Biological and chemical treatment technologies for waste amines from CO2 capture plants J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-17 Adeel Ghayur, T. Vincent Verheyen, Erik Meuleman
Amine-based carbon dioxide capture is the most mature technology for reducing flue gas CO2 emissions. It has been postulated and observed during commercialisation of this technology that significant quantities of waste amines are produced. Further industrial implementation of this technology requires adequate disposal or valorisation options for this waste. This review presents an analysis of seven biological and chemical technologies for waste amine amelioration or valorisation. Of these, the biological treatments are identified as being more mature for industrial application with the capacity for marketable product generation. Slow speed is the main drawback of the biological processes but this does not hinder their commercial viability. Using waste amine for NOx reduction in power stations is a secondary option, where it seems probable that the amount of waste amine generated in the CO2 capture plant is sufficient to fulfil the DeNOx requirements of the flue gas. This route, however, requires investigation into the impact of waste amine impurities on the power station and the CO2 capture plant operations.
Do people care about pine invasions? Visitor perceptions and willingness to pay for pine control in a protected area J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Valentina Bravo-Vargas, Rafael A. García, J. Cristóbal Pizarro, Aníbal Pauchard
Tree invasions are increasing globally, causing major problems for biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. In South America, conifer invasions occur across many ecosystems and while numerous studies address the ecological consequences of these invasions, little is known about social perceptions and people's attitudes toward their control. The social perceptions on the effect of invasive conifers can include recreational, cultural and conservation dimensions. This study, conducted in the Malalcahuello National Reserve, aims to assess visitor's perception about invasive pines (Pinus spp.) and their effects on the endangered Araucaria araucana forests and determine their willingness to pay for pine control. We used a questionnaire to survey visitors to the reserve in both winter and summer (n = 138 for each season). When confronted with six images of araucaria and pine forests with and without snow, visitors consistently preferred landscapes without pines and disliked those completely dominated by pines the most. Almost half, 46.5%, of the visitors expressed their willingness to pay (WTP) for pine control and after given a brief explanation about pine impacts, this number rose to 79%. Visitors who said they were unwilling to pay argue ethical, aesthetic and pragmatic considerations relating closely to a number of social value systems and beliefs. Our study shows that there is a high variation in how people assess the threat of invasive pine species in natural areas, but education even in a very brief format can help to increase awareness of the problem and build social and financial support for its control.
Biodegradation of di-butyl phthalate (DBP) by a novel endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and its bioaugmentation for removing DBP from vegetation slurry J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Yu-Hong Huang, Xue-Jing Huang, Xiao-Hong Chen, Quan-Ying Cai, Shaohua Chen, Ce-Hui Mo, Huixiong Lü, Ming-Hung Wong
Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used plasticizer, recalcitrant and hazardous organic compound with high detection frequencies and concentrations in water and soil that pose a great threat to human health. A novel endphytic bacterium strain N-1 capable of efficiently degrading DBP and utilizing it as sole carbon source was isolated from Ageratum conyzoides. This bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Under the optimal culture conditions (pH 7.0, 30 °C), degradation percentage of DBP (12.5-100 mg/L) was up to 95% within five days, and its biodegradation half-life was less than 7.23 h. Degradation percentage of higher DBP concentration (200 mg/L) was relatively lower (89%) with half-life of 56.8 h. DBP was degraded by Bacillus subtilis N-1 into mono-butyl phthalate and phthalic acid as evidenced by GC-MS analysis. Bioaugmentation of Youngia japonica plant slurry with strain N-1 greatly accelerated DBP dissipation with 97.5% removal percentage (higher by 47% than non-inoculation). The results highlighted that strain N-1 has great potential for bioremediation by plant-endophyte partnerships and for lowering PAE accumulation in crops.
Dissipation of herbicides after repeated application in soils amended with green compost and sewage sludge J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Eva Pose-Juan, Jesús M. Marín-Benito, María J. Sánchez-Martín, M Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz
Certain agricultural practices, such as the repeated application of herbicides or organic amendments to soil, can influence herbicide dissipation. This research has studied the effects of two repeated applications of mesotrione, pethoxamid, and triasulfuron on their dissipation rates in unamended soil (S) and soil amended with green compost (S+GC) or sewage sludge (S+SS). The dissipation experiment has also included an evaluation of the adsorption of the three herbicides by soils and of changes in soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA). The adsorption of the three herbicides by amended soils (Kf range 0.83-2.98) was higher than by unamended soil (Kf range 0.20-0.64). The adsorption coefficients (Kd) of mesotrione and triasulfuron were higher for S+SS, while that of pethoxamid was higher for S+GC, but no relationship between values for the time to 50% degradation (DT50) and adsorption coefficients could be determined. The repeated application of mesotrione decreased its dissipation rate in unamended soil (DT50 increased from 4.75 to 8.15 days) and amended soils (DT50 increased from 11.7 to 28.2 days in S+GC and from 17.7 to 37.9 in S+SS), whereas the repeated application of pethoxamid increased its dissipation rate in all the treatments, and the rate for triasulfuron increased only in amended soils. The highest DT50 values for pethoxamid (12.3 days) and triasulfuron (57.1 days) were in S+GC, and the lowest in S+SS (8.35 and 24.7 days). Soil DHA was stimulated by the presence of GC in the soil and by the first application of mesotrione. The second application of mesotrione and pethoxamid positively affected soil DHA, but this did not occur for triasulfuron. The repeated applications of herbicides and soil organic amendments have different effects on herbicide dissipation, adsorption, and soil DHA, and they should be taken into account when assessing soil quality and other potential environmental implications of pesticide use.
The government capacity on industrial pollution management in Shanxi province: A response impulse analysis J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 Lin Zhang, Yao An
This study employs Vector Auto-regression model with Generalized Response Impulse Function to analyse the dynamic nexus between economic growth and the industrial environmental pollution intensity for six specific pollutants in Shanxi province of China from 1995 to 2015. The results show there exists bi-directional effects, with stronger impact running from economic development to industrial pollution is stronger. We also find Shanxi government shows significant capacity in the management of industrial solid waste and waste gas. The provincial government has higher capacity in controlling Sulfur Dioxide compared to soot/dust. Our results verify the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve through dynamic interactions between industrial pollution intensity and economic growth impulse. Three out of the six environmental pollution intensity responses are in the shape of inverted U curve. There are exceptions for three pollutants: N curve for Chemical Oxygen Demand and U curve for solid waste and waste gas.
Effect of light intensity and nutrients supply on microalgae cultivated in urban wastewater: biomass production, lipids accumulation and settleability characteristics J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-11 F. Iasimone, A. Panico, V. De Felice, F. Fantasma, M. Iorizzi, F. Pirozzi
Microalgae cultivation systems fed with wastewater as source of nutrients represents the principal sustainable condition to produce microalgal biomass to be converted conveniently to biofuels. In order to optimize microalgae growth and their lipid content, the effect of light intensity and nutrients load in real wastewater was investigated through batch microalgal cultivation tests. A microalgal polyculture was used as inoculum and grown for 10 days in batch at different conditions of light intensity (i.e. 20, 50 and 100 µmol s-1m-2) and nutrients concentration in wastewater. Experimental results showed that biomass productivity decreased for rich nutrients conditions and increased for high light intensities. The highest lipid mass content (29%) was found for high light intensity condition (100 µmol s-1m-2). Furthermore, microalgae settleability tests, conducted at the end of the cultivation time, resulted in the highest biomass recovery efficiency (72%) for low light intensity and nutrients supply conditions.
Empowered communities or “cheap labour”? Engaging volunteers in the rationalised management of invasive alien species in Great Britain J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Marie Pagès, Anke Fischer, René van der Wal, Xavier Lambin
Volunteers are increasingly involved in the delivery of nature conservation policies, usually supported by a twofold rationale: volunteering can (a) enhance citizen participation in environmental governance and (b) ensure a workforce is in place to support conservation work in times of budget shortages. Here, we ask how these two rationales correspond to volunteers' own motivations to engage in a specific nature conservation activity, namely the control of invasive alien species (IAS). We use qualitative interviews with professional project managers, local group leaders, and volunteers to examine the interactions between policies aiming to rationalise the management of IAS and the motivations for and goals of volunteer engagement. Our findings suggest that although volunteering can lead to positive conservation outcomes, satisfying experiences and empowerment, the different interests do not always align in practice. We investigate the implications of strategies that aim to improve the efficiency of invasive species and volunteer management, and discuss organisational arrangements that reconcile different objectives.
Risk of invasive species spread by recreational boaters remains high despite widespread adoption of conservation behaviors J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 Ellen Cole, Reuben P. Keller, Kelly Garbach
The spread of non-native aquatic species among waterbodies has become a major social, environmental, and economic concern. An important mechanism of this spread is the inadvertent transport of organisms on recreational boats as they are moved among waterbodies. Organisms can survive on the exterior of the boat, the interior, attached to fishing tackle, and can be intentionally moved by boaters. In response, local, state, and federal U.S. agencies have invested in outreach campaigns to educate boaters about the impacts of invasive aquatic species and the ways that boaters can reduce the risk of spread. We surveyed boaters in the U.S. state of Illinois to determine their travel patterns and how frequently they clean different parts of their boats. A majority of boaters reported that they always take recommended actions to clean their boat exterior (72% of respondents), boat interior (78%), and fishing tackle (55%), and only 4% reported that they intentionally move organisms. We used network methods to analyze the movement of recreational boaters and found strong connections among 28 highly visited waterbodies. When we removed the 38% of respondents who Always take recommended actions to reduce risk of species spread by all four mechanisms this network was minimally altered and still contained all 28 waterbodies. This indicates that despite high adoption of conservation behaviors there is a continuing risk of non-native species transport among all waterbodies. This work shows that further action is necessary if the impacts of invasive aquatic species are to be reduced in the future.
From killing lists to healthy country: Aboriginal approaches to weed control in the Kimberley, Western Australia J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-07-04 Thomas M. Bach, Christian A. Kull, Haripriya Rangan
The Australian Government's funding of land management by Aboriginal communities aims to enable them to manage natural and cultural resources according to their values and aspirations. But this approach is countered in the case of weed management, where the emphasis is on killing plants that are identified on invasive alien species lists prepared by government agencies. Based on field research with Bardi-Jawi, Bunuba, Ngurrara, Nyikina Mangala and Wunggurr land managers in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, we observed that 27 of 35 weed control projects followed the government agency weed lists for species-led control. Of these 27 projects, only two were considered successful in meeting Aboriginal cultural aspirations. In most of the other cases, the list-based approach generated frustration among Aboriginal rangers who felt they were engaged in purposeless killing. In contrast, we found that elders and rangers preferred site-based approaches that considered landscape and vegetation management from their culturally specific and highly contextual geographies of ‘healthy country’. We outline instances where ranger groups have adopted site-based management that has been informed by geographies of healthy country and argue that such an approach offers a better alternative to current list-based weed control and produces positive outcomes for Aboriginal communities.
The role of trust in public attitudes toward invasive species management on Guam: A case study J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-06-25 Dara M. Wald, Kimberly A. Nelson, Ann Marie Gawel, Haldre S. Rogers
Public attitudes toward invasive alien species management and trust in managers' ability to effectively manage non-native species can determine public support for conservation action. The island of Guam has experienced widespread species loss and ecosystem transformation due to invasive species, most notably, the brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis). Despite Guam's long history with invasives and extensive efforts to eradicate them, we know little about the sociological context of invasive species and drivers of public support or opposition on the island. Using focused group discussions, we explore public attitudes toward invasive species management measures. Respondents were familiar with the common invasive species on Guam and recognized that they were not native. They expressed support for management activities, interest in more effective and frequent management initiatives, and desire to participate directly in conservation actions. Participants also expressed frustration with government institutions and lack of confidence in managers' ability to control invasive species. Perceptions of managers' trustworthiness, communication with managers, and positive personal experiences with managers were related to positive attitudes about management and support for existing initiatives, indicating the important role of trust and engagement for invasive species management.
Exploring the dynamics of research collaborations by mapping social networks in invasion science J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-06-19 B. Abrahams, N. Sitas, K.J. Esler
Moving towards more integrative approaches within the invasion sciences has been recognized as a means of improving linkages between science, policy, and practice. Yet despite the recognition that biological invasions pose complex social-ecological challenges, the invasion literature poorly covers social-ecological or distinctly integrative research. Various initiatives and investments have been made towards building research capacity and conducting more integrative research aimed at improving the management of biological invasions. Using a combination of social network and thematic analysis approaches, and the South African Working for Water (WfW) program as a case study for the management of invasive species, we identify and explore the roles of core authors in shaping collaboration networks and research outputs, based on bibliographic records. We found that research produced under the auspices of WfW is authored by a handful of core authors, conducting primarily ecologically-focused research, with social research significantly underrepresented. Core authors identified in this study play an essential role in mediating relationships between researchers, in addition to potentially controlling access to those seeking to form collaborations, maintaining network cohesion and connectivity across institutional and disciplinary boundaries. Research projects should be designed to span disciplines and institutions if they are to adequately address complex challenges.
From useful to invasive, the status of gorse on Reunion Island J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-06-20 Nathalie Udo, Catherine Darrot, Anne Atlan
Species presently considered as invasive were often deliberately introduced. Which factors led them from being desired to being denounced and what trajectory did such a transition follow? Using the case of common gorse (Ulex europaeus) on Reunion Island, the aims of this study were first, to identify and describe the different status that were attributed to this species since its introduction; and second, to discern the factors that influenced their emergence and decline in the public sphere. Five types of status were identified for common gorse in Reunion (useful, nationalistic, indigenized, noxious weed, and invasive), each peaking at a certain time, and then reverting to a low-key presence. The emergence and dissemination of each status in the public sphere depends on how well the various narratives proposed about the plant by networks of legitimate actors match the socio-technical landscape, as well as on how these narratives appear within legal and institutional frameworks. In addition, translating a status into actions of management can bolster its trajectory in the public sphere. Lastly, the decline of a status can be explained by a gradual desynchronization between its cognitive, normative and/or instrumental dimensions and the local socio-technical landscape.
Perceptions of impact: Invasive alien plants in the urban environment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-06-08 Luke J. Potgieter, Mirijam Gaertner, Patrick J. O'Farrell, David M. Richardson
Many alien plant species are introduced to urban areas to create, augment or restore ecosystem services (ES). However, many of these species spread beyond original plantings, sometimes causing negative effects on existing ES or creating novel ecosystem disservices (EDS). An understanding of the perceptions of urban residents regarding invasive alien plants (IAPs) and the ES and EDS they provide is needed for the effective prioritisation of IAP management efforts in cities. Using the city of Cape Town, South Africa as a case study, we conducted questionnaire-based surveys (online and face-to-face) to determine the perceptions of urban residents regarding IAPs and their capacity to provide ES and EDS. Most urban residents perceive IAPs negatively (i.e. agreeing that they create EDS), but many recognise their importance in providing ES. Although most residents are not opposed to the management of IAPs, such actions are not perceived as a high priority relative to other environmental problems. Socio-demographic variables such as age, education, environmental awareness, and ethnicity shape urban residents' perceptions of IAPs. Older, more educated respondents were more likely to perceive IAPs negatively, while respondents with greater environmental awareness were aware of the benefits provided by IAPs. This study highlights the need to integrate public perceptions into the planning and management of IAPs and emphasises the importance of including ES assessments into the decision-making process, particularly in urban areas.
The parakeet protectors: Understanding opposition to introduced species management J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-01-02 Sarah L. Crowley, Steve Hinchliffe, Robbie A. McDonald
The surveillance and control of introduced and invasive species has become an increasingly important component of environmental management. However, initiatives targeting ‘charismatic’ wildlife can be controversial. Opposition to management, and the subsequent emergence of social conflict, present significant challenges for would-be managers. Understanding the substance and development of these disputes is therefore vital for improving the legitimacy and effectiveness of wildlife management. It also provides important insights into human-wildlife relations and the ‘social dimensions’ of wildlife management. Here, we examine how the attempted eradication of small populations of introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) from England has been challenged and delayed by opposition from interested and affected communities. We consider how and why the UK Government's eradication initiative was opposed, focusing on three key themes: disagreements about justifying management, the development of affective attachments between people and parakeets, and the influence of distrustful and antagonistic relationships between proponents and opponents of management. We draw connections between our UK case and previous management disputes, primarily in the USA, and suggest that the resistance encountered in the UK might readily have been foreseen. We conclude by considering how management of this and other introduced species could be made less conflict-prone, and potentially more effective, by reconfiguring management approaches to be more anticipatory, flexible, sensitive, and inclusive.
Comment on “thermal remediation alters soil properties – A review” J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 M. Usman
This comment is intended to highlight the role of thermal treatment to improve the availability of organic pollutants in contaminated soils for subsequent remediation by other techniques.
Livelihood benefits and costs from an invasive alien tree (Acacia dealbata) to rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 A. Ngorima, C.M. Shackleton
The negative effects of invasive alien species (IAS) are increasingly invoked to justify widespread and usually top-down approaches for their management or eradication. However, very little of the research or discourse is based on investigating local perceptions, uses and struggles with IAS, and how their presence influences and changes local livelihoods. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions and livelihood uses of Acacia dealbata by local communities at three localities in the montane grasslands of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a combination of random household interviews, focus group discussions and participatory tools. We calculated direct-use values for each product and household (based on quantity used and local prices) and disaggregated these by gender of the household head and wealth quartiles. The results revealed the dualistic role of A. dealbata in local livelihoods. On the one hand, A. dealbata was widely used for firewood (100% of households), tools (77%) and construction timber (73%), with limited use for traditional medicines and forage. The cumulative value of approximately ZAR 2870 (±US$224) per household per year (across all households) represents considerable cash saving to households, most of whom are quite poor by national and international measures. On the other hand, the increasing extent of A. dealbata (93% said it was increasing) exacerbates local household vulnerability though reported reductions in cultivated areas, crop yields and forage production, and allegedly higher risks of crime. This quandary is well encapsulated by the considerable majority of respondents (84%) not wanting higher extents and densities of A. dealbata, but an equally high majority not wanting its total removal from local landscapes. Most respondents disliked A. dealbata in fields, close to homesteads or along primary access routes, and were more tolerant of it away from such sites. Institutional and use dynamics have varied over several decades in response to the changing extent and densities of A. dealbata and the broader political and socio-economic contexts. These results indicate that greater efforts are required to understand perceptions and uses of IAS by the people who live with them, and to direct such understanding into more spatially and temporally contextualised response strategies where required.
Corrigendum to “Evidence of viral dissemination and seasonality in a Mediterranean river catchment: implications for water pollution management” [J. Environ. Manag. 159 (2015) 58–67] J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 M. Rusiñol, X. Fernandez-Cassi, N. Timoneda, A. Carratalà, J.F. Abril, C. Silvera, M.J. Figueras, E. Gelati, X. Rodó, D. Kay, P. Wyn-Jones, S. Bofill-Mas, R. Girones
Photocatalytic activity of CuO/Cu(OH)2 nanostructures in the degradation of Reactive Green 19A and textile effluent, phytotoxicity studies and their biogenic properties (antibacterial and anticancer) J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Gajanan S. Ghodake, Surendra K. Shinde, Si-Kyung Cho, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Ram Naresh Bharagava
In this study, CuO/Cu(OH)2 (denoted as CuONs) nanostructures were synthesized relying to a cheap and rapid chemical co-precipitation method using copper sulfate and liquid ammonia as precursors. Results obtained from X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the crystalline nature of synthesized CuONs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies showed interactions between copper and oxygen atoms. Synthesized CuONs showed the size in the range of 20–30 nm using high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic degradation performance of Reactive Green 19A (RG19A) dye using CuONs was evaluated. The results showed that CuONs exhibited 98% degradation efficiency after 12 h and also complete mineralization in form of reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD) (84%) and total organic carbon (TOC) (80%). The nanocatalyst was recovered from the dye containing solution and its catalytic activity can be reused up to four times efficiently. CuONs was also able to decolorize actual textile effluent (80% in terms of the American Dye Manufacturers' Institute (ADMI) value) with significant reductions in COD (72%) and TOC (69%). Phytotoxicity studies revealed that the degradation products of RG19A and textile effluent were scarcely toxic in nature, thereby increasing the applicability of CuONs for the treatment of textile wastewater. Additionally, the CuONs showed a maximum antibacterial effect against human pathogens which also displayed synergistic antibacterial potential related to commercial antibiotics. Moreover, CuONs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (IC50: 51 μg/mL) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) (IC50: 60 μg/mL) radical scavenging. The CuONs exhibited dose dependent response against tumor rat C6 cell line (IC50: 60 μg/mL) and may serve as anticancer agents.
A magnetically separable and recyclable Ag-supported magnetic TiO2 composite catalyst: Fabrication, characterization, and photocatalytic activity J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Woo Jin Chung, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Xuan Thanh Bui, Sang Woo An, J. Rajesh Banu, Sang Moon Lee, Sung Su Kim, Dea Hyun Moon, Byong Hun Jeon, Soon Woong Chang
Aspen Plus process-simulation model: Producing biogas from VOC emissions in an anaerobic bioscrubber J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 D. Bravo, F.J. Álvarez-Hornos, J.M. Penya-roja, P. San-Valero, C. Gabaldón
Full-scale agricultural biogas plant metal content and process parameters in relation to bacterial and archaeal microbial communities over 2.5 year span J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Sabina Kolbl Repinc, Robert Šket, Domen Zavec, Katarina Vogel Mikuš, Fernando G. Fermoso, Blaž Stres
An overview of the accumulation of microcystins in aquatic ecosystems J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Thanh-Luu Pham, Motoo Utsumi
Lanthanum-doped silica xerogels for the removal of fluorides from waters J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 M. Hernández-Campos, A.M.S. Polo, M. Sánchez-Polo, J. Rivera-Utrilla, M.S. Berber-Mendoza, G. Andrade-Espinosa, M.V. López-Ramón
Identification of forest cutting in managed forest of Haldwani, India using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 SAR data J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Unmesh Khati, Vineet Kumar, Debmita Bandyopadhyay, Mohamed Musthafa, Gulab Singh
Large-scale forest clear-cut identification is one of the major application of remote sensing techniques. ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 is the latest SAR satellite providing multi-polarized L-band SAR data. With increasing deforestation, it is important to assess the potential of SAR data for identifying clear-cuts in forest regions. In this research work, multi-temporal ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 SAR data and supplementary Landsat-8 optical data sets are acquired over Indian tropical forest, and SAR parameters are analysed over a progressively clear-cut Teak plantation. Sensitivity of the SAR parameters to progressive clear-cuts is estimated and found that the cross-polarized backscatter σ H V 0 and entropy parameter H are most sensitive to both partial and complete clear-cut in forest compartments. An entropy thresholding based classification is carried out to identify clear-cut regions with a good accuracy. The study highlights the utility of SAR parameters to monitor forest clear-cuts for better forest management.
System dynamics model of taxi management in metropolises: Economic and environmental implications for Beijing J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Hao Wang, Kai Zhang, Junhua Chen, Zhifeng Wang, Guijun Li, Yuqi Yang
Taxis are an important component of urban passenger transport. Research on the daily dispatching of taxis and the utility of governmental management is important for the improvement of passenger travel, taxi driver income and environmental impacts. However, urban taxi management is a complex and dynamic system that is affected by many factors, and positive/negative feedback relationships and nonlinear interactions exist between each subsystem and variable. Therefore, conventional research methods can hardly depict its characteristics comprehensively. To bridge this gap, this paper develops a system dynamics model of urban taxi management, in which the empty-loaded rate and total demand are selected as key factors affecting taxi dispatching, and the impacts of taxi fares on driver income and travel demand are taken into account. After the validation of the model, taxi operations data derived from a prior analysis of origin–destination data of Beijing taxis are used as input for the model to simulate the taxi market in Beijing. Finally, economic and environmental implications are provided for the government to optimise policies on taxi management.
Sustainability assessment for the transportation environment of Darjeeling, India J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Dipanjan Nag, Subrata Kr. Paul, Swati Saha, Arkopal K. Goswami
Darjeeling is an important tourist hill town of West Bengal, India. It suffers from an acute problem of transportation, particularly during its peak tourist seasons due to limited road space, inadequate public transport facilities and indiscriminate use of automobiles. This hill town was originally designed for a population of 10,000, but over the years, it has come face-to-face with rapid urbanization, a rising population of both tourists and residents and intensifying motor vehicle usage. These factors together are posing a threat to its transport environment. This study identifies the Sustainable Transport Indicators (STIs) available in the existing literature to identify the critical stretches using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on experts' consensus. It was found that the experts placed emphasis on the mobility of the town, talking about vehicular impact on air pollution and encroachment of roads as the main issues affecting the sustainability of the transport environment. Thereafter, policy-level interventions have been suggested in accordance with the identified sustainability issues. We trust that other tourist hill towns with issues similar to Darjeeling could easily emulate the study methodology to assess their transport environment sustainability, or replicate on the lines of the recommended policy interventions.
Feasibility of medical stone amendment for sewage sludge co-composting and production of nutrient-rich compost J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Ronghua Li, Junchao Zhao, Xiuna Ren, Meijing Wang, Hongyu Chen, Zengqiang Zhang
The feasibility of medical stone (MS) amendment as an innovative additive for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) co-composting was assessed using a 130-L vessel-scale composter. To verify successful composting, five treatments were designed with four different dosages (2, 4, 6, and 10) % of MS with a 1:1 mixture (dry weight) of DFSS + wheat straw (WS). The WS was used as a bulking agent. A control without any amendment treatment was carried out for the purpose of comparison. For DFSS co-composting, the amendment with MS improved the mineralization efficiency and compost quality in terms of CO2 emissions, dehydrogenase enzyme (DE), electrical conductivity (EC), water-solubility, and total nutrients transformation. The DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn were also estimated to confirm the immobilization ability of the applied MS. Seed germination and plant growth tests were conducted to ensure the compost stability and phytotoxicity for Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis L.) growth and biomass, as well as chlorophyll content. The results showed that during the bio-oxidative phase, DOC, DON, AP, NH4+-N, and NO3−-N increased drastically in all the MS-blended treatments, except the application of 2% MS and the control treatment; significantly lower water-soluble nutrients were observed in the 2% MS and control treatments. A novel additive with 6–10% MS dosages considerably enhanced the organic matter conversion in the stable end-product (compost) and reduced the maturity period by two weeks compared to the 2% MS and control treatments. Consequently, the maturity parameters (e.g., EC, SGI, NH4+-N, DOC, and DON) confirmed that compost with 6–10% MS became more stable and mature within four weeks of DFSS co-composting. At the end of composting, significantly higher DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn contents were observed in the control treatment, and subsequently, in the very low application (10%) of MS. Higher MS dosage lowered the pH and EC to within the permissible limit compared to the control, while increased concentrations of water-soluble nutrients diminished the DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn contents. In addition, plant growth experiments demonstrated that the addition of compost with 150 kg ha−1 TKN improved the Chinese cabbage biomass and chlorophyll level. The highest dry weight biomass (2.78 ± 0.02 g/pot) was obtained with 6% MS-blended compost while the maximum chlorophyll content was found with application of 4% MS compost (41.84 SPAD-unit) for Chinese cabbage. Therefore, 6–10% MS can be recommended to improve DFSS composting and to reduce the period to maturity by two weeks when considering its composting effect on Chinese cabbage growth, biomass yield, and chlorophyll level. However, amendment with 6% MS is a more economically feasible approach for DFSS co-composting.
A methodology to modify land uses in a transit oriented development scenario J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-12-29 Akshay Sahu
Assessing distributions of two invasive species of contrasting habits in future climate J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Rajendra Mohan Panda, Mukunda Dev Behera, Partha Sarathi Roy
Understanding the impact of climate change on species invasion is crucial for sustainable biodiversity conservation. Through this study, we try to answer how species differing in phenological cycles, specifically Cassia tora and Lantana camara, differ in the manner in which they invade new regions in India in the future climate. Since both species occupy identical niches, exploring their invasive potential in different climate change scenarios will offer critical insights into invasion and inform ecosystem management. We use three modelling protocols (i.e., maximum entropy, generalised linear model and generalised additive model) to predict the current distribution. Projections are made for both moderate (A1B) and extreme (A2) IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios for the year 2050 and 2100. The study reveals that the distributions of C. tora (annual) and L. camara (perennial) would depend on the precipitation of the warmest quarter and moisture availability. C. tora may demonstrate physiological tolerance to the mean diurnal temperature range and L. camara to the solar radiation. C. tora may invade central India, while L. camara may invade the Western Himalaya, parts of the Eastern Himalaya and the Western Ghats. The distribution ranges of both species could shift in the northern and north-eastern directions in India, owing to changes in moisture availability. The possible alterations in precipitation regimes could lead to water stress, which might have cascading effects on species invasion. L. camara might adapt to climate change better compared with C. tora. This comparative analysis of the future distributions of two invasive plants with contrasting habits demonstrates that temporal complementarity would prevail over the competition.
Effect of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by carrots J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-12-23 Ni Ni, Fang Wang, Yang Song, Mingyun Jia, Yongrong Bian, Xinlun Yang, Chenggang Gu, Xin Jiang
The role of constructed wetlands in a new circular economy, resource oriented, and ecosystem services paradigm J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 F. Masi, A. Rizzo, M. Regelsberger
Insights to bioprocess and treatment competence of urban wetlands J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-11-26 Durga Madhab Mahapatra, N.V. Joshi, T.V. Ramachandra
Spatial patterns of heavy metal accumulation in sediments and macrophytes of Bellandur wetland, Bangalore J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 T.V. Ramachandra, P.B. Sudarshan, M.K. Mahesh, S. Vinay
Heavy metals are one among the toxic chemicals and accumulation in sediments and plants has been posing serious health impacts. Wetlands aid as kidneys of the landscape and help in remediation through uptake of nutrients, heavy metals and other contaminants. The analyses of macrophytes and sediment samples help in evaluating pollution status in aquatic environment. In this study concentration of six heavy metals (Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) were assessed in sediment and dominant macrophyte samples collected from Bellandur Lake, largest Lake of Bangalore, India. Sediment samples reveal of heavy metals in the inlet regions and shore samples. The accumulation of metals in sediments were in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. All metals exceeded the critical limits of metals in the sediment. Concentration of different metals in the macrophyte samples ranked as: Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd. Chromium and Copper were found to be more than critical range. Typha angustata had the higher accumulation of all metals except chromium.
Stabilisation and dewatering of primary sludge using ferrate(VI) pre-treatment followed by freeze-thaw in simulated drainage beds J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 James Diak, Banu Örmeci
This study evaluated the ability of potassium ferrate(VI) and freeze-thaw to stabilise and dewater primary sludge. Potassium ferrate(VI) additions of 0.5 and 5.0 g/L were used as a pre-treatment prior to freeze-thaw. Samples were frozen at −10, −20 and −30 °C, and were kept frozen for 1, 8 and 15 days. The samples were subsequently thawed at room temperature in a setup which allowed meltwater to be separated from the sludge cake via gravity drainage. The meltwater was characterised in terms of fecal coliform, soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, pH and turbidity. The sludge cake was characterised in terms of fecal coliform, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS). Freeze-thaw with gravity meltwater drainage reduced the sludge volume by up to 79%. After being frozen for only 1 day, the concentrations of fecal coliform in many of the primary sludge samples were reduced to <1000 MPN/g dry solids (DS), representing >3-log inactivation in some cases. However, pre-treatment of the primary sludge with ≤5.0 g/L potassium ferrate(VI) resulted in significant increases in soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, and sCOD, and reduced the effectiveness of stand-alone freeze-thaw. Follow-up experiments using higher doses ranging from 5.1 to 24.9 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI) demonstrated that >5-log inactivation of fecal coliform in raw primary sludge can be achieved within 15 min using 15 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI), and the resulting concentration of fecal coliform in the sludge was 1023 MPN/g DS. Pre-treatment with 22.0 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI), followed by freeze-thaw, with only 3 days frozen, reduced the concentration of fecal coliform to below the detection limit in the meltwater and the sludge cake. This demonstrates that potassium ferrate(VI) and freeze-thaw offers the flexibility to adjust the ferrate(VI) dose to meet treatment requirements for land application, and can be used as a stand-alone sludge treatment technology for primary sludge that achieves both treatment and dewatering.
Remote sensing based deforestation analysis in Mahanadi and Brahmaputra river basin in India since 1985 J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 M.D. Behera, P. Tripathi, P. Das, S.K. Srivastava, P.S. Roy, C. Joshi, P.R. Behera, J. Deka, P. Kumar, M.L. Khan, O.P. Tripathi, T. Dash, Y.V.N. Krishnamurthy
Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was higher for BRB than MRB. While water body increased in MRB could be primarily attributed to creation of reservoirs and aquaculture farms; snow and ice melting attributed to creation of more water bodies in BRB. Scrub land acted as an intermediate class for forest conversion to barren land in BRB, while direct conversion of scrub land to waste land and crop land was seen in MRB. While habitation contributed primarily to LULC changes in BRB, the proximity zones around habitat and other socio-economic drivers contributed to LULC change in MRB. Comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained >97% modelling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 and corresponding LULC changes in these two basins acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate.
Urban flood mitigation planning for Guwahati: A case of Bharalu basin J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 Tanaya Sarmah, Sutapa Das
Guwahati, the capital city of Assam and the gateway to the seven north-eastern Indian states, is located in the Brahmaputra valley—one of the most flood prone regions of the world. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1688 mm and is highly vulnerable towards frequent urban floods because of uncontrolled dumping of solid waste and siltation have choked the natural water channels. This coupled with the absence of an integrated drainage network and rapid urbanisation causes floods in many parts of the city, after a quick downpour. Bharalu river is the main natural water channel of the city and Bharalu basin is the most vulnerable one. The present paper is an attempt to plan for urban flood mitigation, by designing an integrated drainage network for the Bharalu basin which includes the low-lying urbanized areas bordered by the Guwahati-Shillong Road, the Radha Gobindo Baruah Road and the Rajgarh Road. Data regarding land use, flood level, rainfall, urban pattern and vulnerability towards urban flood were collected from available literature, field survey to find highest water level for 11.4 km road stretch, expert opinion survey from 18 experts and feedback from 77 community elders who have been residing in the city since the 1980s. The Bharalu basin is divided into seven drainage blocks and storm run-off has been calculated based on the inputs. Seven different trapezoidal drainage sections were designed to form an integrated drainage network which is ‘self-healing’ to a certain extent. This can serve as a template for the other catchment basins and to design a drainage network for the entire Guwahati city, thereby reducing urban flood hazard to a significant extent. The study illustrates the necessity of an urban flood mitigation planning approach in sub-Himalayan urban settlements such as Guwahati.
Multi-hazard risk assessment of coastal vulnerability from tropical cyclones – A GIS based approach for the Odisha coast J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-11-08 Bishnupriya Sahoo, Prasad K. Bhaskaran
The coastal region bordering the East coast of India is a thickly populated belt exposed to high risk and vulnerability from natural hazards such as tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone frequencies that develop over the Bay of Bengal (average of 5–6 per year) region are much higher as compared to the Arabian Sea thereby posing a high risk factor associated with storm surge, inland inundation, wind gust, intense rainfall, etc. The Odisha State in the East coast of India experiences the highest number of cyclone strikes as compared to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. To express the destructive potential resulting from tropical cyclones the Power Dissipation Index (PDI) is a widely used metric globally. A recent study indicates that PDI for cyclones in the present decade have increased about six times as compared to the past. Hence there is a need to precisely ascertain the coastal vulnerability and risk factors associated with high intense cyclones expected in a changing climate. As such there are no comprehensive studies attempted so far on the determination of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Odisha coast that is highly prone to cyclone strikes. With this motivation, the present study makes an attempt to investigate the physical, environmental, social, and economic impacts on coastal vulnerability associated with tropical cyclones for the Odisha coast. The study also investigates the futuristic projection of coastal vulnerability over this region expected in a changing climate scenario. Eight fair weather parameters along with storm surge height and onshore inundation were used to estimate the Physical Vulnerability Index (PVI). Thereafter, the PVI along with social, economic, and environmental vulnerability was used to determine the overall CVI using the GIS based approach. The authors believe that the comprehensive nature of this study is expected to benefit coastal zone management authorities.
Response of heterogeneous vegetation to aerosol radiative forcing over a northeast Indian station J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-10-20 R. Latha, B. Vinayak, B.S. Murthy
Importance of atmospheric aerosols through direct and indirect effects on hydrological cycle is highlighted through multiple studies. This study tries to find how much the aerosols can affect evapo-transpiration (ET), a key component of the hydrological cycle over high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index)/dense canopy, over Dibrugarh, known for vast tea plantation. The radiative effects of aerosols are calculated using satellite (Terra-MODIS) and reanalysis data on daily and monthly scales. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from satellite and ground observations compares well. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF), calculated using MERRA data sets of ‘clean-clear radiation’ and ‘clear-radiation’ at the surface, shows a lower forcing efficiency, 35 Wm−zs, that is about half of that of ground observations. As vegetation controls ET over high NDVI area to the maximum and that gets modified through ARF, a regression equation is fitted between ET, AOD and NDVI for this station as ET = 0.25 + (−84.27) × AOD + (131.51) × NDVI that explains 82% of ‘daily’ ET variation using easily available satellite data. ET is found to follow net radiation closely and the direct relation between soil moisture and ET is weak on daily scale over this station as it may be acting through NDVI.
Environmental non-governmental organizations and urban environmental governance: Evidence from China J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Guangqin Li, Qiao He, Shuai Shao, Jianhua Cao
Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) play an increasingly important role in the process of urban environmental governance, especially in some developing countries such as China. However, existing studies pay little attention to such an issue in China. In this paper, we consider 113 cities in China from the pollution information transparency index (PITI) list released by ENGOs as the treatment group and some other cities as the control group, and use the difference-in-differences (DID) model and propensity score matching DID (PSM-DID) model to explore the role of ENGOs in China's urban environmental governance. The results show that ENGOs play a significantly positive and robust role in China's urban environmental governance. Furthermore, using regression analysis for eastern, central, and western China, we find that the influence of ENGOs exists in eastern and central China rather than in western China. In addition, the results of the Placebo test indicate that the effect of ENGOs shows an upward trend since 2008. We suggest that ENGOs' role should be strengthened in China, and governments at various levels should take into account environmental information released by ENGOs and consider appropriate measures to improve local environment quality using the obtained information.
Spatial landscape model to characterize biological diversity using R statistical computing environment J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-10-04 Hariom Singh, R.D. Garg, Harish C. Karnatak, Arijit Roy
Due to urbanization and population growth, the degradation of natural forests and associated biodiversity are now widely recognized as a global environmental concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid assessment and monitoring of biodiversity on priority using state-of-art tools and technologies. The main purpose of this research article is to develop and implement a new methodological approach to characterize biological diversity using spatial model developed during the study viz. Spatial Biodiversity Model (SBM). The developed model is scale, resolution and location independent solution for spatial biodiversity richness modelling. The platform-independent computation model is based on parallel computation. The biodiversity model based on open-source software has been implemented on R statistical computing platform. It provides information on high disturbance and high biological richness areas through different landscape indices and site specific information (e.g. forest fragmentation (FR), disturbance index (DI) etc.). The model has been developed based on the case study of Indian landscape; however it can be implemented in any part of the world. As a case study, SBM has been tested for Uttarakhand state in India. Inputs for landscape ecology are derived through multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques in an interactive command line environment. MCDM with sensitivity analysis in spatial domain has been carried out to illustrate the model stability and robustness. Furthermore, spatial regression analysis has been made for the validation of the output.
Composted biogas residue and spent mushroom substrate as a growth medium for tomato and pepper seedlings J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-27 Xingyao Meng, Jiali Dai, Yue Zhang, Xiaofen Wang, Wanbin Zhu, Xufeng Yuan, Hongli Yuan, Zongjun Cui
A composted material derived from biogas production residues, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and pig manure was evaluated as a partial or total replacement for peat in growth medium for tomato and pepper seedlings. Five different substrates were tested: T1, compost + perlite (5:1, v:v); T2, compost + peat + perlite (4:1:1, v:v:v); T3, compost + peat + perlite (2.5:2.5:1, v:v:v); T4, compost + peat + perlite (1:4:1, v:v:v); and CK, a commercial peat + perlite (5:1, v:v). The physical-chemical characteristics of the various media were analyzed, and the germination rate and morphological growth were also measured. Real-time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify Fusarium concentrations. The addition of compost to peat-based growth medium increased the pH, electrical conductivity, air porosity, bulk density, and nutrition (NPK), and decreased the water holding capacity and total porosity. The use of compost did not affect the percent germination at day 15 of the tomato and pepper seedlings. The addition of compost resulted in better or comparable seedling quality compared with CK and fertilized CK. The best growth parameters were seen in tomato and pepper seedlings grown in T1 and T2, with higher morphological growth in comparison with CK and fertilized CK. However, T2 showed the highest Fusarium concentration compared to compost and all growth media. Fusarium concentrations in T1, T3, and T4 did not differ significantly from those in CK for tomato seedlings, and those in T1 and T4 were also similar to those in CK for pepper seedlings. The results suggest that biogas residues and SMS compost is a good alternative to peat, allowing 100% replacement, and that 20–50% replacement produces tomato and pepper seedlings with higher morphological growth and lower Fusarium concentrations.
The Self-sustained High temperature Synthesis (SHS) technology as novel approach in the management of asbestos waste J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Laura Gaggero, Maurizio Ferretti
The SHS technique was experimented in chrysotile breakdown. By means of two reactions such as Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Fe2O3 + 3 Mg and 2Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Fe3O4 + 4 Mg the chrysotile was completely converted into forsterite-rich olivine. Different mixtures of hematite + Mg and magnetite + Mg were tested with chrysotile to establish the maximum chrysotile amount in order to allow the reaction. In comparison with conventional thermal treatments, the SHS process is characterized by a fast reaction, needs low activation energy and the apparatus is simple. For these reasons, the asbestos neutralisation is carried out with positive balance of time and costs of the process. Furthermore, the combustion product can be re-used as secondary material.
Faecal sludge treatment and utilization by hydrothermal carbonization J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Krailak Fakkaew, Thammarat Koottatep, Chongrak Polprasert
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be applied to convert faecal sludge into carbonaceous solids, called hydrochar. In this study, the technical feasibility of hydrochar production by HTC of faecal sludge was investigated. Experimental results showed energy contents of the produced hydrochar to be about 19–20 MJ/kg, comparable to natural coals and therefore usable as a solid fuel. The produced hydrochar contained a carbon content of approximately 40%wt, which could be processed further to make it suitable as an anode in batteries. The produced hydrochar also had adsorption characteristics for removing heavy metals and micropollutants in wastewater. Liquid by-products obtained from the HTC process were found to contain high concentrations of organic matter, while the amount of gas produced was 10 L-gas/kg-FS with CO2 is the main component. The bio-methane potential tests of this liquid product suggested the methane production of about 2.0 L-CH4 per kg-faecal sludge could be obtained.
Toilet revolution in China J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Shikun Cheng, Zifu Li, Sayed Mohammad Nazim Uddin, Heinz-Peter Mang, Xiaoqin Zhou, Jian Zhang, Lei Zheng, Lingling Zhang
The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public.
Co-pelletization of sewage sludge and agricultural wastes J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 Ersel Yilmaz, Małgorzata Wzorek, Selin Akçay
This paper concerns the process of production and properties of pellets based on biomass wastes. Co-pelletization was performed for sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant and other biomass material such as animal and olive wastes. The aim of the present study was to identify the key factors affecting on the sewage sludge and agricultural residues co-pelletization processes conditions. The impact of raw material type, pellet length, moisture content and particle size on the physical properties was investigated. The technic and technological aspects of co-pelletization were discussed in detail. The physical parameters of pellets, i.e.: drop strength, absorbability and water resistance were determined. Among others, also energy parameters: low and high heat value, content of ash and volatiles were presented. Results showed the range of raw materials moisture, which is necessary to obtain good quality biofuels and also ratio of sewage sludge in pelletizing materials. The analysis of the energetic properties has indicated that the pellet generated on the basis of the sewage sludge and another biomass materials can be applied in the processes of co-combustion with coal. Those biofuels are characterised with properties making them suitable for use in thermal processes and enabling their transport and storage.
Detection of the power lines in UAV remote sensed images using spectral-spatial methods J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Rishav Bhola, Nandigam Hari Krishna, K.N. Ramesh, J. Senthilnath, Gautham Anand
In this paper, detection of the power lines on images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing is carried out using spectral-spatial methods. Spectral clustering was performed using Kmeans and Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to classify the pixels into the power lines and non-power lines. The spectral clustering methods used in this study are parametric in nature, to automate the number of clusters Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) is used. The UAV remote sensed image is clustered into the number of clusters determined by DBI. The k clustered image is merged into 2 clusters (power lines and non-power lines). Further, spatial segmentation was performed using morphological and geometric operations, to eliminate the non-power line regions. In this study, UAV images acquired at different altitudes and angles were analyzed to validate the robustness of the proposed method. It was observed that the EM with spatial segmentation (EM-Seg) performed better than the Kmeans with spatial segmentation (Kmeans-Seg) on most of the UAV images.
Simulation of a dynamical ecotourism system with low carbon activity: A case from western China J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-11 Yuan He, Ping Huang, Hong Xu
Currently, sustainable tourism is becoming more and more important in developing ecological economies. To achieve low-carbon development, some industries, such as logistics and municipal solid waste, have already taken action, but tourism has not attached sufficient importance to this issue. This paper designs an ecotourism system including tourism, carbon waste (solid waste and sewage), and ecology (water supply and green areas) to simulate low-carbon ecotourism through a quantitative approach. This paper explores the tourism system as well as some interactive factors and studies their quantitative relationship based on historical data. A feedback-loop dynamical system model is designed to simulate tourism, waste carbon, and ecology simultaneously. Finally, a case study applying the feedback-loop dynamical system model to Leshan City, a typical travel destination with colorful natural resources in western China, is conducted to indicate the development of ecotourism in an environmentally friendly economy, which verifies the positive effects of the model. Results show a coordinating upward tendency of tourism, solid waste carbon, and ecology from the dynamical model. When tourism increases, solid waste accumulation increases; however, the amount of sewage dumped directly into nature decreases sharply. After analysis of investment policy scenarios, the research indicates that more funds for sewage treatment will attract more tourists. To maintain the equilibrium of carbon waste, more funds shall be invested in solid waste treatment in the long term. Some discussions about local policy are included.
Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules and methane in anaerobic treatment of black water: Effect of bicarbonate and calcium fluctuations J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-09 J.R. Cunha, T. Tervahauta, R.D. van der Weijden, L. Hernández Leal, G. Zeeman, C.J.N. Buisman
Calcium phosphate (CaP) granules were discovered in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water (BW), using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology. This allows simultaneous recovery of CaP granules and methane in the UASB reactor. However, the role of BW composition on CaP granulation is not yet understood. Moreover, CaP granulation was not observed in previous research on anaerobic treatment of BW, although similar treatment conditions were applied. Therefore, this study shows specifically the influence of bicarbonate and calcium fluctuations in BW on the phosphorus accumulation in the UASB reactor, which directly affects CaP granulation. Without calcium addition, 5% of the total phosphorus (P) fed was found as CaP granules in the reactor (61 mgP g−1dried matter), after 260 days of operation. Simultaneously, 65% of the COD in BW was efficiently converted into methane at 25 °C. Variations of bicarbonate and calcium concentrations in raw BW showed a significant influence on phosphorus accumulation in the UASB reactor. Geochemical modelling showed that the increase of soluble calcium from 39 to 54 mg L−1 in BW triggers supersaturation for calcium phosphate precursors (Cax(PO4)y). Concurrently, bicarbonate decreased from 2.7 to 1.2 g L−1, increasing further the ionic activity of calcium. Formation and accumulation of seed particles possibly enhanced CaP granulation. Preliminary results showed that addition of calcium (Ca2+/PO43− molar ratio of 3) increased the accumulation of total P in the UASB reactor to more than 85%. This further increases the granulation rate and consequently, the process feasibility.
Choice of technological change for China's low-carbon development: Evidence from three urban agglomerations J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-05 Pinrong Jia, Ke Li, Shuai Shao
China's three urban agglomerations, namely, “Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei”, “Yangtze River Delta”, and “Pearl River Delta”, are the most developed regions in China. These agglomerations are also expected to play a leading role in China's low-carbon development. Energy-saving and carbon-free technological changes play key roles in the low-carbon development transformation of these regions. This study investigates the elasticities of the output and substitution of factors, and the biased technological change in the three urban agglomerations based on the stochastic frontier analysis with a translog production function. The results indicate that the economic growth of the three urban agglomerations is mainly driven by the increase in capital stock caused by investment, energy shortage, and environmental degradation. The relationship between electricity input and carbon dioxide emissions is affected by power generation and economic cycles and transforms from complementarity to substitution. However, this relationship varies among regions. Technological change is conducive to electricity saving, but it does not present an emission-reduction effect.
Visible light photocatalytic disintegration of waste activated sludge for enhancing biogas production J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-02 Muzammil Anjum, Hasan A. Al-Talhi, Saleh A. Mohamed, Rajeev Kumar, M.A. Barakat
Biogas production using waste activated sludge (WAS) is one of the most demanding technologies for sludge treatment and generating energy in sustainable manner. The present study deals with the photocatalytic pretreatment of WAS using ZnO-ZnS@polyaniline (ZnO-ZnS@PANI) nanocomposite as means for increasing its degradability for improved biogas production by anaerobic digestion (AD). Photocatalysis accelerated the hydrolysis of WAS and increased the sCOD by 6.7 folds after 6 h and transform tCOD into bioavailable sCOD. After the AD of WAS, a removal of organic matter (60.6%) and tCOD (69.3%) was achieved in photocatalytic pretreated sludge. The biogas production was 1.6 folds higher in photocatalytic sludge with accumulative biogas up to 1645.1 ml L−1vs after 45 days compared with the raw sludge (1022.4 ml L−1VS). Moreover, the photocatalysis decrease the onset of methanogenesis from 25 to 12 days while achieve the maximum conversion rate of reducing sugars into organic acids at that time. These results suggested that photocatalysis is an efficient pretreatment method and ZnO-ZnS@PANI can degrade sludge efficiently for enhance biogas production in anaerobic digestion process.
Optimization of the monitoring of landfill gas and leachate in closed methanogenic landfills J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Dejan Jovanov, Bogdana Vujić, Goran Vujić
Monitoring of the gas and leachate parameters in a closed landfill is a long-term activity defined by national legislative worldwide. Serbian Waste Disposal Law defines the monitoring of a landfill at least 30 years after its closing, but the definition of the monitoring extent (number and type of parameters) is incomplete. In order to define and clear all the uncertainties, this research focuses on process of monitoring optimization, using the closed landfill in Zrenjanin, Serbia, as the experimental model. The aim of optimization was to find representative parameters which would define the physical, chemical and biological processes in the closed methanogenic landfill and to make this process less expensive. Research included development of the five monitoring models with different number of gas and leachate parameters and each model has been processed in open source software GeoGebra which is often used for solving optimization problems. The results of optimization process identified the most favorable monitoring model which fulfills all the defined criteria not only from the point of view of mathematical analyses, but also from the point of view of environment protection. The final outcome of this research - the minimal required parameters which should be included in the landfill monitoring are precisely defined.
Manure from biochar, bentonite and zeolite feed supplemented poultry: Moisture retention and granulation properties J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Tanka P. Prasai, Kerry B. Walsh, David J. Midmore, Ben E.H. Jones, Surya P. Bhattarai
Feeding treatments were imposed in two feeding trials involving Cobb broiler and Bond Brown layer birds. Three feed additives (biochar, bentonite and zeolite) were supplied at four rates (0, 1, 2 and 4% w/w) in feed, as previously considered in the context of animal production, was considered in the context of Excreta chemical and water retention properties and granulation characteristics of decomposed excreta (manure) were characterised. At field capacity (– 0.01 MPa), manure produced from control and 4% bentonite diets contained significantly (p = 0.001) more water (at 1.93 and 2.44% v/v water, respectively) than zeolite and biochar treatments. Manure mesoporosity was significantly (p = 0.015) higher in 2 and 4% bentonite treatments than other feed additives. Fresh excreta from layer birds on the control diet contained 6% w/dw N and 35% C, which was decreased to 2.6% N and 28% C after decomposition, with C:N ratio changing from 5.9 to 12.1. Ammonia loss was higher from biochar and zeolite manures than control or bentonite, associated with higher pH in the biochar and zeolite manures. More N was unaccounted from bentonite manure than other treatments, presumably lost as N2O or N2, a result linked to its higher moisture content and its enhanced rate of denitrification. The highest proportion of granules in the size class desired for fertilizer spreading was achieved using decomposed manure from the 1 and 2% w/w biochar treatments of the broiler trial, and 1 and 2% zeolite and 4% biochar treatments of the layer trial. Thus the feed amendments improved poultry manure in specific ways.
Evaluation of the rotary drum reactor process as pretreatment technology of municipal solid waste for thermophilic anaerobic digestion and biogas production J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-31 Petros Gikas, Baoning Zhu, Nicolas Ion Batistatos, Ruihong Zhang
Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains a large fraction of biodegradable organic materials. When disposed in landfills, these materials can cause adverse environmental impact due to gaseous emissions and leachate generation. This study was performed with an aim of effectively separating the biodegradable materials from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility and treating them in well-controlled anaerobic digesters for biogas production. The rotary drum reactor (RDR) process (a sub-process of the MBT facilities studied in the present work) was evaluated as an MSW pretreatment technology for separating and preparing the biodegradable materials in MSW to be used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The RDR processes used in six commercial MSW treatment plants located in the USA were surveyed and sampled. The samples of the biodegradable materials produced by the RDR process were analyzed for chemical and physical characteristics as well as anaerobically digested in the laboratory using batch reactors under thermophilic conditions. The moisture content, TS, VS and C/N of the samples varied between 64.7 and 44.4%, 55.6 to 35.3%, 27.0 to 41.3% and 24.5 to 42.7, respectively. The biogas yield was measured to be between 533.0 and 675.6 mL g−1VS after 20 days of digestion. Approximately 90% of the biogas was produced during the first 13 days. The average methane content of the biogas was between 58.0 and 59.9%. The results indicated that the biodegradable materials separated from MSW using the RDR processes could be used as an excellent feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The digester residues may be further processed for compost production or further energy recovery by using thermal conversion processes such as combustion or gasification.
Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-30 Elaine Y. Wong, Michael K. Stenstrom
Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1–1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4–10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F− removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F− removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F− at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it.
Nutrients recovery from anaerobic digestate of agro-waste: Techno-economic assessment of full scale applications J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-26 D. Bolzonella, F. Fatone, M. Gottardo, N. Frison
The sustainable production of fertilizers, especially those based on phosphorus, will be one of the challenges of this century. Organic wastes produced by the agriculture, urban and industrial sectors are rich in nutrients which can be conveniently recovered and used as fertilizers. In this study five full scale systems for the recovery of nutrients from anaerobic digestate produced in farm-scale plants were studied. Monitored technologies were: drying with acidic recovery, stripping with acidic recovery and membrane separation. Results showed good performances in terms of nutrients recovery with average yields always over 50% for both nitrogen and phosphorus. The techno-economic assessment showed how the specificity of the monitored systems played a major role: in particular, membranes were able to produce a stream of virtually pure water (up to 50% of the treated digestate) reducing the digestate volume, while drying, because of the limitation on recoverable heat, could treat only a limited portion (lower than 50%) of produced digestate while stripping suffered some problems because of the presence of suspended solids in the liquid fraction treated. Specific capital and operational costs for the three systems were comparable ranging between 5.40 and 6.97 € per m3 of digestate treated and followed the order stripping > drying > membranes. Costs determined in this study were similar to those observed in other European experiences reported in literature.
Quantification of annual sediment deposits for sustainable sand management in Aghanashini river estuary J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-12 T.V. Ramachandra, S. Vinay, M.D. Subash Chandran
Sedimentation involving the process of silt transport also carries nutrients from upstream to downstream of a river/stream. Sand being one of the important fraction of these sediments is extracted in order to cater infrastructural/housing needs in the region. This communication is based on field research in the Aghanshini river basin, west coast of India. Silt yield in the river basin and the sedimentation rate assessed using empirical techniques supplemented with field quantifications using soundings (SONAR), show the sediment yield of 1105–1367 kilo cum per year and deposition of sediment of 61 (2016) to 71 (2015) cm. Quantifications of extractions at five locations, reveal of over exploitation of sand to an extent of 30% with damages to the breeding ground of fishes, reduced productivity of bivalves, etc., which has affected dependent people's livelihood. This study provides vital insights towards sustainable sand harvesting through stringent management practices.
Modelling landscape dynamics with LST in protected areas of Western Ghats, Karnataka J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-09 T.V. Ramachandra, Setturu Bharath, Nimish Gupta
Forest ecosystems sustain biota on the earth as they are habitat to diverse biotic species, arrests soil erosion, play a crucial role in water cycle, sequester carbon, and helps in mitigating the impacts of global warming. Large scale land use land cover (LULC) change leading to deforestation is one of the drivers of global climate changes and alteration of biogeochemical cycles with significant consequences in ecosystem services and biodiversity. This has necessitated the investigation of LULC by mapping, monitoring and modelling spatio-temporal patterns and evaluating these in the context of human-environment interactions. The current work investigates LULC changes with temperature dynamics of select protected areas in Western Ghats. The land use analyses reveal changes in the forest cover across Kudremukh National Park (KNP), Rajiv Gandhi Tiger Reserve (RTR), Bandipur Tiger Reserve (BTR). KNP region has lost evergreen forest cover during 1973–2016 from 33.46 to 27.22%, while BTR lost deciduous cover from 61.69 to 47.3% due to mining, horticulture plantations, human habitations, etc. The LST increase has impacted regeneration of species with the induced water stress, etc. CA-Markov modelling was used for forecasting the likely land uses in 2026 and validation was done through Kappa indices. Results highlight decline of evergreen cover in KNP (9%) and deciduous cover in RTR (2%) followed by BTR (3%) with further expansion of plantations, which will impact biodiversity, hydrology and ecology. Insights of LULC dynamics help natural resource managers in evolving appropriate strategies to ensure conservation of threatened biota in Western Ghats.
Comparison of the design criteria of 141 onsite wastewater treatment systems available on the French market J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-02 V. Dubois, C. Boutin
New EC standards published in 2009 led to a surge in onsite wastewater treatment systems reaching the European market. Here we summarize their technical aspects and compare them to known values used in centralized wastewater treatment. The paper deals with two types of processes: attached-growth systems (AGS) on fine media and suspended-growth systems (SGS). Covering 141 technical approvals and 36 manufacturers, we compare onsite design criteria against the centralized wastewater design criteria for each process. The systems use a wide range of materials for bacterial growth, from soil, sand or gravel to zeolite, coconut shavings or rockwool cubes, with a huge range of variation in useful surface, from 0.26 m2/PE for one rockwool cube filter to 5 m2/PE for a (traditional system) vertical sand filter. Some rockwool can handle applied daily surface load of 160 g BOD5/m2. SGS design parameters range from 0.025 to 0.34 kg BOD5 per kg MLVSS/d with hydraulic retention times of 0.28–3.7 d. For clarifier design, water velocity ranges from 0.15 to 1.47 m/h. In the sludge line, sludge storage volume ranges from 0.125 down to just 0.56 m3/PE.
Fate of triclosan in laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors - Effect of culture acclimation J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-08-02 Aybala Koc Orhon, Kemal Berk Orhon, Ulku Yetis, Filiz B. Dilek
Triclosan (TCS); a widely used antimicrobial biocide, exists in several pharmaceutical and personal care products. Due to its wide usage, TCS is detected in wastewater at varying concentrations. Biological treatability of TCS and its effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were investigated running laboratory-scale pulse-fed sequencing batch reactors with acclimated and non-acclimated cultures. The culture was acclimatized to TCS by gradually increasing its concentration in the synthetic feed wastewater from 100 ng/L to 100 mg/L. There were no effects of TCS on COD removal efficiency up to the TCS concentration of 500 ng/L for both acclimatized and non-acclimatized cases. However, starting from a concentration of 1 mg/L, TCS affected the COD removal efficiency adversely. This effect was more pronounced with non-acclimatized culture. The decrease in the COD removal efficiency reached to 47% and 42% at the TCS concentration of 100 mg/L, under acclimation and non-acclimation conditions respectively. Adsorption of TCS into biomass was evidenced at higher TCS concentrations especially with non-acclimated cultures. 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloroanisole were identified as biodegradation by-products. The occurrence and distribution of these metabolites in the effluent and sludge matrices were found to be highly variable depending, especially, on the culture acclimation conditions.
High spatial- and temporal-resolution anthropogenic heat discharge estimation in Los Angeles County, California J. Environ. Manage. (IF 4.005) Pub Date : 2017-07-22 Yuanfan Zheng, Qihao Weng
Anthropogenic heat flux (Qf), which originates through energy consumption from buildings, industrial plants, vehicle exhausts, and human metabolism releases, is an important component in the urban Surface Energy Balance (SEB) system, and is key to understanding of many urban environmental issues. The present study provided a hybrid Qf modeling approach, which combined the inventory and GIS approach to create a 365-day hourly Qf profile at 120 m spatial resolution in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Qf was estimated by separate calculation of heat release from buildings, traffics, and human metabolism, respectively. The results indicated that Qf showed different magnitudes and diurnal patterns between workdays (dual-peak shape) and weekends/holidays, and also varied with seasons, and land use types. Qf yielded the highest values in the summer workdays, with its maximum value of 7.76 w/m2. Qf in hot summer workdays was obviously higher than that in the average summer workdays, which caused by higher demands for space cooling in buildings, and can reach 8.14 w/m2 at maximum. Building energy consumption was identified as the dominant contributor to the Qf in Downtown Los Angeles, which was found to have the largest mean Qf throughout the year among all neighborhoods. It can be concluded that Qf in the downtown was more significant in workdays than that in non-workdays, and its maximum value can reach 100 w/m2. It is suggested that our approach may have wider applicability for Qf estimation in large areas compared with the existing studies, as all the data used were available to the public. A high spatial and temporal Qf profile, which can readily be incorporated into urban energy balance and Urban Heat Island (UHI) studies, provides valuable data and information for pertinent government agencies and researchers.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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