved by the amendments, especially sugar lime. The hydraulic properties of the soil in the experimental area were very deficient, and the effect of the amendments was not enough to improve them; this was probably the main cause of the general low productivity of these rain-fed crops, as water infiltrated poorly through the root zone. To improve crop productivity under these soil conditions, certain aspects could be improved: higher doses of amendments should be applied and deeper tillage of the soil after amendment addition should be performed to facilitate water infiltration.
Electrochemical dewatering for the removal of hazardous species from sludge J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 F.L. Silva, M.R.V. Lanza, C. Saez, M.A. Rodrigo
This work focuses on the evaluation of the electrochemical dewatering of sludge polluted with model hazardous species. To do this, two sludge samples taken from the outlet of the anaerobic digesters of the municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility of Ciudad Real were polluted with herbicide clopyralid (CP) and with antibiotics amoxicillin (AMX) and ampicillin (AMP), respectively. These sludge samples underwent first dewatering by press filtration and then, the dewatering continued by the application of an electrochemically assisted driven process with increasing electric fields (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 V cm−1). Results demonstrate that the electrochemically-assisted process can help to exhaust the pollutant adsorbed onto the sludge and attain a supplemental removal (up to 15%) of water in both cases. This is a highly important result, because it can help to develop technologies for sludge treatment that avoid the diffusion of hazardous pollution during the land application of the sludge. No reactivity of the pollutants was observed during the tests.
Co-creating urban green infrastructure connecting people and nature: A guiding framework and approach J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 Alexander P.N. van der Jagt, Mike Smith, Bianca Ambrose-Oji, Cecil C. Konijnendijk, Vincenzo Giannico, Dagmar Haase, Raffaele Lafortezza, Mojca Nastran, Marina Pintar, Špela Železnikar, Rozalija Cvejić
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) and nature-based solutions are increasingly recognized as instruments to address urban sustainability challenges, yet rely on a good understanding of complex social-ecological system (SES) to function adequately. Adaptive co-management (ACM), engaging a broad variety of stakeholders in collaborative learning, is an effective strategy to improve the resilience of a SES. However, ACM studies have been criticized for neglecting the urban context, while also offering little clarity on process objectives and outcomes. To address these knowledge gaps, while also drawing attention to the important issue of socially inclusive UGI development, we present a guiding framework and approach to encourage the ACM of UGI featuring two main components. Firstly, a Learning Alliance (LA) serves as an instrument for collaborative learning and experimentation across different scales. To facilitate upscaling, we propose to establish a complementary Urban Learning Lab (ULL) to facilitate a regular exchange between the LA and legitimate peripheral networks and stakeholders in the city region. Secondly, a stepwise approach to SES analysis serves to engage a representative group of stakeholders in the LAs and ULLs, and support the processes of setting LA objectives and monitoring of adaptive capacity. We illustrate our approach to the ACM of UGI with a case study of LivadaLAB in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Applying the framework and approach, we demonstrate increased adaptive capacity of the SES around UGI as indicated by: 1) improved overall stakeholder salience, in particular for previously disempowered actor groups, 2) increased number and strength of connections between stakeholders, and 3) the consideration of a broader range of sustainable development objectives by stakeholders in their daily practice.
Enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enhanced biomethane production-A review J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 E. Hosseini Koupaie, S. Dahadha, A.A. Bazyar Lakeh, A. Azizi, E. Elbeshbishy
Spatial variations of pollutants from sewer interception system overflow J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Sidian Chen, Hua-peng Qin, Yu Zheng, Guangtao Fu
Organic contaminants removal from industrial wastewater by CTAB treated synthetic zeolite Y J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 Monireh Sadat Hosseini Hashemi, Fatemeh Eslami, Ramin Karimzadeh
The role of short-term weather conditions in temporal dynamics of fire regime features in mainland Spain J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-07 Adrián Jiménez-Ruano, Marcos Rodrigues Mimbrero, W. Matt Jolly, Juan de la Riva Fernández
In this paper we investigate spatial-temporal associations of fire weather danger and fire regime features from 1979 to 2013. We analyze monthly time series of fire activity (number of fires and burned area) and fire weather danger rating indices (Fire Weather Index, Burning Index and Forest Fire Danger Index) at two spatial scales: (i) regionally, splitting the Spanish mainland into Northwest, Hinterland and Mediterranean regions; and (ii) locally, using the EMCWF grid. All analyses are based on decomposing time series to retrieve differential indicators of seasonal cycles, temporal evolution and anomalies. At regional scale we apply lagged cross-correlation analysis (4 lags or months before fire) to explore seasonal associations; and trend detection tests on the temporal evolution component. At the local scale, we calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each individual index and the 18 possible fire-activity subsets according to fire size (all sizes, >1 ha and >100 ha) and source of ignition (natural, unintended and arson); this analysis is applied to both cycles, temporal and anomalies series.Results suggest that weather controls seasonal fire activity although it has limited influence on temporal evolution, i.e. trends. Stronger associations are detected in the number of fires in the Northwest and Hinterland regions compared to the Mediterranean, which has desynchronized from weather since 1994. Cross-correlation analysis revealed significant fire-weather associations in the Hinterland and Mediterranean, extending up to two months prior fire ignition. On the other hand, the association between temporal trends and weather is weaker, being negative along the Mediterranean and even significant in the case of burned area. The spatial disaggregation into grid cells reveals different spatial patterns across fire-activity subsets. Again, the connection at seasonal level is noticeable, especially in natural-caused fires. In turn, human-related wildfires are occasionally found independent from weather in some areas along the northern coast or the Ebro basin. In any case, this effect diminishes as the size of the fire increases. Our work suggests that for some regions of mainland Spain, these fire danger indices could provide useful information about upcoming fire activity up to two months ahead of time and this information could be used to better inform wildland fire prevention and suppression activities.
Potential use of waste foundry sand in dual process (photocatalysis and photo-Fenton) for the effective removal of phenazone from water: Slurry and fixed-bed approach J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-08 Palak Bansal, Anoop Verma, Charu Mehta, Vikas Kumar Sangal
Post-fire attitudes and perceptions of people towards the landscape character and development in the rural Peloponnese, a case study of the traditional village of Leontari, Arcadia, Greece J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-08 Angeliki T. Paraskevopoulou, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, George Kotsiris
Fires played an integral role in shaping the rural Mediterranean landscape. However, the decoupling of social-ecological systems of landscapes led to rural degradation and rendered traditional settlements vulnerable to fire. A questionnaire survey conducted at the traditional village of Leontari, in the Peloponnese, Greece, investigates respondents’ perceptions towards particular interventions that would affect the landscape character and development of the village after the 2007 forest fires. Results suggest that the values of a location can play a major role in determining the perceptions of respondents. Overall respondents were “place attached” with an increased awareness of the local landscape character that guided their preferences for rural development, however, some sociodemographic group differences were found. Women compared to men were more sensitive to the impact of the forest fire and people over 65 years of age were more positive in restoring the original vegetation compared to younger in age people.
Semi-continuous mono-digestion of OFMSW and Co-digestion of OFMSW with beech sawdust: Assessment of the maximum operational total solid content J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 Vicente Pastor-Poquet, Stefano Papirio, Eric Trably, Jukka Rintala, Renaud Escudié, Giovanni Esposito
An investigation on the capability of magnetically separable Fe3O4/mordenite zeolite for refinery oily wastewater purification J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-06 Roozbeh Hoseinzadeh Hesas, Mazyar Sharifzadeh Baei, Hadi Rostami, Jabbar Gardy, Ali Hassanpour
Factors influencing the accuracy of ground-based tree-height measurements for major European tree species J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-10-05 Krzysztof Stereńczak, Miłosz Mielcarek, Bogdan Wertz, Karol Bronisz, Grzegorz Zajączkowski, Andrzej M. Jagodziński, Wojciech Ochał, Maciej Skorupski
The human and social dimensions of invasion science and management J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-29 Ross T. Shackleton, Brendon M.H. Larson, Ana Novoa, David M. Richardson, Christian A. Kull
Biological invasions are a leading cause of global environmental change given their effects on both humans and biodiversity. Humans introduce invasive alien species and may facilitate their establishment and spread, which can alter ecosystem services, livelihoods, and human well-being. People perceive the benefits and costs of these species through the lens of diverse value systems; these perspectives influence decisions about when and where to manage them. Despite the entanglement of humans with invasive alien species, most research on the topic has focused on their ecological aspects. Only relatively recently have the human and social dimensions of invasions started to receive sustained attention in light of their importance for understanding and governing biological invasions. This editorial draws on contributions to a special issue on the “Human and Social Dimensions of Invasion Science” and other literature to elucidate major trends and current contributions in this research area. We examine the relation between humans and biological invasions in terms of four crosscutting themes: (1) how people cause biological invasions; (2) how people conceptualise and perceive them; (3) how people are affected – both positively and negatively – by them; and (4) how people respond to them. We also highlight several ways in which research on the human and social dimensions of invasion science improves understanding, stakeholder engagement, and management.
When free-ranging dogs threaten wildlife: Public attitudes toward management strategies in southern Chile J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-22 Federico J. Villatoro, Lisa Naughton-Treves, Maximiliano A. Sepúlveda, Paulina Stowhas, Fernando O. Mardones, Eduardo A. Silva-Rodríguez
Free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris) significantly threaten wildlife, including endangered species. Although this problem resembles threats from other invasive animals, managing roaming dogs is even more fraught due to their close association with humans. Here we use interviews (n = 166) to document patterns of dog ownership and care and to measure public attitudes toward management strategies to control free-roaming dogs that threaten wildlife in rural areas of southern Chile. We compare attitudes toward lethal control and fines in scenarios where dogs attack livestock, children or wild animals or enter protected areas. We also test for variation in attitudes according to gender, age, education and proximity to urban areas. Most respondents (98.1%) opposed lethal control for at least one scenario and they were more likely to accept killing dogs that attacked sheep than those attacking wildlife. Similarly, support for fines was higher when dogs attacked livestock or people versus wild animals. Respondents consistently favored fining the owner over eliminating the problem dog. When asked about their management preferences, many respondents indicated that the movement of problem dogs—including to a lesser extent those threatening wildlife—should be restricted. However, in practice most dog-owners allowed one or more of their dogs to move freely at least part of the time. Finally, the wildlife species of concern mattered, e.g. 40% thought no action was necessary when dogs attack foxes, but this dropped to 12% for pudu (a small deer). In sum, participants had significantly more concern for livestock and human safety than for wildlife protection. We close by discussing management and policy implications.
Two-step biohydrometallurgical technology of copper-zinc concentrate processing as an opportunity to reduce negative impacts on the environment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Natalya V. Fomchenko, Maxim I. Muravyov
Effect of immobilization on growth and organics removal of chlorella in fracturing flowback fluids treatment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Ran Li, Jiang Yang, Jie Pan, Li Zhang, Wenlong Qin
In this paper, fracturing flowback fluids were biologically treated by immobilized chlorella. The individual and interactive effects of three variables (sodium alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration, and crosslinking time) on growth of immobilized algal were optimized by response surface methodology combined with Box-Behnken design. The results showed that the SA (sodium alginate) concentration most significantly affected algal density and treatment efficiency. The interaction between SA concentration and crosslinking time was weak, the interaction between CaCl2 concentration and crosslinking time was modest, while the interaction between SA concentration and CaCl2 concentration was significant. The immobilized chlorella performed the best when the SA concentration, CaCl2 concentration and crosslinking time were 2.42%, 2.69% and 16.76h, respectively, and the COD removal rate of fracturing flowback fluids was significantly higher than that of the free algal (34.70% vs. 8.96%), indicating immobilization could improve growth and organics removal of chlorellas for processing fracturing flowback fluids.
Elucidating Efficacy of Biomass Derived Nanocomposites in Water and Wastewater Treatment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Saumaya Kirti, Vinay M. Bhandari, Jyotsnarani Jena, Arnab S. Bhattacharyya
Improvement of methanogenic activity of anaerobic digestion using poly(l-lactic acid) with enhanced chemical hydrolyzability based on physicochemical parameters J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Takeshi Yamada, Hideto Tsuji, Hiroyuki Daimon
Because packing bags and disposable items of poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) waste are discharged together with other organic waste including garbage, anaerobic co-digestion of PLLA and other organic waste is required. However, because of low hydrolyzability of PLLA products, the chemical hydrolyzability must be improved for PLLA treatment during anaerobic digestion. This study aimed to assess weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and crystallinity (Xc), to determine the chemical hydrolyzability of PLLA, for PLLA treatment during anaerobic digestion. Moreover, the possibility of anaerobic co-digestion of the PLLA after improvement of chemical hydrolyzability and other organic waste has also been discussed. Detectable methanogenic activity of the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sludges of PLLA occurred in the Mw range of 6,800 to 16,500, and 6,800 and 38,000, respectively. The methanogenic activity of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sludge was higher with PLLA with a high crystallinity (Xc=39.9–46.1 %) than with nearly amorphous PLLA (Xc= 0.3–3.5 %). The maximum methanogenic activity of anaerobic sludge using PLLA with an Xc of approximately 40–45% and with a Mw of 10,300 and 16,500 for mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sludge were 0.013 gCOD·gVS-1·d-1 and 0.13 gCOD·gVS-1·d-1, respectively. A survey on the possibility of anaerobic co-digestion of PLLA after improvement in chemical hydrolyzability based on Mw and Xc and organic wastes revealed that thermophilic conditions at 55°C are more advantageous than mesophilic conditions at 37°C.
Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pruning biomass by co-composting with urban and agri-food sludge J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 A. Vico, M.D. Pérez-Murcia, M.A. Bustamante, E. Agulló, F.C. Marhuenda-Egea, J.A. Sáez, C. Paredes, A. Pérez-Espinosa, R. Moral
Mapping specific vulnerability of multiple confined and unconfined aquifers by using artificial intelligence to learn from multiple DRASTIC frameworks J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Ata Allah Nadiri, Zahra Sedghi, Rahman Khatibi, Sina Sadeghfam
Assessing organizations performance on the basis of GHRM practices using BWM and Fuzzy TOPSIS J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Himanshu Gupta
Over the past few years, the need for sustainable environmental management has increased rapidly and green management has emerged as an important tool for the same. The role of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) practices in environmental management and green management is widely known but still lesser discussed in academic literature. Thus, realizing the importance of GHRM in environmental management by organizations, this study attempts to identify the important practices of GHRM and evaluate the performance of manufacturing organizations using GHRM practices. A three-phase methodology is used for the same. The first phase involves identification of GHRM practices in manufacturing organizations through literature review and expert opinion. The second phase involves ranking of GHRM practices using Best Worst Method (BWM) and third phase methodology involves evaluating manufacturing organizations on the basis of GHRM practices using Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). This research can help managers to identify important practices of GHRM for their organization. This study also provides a framework for managers to evaluate their organization's performance on the basis of GHRM practices.
Identifying design guidelines to meet the circular economy principles: a case study on electric and electronic equipment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 María D. Bovea, Victoria Pérez-Belis
Journal of Environmental Management Bioremediation and biomass production from the cultivation of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in parboiled rice effluent J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Giana Gaboardi, Diego Gil de los Santos, Lantier Mendes, Larissa Centeno, Taiane Meireles, Samantha Vargas, Emili Griep, Arthur de Castro Jorge Silva, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Fabricio Rochedo Conceição
The parboilization of rice generates 2 L of effluent per kilogram of processed grain. Several methodologies have previously been tested with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of this effluent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioremediation of parboiled rice effluent supplemented with sucrose or residual glycerol from the biodiesel during the cultivation of the Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic. In the first stage of the experiment, cultures were grown in orbital shaker, and five media compositions were evaluated: 1) parboiled rice effluent; 2) effluent supplemented with 1% sucrose; 3) effluent supplemented with 3% sucrose; 4) effluent supplemented with 15 g.L-1 of biodiesel glycerol and 5) standard yeast culture medium (YM). The addition of 1% of sucrose generated the most promising results in terms of cell viability, removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (COD). From these results, four independent cultures were grown in a bioreactor using effluent + 1% of sucrose as the medium. This assays generated a mean of 3.8 g.L-1 of biomass, 1.8 x 1011 CFU.L-1, and removal of 74% of COD and 78% of phosphorus. Therefore, the cultivation of Saccharomyces boulardii in parboiled rice effluent supplemented with 1% sucrose may represent a viable method by which the environmental impact of this effluent can be reduced while simultaneously producing probiotic culture for use in animal production.
Does time since fire drive live aboveground biomass and stand structure in low fire activity boreal forests? Impacts on their management J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Jeanne Portier, Sylvie Gauthier, Guillaume Cyr, Yves Bergeron
Boreal forests subject to low fire activity are complex ecosystems in terms of structure and dynamics. They have a high ecological value as they contain important proportions of old forests that play a crucial role in preserving biodiversity and ecological functions. They also sequester important amounts of carbon at the landscape level. However, the role of time since fire in controlling the different processes and attributes of those forests is still poorly understood. The Romaine River area experiences a fire regime characterized by very rare but large fires and has recently been opened to economic development for energy and timber production. In this study, we aimed to characterize this region in terms of live aboveground biomass, merchantable volume, stand structure and composition, and to establish relations between these attributes and the time since the last fire. Mean live aboveground biomass and merchantable volume showed values similar to those of commercial boreal coniferous forests. They were both found to increase up to around 150 years after a fire before declining. However, no significant relation was found between time since fire and stand structure and composition. Instead, they seemed to mostly depend on stand productivity and non-fire disturbances. At the landscape level, this region contains large amounts of biomass and carbon stored resulting from the long fire cycles it experiences. Although in terms of merchantable volume these forests seemed profitable for the forest industry, a large proportion were old forests or presented structures of old forests. Therefore, if forest management was to be undertaken in this region, particular attention should be given to these old forests in order to protect biodiversity and ecological functions. Partial cutting with variable levels of retention would be an appropriate management strategy as it reproduces the structural complexity of old forests.
Optimisation of a modified submerged bed biofilm reactor for biological oleochemical wastewater treatment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Zakaria Ismail, Md Maniruzzaman A. Aziz, Nik Azmi Nik Mahmood, Shahrul Ismail, Noor Azrimi Umor, Syed Anuar Faua’ad Syed Muhammad
Oleochemicals industry effluence mainly contains a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) in a range of 6,000-20,000 ppm. An effective biological wastewater treatment process must be carried out before wastewater is discharged into the environment. In this study, a submerged bed biofilm reactor (SBBR) was adapted to the biological oleochemical wastewater treatment plant observed in the present study. The effect of wastewater flow rate (100-300 mL/min), Cosmoball® percentage in the SBBR system (25-75%), and percentage of activated sludge (0-50%) were investigated in terms of COD reduction. The Box-Behnken design was used for response surface methodology (RSM) and to create a set of 18 experimental runs, which was needed for optimising the biological oleochemical wastewater treatment. A quadratic polynomial model with estimated coefficients was developed to describe COD reduction patterns. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the wastewater flow rate was the most effective factor in reducing COD, followed by activated sludge percentage and Cosmoball® carrier percentage. Under the optimum conditions (i.e., a wastewater flow rate of 103.25 mL/min a Cosmoball® carrier percentage of 71.94%, and an activated sludge percentage of 40.50%) a COD reduction of 98% was achieved. Thus, under optimum conditions, as suggested by the BBD, SBBR systems can be used as a viable means of biological wastewater treatment in the oleochemicals industry.
Assessment of new functional units for agrivoltaic systems J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Ai Leon, Keiichi N. Ishihara
In agrivoltaic systems, photovoltaic (PV) modules are ground-mounted between crops replacing a part of greenhouse or are set below or above the cover film of greenhouse; these can provide solutions with respect to land competition and climate change mitigation. These systems have certain additional functions, namely, sunlight sharing, land sharing and power generation, as compared to the conventional agricultural production systems. These new functions are not adequately performed by traditionally used functional units (FUs), such as the mass- or the area-based FU, in agricultural life cycle assessment (LCA). Therefore, this study proposed new FUs for agrivoltaic systems, namely the modified area-based FU and the monetary-based FU. The modified area-based FU was derived by adding area covered by PV modules to the cultivated area addressing the function of land sharing. The monetary-based FU was derived by adding the prices of crops and cost of power generation addressing the function of the system as a producer of differently valued market goods. The traditional area-based FU is based on the function of solar sharing because crop cultivation and power generation share the same sunlight falling on the same land. These new and traditional FUs were applied to a tomato greenhouse, with and without organic photovoltaics, as a case study of Japan. A combination of traditional and new FUs helps to maintain focus on crop production as the primary function of agricultural land and to better understand the environmental impacts of agrivoltaic systems. Finally, as the sharing of sunlight and land happen simultaneously, a method that addresses both these functions while reporting LCA results was considered.
Green roof and photovoltaic panel integration: effects on plant and arthropod diversity and electricity production J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Bracha Y. Schindler, Leon Blaustein, Ran Lotan, Hadar Shalom, Gyongyver J. Kadas, Merav Seifan
The combination of green roofs with photovoltaic (PV) panels has been proposed to provide synergistic benefits as the panel is cooled by the presence of the vegetation, and thus produces more electricity, while the solar panel enhances growing conditions for vegetation, and increases abiotic heterogeneity, resulting in higher plant diversity. We tested these hypotheses in a non-irrigated green roof in a Mediterranean climate with replicated plots including green roofs only, green roofs with a PV panel, and a conventional roof surface with a PV panel. We found that presence of a panel resulted in higher heterogeneity in substrate moisture, but there was no effect on plant diversity. Plant species showed enhanced growth in plots with PV, including greater growth of Sedum sediforme and longer flowering time of annual species. On the other hand, arthropod diversity was lower during part of the year, and abundance of some arthropod taxa was lower in green roof plots with PV. The presence of the green roof also did not improve electricity production by the panels. We conclude that in a Mediterranean climate, it would be appropriate to examine the use of irrigation in green roofs with PV panels, including effects on the plant community and on electricity production.
Comparison of the state of Lithium-Sulphur and Lithium-ion batteries applied to electromobility J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 G. Benveniste, H. Rallo, L. Canals Casals, A. Merino, B. Amante
The market share in electric vehicles (EV) is increasing. This trend is likely to continue due to the increased interest in reducing CO2 emissions. The electric vehicle market evolution depends principally on the evolution of batteries capacity. As a consequence, automobile manufacturers focus their efforts on launching in the market EVs capable to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) in both performance and economic aspects. Although EVs are suitable for the day-to-day needs of the typical urban driver, their range is still lower than ICEV, because batteries are not able to store and supply enough energy to the vehicle and provide the same autonomy as ICEV. EV use mostly Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries but this technology is reaching its theoretical limit (200-250 Wh/kg). Although the research to improve Li-ion batteries is very active, other researches began to investigate alternative electrochemical energy storage systems with higher energy density. At present, the most promising technology is the Lithium-Sulphur (Li-S) battery. This paper presents a review of the state of art of Li-Sulphur battery on EVs compared to Li-ion ones, considering technical, modelling, environmental and economic aspects with the aim of depicting the challenges this technology has to overcome to substitute Li-ion in the near future. This study shows how the main drawbacks for Li-S concern are durability, self-discharge and battery modelling. However, from an environmental and economic point of view, Li-S technology presents many advantages over Li-ion.
Compost Humic Acid-Like Isolates from Composting Process as Bio-based Surfactant: Properties and Feasibility to Solubilize Hydrocarbon from Crude Oil Contaminated Soil J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Gina Lova Sari, Yulinah Trihadiningrum, Dwiyanti Agustina Wulandari, Ellina Sitepu Pandebesie, I.D.A.A. Warmadewanthi
Biodecomposition of organic solid waste during composting process produces compost humic acid-like (cHAL), which is classified as biobased surfactant. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of cHAL substance which was formed during the composting process of crude oil contaminated soil, in terms of surface tension decline (∆ST) and emulsification activity (EA), and evaluate the ability to solubilize hydrocarbons. Crude oil contaminated soil from a public oilfield in Wonocolo Sub-district, Bojonegoro, Indonesia, was composted under aerobic condition with varied biodegradable waste (yard waste and rumen residue) in separate reactors. The cHAL compounds were isolated from composting products from yard waste (Y100), rumen residue (R100), control of contaminated soil (S100), and mixed of contaminated soil and biodegradable waste (S50YR50). The results showed that ∆ST of cHAL isolates were ranged from 6.65 to 21.50 mN/m. The EA of cHAL isolates were in the range of 7.35–38.01%. The cHAL isolates were capable to solubilize 99 to 10,710 µg/g of hydrocarbons. The cHAL isolates from R100 and S50YR50 are potential as surface tension reducer and emulsifier for hydrocarbon with values of those isolates were close to 0.50% Tween 80 characteristics, and the abilities to solubilize hydrocarbon were comparable to 1.00% Tween 80. A composition of 50% crude oil contaminated soil and 50% of biodegradable waste (yard waste and rumen residue) is recommended for composting crude oil contaminated soil.
Explaining people's perceptions of invasive alien species: A conceptual framework J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Ross T. Shackleton, David M. Richardson, Charlie M. Shackleton, Brett Bennett, Sarah L. Crowley, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Rodrigo A. Estévez, Anke Fischer, Christoph Kueffer, Christian A. Kull, Elizabete Marchante, Ana Novoa, Luke J. Potgieter, Jetske Vaas, Ana S. Vaz, Brendon M.H. Larson
Human perceptions of nature and the environment are increasingly being recognised as important for environmental management and conservation. Understanding people's perceptions is crucial for understanding behaviour and developing effective management strategies to maintain, preserve and improve biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. As an interdisciplinary team, we produced a synthesis of the key factors that influence people's perceptions of invasive alien species, and ordered them in a conceptual framework. In a context of considerable complexity and variation across time and space, we identified six broad-scale dimensions: (1) attributes of the individual perceiving the invasive alien species; (2) characteristics of the invasive alien species itself; (3) effects of the invasion (including negative and positive impacts, i.e. benefits and costs); (4) socio-cultural context; (5) landscape context; and (6) institutional and policy context. A number of underlying and facilitating aspects for each of these six overarching dimensions are also identified and discussed. Synthesising and understanding the main factors that influence people's perceptions is useful to guide future research, to facilitate dialogue and negotiation between actors, and to aid management and policy formulation and governance of invasive alien species. This can help to circumvent and mitigate conflicts, support prioritisation plans, improve stakeholder engagement platforms, and implement control measures.
Stakeholder engagement in the study and management of invasive alien species J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Ross T. Shackleton, Tim Adriaens, Giuseppe Brundu, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Rodrigo A. Estévez, Jana Fried, Brendon M.H. Larson, Shuang Liu, Elizabete Marchante, Hélia Marchante, Moleseng C. Moshobane, Ana Novoa, Mark Reed, David M. Richardson
Invasive alien species are a major driver of global environmental change and a range of management interventions are needed to manage their effects on biodiversity, ecosystem services, human well-being and local livelihoods. Stakeholder engagement is widely advocated to integrate diverse knowledge and perspectives in the management of invasive species and to deal with potential conflicts of interest. We reviewed the literature in the ISI Web of Science on stakeholder engagement (the process of involving stakeholders (actors) in decision making, management actions and knowledge creation) in invasion science to assess and understand what has been done (looking at approaches and methodologies used, stakeholders involved, and outcomes from engagement) and to make recommendations for future work.Research on stakeholder engagement in invasion science has increased over the last decade, helping to improve scientific knowledge and contributing towards policy formulation and co-implementation of management. However, many challenges remain and engagement could be made more effective. For example, most studies engage only one stakeholder group passively using questionnaires, primarily for assessing local knowledge and perceptions. Although useful for management and policy planning, these stakeholders are not active participants and there is no two-way flow of knowledge. To make stakeholder involvement more useful, we encourage more integrative and collaborative engagement to (1) improve co-design, co-creation and co-implementation of research and management actions; (2) promote social learning and provide feedback to stakeholders; (3) enhance collaboration and partnerships beyond the natural sciences and academia (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaboration); and (4) discuss some practical and policy suggestions for improving stakeholder engagement in invasion science research and management. This will help facilitate different stakeholders to work better together, allowing problems associated with biological invasions to be tackled more holistically and successfully.
The transforming capacity of collaborative institutions: belief change and coalition reformation in conflicted wildlife management J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Carina Lundmark, Simon Matti, Annica Sandström
The aim of this study is to examine the transformative capacity of top-down imposed collaborative institutions on participants’ beliefs and coordination patterns. First, do collaborative arenas enhance learning in terms of belief change and belief convergence among participating actors? Second, what types of beliefs are changed and, third, how are changes in beliefs reflected in the formation of coalitions? To answer these questions, a longitudinal study encompassing three collaborative decision-making arenas in the highly adversarial system for wildlife management in Sweden is performed. The empirical analysis indicates both stability and change within the new management system that confirms, as well as challenges, the theoretical assumptions guiding the analysis. While beliefs overall are rather stable, we note, surprisingly, how some participants’ more normatively oriented policy core beliefs have been slightly modified over time. A more expected result was that these adjustments in normative policy core beliefs were accompanied by a reformed coalition structure within the studied decision-making arenas. The study contributes to our understandings of policy beliefs and coalitions in conflicted policy areas; it underlines the mixed results of collaborative institutions found in previous research; yet, lends a modest support in favor of the transformative capacity of collaborative institutions.
Exploring the Critical Determinants of Environmentally Oriented Public Procurement Using the DEMATEL Method J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Sujak Bakir, Shahadat Khan, Kamrul Ahsan, Shams Rahman
This study explores the critical determinants of environmentally oriented public procurement in Singapore, and investigates the causal relationships among the determinants that influence this procurement. Using the extant literature and basing our examination on natural-resource-based theory, we develop a conceptual framework for the implementation of environmentally oriented public procurement using three high-level dimensions and ten determinants. Sixteen interviews were conducted with 16 senior executives working in various ministries and statutory boards in Singapore who are closely involved in the public-procurement process. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method, which is a multicriteria decision-making tool, is employed to analyse the interview data and information. The results of the analysis reveal that the two most critical determinants for environmentally oriented public procurement in Singapore are energy-efficiency strategy and environmental standards. These two determinants were also found to be the primary drivers of the implementation of environmentally oriented public procurement in Singapore. Through further analysis using the level of influence, a cognition map is developed to illustrate the relationships among the ten determinants. Understanding the dynamic nature of public procurement through these causal relationships is essential for the formulation of environmentally oriented public procurement implementation strategies.
Landscape Dimension in the Built Environment: The Spatial Operative of An Integrated MicroAgricultureUnit J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Tzen-Ying Ling, Guo-Zua Wu, Ju-Sen Lin
The rapid urbanization creates an increased demand for food supply and security in urban system. The imminent risks stemmed from climate change appeal for a greater effort in an overhaul of the customary practices in the planning and management of the urban systems. Urban centers should accommodate the growing need for green infrastructure and edible landscape; options such as farming alternative has gained interest as a possible solution to the urban-scape and the food production stability for the urban inhabitants. This article presents the systemic approach to building integrated agriculture unit prototype’s design thinking and proposed a prototype model allowing the locality and place to be incorporated into the design framework. The research concludes that: (1) in line with human-nature connection and raising its priority level within both design research and design practice should consider the environmental, social, economic and spatial criteria for the design thinking exploration; (2) the design results in a flexible system model of the micro building integrated agriculture unit, allowing the units to fit either indoor or outdoor, as a probable solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for edible greens; (3) indoor units need further study in integration with the indoor climate control and automation as well as added indoor air purification and sensor functions. (4) Prototype units should be capable of providing locally available edible production and social well-being for the urban system.
A comprehensive spatial-temporal analysis of driving factors of human-caused wildfires in Spain using Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Marcos Rodrigues, Adrián Jiménez-Ruano, Dhais Peña-Angulo, Juan de la Riva
Over the last decades, authorities responsible on forest fire have encouraged research on fire triggering factors, recognizing this as a critical point to achieve a greater understanding of fire occurrence patterns and improve preventive measures. The key objectives of this study are to investigate and analyze spatial-temporal changes in the contribution of wildfire drivers in Spain, and provide deeper insights into the influence of fire features: cause, season and size. We explored several subsets of fire occurrence combining cause (negligence/accident and arson), season (summer-spring and winter-fall) and size (<1Ha, 1-100 Ha and >100Ha). The analysis is carried out fitting Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression models in two separate time periods (1988-1992, soon after Spain joined the European Union; and 2006-2010, after several decades of forest management). Our results suggest that human factors are losing performance with climate factors taking over, which may be ultimately related to the success in recent prevention policies. In addition, we found strong differences in the performance of occurrence models across subsets, thus models based on long-term historical fire records might led to misleading conclusions. Overall, fire management should move towards differential prevention measurements and recommendations due to the observed variability in drivers’ behavior over time and space, paying special attention to winter fires.
Winter road management effects on roadside soil and vegetation along a mountain pass in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Hanna M. Willmert, Joseph D. Osso, Michael R. Twiss, Tom A. Langen
In 2003-2005, we resurveyed and expanded plots surveyed in 1985 to examine the cumulative impact of road salt (sodium chloride) and sand along a two-lane highway in the Adirondack State Park in New York State (USA). Annual salt applications in the period 1985-2005 ranged from 50 tonnes per centerline-km (1985) to 140 tonnes (2005) and sand applications ranged from nearly zero tonnes (2005) to 325 tonnes (1985). Roadside soils and vegetation were significantly impacted by salt deposition compared to soils and vegetation 30 meters and 150 meters from the road. Roadside soil contained more sand, less organic matter, had a lower cation exchange capacity, was denser, and retained less water than soils 30 m and 150 m from the road. The concentration of sodium in roadside soils was elevated (103 vs. 44 ppm in soil 150 m from the roadside), and roadside concentrations of plant-nutritive cations were lower than 150 m from the road (roadside Mg, Ca and K concentrations were 0.2, 5, and 1 ppm respectively vs. 23,168, and 30 ppm at 150 m from the road). Along the roadside, paper birch trees (Betula papyrifera) and other woody vegetation present in 1980 were absent in 2004, suggesting that survival and recruitment of paper birch trees was impacted by degradation of soil fertility, deposition of road salt and aerosolization of salt from the roadway. Roadside environmental degradation caused by winter road management has worsened since 1980; revegetation with native salt-tolerant plants may provide some mitigation of the most severe effects. Overall, we conclude that the full extent of roadside environmental degradation caused by winter road management can take decades to manifest, and this may be the case more generally along cold-climate montane roadways.
Exploratory analysis of lightning-ignited wildfires in the Warren Region, Western Australia J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Bryson C. Bates, Lachlan McCaw, Andrew J. Dowdy
An exploratory analysis of lightning-ignited wildfire data for the Warren Region of Western Australia was carried out for the period from April 1976 to December 2016. Temporal patterns in the series were examined in terms of characterizing the seasonal cycle, and detecting long-term trends and changes in seasonality over time. A generalized additive modelling approach was used to ensure that temporal features were determined by the data rather than a priori assumed mathematical forms (e.g. linear or low-order polynomial functions). The spatial organization of the data was evaluated using concepts from the theory of stochastic point processes. Results indicate a strong seasonality in the monthly lightning ignition series, the presence of a long-term trend and an interaction between trend and seasonality. There is also strong evidence of spatial variation in the number of ignitions per unit area in terms of location and distance from nearest ignition. Within the Warren Region, observation platforms for fire detection and reporting protocols have remained stable over the period of record, and changes in land use are unlikely to have altered the pattern of lightning ignition. Thus, the above results might reflect an interplay between: landscape attributes (e.g. vegetation classes, elevation, slope, aspect); changes in rainfall and fuel moisture; changes in fuel management practices; and, perhaps, an increase in the frequency of dry thunderstorms and fire weather conditions.
Comment on "Evaluation of the effectiveness and mechanisms of acetaminophen and methylene blue dye adsorption on activated biochar derived from municipal solid wastes" J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Yuan-dong Huang
This comment concern a mistake of applying pseudo-first order kinetic equation for adsorption systems.
Solar powered nanofiltration for drinking water production from fluoride-containing groundwater – A pilot study towards developing a sustainable and low-cost treatment plant J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Saadia Ilhem Bouhadjar, Holger Kopp, Pia Britsch, Shamim Ahmed Deowan, Jan Hoinkis, Jochen Bundschuh
The following paper summarizes the findings of a pilot study to develop a simple, low-cost, holistic water concept on fluoride removal from groundwater in rural communities of Tanzania; an ideal representative community for other areas in the world with similar problems. A small photovoltaic powered nanofiltration (NF) pilot plant was installed at a vocational training center in Boma’ngombe in northern Tanzania. The groundwater in this region is contaminated with fluoride at very high concentrations of up to 60 mg/L. The pilot plant was equipped with a single membrane module containing a spiral wound 4040 membrane NF90 of Dow Water & Process Solutions and was successfully operated over a nine-month period.The membrane removed more than 98.8% of fluoride. In fact, the fluoride concentration in the permeate was always less than 1 mg/L, which is in agreement with the WHO recommended standard (1.5 mg/L) and allowed its use as as weekly flush medium, so no chemical cleaning was required. Aside from permeate (drinking water) concentrate was also used for washing and flushing the toilets. In conclusion, the use of solar PV power (2.25 KWP) for approximately 2.5 hours per day allowed producing 236 L/h of permeate on average. Therefore, the sustainability of the process and suitability for the Tanzanian communities was proved.
Implementation of continuously electro-generated Fe3O4 nanoparticles for activation of persulfate to decompose amoxicillin antibiotic in aquatic media: UV254 and ultrasound intensification J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Fatemeh Sepyani, Reza Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Sahand Jorfi, Hatam Godini, Mahdi Safari
In the present investigation, the treatment of amoxicillin (AMX)-polluted water by the activated persulfate (PS) was considered. As a novel research, continuously electro-generated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (CEMNPs) were utilized as the activator of PS in an electrochemical medium. The PS/CEMNPs displayed a remarkable enhancement in the decomposition of AMX molecules up to 72.6% compared with lonely PS (24.8%) and CEMNPs (13.4%). On the basis of pseudo-first order reaction rate constants, the synergy percent of about 70% was achieved due to the combination of PS with CEMNPs. The adverse influence of free radical-scavenging compounds on the efficiency of the PS/CEMNPs process was in the following order: carbonate < chloride < tert-butyl alcohol < ethanol. Overall, these results proved the main role of free radical species in degrading AMX. The implementation of ultrasound (US) enhanced the performance of the PS/CEMNPs process. Nevertheless, the highest degradation efficiency of about 94% was achieved when UV254 lamp was joined the PS/CEMNPs system. Under UV254 and US irradiation, the results showed significant potential of the PS/CEMNPs process for degrading AMX antibiotic and generating low toxic effluent based on the activated sludge inhibition test. However, more time is needed to achieve the acceptable mineralization.
Variable Refrigerant Flow Cooling Assessment in Humid Environment Using Different Refrigerants J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Roba Saab, Hilal Al Quabeh, Mohamed I. Hassan Ali
Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is a cooling system developed to anticipate and minimize operating and maintenance costs. VRF allows personalized control and maximizes flexibility to accommodate changing tenants in high rise and compound buildings in hot and humid environments. Although many studies have previously modeled VRF systems from an energy perspective, minor attempts have been made to analyze the exergy performance of this technology. The aim of this paper is to present an exergy/energy analysis of VRF technology to address the effect of refrigerant flow as well as the cooling-air flow rates on the electric energy saving in the hot and humid zones. This analysis will be then used to investigate its performance in humid areas, particularly the Gulf region. VRF is an advanced air conditioning system that is developed to manage load variability by controlling the compressor speed and the expansion valve opening. It is proposed that the system be implemented at Masdar City buildings, located in Abu Dhabi.In this study, VRF units from different manufacturers were modeled and compared using engineering equation solver (EES) and IPSEpro software. The models, which were mainly developed on EES were repeated for validation on similar models that have been developed using the IPSEpro software, and the results were in agreement within 6% uncertainty. Parametric studies were done after modeling the system on EES, where both the high and low pressures in the cycle were varied to obtain the corresponding COP and second law efficiency operating range. It was noticeable that COP and second law efficiency are significantly affected by the evaporator and condenser temperatures and pressures. In addition, as significant concern has been raised due to the impact of refrigerants on global warming, different refrigerants were considered and the results showed that refrigerant R-410a would be the second most efficient refrigerant, after ammonia, for such systems. Finally, an effectiveness NTU evaporator model was implemented to minimize the overall power consumption of the VRF system under various zone loads. It was found that, under a typical set of zone loads, the optimal refrigerant evaporating temperature is 11 °C, when the sum of indoor fan power and outdoor unit power is minimized using the exergy balance. These results helped decision makers to install the VRF system for the first time in that hot and humid area. The preliminary results for May and June sowed an average energy saving of 32% with variable evaporators and condenser speed and variable compressor frequency.
Glomalin changes in urban-rural gradients and their possible associations with forest characteristics and soil properties in Harbin City, Northeastern China J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Wenjie Wang, Qiong Wang, Wei Zhou, Lu Xiao, Huimei Wang, Xingyuan He
Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is a glycoprotein from the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite urbanization being the leading cause of present-day land-use changes, there is limited information available on the effects of urbanization on GRSP. We sampled soil from 257 plots in Harbin City, China, and surveyed forest characteristics, soil properties, and urbanization gradients related to ring road development, urban history, and land use. Two glomalin components (easily extracted glomalin, EEG; and total glomalin, TG) and their relative contributions to soil organic carbon (SOC: EEG/SOC, TG/SOC) were measured in the laboratory. We found exponential increases in EEG/SOC and TG/SOC from the most urbanized to the most rural regions, indicating that urbanization sharply reduced glomalin-related SOC sequestration. In general, 1.3–1.4-fold higher glomalin levels were found in the newly urbanized, previously rural areas, while glomalin contribution to SOC sequestration was lower by 38–59 % for EEG and 74–85 % for TG in the most urbanized regions compared to rural regions. Accompanying these recorded changes in glomalin, linear decreases in soil pH and electrical conductance were observed in all three urban-rural gradients from the urban center to the rural area, and steep decreases in conifer ratio and shrub richness were seen in two of the gradients. The complex associations among glomalin and forest characteristics, soil properties, and urbanization gradients were decoupled and cross-checked using redundancy analysis variation partitioning and structural equation model analysis. Urbanization indirectly changed glomalin features by altering soil properties, with soil properties accounting for over 60 % of the glomalin variation. Forest characteristics and urbanization gradients contributed to 10–15 % of the glomalin variation. With rapid urbanization occurring in China and on a global scale, glomalin variation should be considered when evaluating soil carbon sequestration and in developing effective forest management strategies, with the aim of ameliorating soil degradation in urbanized regions by rehabilitating glomalin accumulation.
On the performance of electrocatalytic anodes for photoelectro-Fenton treatment of synthetic solutions and real water spiked with the herbicide chloramben J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Abdoulaye Thiam, Ignasi Sirés, Ricardo Salazar, Enric Brillas
The destruction of the herbicide chloramben in 0.050 M Na2SO4 solutions at natural pH has been studied by photoelectro-Fenton with UVA light (PEF). The trials were carried out in a cell equipped with an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 generation and different electrocatalytic anodes, namely active IrO2-based and RuO2-based electrodes and non-active boron-doped diamond (BDD) and PbO2 ones. Similar removal rates were found regardless of the anode nature because the herbicide was mainly oxidized by ●OH formed from Fenton’s reaction, which was enhanced by UVA-induced photo-Fenton reaction. The use of an IrO2-based anode led to almost total mineralization at high current density, as also occurred with the powerful BDD anode, since photoactive intermediates originated from ●OH-mediated oxidation were degraded under irradiation with UVA light. The good performance of the IrO2-based anode in PEF was confirmed at different current densities and herbicide concentrations. The presence of Cl− in the medium caused a slight deceleration of herbicide removal as well as mineralization inhibition, owing to the production of active chlorine with consequent formation of persistent chloroderivatives. Seven aromatic products along with oxalic and oxamic acids were identified in sulfate medium. Five aromatic derivatives were detected in Cl−-containing matrix, corroborating the generation of organochlorine compounds. In secondary effluent, larger mineralization was achieved by PEF with a BDD anode due to its high oxidation ability to destroy the chloroderivatives, although an acceptable performance was also obtained using an IrO2-based anode.
Valorisation possibilities of exhausted biosorbents loaded with metal ions – A review J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Iulia Simona Bădescu, Dumitru Bulgariu, Iftikhar Ahmad, Laura Bulgariu
Biosorption is considered one of the most promising methods for removal of metal ions from aqueous effluents, due to its low-cost and eco-friendly characteristics. However, the exhausted biosorbents loaded with metal ions, obtained at the end of biosorption processes, are still a problem which should be solved to increase the applicability of biosorption on an industrial scale. In this study are examined three possibilities for the valorisation of exhausted biosorbents loaded with metal ions, namely: (i) regeneration and reuse of biosorbents in multiple biosorption cycles, (ii) the use of exhausted biosorbents as fertilizers for soils poor in essential microelements, and (iii) the pyrolysis of exhausted biosorbents, under well defined conditions. The main advantages and disadvantages of each valorisation possibility are reviewed in order to find the best way to use these cheap materials in accordance with the principles of the circular economy and thereby contributing to the development of sustainable biosorption technology.
Investigation of the Treatability of Molasses and Industrial Oily Wastewater Mixture by an Anaerobic Membrane Hybrid System J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Meltem Sarioglu Cebeci, Öznur Begüm Gökçek
In this study, the anaerobic treatability of automotive industry wastewater and its treatment in the subsequent membrane system were examined by using molasses, which is a waste of the sugar industry, as a co-substrate. Organic loadings of 3-3, 5-4, and 5gCOD/L/day were applied to a UASB reactor made of steel with a working volume of 7 L. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was kept constant at 2 days. Temperature, pH, COD, alkalinity, Volatile Fatty acid (VFA) and biogas were monitored. The best COD removal was achieved at the value of 4 gCOD/L/day. The average COD removal rate was 77%. The effluent from the UASB reactor was transferred to the membrane system. The flux reductions of the PW10 kDa UF membrane at different concentrations were 1.717 gCOD/L, 1.934 gCOD/L, 2.257 gCOD/L, 4 gCOD/L, and 8 gCOD/L, and they were 90.78%, 42.69%, 45.88%, 51.00%, and 56.60%, respectively, at the input concentrations. The flux reductions of the UE50 100 kDa UF membrane at the input concentrations of 4 gCOD/L and 8 gCOD/L were 76.00% and 66.25%, respectively. It was determined that the UE50 100 kDa membrane caused more fouling compared to the PW 10 kDa UF membrane. Pore fouling models were determined for the flux reduction in the membranes and the mechanism behind it. Heavy metal and organic matter removals were examined in the effluent obtained from the membrane experiments.
Historicising perceptions and the national management framework for invasive alien plants in South Africa J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Brett M. Bennett, Lance van Sittert
This article offers a historical framework for understanding changes to human perceptions and efforts to manage invasive alien plants and weeds in South Africa from the mid-nineteenth century until the present. The article argues that South African legislation and policy for managing invasive alien plants and weeds has historically been limited because people have held contradictory values about plants, many private land owners have lacked resources and have not been compelled to follow government legislation, and because policy has reflected the interests of a small group of farmers or scientific experts who have had limited influence on most private land owners and traditional land users. Successful control efforts often relied on technical expertise that was applied controversially or could be implemented on government land without extensive public consultation or social conflict. The creation of a national framework for invasive alien plants through the Working for Water Programme in 1995 and National Environmental Management of Biodiversity Act (no. 10) of 2004 (NEMBA) has increased public awareness, but the Programme and NEMBA remain limited by many of the same institutional and social constraints that experts and institutions faced in the past. In conclusion, the article draws on history to provide insights to contemporary challenges.
Process analysis of anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung exposing to elevated chromium (VI) concentrations J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Huayong Zhang, Xiaoxi Han, Yonglan Tian, Ying Li, Kun Yang, He Hao, Yang Chai, Xiang Xu
Anaerobic fermentation is considered as a cost-effective way of biomass waste disposal. Chromium (Cr) is one of the heavy metals that often been blamed for unsatisfactory operation or failure of anaerobic fermentation. The impact of Cr (added as K2Cr2O7) on mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung was demonstrated by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities during the fermentation process. The results showed that 30, 100 and 500 mg/L Cr6+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 19.00%, 14.85% and 7.68% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak. Meanwhile, the methane (CH4) content in the 30 (52.47%) and 100 (40.57%) mg/L Cr6+-added groups were generally higher than the control group (37.70%). Higher pH values (close to pH 7) and lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values in the Cr6+-added groups after the 15th day indicated the better process stability compared to the control group. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Cr6+ addition on biogas yields was mainly attributable to better process stability, the enhanced degradation of lignin and hemicellulose, the transformation of intermediates into VFA, the higher coenzyme F420 activities and the efficient generation of CH4. These results demonstrate that an appropriate addition of Cr6+ could enhance the anaerobic fermentation which support the regulations utilizing of the Cr6+ contaminated biowaste.
A Review on Geopolymers as Emerging Materials for the Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Dyes J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Ahmer Ali Siyal, Muhammad Rashid Shamsuddin, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Nurul Ekmi Rabat, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Zakaria Man, John Siame, Khairun Azizi Azizli
The world water resources are contaminated due to discharge of a large number of pollutants from industrial and domestic sources. A variety of a single and multiple units of physical, chemical, and biological processes are employed for pollutants removal from wastewater. Adsorption is the most widely utilized process due to high efficiency, simple procedure and cost effectiveness. This paper reviews the research work carried out on the use of geopolymer materials for the adsorption of heavy metals and dyes. Geopolymers possess good surface properties, heterogeneous microstructure and amorphous structure. The performance of geopolymers in the removal of heavy metals and dyes is reported comparable to other materials. The pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models mostly fit to the adsorption data suggesting homogeneous distribution of adsorption sites with the formation of monolayer adsorbate on the surface of geopolymers. Adsorption of heavy metals and dyes onto geopolymers is spontaneous, endothermic and entropy driven process. Future research should focus on the enhancement of geopolymer performance, testing on pollutants other than heavy metals and dyes, and verification on real wastewater in continuous operation.
The adsorptive removal of chromium (VI) in aqueous solution by novel natural zeolite based hollow fibre ceramic membrane J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Mohd Ridhwan Adam, Norliyana Mohd Salleh, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Takeshi Matsuura, Mohd Hafizi Ali, Mohd Hafiz Puteh, A.F. Ismail, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Juhana Jaafar
Adsorption is one of the most efficient ways to remove heavy metal from wastewater. In this study, the adsorptive removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI) from aqueous solution was investigated using natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, in the form of hollow fibre ceramic membrane (HFCM). The HFCM sample was prepared using phase inversion-based extrusion technique and followed by sintering process at different sintering temperatures in the range of 900–1050 °C. The fabricated HFCM was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle, water permeability, and mechanical strength for all HFCMs sintered at different temperatures. The adsorption and filtration test of Cr (VI) were performed using an in-house water permeation set up with a dead-end cross-flow permeation test. An asymmetric structure with sponge- and finger-like structures across the cross-section of HFCM was observed using SEM. Based on the characterisation data, 1050 °C was chosen to be the best sintering temperature as the water permeability and mechanical strength of this HFCM were 29.14 L/m2∙h and 50.92 MPa, respectively. The performance of the HFCM in adsorption/filtration was 44 % of Cr (VI) removal at the Cr (VI) concentration of 40 mg/L and pH 4. In addition, the mathematical model was also performed in simulating the experimental data obtained from this study. All in all, the natural zeolite-based HFCM has a potential as a single-step Cr (VI) removal by membrane adsorption for the wastewater treatment.
The role of invasive alien species in shaping local livelihoods and human well-being: A review J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Ross T. Shackleton, Charlie M. Shackleton, Christian A. Kull
Invasive alien species are a well-recognised driver of social-ecological change globally. Much research has focused on ecological impacts, but the role of invasive species for livelihoods and human well-being is less well known. Understanding the effects (benefits and costs) of invasive species on livelihoods and human well-being is important for guiding policy formulation and management. Here we review the literature on the role of invasive species in livelihoods to assess what is known, identify knowledge gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature was collected using key word searches and included both journal publications and grey literature. Slightly less than half (48%) of species studied had both substantial positive and negative impacts on local livelihoods (e.g. Australian Acacia spp. species; Camelus dromedaries; Lantana camara; Prosopis spp.), with 37% inducing mainly costs (Chromolaena odorata; Lissachatina fulica; Opuntia stricta) and 16% producing mainly benefits (Opuntia ficus-indica; Acacia spp.). Some species, such as Acacia dealbata, fell into different categories depending on the social-ecological context. Key benefits or services included the provision of fuelwood, fodder, timber and food products for local households communities and to a lesser extent supporting and regulating services such as soil improvement and shade. A number of species also provided cultural services such as recreation and spiritual values and provided many with an opportunity to earn a cash income. However, invasive species also harm livelihoods and increase vulnerability through encroaching on land and reducing mobility or access. They can also decrease the supply of natural resources used by households and reduce agricultural production (livestock and/or crops) which can result in losses of income and increased vulnerability. Furthermore, some invasive species were seen to have negative implications for human health and safety and reduce the cultural value of landscapes. Economic impacts on livelihoods as a result of invasive species were highly variable and very dependent on the social-ecological contexts. These negative implications can reduce resilience and adaptive capacity of households and communities thus increasing their vulnerability to change. Drawing on case studies we highlight that efforts for managing invasive species need to safeguard livelihood benefits while mitigating negative impacts. In concluding we highlight future research and policy needs on the topic of invasive species, livelihoods and human well-being.
Assessment of water samples with complex compositions using microalgal bioassay based on the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Jun-Woo Kim, Madhumita B. Ray, Lars Rehmann
The ability to effectively characterize the response of microalgal communities to changes in water quality is limited. Earlier, a microalgal bioassay was developed based on community level physiological profiling (CLPP). The efficacy of this assay was evaluated using three wetland water samples, a surface water sample, and two wastewater samples (i.e. primary and secondary), all collected from southwestern Ontario, Canada. In addition, the assay was applied to untreated and activated carbon treated oil sand process water (OSPW). YT (Yeast Identification Test Panel) Biolog plates were successfully utilized for defined microalgal community under both heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions to characterize the changes in the defined microalgal community due to the changes in water type. It was found that, although the degrees of changes in the algal community varied, all tested water samples were distinguished under both growth regimes using principal component analysis (PCA). The variations in the algal community were caused by the differences of the water samples. The response of the assay due to changes in the algal community caused by different waters was found to be very sensitive and could be used to differentiate different water bodies. It further can be used to monitor temporal changes of water quality of the same water body.
Hydrologic and Water Quality Performance of Permeable Pavement with Internal Water Storage over a Clay Soil in Durham, North Carolina J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Alessandra S. Braswell, Ryan J. Winston, William F. Hunt
Permeable pavement is an effective tool for improving stormwater hydrology and water quality when sited over soils with high infiltration rates, but its efficacy over less permeable soils is uncertain. This study examined permeable pavement performance when built over a low-conductivity, clay soil. Four parking stalls (50 m2 total area) were retrofitted with permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP) to treat 15.2 m2 of contributing impervious area (0.3:1 run-on ratio). Using an elevated underdrain, the site incorporated a 150-mm internal water storage (IWS) zone to increase exfiltration and promote anaerobic conditions for denitrification. From March 2014 – April 2015, 22% of influent runoff volume was reduced via exfiltration and evaporation. Inter-event drawdown of the IWS zone created storage to capture and exfiltrate more than 70% of the runoff volume from precipitation events less than 8 mm, and peak flows were significantly reduced (median 84%). Relative to stormwater runoff from a nearby impermeable asphalt reference watershed, the permeable pavement produced significantly lower event mean concentrations (EMCs) of all pollutants except nitrate, which was significantly higher. Permeable pavement effluent and reference watershed runoff were 99%, 68%, and 96% different for total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), respectively. Significantly lower permeable pavement effluent EMCs for copper (Cu, 79%), lead (Pb, 92%) and zinc (Zn, 88%) were also observed. The median effluent concentrations of TN (0.52 mg/L), TP (0.02 mg/L), and TSS (7 mg/L) were all very low relative to the literature. Sampling of nitrogen species in the IWS zone 12, 36, 60, and 84 hours post-rainfall was done to better understand mechanisms of nitrogen removal in permeable pavement; results indicated denitrification may be occurring in the IWS zone. Effluent pollutant load from the permeable pavement was at minimum 85% less than from nearby untreated asphalt runoff for TP, TSS, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and was 73% less for TN. Permeable pavements built over low-permeability soils with internal water storage can considerably improve long-term hydrology and water quality.
Divergent perceptions of the ‘neo-Australian’ forests of lowland eastern Madagascar: Invasions, transitions, and livelihoods J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-21 Christian A. Kull, Sombiniaina Larissa Harimanana, Aina Radaniela Andrianoro, Lalanirina Gabrielle Rajoelison
Grevillea banksii (Proteaceae), a non-native shrubby tree, has in the past five decades expanded to cover hundreds of thousands of hectares in lowland eastern Madagascar, accompanied by other Australian and pan-tropical species, including Melaleuca quinquenervia, Acacia mangium, and Eucalyptus spp. We investigate contrasting perceptions of this new landscape with view to facilitate future management. Field research was based on 290 surveys, key informant interviews, and ecological inventories at six sites from Farafangana in the south to Fenerive Est in the north. After documenting the ecology and usage of grevillea, we analyse differing ways in which it can be perceived. Perceptions promoted by scientists and administrators include the contrasting ideas of beneficial landscape greening, rampant biological invasion, novel ecosystems, and forest transition. Perceptions held by local actors are highly determined by practical livelihood concerns. These local views are largely positive due to the major role of grevillea firewood and charcoal sales in livelihoods; however, context plays a major role and a number of disadvantages are perceived as well, including difficulty of removal, competition with crop and pasture land, and the respiratory health impacts of involvement in charcoal production. We conclude that policymakers and managers – in this case and in similar cases around the world – need to be more reflexive on the ways in which environmental problems are framed and to put those frames more in conversation with local people's experiences in order to productively resolve invasive species management dilemmas.
Cutting down on the ozone and SOA formation as well as health risks of VOCs emitted from e-waste dismantlement by integration technique J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-20 Ranran Liu, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, Xinming Wang, Taicheng An
Elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the e-waste dismantling industry by an integration technique of spray tower-electrostatic precipitation-photocatalysis was conducted to investigate its application possibility for reducing formation of O3 and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) as well as exposure risk. Results revealed the average 5.4 × 102 μg m−3 of VOCs with the top two groups being aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs, 55.93%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (HHs, 33.33%), contributing to 1.3 × 103 and 3.0 × 104 μg m−3 of the O3 and SOA (OFP and SOAFP) formation potential, respectively. Furthermore, 86.47% of OFP and 99.87% of SOAFP were ascribed to AHs, in which toluene ranked first (35.30% and 48.07%). The highest removal efficiency (76.92%) for VOCs by the integrated technique resulted in excellent prevention efficiencies of OFP (71.54%) and SOAFP (80.62%). Occupational cancer risk assessment found that HHs (62.63%) and AHs (36.93%) were the top two contributors. After the treatment by the integrated technique, 55.44% of the total risk index was reduced with the accumulation of few low-concentrated and more toxic AHs (e.g. 6.6 μg m−3 benzene on average). All results suggest that controlling AH and HH emissions from the e-waste dismantling source could efficiently prevent atmospheric secondary pollution and human exposure risk to industrial emission.
Estimating daily evaporation from poorly-monitored lakes using limited meteorological data: A case study within Qaraoun dam - Lebanon J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-21 Bassam Bou-Fakhreddine, Imad Mougharbel, Alain Faye, Yann Pollet
Open water evaporation is influenced by several meteorological parameters such as: irradiance, soil temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. However, dealing with that matter, in a case of measurements scarcity, is a challenging task. To overcome this problem, the authors sought a less-dimensional method to estimate lake evaporation. This technique takes into account only three weather variables: temperature, relative Humidity and dew point. In fact, the approach is summarized as follows: 1- using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, a Nonlinear Regression model based on Magnus formula is trained and tested to estimate the dew point. 2- a simplified Penman formula provides an estimate for the lake evaporation rate. To test the approach effectiveness, the suggested method was applied on Qaraoun Lake – Lebanon. Upon testing, the regression model exhibited high accuracy with a goodness of fit value equal to 0.99. Afterwards, the evaporation rates were estimated using Penman formula. Unfortunately, evaporation measurements are not available on site to carry the testing procedures. Instead, outcomes were investigated and compared with the monthly evaporation average retrieved from the nearest region to the lake. Estimated rates were reasonably good with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.89 and mean absolute percentage error around 9.8%. At the final stage of this study, sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of temperature and relative humidity change on evaporation. Overall, the achieved results were reliable enough to carry out a further assessment of the economic impact of evaporation losses from Qaraoun reservoir on the hydropower generation and on the irrigation sector.
Community perception and prioritization of invasive alien plants in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape, Nepal J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-19 Bharat Babu Shrestha, Uttam Babu Shrestha, Krishna Prasad Sharma, Resham Bahadur Thapa-Parajuli, Anjana Devkota, Mohan Siwakoti
The management of invasive species is a complex, yet an essential component of biodiversity conservation and environmental management for sustainable futures. Despite a well-established linkage between biological invasions and human activities, the social dimension of invasive species management is less explored as compared to the ecological aspects. In recent years, the active participation of local communities, such as assessing levels of awareness and the selection of targeted species prioritized by communities, has been considered as a crucial element for managing invasive species. We conducted 32 focus group discussions (FGDs) including 218 participants in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (ChAL) of central Nepal, to assess knowledge and perceptions of agrarian and forest-dependent communities about invasive alien plants (IAPs), document the efforts of the community management of IAPs and prioritize IAPs for management. In the prioritization exercise, participants of each FGD were asked to rank three IAPs using scoring methods and to express their experience about the effects of the selected IAPs on humans and the environment. We found that communities had a living memory of the arrival of some of the IAPs in their locality without knowing the exotic nature of IAPs. Biodiversity loss, livestock poisoning, reduced agricultural production and forage supply, and negative impact on forest regeneration were reported as major negative impacts of IAPs. Communities also reportedly utilized IAPs for medicinal purposes, making compost by using biomass, and controlling floods and landslides. None of the government and non-governmental organizations working in the sectors of biodiversity conservation and environmental management has informed local forest-dependent agrarian communities about the consequences of biological invasions and management of IAPs. However, local communities had already started controlling the spread of some IAPs through manual uprooting. They were able to spot, identify and prioritize IAPs for management and some of the prioritized species were among the world's worst invasive species. Ageratum houstonianum was the top-ranked worst invasive species in agroecosystems while Chromolaena odorata and Ageratina adenophora were the top-ranked worst species in natural ecosystems. Our findings will be useful for guiding community education programs as well as the management of IAPs through formal policy and management plans, such as Nepal's National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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