Human cerebral organoids reveal deficits in neurogenesis and neuronal migration in MeCP2-deficient neural progenitors Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 N Mellios, D A Feldman, S D Sheridan, J P K Ip, S Kwok, S K Amoah, B Rosen, B A Rodriguez, B Crawford, R Swaminathan, S Chou, Y Li, M Ziats, C Ernst, R Jaenisch, S J Haggarty, M Sur
Human cerebral organoids reveal deficits in neurogenesis and neuronal migration in MeCP2-deficient neural progenitors Molecular Psychiatry 23, 791 (April 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2018.5 Authors: N Mellios, D A Feldman, S D Sheridan, J P K Ip, S Kwok, S K Amoah, B Rosen, B A Rodriguez, B Crawford, R Swaminathan, S Chou, Y Li, M Ziats, C Ernst, R Jaenisch, S J Haggarty & M Sur
A comparative expression analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 gene and protein levels in postmortem brain tissues from subjects with bipolar disorder Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : July 25, 2 G Scola, A C Andreazza, L T Young
A comparative expression analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 gene and protein levels in postmortem brain tissues from subjects with bipolar disorder Molecular Psychiatry 23, 792 (April 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2017.149 Authors: G Scola, A C Andreazza & L T Young
Paternal experience impacts cognitive function in offspring: a pre-existing concept Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : July 25, 2 J Bohacek, U Weber-Stadlbauer, I M Mansuy
Paternal experience impacts cognitive function in offspring: a pre-existing concept Molecular Psychiatry 23, 794 (April 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2017.162 Authors: J Bohacek, U Weber-Stadlbauer & I M Mansuy
When should governments increase the supply of psychiatric beds? Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : July 11, 2 S Allison, T Bastiampillai, J Licinio, D A Fuller, N Bidargaddi, S S Sharfstein
Low numbers of hospital-based psychiatric beds create problems for people with severe mental illness (SMI), when they face extended emergency department (ED) waits, higher thresholds for admission to an acute bed, and short revolving-door stays with high rates of rehospitalisation. Limited access to inpatient treatment has been associated with higher suicide risk, premature mortality, homelessness, violent crime and incarceration. Ultimately, people with SMI can be transinstitutionalised to the criminal justice system. In the USA, for example, prisons have replaced mental hospitals as the largest institutions housing people with SMI. There is no international consensus on the safe minimum numbers of acute, forensic and rehabilitation beds needed to reduce these risks. As a consequence, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have wide variations in the mix of hospital beds with an average of 71 beds per 100 000 population. Policymakers face difficult choices with few studies to guide decisions on supplying beds. The UK Royal College of Psychiatrists offered a policy framework, which was adapted for Australia. The government of the State of South Australia increased the supplies of crisis, acute and forensic beds to meet a mandatory target to safely reduce mental health boarding in the EDs.
Mechanisms of ketamine action as an antidepressant Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 13, P Zanos, T D Gould
Clinical studies have demonstrated that a single sub-anesthetic dose of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions. Although this finding has been met with enthusiasm, ketamine’s widespread use is limited by its abuse potential and dissociative properties. Recent preclinical research has focused on unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ketamine in an effort to develop novel pharmacotherapies, which will mimic ketamine’s antidepressant actions but lack its undesirable effects. Here we review hypotheses for the mechanism of action of ketamine as an antidepressant, including synaptic or GluN2B-selective extra-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) inhibition, inhibition of NMDARs localized on GABAergic interneurons, inhibition of NMDAR-dependent burst firing of lateral habenula neurons, and the role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor activation. We also discuss links between ketamine’s antidepressant actions and downstream mechanisms regulating synaptic plasticity, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Mechanisms that do not involve direct inhibition of the NMDAR, including a role for ketamine’s (R)-ketamine enantiomer and hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites, specifically (2R,6R)-HNK, are also discussed. Proposed mechanisms of ketamine’s action are not mutually exclusive and may act in a complementary manner to exert acute changes in synaptic plasticity, leading to sustained strengthening of excitatory synapses, which are necessary for antidepressant behavioral actions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning ketamine’s antidepressant actions will be invaluable for the identification of targets, which will drive the development of novel, effective, next-generation pharmacotherapies for the treatment of depression.
Ketamine enhances structural plasticity in mouse mesencephalic and human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons via AMPAR-driven BDNF and mTOR signaling Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : November 2 L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons. Sixty minutes exposure to ketamine elicited concentration-dependent increases of dendritic arborization and soma size in both mouse and human cultures as measured 72 hours after application. These structural effects were blocked by mTOR complex/signaling inhibitors like rapamycin. Direct evidence of mTOR activation by ketamine was revealed by its induction of p70S6 kinase. All effects of ketamine were abolished by AMPA receptor antagonists and mimicked by the AMPA-positive allosteric modulator CX614. Inhibition of BDNF signaling prevented induction of structural plasticity by ketamine or CX614. Furthermore, the actions of ketamine required functionally intact dopamine D3 receptors (D3R), as its effects were abolished by selective D3R antagonists and absent in D3R knockout preparations. Finally, the ketamine metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine mimicked ketamine effects at sub-micromolar concentrations. These data indicate that ketamine elicits structural plasticity by recruitment of AMPAR, mTOR and BDNF signaling in both mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons. These observations are of likely relevance to the influence of ketamine upon mood and its other functional actions in vivo.
Ketamine-induced reduction in mGluR5 availability is associated with an antidepressant response: an [11C]ABP688 and PET imaging study in depression Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 11, I Esterlis, N DellaGioia, R H Pietrzak, D Matuskey, N Nabulsi, C G Abdallah, J Yang, C Pittenger, G Sanacora, J H Krystal, R V Parsey, R E Carson, C DeLorenzo
The mechanisms of action of the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, have not been fully elucidated. This study examined the effects of ketamine on ligand binding to a metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR5) in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Thirteen healthy and 13 MDD nonsmokers participated in two [11C]ABP688 positron emission tomography (PET) scans on the same day—before and during intravenous ketamine administration—and a third scan 1 day later. At baseline, significantly lower [11C]ABP688 binding was detected in the MDD as compared with the control group. We observed a significant ketamine-induced reduction in mGluR5 availability (that is, [11C]ABP688 binding) in both MDD and control subjects (average of 14±9% and 19±22%, respectively; P<0.01 for both), which persisted 24 h later. There were no differences in ketamine-induced changes between MDD and control groups at either time point (P=0.8). A significant reduction in depressive symptoms was observed following ketamine administration in the MDD group (P<0.001), which was associated with the change in binding (P<0.04) immediately after ketamine. We hypothesize that glutamate released after ketamine administration moderates mGluR5 availability; this change appears to be related to antidepressant efficacy. The sustained decrease in binding may reflect prolonged mGluR5 internalization in response to the glutamate surge.
A novel 5HT3 receptor–IGF1 mechanism distinct from SSRI-induced antidepressant effects Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 25, M Kondo, Y Koyama, Y Nakamura, S Shimada
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting around 350 million people worldwide. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used antidepressants, a significant proportion of depressed patients do not achieve remission with SSRIs. In this study, we show that a serotonin type 3 receptor (5HT3R) agonist induces antidepressant effects as well as hippocampal neurogenesis independent of fluoxetine (a commonly used SSRI). Notably, our histological analysis reveals that 5HT3R and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are expressed in the same neurons in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, our in vivo microdialysis analysis shows that 5HT3R regulates hippocampal extracellular IGF1 levels, and we also show that 5HT3R-dependent hippocampal neurogenesis is mediated by increased IGF1 levels. Altogether, our findings suggest a novel 5HT3R–IGF1 mechanism that is distinct from fluoxetine-induced responses and that provides a new therapeutic target for depression, especially bringing significant benefits for SSRI-resistant depressed patients.
A connectomic approach for subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation surgery: prospective targeting in treatment-resistant depression Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 11, P Riva-Posse, K S Choi, P E Holtzheimer, A L Crowell, S J Garlow, J K Rajendra, C C McIntyre, R E Gross, H S Mayberg
Target identification and contact selection are known contributors to variability in efficacy across different clinical indications of deep brain stimulation surgery. A retrospective analysis of responders to subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation (SCC DBS) for depression demonstrated the common impact of the electrical stimulation on a stereotypic connectome of converging white matter bundles (forceps minor, uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and fronto-striatal fibers). To test the utility of a prospective connectomic approach for SCC DBS surgery, this pilot study used the four-bundle tractography ‘connectome blueprint’ to plan surgical targeting in 11 participants with treatment-resistant depression. Before surgery, targets were selected individually using deterministic tractography. Selection of contacts for chronic stimulation was made by matching the post-operative probabilistic tractography map to the pre-surgical deterministic tractography map for each subject. Intraoperative behavioral responses were used as a secondary verification of location. A probabilistic tract map of all participants demonstrated inclusion of the four bundles as intended, matching the connectome blueprint previously defined. Eight of 11 patients (72.7%) were responders and 5 were remitters after 6 months of open-label stimulation. At one year, 9 of 11 patients (81.8%) were responders, with 6 of them in remission. These results support the utility of a group probabilistic tractography map as a connectome blueprint for individualized, patient-specific, deterministic tractography targeting, confirming retrospective findings previously published. This new method represents a connectomic approach to guide future SCC DBS studies.
Depression, telomeres and mitochondrial DNA: between- and within-person associations from a 10-year longitudinal study Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 28, J E Verhoeven, D Révész, M Picard, E E Epel, O M Wolkowitz, K A Matthews, B W J H Penninx, E Puterman
Alterations in cellular aging, indexed by leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), might partly account for the increased health risks in persons with depression. Although some studies indeed found cross-sectional associations of depression with LTL and mtDNAcn, the longitudinal associations remain unclear. This 10-year longitudinal study examined between- and within-person associations of depressive symptoms with LTL and mtDNAcn in a large community sample. Data are from years 15, 20 and 25 follow-up evaluations in 977 subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Depressive symptoms (years 15, 20, 25) were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale; LTL (years 15, 20, 25) and mtDNAcn (years 15, 25) were measured in whole blood by quantitative PCR. With mixed-model analyses, we explored between- and within-person associations between CES-D scores and cellular aging markers. Results showed that high levels of depressive symptomatology throughout the 10-year time span was associated with shorter average LTL over 10 years (B=−4.2; P=0.014) after covarying for age, sex, race and education. However, no within-person association was found between depressive symptoms and LTL at each year (B=−0.8; P=0.548). Further, we found no between-person (B=−0.2; P=0.744) or within-person (B=0.4; P=0.497) associations between depressive symptomatology and mtDNAcn. Our results provide evidence for a long-term, between-person relationship of depressive symptoms with LTL, rather than a dynamic and direct within-person relationship. In this study, we found no evidence for an association between depressive symptoms and mtDNAcn.
Early life adversity and telomere length: a meta-analysis Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 21, K K Ridout, M Levandowski, S J Ridout, L Gantz, K Goonan, D Palermo, L H Price, A R Tyrka
Early adversity, in the form of abuse, neglect, socioeconomic status and other adverse experiences, is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. To understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these associations, studies have evaluated the relationship between early adversity and telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence. Such results have varied in regard to the size and significance of this relationship. Using meta-analytic techniques, we aimed to clarify the relationship between early adversity and telomere length while exploring factors affecting the association, including adversity type, timing and study design. A comprehensive search in July 2016 of PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 2462 studies. Multiple reviewers appraised studies for inclusion or exclusion using a priori criteria; 3.9% met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into a structured form; the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessed study quality, validity and bias. Forty-one studies (N=30 773) met inclusion criteria. Early adversity and telomere length were significantly associated (Cohen’s d effect size=−0.35; 95% CI, –0.46 to –0.24; P<0.0001). Sensitivity analyses revealed no outlier effects. Adversity type and timing significantly impacted the association with telomere length (P<0.0001 and P=0.0025, respectively). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that medication use, medical or psychiatric conditions, case–control vs longitudinal study design, methodological factors, age and smoking significantly affected the relationship. Comprehensive evaluations of adversity demonstrated more extensive telomere length changes. These results suggest that early adversity may have long-lasting physiological consequences contributing to disease risk and biological aging.
CK2 regulates 5-HT4 receptor signaling and modulates depressive-like behavior Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : November 2 J Castello, B LeFrancois, M Flajolet, P Greengard, E Friedman, H Rebholz
The serotonergic neurotransmitter system has been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). The onset of therapeutic efficacy of traditional antidepressants is delayed by several weeks. The 5-HT4 receptor has emerged as a new therapeutic target since agonists of this receptor induce rapid antidepressant-like responses in rodents. Here we show that the 5-HT4 receptor is regulated by CK2, at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We present evidence, in two different CK2α knockout mouse lines, that this regulation is region-specific, with the 5-HT4 receptor upregulated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not striatum or hippocampus where CK2α is also ablated. 5-HT4 receptor signaling is enhanced in vitro, as evidenced by enhanced cAMP production or receptor plasma membrane localization in the presence of CK2 inhibitor or shRNA targeting CK2α. In vivo, 5-HT4 receptor signaling is also upregulated since ERK activation is elevated and sensitive to the inverse agonist, GR113808 in the PFC of CK2α KO mice. Behaviorally, KO mice as well as mice with AAV-mediated deletion of CK2α in the PFC show a robust ‘anti-depressed-like’ phenotype and display an enhanced response to antidepressant treatment when tested in paradigms for mood and anxiety. Importantly, it is sufficient to overexpress the 5-HT4 receptor in the mPFC to generate mice with a similar ‘anti-depressed-like’ phenotype. Our findings identify the mPFC as the region that mediates the effect of enhanced 5-HT4 receptor activity and CK2 as modulator of 5-HT4 receptor levels in this brain region that regulates mood-related phenotypes.
Calhm2 governs astrocytic ATP releasing in the development of depression-like behaviors Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : November 2 M Jun, Q Xiaolong, Y Chaojuan, P Ruiyuan, W Shukun, W Junbing, H Li, C Hong, C Jinbo, W Rong, L Yajin, M Lanqun, W Fengchao, W Zhiying, A Jianxiong, W Yun, Z Xia, Z Chen, Y Zengqiang
Extracellular ATP is a widespread cell-to-cell signaling molecule in the brain, where it functions as a neuromodulator by activating glia and neurons. Although ATP exerts multiple effects on synaptic plasticity and neuro-glia interactions, as well as in mood disorders, the source and regulation of ATP release remain to be elaborated. Here, we define Calhm2 as an ATP-releasing channel protein based on in vitro and in vivo models. Conventional knockout and conditional astrocyte knockout of Calhm2 both lead to significantly reduced ATP concentrations, loss of hippocampal spine number, neural dysfunction and depression-like behaviors in mice, which can be significantly rescued by ATP replenishment. Our findings identify Calhm2 as a critical ATP-releasing channel that modulates neural activity and as a potential risk factor of depression.
Perisomatic changes in h-channels regulate depressive behaviors following chronic unpredictable stress Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 18, C S Kim, D H Brager, D Johnston
Chronic stress can be a precipitating factor in the onset of depression. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of HCN1 protein expression and reduction of functional Ih produce antidepressant behavior. However, whether h-channels are altered in an animal model of depression is not known. We found that perisomatic HCN1 protein expression and Ih-sensitive physiological measurements were significantly increased in dorsal but not in ventral CA1 region/neurons following chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a widely accepted model for major depressive disorder. Cell-attached patch clamp recordings confirmed that perisomatic Ih was increased in dorsal CA1 neurons following CUS. Furthermore, when dorsal CA1 Ih was reduced by shRNA-HCN1, the CUS-induced behavioral deficits were prevented. Finally, rats infused in the dorsal CA1 region with thapsigargin, an irreversible inhibitor of the SERCA pump, exhibited anxiogenic-like behaviors and increased Ih, similar to that observed following CUS. Our results suggest that CUS, but not acute stress, leads to an increase in perisomatic Ih in dorsal CA1 neurons and that HCN channels represent a potential target for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Translational profiling of stress-induced neuroplasticity in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of BDNF Val66Met mice Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : December 1 J D Gray, T G Rubin, J F Kogan, J Marrocco, J Weidmann, S Lindkvist, F S Lee, E F Schmidt, B S McEwen
Genetic susceptibility and environmental factors (such as stress) can interact to affect the likelihood of developing a mood disorder. Stress-induced changes in the hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, and mutations in several genes have now been associated with increased risk, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The hippocampus has important anatomical subdivisions, and pyramidal neurons of the vulnerable CA3 region show significant remodeling after chronic stress, but the mechanisms underlying their unique plasticity remain unknown. This study characterizes stress-induced changes in the in vivo translating mRNA of this cell population using a CA3-specific enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter fused to the L10a large ribosomal subunit (EGFPL10a). RNA-sequencing after isolation of polysome-bound mRNAs allows for cell-type-specific, genome-wide characterization of translational changes after stress. The data demonstrate that acute and chronic stress produce unique translational profiles and that the stress history of the animal can alter future reactivity of CA3 neurons. CA3-specific EGFPL10a mice were then crossed to the stress-susceptible BDNF Val66Met mouse line to characterize how a known genetic susceptibility alters both baseline translational profiles and the reactivity of CA3 neurons to stress. Not only do Met allele carriers exhibit distinct levels of baseline translation in genes implicated in ion channel function and cytoskeletal regulation, but they also activate a stress response profile that is highly dissimilar from wild-type mice. Closer examination of genes implicated in the mechanisms of neuroplasticity, such as the NMDA and AMPA subunits and the BDNF pathway, reveal how wild-type mice upregulate many of these genes in response to stress, but Met allele carriers fail to do so. These profiles provide a roadmap of stress-induced changes in a genetically homogenous population of hippocampal neurons and illustrate the profound effects of gene–environment interactions on the translational profile of these cells.
Optogenetic silencing of a corticotropin-releasing factor pathway from the central amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis disrupts sustained fear Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 25, A Asok, A Draper, A F Hoffman, J Schulkin, C R Lupica, J B Rosen
The lateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAL) and the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTDL) coordinate the expression of shorter- and longer-lasting fears, respectively. Less is known about how these structures communicate with each other during fear acquisition. One pathway, from the CeAL to the BNSTDL, is thought to communicate via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but studies have yet to examine its function in fear learning and memory. Thus, we developed an adeno-associated viral-based strategy to selectively target CRF neurons with the optogenetic silencer archaerhodopsin tp009 (CRF-ArchT) to examine the role of CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL during the acquisition of contextual fear. Expression of our CRF-ArchT vector injected into the amygdala was restricted to CeAL CRF neurons. Furthermore, CRF axonal projections from the CeAL clustered around BNSTDL CRF cells. Optogenetic silencing of CeAL CRF neurons during contextual fear acquisition disrupted retention test freezing 24 h later, but only at later time points (>6 min) during testing. Silencing CeAL CRF projections in the BNSTDL during contextual fear acquisition produced a similar effect. Baseline contextual freezing, the rate of fear acquisition, freezing in an alternate context after conditioning and responsivity to foot shock were unaffected by optogenetic silencing. Our results highlight how CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL consolidate longer-lasting components of a fear memory. Our findings have implications for understanding how discrete amygdalar CRF pathways modulate longer-lasting fear in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.
Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : January 24 T A Wehr
In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon’s semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring–neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies (‘supermoons’). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles’ being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon’s semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients’ bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker’s phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.
Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: an MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : May 2, 201 D P Hibar, L T Westlye, N T Doan, N Jahanshad, J W Cheung, C R K Ching, A Versace, A C Bilderbeck, A Uhlmann, B Mwangi, B Krämer, B Overs, C B Hartberg, C Abé, D Dima, D Grotegerd, E Sprooten, E Bøen, E Jimenez, F M Howells, G Delvecchio, H Temmingh, J Starke, J R C Almeida, J M Goikolea, J Houenou, L M Beard, L Rauer, L Abramovic, M Bonnin, M F Ponteduro, M Keil, M M Rive, N Yao, N Yalin, P Najt, P G Rosa, R Redlich, S Trost, S Hagenaars, S C Fears, S Alonso-Lana, T G M van Erp, T Nickson, T M Chaim-Avancini, T B Meier, T Elvsåshagen, U K Haukvik, W H Lee, A H Schene, A J Lloyd, A H Young, A Nugent, A M Dale, A Pfennig, A M McIntosh, B Lafer, B T Baune, C J Ekman, C A Zarate, C E Bearden, C Henry, C Simhandl, C McDonald, C Bourne, D J Stein, D H Wolf, D M Cannon, D C Glahn, D J Veltman, E Pomarol-Clotet, E Vieta, E J Canales-Rodriguez, F G Nery, F L S Duran, G F Busatto, G Roberts, G D Pearlson, G M Goodwin, H Kugel, H C Whalley, H G Ruhe, J C Soares, J M Fullerton, J K Ryba..
Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen’s d=−0.293; P=1.71 × 10−21), left fusiform gyrus (d=−0.288; P=8.25 × 10−21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d=−0.276; P=2.99 × 10−19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD.
Early neuromodulation prevents the development of brain and behavioral abnormalities in a rodent model of schizophrenia Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 4, 2 R Hadar, L Bikovski, M L Soto-Montenegro, J Schimke, P Maier, S Ewing, M Voget, F Wieske, T Götz, M Desco, C Hamani, J Pascau, I Weiner, C Winter
The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia’s neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood. We found that mPFC-DBS successfully prevented the emergence of deficits in sensorimotor gating, attentional selectivity and executive function in adulthood, as well as the enlargement of lateral ventricle volumes and mal-development of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission. These data suggest that the mPFC may be a valuable target for effective preventive treatments. This may have significant translational value, suggesting that targeting the mPFC before the onset of psychosis via less invasive neuromodulation approaches may be a viable preventive strategy.
Interactome analysis reveals ZNF804A, a schizophrenia risk gene, as a novel component of protein translational machinery critical for embryonic neurodevelopment Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : September Y Zhou, F Dong, T A Lanz, V Reinhart, M Li, L Liu, J Zou, H S Xi, Y Mao
Recent genome-wide association studies identified over 100 genetic loci that significantly associate with schizophrenia (SZ). A top candidate gene, ZNF804A, was robustly replicated in different populations. However, its neural functions are largely unknown. Here we show in mouse that ZFP804A, the homolog of ZNF804A, is required for normal progenitor proliferation and neuronal migration. Using a yeast two-hybrid genome-wide screen, we identified novel interacting proteins of ZNF804A. Rather than transcriptional factors, genes involved in mRNA translation are highly represented in our interactome result. ZNF804A co-fractionates with translational machinery and modulates the translational efficiency as well as the mTOR pathway. The ribosomal protein RPSA interacts with ZNF804A and rescues the migration and translational defects caused by ZNF804A knockdown. RNA immunoprecipitation–RNAseq (RIP-Seq) identified transcripts bound to ZFP804A. Consistently, ZFP804A associates with many short transcripts involved in translational and mitochondrial regulation. Moreover, among the transcripts associated with ZFP804A, a SZ risk gene, neurogranin (NRGN), is one of ZFP804A targets. Interestingly, downregulation of ZFP804A decreases NRGN expression and overexpression of NRGN can ameliorate ZFP804A-mediated migration defect. To verify the downstream targets of ZNF804A, a Duolink in situ interaction assay confirmed genes from our RIP-Seq data as the ZNF804A targets. Thus, our work uncovered a novel mechanistic link of a SZ risk gene to neurodevelopment and translational control. The interactome-driven approach here is an effective way for translating genome-wide association findings into novel biological insights of human diseases.
Genetic risk for schizophrenia and psychosis in Alzheimer disease Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : May 2, 201 M A A DeMichele-Sweet, E A Weamer, L Klei, D T Vrana, D J Hollingshead, H J Seltman, R Sims, T Foroud, I Hernandez, S Moreno-Grau, L Tárraga, M Boada, A Ruiz, J Williams, R Mayeux, O L Lopez, E L Sibille, M I Kamboh, B Devlin, R A Sweet
Psychotic symptoms, defined as the occurrence of delusions or hallucinations, are frequent in Alzheimer disease (AD), affecting ~40 to 60% of individuals with AD (AD with psychosis (AD+P)). In comparison with AD subjects without psychosis, AD+P subjects have more rapid cognitive decline and poor outcomes. Prior studies have estimated the heritability of psychosis in AD at 61%, but the underlying genetic sources of this risk are not known. We evaluated a Discovery Cohort of 2876 AD subjects with (N=1761) or without psychosis (N=1115). All subjects were genotyped using a custom genotyping array designed to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of genetic association with AD+P and include SNPs affecting or putatively affecting risk for schizophrenia and AD. Results were replicated in an independent cohort of 2194 AD subjects with (N=734) or without psychosis (N=1460). We found that AD+P is associated with polygenic risk for a set of novel loci and inversely associated with polygenic risk for schizophrenia. Among the biologic pathways identified by the associations of schizophrenia SNPs with AD+P are endosomal trafficking, autophagy and calcium channel signaling. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first clear demonstration that AD+P is associated with common genetic variation. In addition, they provide an unbiased link between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and a lower risk of psychosis in AD. This provides an opportunity to leverage progress made in identifying the biologic effects of schizophrenia alleles to identify novel mechanisms protecting against more rapid cognitive decline and psychosis risk in AD.
Mapping autosomal recessive intellectual disability: combined microarray and exome sequencing identifies 26 novel candidate genes in 192 consanguineous families Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 11, R Harripaul, N Vasli, A Mikhailov, M A Rafiq, K Mittal, C Windpassinger, T I Sheikh, A Noor, H Mahmood, S Downey, M Johnson, K Vleuten, L Bell, M Ilyas, F S Khan, V Khan, M Moradi, M Ayaz, F Naeem, A Heidari, I Ahmed, S Ghadami, Z Agha, S Zeinali, R Qamar, H Mozhdehipanah, P John, A Mir, M Ansar, L French, M Ayub, J B Vincent
Approximately 1% of the global population is affected by intellectual disability (ID), and the majority receive no molecular diagnosis. Previous studies have indicated high levels of genetic heterogeneity, with estimates of more than 2500 autosomal ID genes, the majority of which are autosomal recessive (AR). Here, we combined microarray genotyping, homozygosity-by-descent (HBD) mapping, copy number variation (CNV) analysis, and whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify disease genes/mutations in 192 multiplex Pakistani and Iranian consanguineous families with non-syndromic ID. We identified definite or candidate mutations (or CNVs) in 51% of families in 72 different genes, including 26 not previously reported for ARID. The new ARID genes include nine with loss-of-function mutations (ABI2, MAPK8, MPDZ, PIDD1, SLAIN1, TBC1D23, TRAPPC6B, UBA7 and USP44), and missense mutations include the first reports of variants in BDNF or TET1 associated with ID. The genes identified also showed overlap with de novo gene sets for other neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcriptional studies showed prominent expression in the prenatal brain. The high yield of AR mutations for ID indicated that this approach has excellent clinical potential and should inform clinical diagnostics, including clinical whole exome and genome sequencing, for populations in which consanguinity is common. As with other AR disorders, the relevance will also apply to outbred populations.
Copy number elevation of 22q11.2 genes arrests the developmental maturation of working memory capacity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : August 22, S Boku, T Izumi, S Abe, T Takahashi, A Nishi, H Nomaru, Y Naka, G Kang, M Nagashima, A Hishimoto, S Enomoto, G Duran-Torres, K Tanigaki, J Zhang, K Ye, S Kato, P T Männistö, K Kobayashi, N Hiroi
Working memory capacity, a critical component of executive function, expands developmentally from childhood through adulthood. Anomalies in this developmental process are seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities (ID), implicating this atypical process in the trajectory of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the cellular and neuronal substrates underlying this process are not understood. Duplication and triplication of copy number variants of 22q11.2 are consistently and robustly associated with cognitive deficits of ASD and ID in humans, and overexpression of small 22q11.2 segments recapitulates dimensional aspects of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders in mice. We capitalized on these two lines of evidence to delve into the cellular substrates for this atypical development of working memory. Using a region- and cell-type-selective gene expression approach, we demonstrated that copy number elevations of catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) or Tbx1, two genes encoded in the two small 22q11.2 segments, in adult neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus prevents the developmental maturation of working memory capacity in mice. Moreover, copy number elevations of COMT or Tbx1 reduced the proliferation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells in a cell-autonomous manner in vitro and migration of their progenies in the hippocampus granular layer in vivo. Our data provide evidence for the novel hypothesis that copy number elevations of these 22q11.2 genes alter the developmental trajectory of working memory capacity via suboptimal adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
ASD restricted and repetitive behaviors associated at 17q21.33: genes prioritized by expression in fetal brains Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : May 23, 20 R M Cantor, L Navarro, H Won, R L Walker, J K Lowe, D H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined condition that manifests in infancy or early childhood as deficits in communication skills and social interactions. Often, restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) accompany this disorder. ASD is polygenic and genetically complex, so we hypothesized that focusing analyses on intermediate core component phenotypes, such as RRBs, can reduce genetic heterogeneity and improve statistical power. Applying this approach, we mined Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from two of the largest ASD family cohorts, the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and Autism Genome Project (AGP). Of the 12 RRBs measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, seven were found to be significantly familial and substantially variable, and hence, were tested for genome-wide association in 3104 ASD-affected children from 2045 families. Using a stringent significance threshold (P<7.1 × 10−9), GWAS in the AGP revealed an association between ‘the degree of the repetitive use of objects or interest in parts of objects’ and rs2898883 (P<6.8 × 10−9), which resides within the sixth intron of PHB. To identify the candidate target genes of the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms at that locus, we applied chromosome conformation studies in developing human brains and implicated three additional genes: SLC35B1, CALCOCO2 and DLX3. Gene expression, brain imaging and fetal brain expression quantitative trait locus studies prioritize SLC35B1 and PHB. These analyses indicate that GWAS of single heritable features of genetically complex disorders followed by chromosome conformation studies in relevant tissues can be successful in revealing novel risk genes for single core features of ASD.
Maternal immune activation dysregulation of the fetal brain transcriptome and relevance to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 21, M V Lombardo, H M Moon, J Su, T D Palmer, E Courchesne, T Pramparo
Maternal immune activation (MIA) via infection during pregnancy is known to increase risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear how MIA disrupts fetal brain gene expression in ways that may explain this increased risk. Here we examine how MIA dysregulates rat fetal brain gene expression (at a time point analogous to the end of the first trimester of human gestation) in ways relevant to ASD-associated pathophysiology. MIA downregulates expression of ASD-associated genes, with the largest enrichments in genes known to harbor rare highly penetrant mutations. MIA also downregulates expression of many genes also known to be persistently downregulated in the ASD cortex later in life and which are canonically known for roles in affecting prenatally late developmental processes at the synapse. Transcriptional and translational programs that are downstream targets of highly ASD-penetrant FMR1 and CHD8 genes are also heavily affected by MIA. MIA strongly upregulates expression of a large number of genes involved in translation initiation, cell cycle, DNA damage and proteolysis processes that affect multiple key neural developmental functions. Upregulation of translation initiation is common to and preserved in gene network structure with the ASD cortical transcriptome throughout life and has downstream impact on cell cycle processes. The cap-dependent translation initiation gene, EIF4E, is one of the most MIA-dysregulated of all ASD-associated genes and targeted network analyses demonstrate prominent MIA-induced transcriptional dysregulation of mTOR and EIF4E-dependent signaling. This dysregulation of translation initiation via alteration of the Tsc2–mTor–Eif4e axis was further validated across MIA rodent models. MIA may confer increased risk for ASD by dysregulating key aspects of fetal brain gene expression that are highly relevant to pathophysiology affecting ASD.
A new locus regulating MICALL2 expression was identified for association with executive inhibition in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 18, L Yang, S Chang, Q Lu, Y Zhang, Z Wu, X Sun, Q Cao, Y Qian, T Jia, B Xu, Q Duan, Y Li, K Zhang, G Schumann, D Liu, J Wang, Y Wang, L Lu
Impaired executive inhibition is a core deficit of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is a common childhood-onset psychiatric disorder with high heritability. In this study, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study of executive inhibition in ADHD in Han Chinese. We used the Stroop color-word interference test to evaluate executive inhibition. After quality control, 780 samples with phenotype and covariate data were included in the discovery stage, whereas 922 samples were included in the replication stage. We identified one new significant locus at 7p22.3 for the Stroop word interference time (rs11514810, P=3.42E−09 for discovery, P=0.01176 for replication and combined P=5.249E−09). Regulatory feature analysis and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data showed that this locus contributes to MICALL2 expression in the human brain. Most genes in the network interacting with MICALL2 were associated with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, hyperactive-impulsive-like behavior was induced by reducing the expression of the zebrafish gene that is homologous to MICALL2, which could be rescued by tomoxetine (atomoxetine), a clinical medication for ADHD. Our results suggested that MICALL2 is a new susceptibility gene for executive inhibition deficiency related to hyperactive-impulsive behavior in ADHD, further emphasizing the possible role of neurodevelopmental genes in the pathogenic mechanism of ADHD.
Astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 modulates brain plasticity in both mice and humans: a potential gliogenetic mechanism underlying language-associated learning Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : June 27, 2 J Woo, J E Kim, J J Im, J Lee, H S Jeong, S Park, S-Y Jung, H An, S Yoon, S M Lim, S Lee, J Ma, E Y Shin, Y-E Han, B Kim, E H Lee, L Feng, H Chun, B-E Yoon, I Kang, S R Dager, I K Lyoo, C J Lee
The role of astrocytes in brain plasticity has not been extensively studied compared with that of neurons. Here we adopted integrative translational and reverse-translational approaches to explore the role of an astrocyte-specific major water channel in the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), in brain plasticity and learning. We initially identified the most prevalent genetic variant of AQP4 (single nucleotide polymorphism of rs162008 with C or T variation, which has a minor allele frequency of 0.21) from a human database (n=60 706) and examined its functionality in modulating the expression level of AQP4 in an in vitro luciferase reporter assay. In the following experiments, AQP4 knock-down in mice not only impaired hippocampal volumetric plasticity after exposure to enriched environment but also caused loss of long-term potentiation after theta-burst stimulation. In humans, there was a cross-sectional association of rs162008 with gray matter (GM) volume variation in cortices, including the vicinity of the Perisylvian heteromodal language area (Sample 1, n=650). GM volume variation in these brain regions was positively associated with the semantic verbal fluency. In a prospective follow-up study (Sample 2, n=45), the effects of an intensive 5-week foreign language (English) learning experience on regional GM volume increase were modulated by this AQP4 variant, which was also associated with verbal learning capacity change. We then delineated in mice mechanisms that included AQP4-dependent transient astrocytic volume changes and astrocytic structural elaboration. We believe our study provides the first integrative evidence for a gliogenetic basis that involves AQP4, underlying language-associated brain plasticity.
Lipocalin-2 regulates adult neurogenesis and contextual discriminative behaviours Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : May 9, 201 A C Ferreira, T Santos, B Sampaio-Marques, A Novais, S D Mesquita, P Ludovico, L Bernardino, M Correia-Neves, N Sousa, J A Palha, J C Sousa, F Marques
In the adult mammalian brain, newborn granule cells are continuously integrated into hippocampal circuits, and the fine-tuning of this process is important for hippocampal function. Thus, the identification of factors that control adult neural stem cells (NSCs) maintenance, differentiation and integration is essential. Here we show that the deletion of the iron trafficking protein lipocalin-2 (LCN2) induces deficits in NSCs proliferation and commitment, with impact on the hippocampal-dependent contextual fear discriminative task. Mice deficient in LCN2 present an increase in the NSCs population, as a consequence of a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest induced by increased endogenous oxidative stress. Of notice, supplementation with the iron-chelating agent deferoxamine rescues NSCs oxidative stress, promotes cell cycle progression and improves contextual fear conditioning. LCN2 is, therefore, a novel key modulator of neurogenesis that, through iron, controls NSCs cell cycle progression and death, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation and, ultimately, hippocampal function.
Remote memories are enhanced by COMT activity through dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : June 20, 2 D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC. However, despite the established role played by COMT genetic variation in executive functions, its impact on remote memory formation and recall is still poorly explored. Here we report that transgenic mice overexpressing the human COMT-Val gene (COMT-Val-tg) present exaggerated remote memories (>50 days) while having unaltered recent memories (<24 h). COMT selectively and reversibly modulated the recall of remote memories as silencing COMT Val overexpression starting from 30 days after the initial aversive conditioning normalized remote memories. COMT genetic overactivity produced a selective overdrive of the endocannabinoid system within the PFC, but not in the striatum and hippocampus, which was associated with enhanced remote memories. Indeed, acute pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors was sufficient to rescue the altered remote memory recall in COMT-Val-tg mice and increased PFC dopamine levels. These results demonstrate that COMT genetic variations modulate the retrieval of remote memories through the dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC.
MeCP2-regulated miRNAs control early human neurogenesis through differential effects on ERK and AKT signaling Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 25, N Mellios, D A Feldman, S D Sheridan, J P K Ip, S Kwok, S K Amoah, B Rosen, B A Rodriguez, B Crawford, R Swaminathan, S Chou, Y Li, M Ziats, C Ernst, R Jaenisch, S J Haggarty, M Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, which encodes a multifunctional epigenetic regulator with known links to a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although postnatal functions of MeCP2 have been thoroughly investigated, its role in prenatal brain development remains poorly understood. Given the well-established importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurogenesis, we employed isogenic human RTT patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and MeCP2 short hairpin RNA knockdown approaches to identify novel MeCP2-regulated miRNAs enriched during early human neuronal development. Focusing on the most dysregulated miRNAs, we found miR-199 and miR-214 to be increased during early brain development and to differentially regulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) signaling. In parallel, we characterized the effects on human neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation brought about by MeCP2 deficiency using both monolayer and three-dimensional (cerebral organoid) patient-derived and MeCP2-deficient neuronal culture models. Inhibiting miR-199 or miR-214 expression in iPSC-derived neural progenitors deficient in MeCP2 restored AKT and ERK activation, respectively, and ameliorated the observed alterations in neuronal differentiation. Moreover, overexpression of miR-199 or miR-214 in the wild-type mouse embryonic brains was sufficient to disturb neurogenesis and neuronal migration in a similar manner to Mecp2 knockdown. Taken together, our data support a novel miRNA-mediated pathway downstream of MeCP2 that influences neurogenesis via interactions with central molecular hubs linked to autism spectrum disorders.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met genotype and ovarian steroids interactively modulate working memory-related hippocampal function in women: a multimodal neuroimaging study Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 18, S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val66Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol. In a 6-month pharmacological hormone manipulation protocol, healthy, regularly menstruating, asymptomatic women completed positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing the n-back working memory task during three hormone conditions: ovarian suppression induced by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, leuprolide acetate; leuprolide plus estradiol; and leuprolide plus progesterone. For each of the three hormone conditions, a discovery data set was obtained with oxygen-15 water regional cerebral blood flow PET in 39 healthy women genotyped for BDNF Val66Met, and a confirmatory data set was obtained with fMRI in 27 women. Our results, in close agreement across the two imaging platforms, demonstrate an ovarian hormone-by-BDNF interaction on working memory-related hippocampal function (PET: F2,37=9.11, P=0.00026 uncorrected, P=0.05, familywise error corrected with small volume correction; fMRI: F2,25=5.43, P=0.01, uncorrected) that reflects differential hippocampal recruitment in Met carriers but only in the presence of estradiol. These findings have clinical relevance for understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in the cognitive and behavioral effects of ovarian steroids in women, and may provide a neurogenetic framework for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders related to reproductive hormones as well as illnesses with sex differences in disease expression and course.
The joint impact of cognitive performance in adolescence and familial cognitive aptitude on risk for major psychiatric disorders: a delineation of four potential pathways to illness Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 18, K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, R S E Keefe, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at age 16 and FCA—assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and educational attainment in parents—on risk for 12 major psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born 1972–1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and high levels of FCA—that is a level of SA lower than would be predicted from the FCA. This pattern was strongest in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, and weakest in bipolar illness. In these disorders, a pathologic process seems to have caused cognitive functioning to fall substantially short of familial potential. In the second pattern, seen in the internalizing conditions of major depression and anxiety disorders, risk was associated with low SA but was unrelated to FCA. Externalizing disorders—drug abuse and alcohol use disorders—demonstrated the third pattern, in which risk was predicted jointly by low SA and low FCA. The fourth pattern, seen in eating disorders, was directly opposite of that observed in externalizing disorders with risk associated with high SA and high FCA. When measured together, adolescent cognitive ability and FCA identified four developmental patterns leading to diverse psychiatric disorders. The value of cognitive assessments in psychiatric research can be substantially increased by also evaluating familial cognitive potential.
Structural alterations within cerebellar circuitry are associated with general liability for common mental disorders Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 11, A L Romer, A R Knodt, R Houts, B D Brigidi, T E Moffitt, A Caspi, A R Hariri
Accumulating mental-health research encourages a shift in focus toward transdiagnostic dimensional features that are shared across categorical disorders. In support of this shift, recent studies have identified a general liability factor for psychopathology—sometimes called the ‘p factor’— that underlies shared risk for a wide range of mental disorders. Identifying neural correlates of this general liability would substantiate its importance in characterizing the shared origins of mental disorders and help us begin to understand the mechanisms through which the ‘p factor’ contributes to risk. Here we believe we first replicate the ‘p factor’ using cross-sectional data from a volunteer sample of 1246 university students, and then using high-resolution multimodal structural neuroimaging, we demonstrate that individuals with higher ‘p factor’ scores show reduced structural integrity of white matter pathways, as indexed by lower fractional anisotropy values, uniquely within the pons. Whole-brain analyses further revealed that higher ‘p factor’ scores are associated with reduced gray matter volume in the occipital lobe and left cerebellar lobule VIIb, which is functionally connected with prefrontal regions supporting cognitive control. Consistent with the preponderance of cerebellar afferents within the pons, we observed a significant positive correlation between the white matter integrity of the pons and cerebellar gray matter volume associated with higher ‘p factor’ scores. The results of our analyses provide initial evidence that structural alterations in corticocerebellar circuitry supporting core functions related to the basic integration, coordination and monitoring of information may contribute to a general liability for common mental disorders.
Calhm2 governs astrocytic ATP releasing in the development of depression-like behaviors Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : January 9, M Jun, Q Xiaolong, Y Chaojuan, P Ruiyuan, W Shukun, W Junbing, H Li, C Hong, C Jinbo, W Rong, L Yajin, M Lanqun, W Fengchao, W Zhiying, A Jianxiong, W Yun, Z Xia, Z Chen, Y Zengqiang
Calhm2 governs astrocytic ATP releasing in the development of depression-like behaviors Molecular Psychiatry 23, 1091 (April 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2017.254 Authors: M Jun, Q Xiaolong, Y Chaojuan, P Ruiyuan, W Shukun, W Junbing, H Li, C Hong, C Jinbo, W Rong, L Yajin, M Lanqun, W Fengchao, W Zhiying, A Jianxiong, W Yun, Z Xia, Z Chen & Y Zengqiang
Optical activation of endogenous metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) in the amygdala dynamically regulates symptoms associated with persistent inflammatory pain Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 C Zussy, X Gómez-Santacana, X Rovira, D De Bundel, S Ferrazzo, D Bosch, D Asede, F Malhaire, F Acher, J Giraldo, E Valjent, I Ehrlich, F Ferraguti, J-P Pin, A Llebaria, C Goudet
Optical activation of endogenous metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) in the amygdala dynamically regulates symptoms associated with persistent inflammatory pain Molecular Psychiatry 23, 489 (March 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2018.4 Authors: C Zussy, X Gómez-Santacana, X Rovira, D De Bundel, S Ferrazzo, D Bosch, D Asede, F Malhaire, F Acher, J Giraldo, E Valjent, I Ehrlich, F Ferraguti, J-P Pin, A Llebaria & C Goudet
The NF-κB signaling pathway: an important therapeutic target in psychiatric disorders Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : November 1 M A Altinoz, B Ince, C Tek, V H Srihari, S Guloksuz
The NF-κB signaling pathway: an important therapeutic target in psychiatric disorders Molecular Psychiatry 23, 490 (March 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2016.207 Authors: M A Altinoz, B Ince, C Tek, V H Srihari & S Guloksuz
Enrichment of factors regulating canonical Wnt signaling among autism risk genes Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : December 1 A Packer
Enrichment of factors regulating canonical Wnt signaling among autism risk genes Molecular Psychiatry 23, 492 (March 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2016.228 Author: A Packer
Challenges in conducting genetic analyses based on data-driven classification of major depressive disorder Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : November 8 V-P Mäkinen
Challenges in conducting genetic analyses based on data-driven classification of major depressive disorder Molecular Psychiatry 23, 494 (March 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2016.205 Author: V-P Mäkinen
Problems with latent class analysis to detect data-driven subtypes of depression Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : November 8 H M van Loo, R B K Wanders, K J Wardenaar, E I Fried
Problems with latent class analysis to detect data-driven subtypes of depression Molecular Psychiatry 23, 495 (March 2018). doi:10.1038/mp.2016.202 Authors: H M van Loo, R B K Wanders, K J Wardenaar & E I Fried
Characterization and transplantation of enteric neural crest cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : October 25 W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the ability to proliferate indefinitely and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, thus making iPSCs an ideal source of cells for disease modelling and cell therapy. Here, hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) efficiently. When co-cultured with smooth muscle layers of ganglionic gut tissue, the NCSCs differentiated into different subtypes of mature enteric-like neurons expressing nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or calretinin with typical electrophysiological characteristics of functional neurons. Furthermore, when they were transplanted into aneural or aganglionic chick, mouse or human gut tissues in ovo, in vitro or in vivo, hiPSC-derived NCSCs showed extensive migration and neural differentiation capacity, generating neurons and glial cells that expressed phenotypic markers characteristic of the enteric nervous system. Our results indicate that enteric NCSCs derived from hiPSCs supply a powerful tool for studying the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and brain/gut dysfunction and represent a potentially ideal cell source for enteric neural transplantation treatments.
Dynamic modulation of inflammatory pain-related affective and sensory symptoms by optical control of amygdala metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : December 2 C Zussy, X Gómez-Santacana, X Rovira, D De Bundel, S Ferrazzo, D Bosch, D Asede, F Malhaire, F Acher, J Giraldo, E Valjent, I Ehrlich, F Ferraguti, J-P Pin, A Llebaria, C Goudet
Contrary to acute pain, chronic pain does not serve as a warning signal and must be considered as a disease per se. This pathology presents a sensory and psychological dimension at the origin of affective and cognitive disorders. Being largely refractory to current pharmacotherapies, identification of endogenous systems involved in persistent and chronic pain is crucial. The amygdala is a key brain region linking pain sensation with negative emotions. Here, we show that activation of a specific intrinsic neuromodulatory system within the amygdala associated with type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu4) abolishes sensory and affective symptoms of persistent pain such as hypersensitivity to pain, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, and fear extinction impairment. Interestingly, neuroanatomical and synaptic analysis of the amygdala circuitry suggests that the effects of mGlu4 activation occur outside the central nucleus via modulation of multisensory thalamic inputs to lateral amygdala principal neurons and dorso-medial intercalated cells. Furthermore, we developed optogluram, a small diffusible photoswitchable positive allosteric modulator of mGlu4. This ligand allows the control of endogenous mGlu4 activity with light. Using this photopharmacological approach, we rapidly and reversibly inhibited behavioral symptoms associated with persistent pain through optical control of optogluram in the amygdala of freely behaving animals. Altogether, our data identify amygdala mGlu4 signaling as a mechanism that bypasses central sensitization processes to dynamically modulate persistent pain symptoms. Our findings help to define novel and more precise therapeutic interventions for chronic pain, and exemplify the potential of optopharmacology to study the dynamic activity of endogenous neuromodulatory mechanisms in vivo.
Evidence for newly generated interneurons in the basolateral amygdala of adult mice Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : August 15, D J Jhaveri, A Tedoldi, S Hunt, R Sullivan, N R Watts, J M Power, P F Bartlett, P Sah
New neurons are continually generated from the resident populations of precursor cells in selective niches of the adult mammalian brain such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. However, whether such cells are present in the adult amygdala, and their neurogenic capacity, is not known. Using the neurosphere assay, we demonstrate that a small number of precursor cells, the majority of which express Achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Ascl1), are present in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of the adult mouse. Using neuron-specific Thy1-YFP transgenic mice, we show that YFP+ cells in BLA-derived neurospheres have a neuronal morphology, co-express the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin, and generate action potentials, confirming their neuronal phenotype. In vivo, we demonstrate the presence of newly generated BrdU-labeled cells in the adult BLA, and show that a proportion of these cells co-express the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX). Furthermore, we reveal that a significant proportion of GFP+ neurons (~23%) in the BLA are newly generated (BrdU+) in DCX-GFP mice, and using whole-cell recordings in acute slices we demonstrate that the GFP+ cells display electrophysiological properties that are characteristic of interneurons. Using retrovirus-GFP labeling as well as the Ascl1CreERT2 mouse line, we further confirm that the precursor cells within the BLA give rise to mature and functional interneurons that persist in the BLA for at least 8 weeks after their birth. Contextual fear conditioning has no effect on the number of neurospheres or BrdU-labeled cells in the BLA, but produces an increase in hippocampal cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that neurogenic precursor cells are present in the adult BLA, and generate functional interneurons, but also show that their activity is not regulated by an amygdala-dependent learning paradigm.
Cross-disorder risk gene CACNA1C differentially modulates susceptibility to psychiatric disorders during development and adulthood Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : July 11, 2 N Dedic, M L Pöhlmann, J S Richter, D Mehta, D Czamara, M W Metzger, J Dine, B T Bedenk, J Hartmann, K V Wagner, A Jurik, L M Almli, A Lori, S Moosmang, F Hofmann, C T Wotjak, G Rammes, M Eder, A Chen, K J Ressler, W Wurst, M V Schmidt, E B Binder, J M Deussing
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C, the α1C subunit of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel Cav1.2, rank among the most consistent and replicable genetics findings in psychiatry and have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. However, genetic variants of complex diseases often only confer a marginal increase in disease risk, which is additionally influenced by the environment. Here we show that embryonic deletion of Cacna1c in forebrain glutamatergic neurons promotes the manifestation of endophenotypes related to psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline, impaired synaptic plasticity, reduced sociability, hyperactivity and increased anxiety. Additional analyses revealed that depletion of Cacna1c during embryonic development also increases the susceptibility to chronic stress, which suggest that Cav1.2 interacts with the environment to shape disease vulnerability. Remarkably, this was not observed when Cacna1c was deleted in glutamatergic neurons during adulthood, where the later deletion even improved cognitive flexibility, strengthened synaptic plasticity and induced stress resilience. In a parallel gene × environment design in humans, we additionally demonstrate that SNPs in CACNA1C significantly interact with adverse life events to alter the risk to develop symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Overall, our results further validate Cacna1c as a cross-disorder risk gene in mice and humans, and additionally suggest a differential role for Cav1.2 during development and adulthood in shaping cognition, sociability, emotional behavior and stress susceptibility. This may prompt the consideration for pharmacological manipulation of Cav1.2 in neuropsychiatric disorders with developmental and/or stress-related origins.
Male-specific deficits in natural reward learning in a mouse model of neurodevelopmental disorders Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : October 17 N M Grissom, S E McKee, H Schoch, N Bowman, R Havekes, W T O'Brien, E Mahrt, S Siegel, K Commons, C Portfors, T Nickl-Jockschat, T M Reyes, T Abel
Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are highly male biased, but the underpinnings of this are unknown. Striatal dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, raising the question of whether there are sex differences in how the striatum is impacted by genetic risk factors linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report male-specific deficits in striatal function important to reward learning in a mouse model of 16p11.2 hemideletion, a genetic mutation that is strongly associated with the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We find that male, but not female, 16p11.2 deletion animals show impairments in reward-directed learning and maintaining motivation to work for rewards. Male, but not female, deletion animals overexpress mRNA for dopamine receptor 2 and adenosine receptor 2a in the striatum, markers of medium spiny neurons signaling via the indirect pathway, associated with behavioral inhibition. Both sexes show a 50% reduction of mRNA levels of the genes located within the 16p11.2 region in the striatum, including the kinase extracellular-signal related kinase 1 (ERK1). However, hemideletion males show increased activation in the striatum for ERK1, both at baseline and in response to sucrose, a signaling change associated with decreased striatal plasticity. This increase in ERK1 phosphorylation is coupled with a decrease in the abundance of the ERK phosphatase striatum-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase in hemideletion males. In contrast, females do not show activation of ERK1 in response to sucrose, but notably hemideletion females show elevated protein levels for ERK1 as well as the related kinase ERK2 over what would be predicted by mRNA levels. These data indicate profound sex differences in the impact of a genetic lesion linked with neurodevelopmental disorders, including mechanisms of male-specific vulnerability and female-specific resilience impacting intracellular signaling in the brain.
Gene deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 confers resilience to chronic social defeat stress via regulating the stability of surface AMPARs Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 18, M-X Li, H-L Zheng, Y Luo, J-G He, W Wang, J Han, L Zhang, X Wang, L Ni, H-Y Zhou, Z-L Hu, P-F Wu, Y Jin, L-H Long, H Zhang, G Hu, J-G Chen, F Wang
Both inflammatory processes and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders. However, the role of caspase-1, a classic inflammatory caspase, in behavioral responses to chronic stress remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of caspase-1 on preclinical murine models of depression. We found that loss of caspase-1 expression in Caspase-1−/− knockout mice alleviated chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors, whereas overexpression of caspase-1 in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) mice was sufficient to induce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, chronic stress reduced glutamatergic neurotransmission and decreased surface expression of glutamate receptors in hippocampal pyramidal neurons of WT mice, but not Caspase-1−/− mice. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) signaling pathway prevented the depression-like behaviors and the decrease in surface expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) in stressed WT mice. Finally, the effects of chronic stress on both depression- and anxiety-like behaviors can be mimicked by exogenous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of IL-1β in both WT and Caspase-1−/− mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that an increase in the caspase-1/IL-1β axis facilitates AMPAR internalization in the hippocampus, which dysregulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission, eventually resulting in depression-like behaviors. These results may represent an endophenotype for chronic stress-induced depression.
Diazepam actions in the VTA enhance social dominance and mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens by activation of dopamine D1 receptors Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : July 20, 2 M A van der Kooij, F Hollis, L Lozano, I Zalachoras, S Abad, O Zanoletti, J Grosse, I Guillot de Suduiraut, C Canto, C Sandi
Benzodiazepines can ameliorate social disturbances and increase social competition, particularly in high-anxious individuals. However, the neural circuits and mechanisms underlying benzodiazepines’ effects in social competition are not understood. Converging evidence points to the mesolimbic system as a potential site of action for at least some benzodiazepine-mediated effects. Furthermore, mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been causally implicated in the link between anxiety and social competitiveness. Here, we show that diazepam facilitates social dominance, ameliorating both the competitive disadvantage and low NAc mitochondrial function displayed by high-anxious rats, and identify the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a key site of action for direct diazepam effects. We also show that intra-VTA diazepam infusion increases accumbal dopamine and DOPAC, as well as activity of dopamine D1- but not D2-containing cells. In addition, intra-NAc infusion of a D1-, but not D2, receptor agonist facilitates social dominance and mitochondrial respiration. Conversely, intra-VTA diazepam actions on social dominance and NAc mitochondrial respiration are blocked by pharmacological NAc micro-infusion of a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor or an antagonist of D1 receptors. Our data support the view that diazepam disinhibits VTA dopaminergic neurons, leading to the release of dopamine into the NAc where activation of D1-signaling transiently facilitates mitochondrial function, that is, increased respiration and enhanced ATP levels, which ultimately enhances social competitive behavior. Therefore, our findings critically involve the mesolimbic system in the facilitating effects of diazepam on social competition and highlight mitochondrial function as a potential therapeutic target for anxiety-related social dysfunctions.
The nucleus reuniens: a key node in the neurocircuitry of stress and depression Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 11, V Kafetzopoulos, N Kokras, I Sotiropoulos, J F Oliveira, H Leite-Almeida, A Vasalou, V M Sardinha, Z Papadopoulou-Daifoti, O F X Almeida, K Antoniou, N Sousa, C Dalla
The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are connected in a reciprocal manner: whereas the hippocampus projects directly to the PFC, a polysynaptic pathway that passes through the nucleus reuniens (RE) of the thalamus relays inputs from the PFC to the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that lesioning and/or inactivation of the RE reduces coherence in the PFC–hippocampal pathway, provokes an antidepressant-like behavioral response in the forced swim test and prevents, but does not ameliorate, anhedonia in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Additionally, RE lesioning before CMS abrogates the well-known neuromorphological and endocrine correlates of CMS. In summary, this work highlights the importance of the reciprocal connectivity between the hippocampus and PFC in the establishment of stress-induced brain pathology and suggests a role for the RE in promoting resilience to depressive illness.
Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : May 9, 201 A Kanzari, C Bourcier-Lucas, A Freyssin, D N Abrous, N Haddjeri, G Lucas
Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats having undergone a successful LTP displayed a significant reduction of immobility when passed acutely 3 days thereafter in the forced swimming test (FST). Further, in a longitudinal paradigm using the pseudo-depressed Wistar-Kyoto rat strain, LTP elicited a decrease of FST immobility after only 2 days, whereas the AD desipramine was not effective before 16 days. In both models, the influence of LTP was transient, as it was no more observed after 8–9 days. No effects were observed on the locomotor activity or on anxiety-related behavior. Theta-burst stimulation of a brain region anatomically adjacent to the PP remained ineffective in the FST. Immunoreactivity of DG cells for phosphorylated histone H3 and doublecortin were not modified three days after LTP, indicating a lack of effect on both cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, depleting brain serotonin contents reduced the success rate of LTP but did not affect its subsequent AD-like effects. These results confirm the ‘plastic DG’ theory of rapid AD efficacy. Beyond, they point out stimulations of the entorhinal cortex, from which the PP originates, as putative new approaches in AD research.
Uncoupling DAPK1 from NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit exerts rapid antidepressant-like effects Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 25, S-X Li, Y Han, L-Z Xu, K Yuan, R-X Zhang, C-Y Sun, D-F Xu, M Yuan, J-H Deng, S-Q Meng, X-J Gao, Q Wen, L-J Liu, W-L Zhu, Y-X Xue, M Zhao, J Shi, L Lu
Several preclinical studies have reported the rapid antidepressant effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) couples GluN2B subunits at extrasynaptic sites to regulate NMDAR channel conductance. In the present study, we found that chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced extracellular glutamate accumulation, accompanied by an increase in the DAPK1–NMDAR interaction, the high expression of DAPK1 and phosphorylated GluN2B at Ser1303, a decrease in phosphorylated DAPK1 at Ser308 and synaptic protein deficits in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CUS also enhanced GluN2B-mediated NMDA currents and extrasynaptic responses that were induced by bursts of high-frequency stimulation, which may be associated with the loss of astrocytes and low expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). The blockade of GLT-1 in the mPFC was sufficient to induce depressive-like behavior and cause similar molecular changes. Selective GluN2B antagonist, DAPK1 knockdown by adeno-associated virus-mediated short-hairpin RNA or a pharmacological inhibitor, and the uncoupling of DAPK1 from the NMDAR GluN2B subunit produced rapid antidepressant-like effects and reversed CUS-induced alterations in the mPFC. The inhibition of DAPK1 and its interaction with GluN2B subunit in the mPFC also rescued CUS-induced depressive-like behavior 7 days after treatment. A selective GluN2B antagonist did not have rewarding effects in the conditioned place preference paradigm. Altogether, our findings suggest that the DAPK1 interaction with the NMDAR GluN2B subunit acts as a critical component in the pathophysiology of depression and is a potential target for new antidepressant treatments.
Genetic contributions to self-reported tiredness Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : February 1 V Deary, S P Hagenaars, S E Harris, W D Hill, G Davies, D C M Liewald, A M McIntosh, C R Gale, I J Deary
Self-reported tiredness and low energy, often called fatigue, are associated with poorer physical and mental health. Twin studies have indicated that this has a heritability between 6 and 50%. In the UK Biobank sample (N=108 976), we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of responses to the question, ‘Over the last two weeks, how often have you felt tired or had little energy?’ Univariate GCTA-GREML found that the proportion of variance explained by all common single-nucleotide polymorphisms for this tiredness question was 8.4% (s.e.=0.6%). GWAS identified one genome-wide significant hit (Affymetrix id 1:64178756_C_T; P=1.36 × 10−11). Linkage disequilibrium score regression and polygenic profile score analyses were used to test for shared genetic aetiology between tiredness and up to 29 physical and mental health traits from GWAS consortia. Significant genetic correlations were identified between tiredness and body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, forced expiratory volume, grip strength, HbA1c, longevity, obesity, self-rated health, smoking status, triglycerides, type 2 diabetes, waist–hip ratio, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, neuroticism, schizophrenia and verbal-numerical reasoning (absolute rg effect sizes between 0.02 and 0.78). Significant associations were identified between tiredness phenotypic scores and polygenic profile scores for BMI, HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, coronary artery disease, C-reactive protein, HbA1c, height, obesity, smoking status, triglycerides, type 2 diabetes, waist–hip ratio, childhood cognitive ability, neuroticism, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia (standardised β’s had absolute values<0.03). These results suggest that tiredness is a partly heritable, heterogeneous and complex phenomenon that is phenotypically and genetically associated with affective, cognitive, personality and physiological processes.
The Arf6 activator Efa6/PSD3 confers regional specificity and modulates ethanol consumption in Drosophila and humans Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : June 13, 2 D A Gonzalez, T Jia, J H Pinzón, S F Acevedo, S A Ojelade, B Xu, N Tay, S Desrivières, J L Hernandez, T Banaschewski, C Büchel, A L W Bokde, P J Conrod, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, P A Gowland, A Heinz, B Ittermann, M Lathrop, J-L Martinot, T Paus, M N Smolka, A R Rodan, G Schumann, A Rothenfluh
Ubiquitously expressed genes have been implicated in a variety of specific behaviors, including responses to ethanol. However, the mechanisms that confer this behavioral specificity have remained elusive. Previously, we showed that the ubiquitously expressed small GTPase Arf6 is required for normal ethanol-induced sedation in adult Drosophila. Here, we show that this behavioral response also requires Efa6, one of (at least) three Drosophila Arf6 guanine exchange factors. Ethanol-naive Arf6 and Efa6 mutants were sensitive to ethanol-induced sedation and lacked rapid tolerance upon re-exposure to ethanol, when compared with wild-type flies. In contrast to wild-type flies, both Arf6 and Efa6 mutants preferred alcohol-containing food without prior ethanol experience. An analysis of the human ortholog of Arf6 and orthologs of Efa6 (PSD1-4) revealed that the minor G allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13265422 in PSD3, as well as a haplotype containing rs13265422, was associated with an increased frequency of drinking and binge drinking episodes in adolescents. The same haplotype was also associated with increased alcohol dependence in an independent European cohort. Unlike the ubiquitously expressed human Arf6 GTPase, PSD3 localization is restricted to the brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the same PSD3 haplotype was also associated with a differential functional magnetic resonance imaging signal in the PFC during a Go/No-Go task, which engages PFC-mediated executive control. Our translational analysis, therefore, suggests that PSD3 confers regional specificity to ubiquitous Arf6 in the PFC to modulate human alcohol-drinking behaviors.
A synthetic small-molecule Isoxazole-9 protects against methamphetamine relapse Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 28, M H Galinato, J W Lockner, M J Fannon-Pavlich, J C Sobieraj, M C Staples, S S Somkuwar, A Ghofranian, S Chaing, A I Navarro, A Joea, B W Luikart, K D Janda, C Heyser, G F Koob, C D Mandyam
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) is strongly influenced by drug-taking behavior and may have a role in the etiology of drug-seeking behavior. However, mechanistic studies on the relationship of neurogenesis on drug seeking are limited. Outbred Wistar rats experienced extended access methamphetamine self-administration and individual differences in drug taking defined animals with higher preferred and lower preferred levels of drug intake. Forced abstinence from higher preferred levels of drug taking enhanced neurogenesis and neuronal activation of granule cell neurons (GCNs) in the DG and produced compulsive-like drug reinstatement. Systemic treatment with the drug Isoxazole-9 (a synthetic small molecule known to modulate neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain) during abstinence blocked compulsive-like context-driven methamphetamine reinstatement. Isoxazole-9 modulated neurogenesis, neuronal activation and structural plasticity of GCNs, and expression of synaptic proteins associated with learning and memory in the DG. These findings identify a subset of newly born GCNs within the DG that could directly contribute to drug-seeking behavior. Taken together, these results support a direct role for the importance of adult neurogenesis during abstinence in compulsive-like drug reinstatement.
A genome-wide association study identifies two novel susceptibility loci and trans population polygenicity associated with bipolar disorder Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : January 24 M Ikeda, A Takahashi, Y Kamatani, Y Okahisa, H Kunugi, N Mori, T Sasaki, T Ohmori, Y Okamoto, H Kawasaki, S Shimodera, T Kato, H Yoneda, R Yoshimura, M Iyo, K Matsuda, M Akiyama, K Ashikawa, K Kashiwase, K Tokunaga, K Kondo, T Saito, A Shimasaki, K Kawase, T Kitajima, K Matsuo, M Itokawa, T Someya, T Inada, R Hashimoto, T Inoue, K Akiyama, H Tanii, H Arai, S Kanba, N Ozaki, I Kusumi, T Yoshikawa, M Kubo, N Iwata
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder (BD) and shown that the genetic architecture of BD can be explained by polygenicity, with numerous variants contributing to BD. In the present GWAS (Phase I/II), which included 2964 BD and 61 887 control subjects from the Japanese population, we detected a novel susceptibility locus at 11q12.2 (rs28456, P=6.4 × 10−9), a region known to contain regulatory genes for plasma lipid levels (FADS1/2/3). A subsequent meta-analysis of Phase I/II and the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium for BD (PGC-BD) identified another novel BD gene, NFIX (Pbest=5.8 × 10−10), and supported three regions previously implicated in BD susceptibility: MAD1L1 (Pbest=1.9 × 10−9), TRANK1 (Pbest=2.1 × 10−9) and ODZ4 (Pbest=3.3 × 10−9). Polygenicity of BD within Japanese and trans-European-Japanese populations was assessed with risk profile score analysis. We detected higher scores in BD cases both within (Phase I/II) and across populations (Phase I/II and PGC-BD). These were defined by (1) Phase II as discovery and Phase I as target, or vice versa (for ‘within Japanese comparisons’, Pbest~10−29, R2~2%), and (2) European PGC-BD as discovery and Japanese BD (Phase I/II) as target (for ‘trans-European-Japanese comparison,’ Pbest~10−13, R2~0.27%). This ‘trans population’ effect was supported by estimation of the genetic correlation using the effect size based on each population (liability estimates~0.7). These results indicate that (1) two novel and three previously implicated loci are significantly associated with BD and that (2) BD ‘risk’ effect are shared between Japanese and European populations.
NRSF-dependent epigenetic mechanisms contribute to programming of stress-sensitive neurons by neonatal experience, promoting resilience Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : January 10 A Singh-Taylor, J Molet, S Jiang, A Korosi, J L Bolton, Y Noam, K Simeone, J Cope, Y Chen, A Mortazavi, T Z Baram
Resilience to stress-related emotional disorders is governed in part by early-life experiences. Here we demonstrate experience-dependent re-programming of stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons, which takes place through modification of neuronal gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Specifically, we found that augmented maternal care reduced glutamatergic synapses onto stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons and repressed expression of the stress-responsive gene, Crh. In hypothalamus in vitro, reduced glutamatergic neurotransmission recapitulated the repressive effects of augmented maternal care on Crh, and this required recruitment of the transcriptional repressor repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF). Increased NRSF binding to chromatin was accompanied by sequential repressive epigenetic changes which outlasted NRSF binding. chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analyses of NRSF targets identified gene networks that, in addition to Crh, likely contributed to the augmented care-induced phenotype, including diminished depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors. Together, we believe these findings provide the first causal link between enriched neonatal experience, synaptic refinement and induction of epigenetic processes within specific neurons. They uncover a novel mechanistic pathway from neonatal environment to emotional resilience.
Estrogen-dependent association of HDAC4 with fear in female mice and women with PTSD Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : January 17 S A Maddox, V Kilaru, J Shin, T Jovanovic, L M Almli, B G Dias, S D Norrholm, N Fani, V Michopoulos, Z Ding, K N Conneely, E B Binder, K J Ressler, A K Smith
Women are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event. Recent studies suggest that this may be mediated, in part, by circulating estrogen levels. This study evaluated the hypothesis that individual variation in response to estrogen levels contributes to fear regulation and PTSD risk in women. We evaluated DNA methylation from blood of female participants in the Grady Trauma Project and found that serum estradiol levels associates with DNA methylation across the genome. For genes expressed in blood, we examined the association between each CpG site and PTSD diagnosis using linear models that adjusted for cell proportions and age. After multiple test correction, PTSD associated with methylation of CpG sites in the HDAC4 gene, which encodes histone deacetylase 4, and is involved in long-term memory formation and behavior. DNA methylation of HDAC4 CpG sites were tagged by a nearby single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs7570903), which also associated with HDAC4 expression, fear-potentiated startle and resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in traumatized humans. Using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in a rodent model, we examined the regulation of Hdac4 in the amygdala of ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. Hdac4 messenger RNA levels were higher in the amygdala 2 h after tone-shock presentations, compared with OVX-homecage control females. In naturally cycling females, tone-shock presentations increased Hdac4 expression relative to homecage controls for metestrous (low estrogen) but not the proestrous (high estrogen) group. Together, these results support an estrogenic influence of HDAC4 regulation and expression that may contribute to PTSD in women.
Largest GWAS of PTSD (N=20 070) yields genetic overlap with schizophrenia and sex differences in heritability Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : April 25, L E Duncan, A Ratanatharathorn, A E Aiello, L M Almli, A B Amstadter, A E Ashley-Koch, D G Baker, J C Beckham, L J Bierut, J Bisson, B Bradley, C-Y Chen, S Dalvie, L A Farrer, S Galea, M E Garrett, J E Gelernter, G Guffanti, M A Hauser, E O Johnson, R C Kessler, N A Kimbrel, A King, N Koen, H R Kranzler, M W Logue, A X Maihofer, A R Martin, M W Miller, R A Morey, N R Nugent, J P Rice, S Ripke, A L Roberts, N L Saccone, J W Smoller, D J Stein, M B Stein, J A Sumner, M Uddin, R J Ursano, D E Wildman, R Yehuda, H Zhao, M J Daly, I Liberzon, K J Ressler, C M Nievergelt, K C Koenen
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder group (PGC-PTSD) combined genome-wide case–control molecular genetic data across 11 multiethnic studies to quantify PTSD heritability, to examine potential shared genetic risk with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder and to identify risk loci for PTSD. Examining 20 730 individuals, we report a molecular genetics-based heritability estimate (h2SNP) for European-American females of 29% that is similar to h2SNP for schizophrenia and is substantially higher than h2SNP in European-American males (estimate not distinguishable from zero). We found strong evidence of overlapping genetic risk between PTSD and schizophrenia along with more modest evidence of overlap with bipolar and major depressive disorder. No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeded genome-wide significance in the transethnic (overall) meta-analysis and we do not replicate previously reported associations. Still, SNP-level summary statistics made available here afford the best-available molecular genetic index of PTSD—for both European- and African-American individuals—and can be used in polygenic risk prediction and genetic correlation studies of diverse phenotypes. Publication of summary statistics for ∼10 000 African Americans contributes to the broader goal of increased ancestral diversity in genomic data resources. In sum, the results demonstrate genetic influences on the development of PTSD, identify shared genetic risk between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and highlight the importance of multiethnic/racial samples. As has been the case with schizophrenia and other complex genetic disorders, larger sample sizes are needed to identify specific risk loci.
Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the emergency department: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 28, L Iyadurai, S E Blackwell, R Meiser-Stedman, P C Watson, M B Bonsall, J R Geddes, A C Nobre, E A Holmes
After psychological trauma, recurrent intrusive visual memories may be distressing and disruptive. Preventive interventions post trauma are lacking. Here we test a behavioural intervention after real-life trauma derived from cognitive neuroscience. We hypothesized that intrusive memories would be significantly reduced in number by an intervention involving a computer game with high visuospatial demands (Tetris), via disrupting consolidation of sensory elements of trauma memory. The Tetris-based intervention (trauma memory reminder cue plus c. 20 min game play) vs attention-placebo control (written activity log for same duration) were both delivered in an emergency department within 6 h of a motor vehicle accident. The randomized controlled trial compared the impact on the number of intrusive trauma memories in the subsequent week (primary outcome). Results vindicated the efficacy of the Tetris-based intervention compared with the control condition: there were fewer intrusive memories overall, and time-series analyses showed that intrusion incidence declined more quickly. There were convergent findings on a measure of clinical post-trauma intrusion symptoms at 1 week, but not on other symptom clusters or at 1 month. Results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that a larger trial, powered to detect differences at 1 month, is warranted. Participants found the intervention easy, helpful and minimally distressing. By translating emerging neuroscientific insights and experimental research into the real world, we offer a promising new low-intensity psychiatric intervention that could prevent debilitating intrusive memories following trauma.
Neuroanatomic, epigenetic and genetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : March 21, Y-C Chen, G Sudre, W Sharp, F Donovan, S C Chandrasekharappa, N Hansen, L Elnitski, P Shaw
The study of monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can elucidate mechanisms that contribute to the disorder, which affects ~7% of children. First, using in vivo neuroanatomic imaging on 14 pairs of monozygotic twins (mean age 9.7, s.d. 1.9 years), we found that discordance for the disorder is mirrored by differing dimensions of deep brain structures (the striatum and cerebellum), but not the cerebral cortex. Next, using whole-blood DNA from the same twins, we found a significant enrichment of epigenetic differences in genes expressed in these ‘discordant’ brain structures. Specifically, there is differential methylation of probes lying in the shore and shelf and enhancer regions of striatal and cerebellar genes. Notably, gene sets pertaining to the cerebral cortex (which did not differ in volume between affected and unaffected twins) were not enriched by differentially methylated probes. Genotypic differences between the twin pairs—such as copy number and rare, single-nucleotide variants—did not contribute to phenotypic discordance. Pathway analyses of the genes implicated by the most differentially methylated probes implicated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems. The study illustrates how neuroimaging can help guide the search for epigenomic mechanisms in neurodevelopmental disorders.
GluD1, linked to schizophrenia, controls the burst firing of dopamine neurons Mol. Psychiatry (IF 13.204) Pub Date : July 11, 2 N Benamer, F Marti, R Lujan, R Hepp, T G Aubier, A A M Dupin, G Frébourg, S Pons, U Maskos, P Faure, Y A Hay, B Lambolez, L Tricoire
Human mutations of the GRID1 gene encoding the orphan delta1 glutamate receptor-channel (GluD1) are associated with schizophrenia but the explicit role of GluD1 in brain circuits is unknown. Based on the known function of its paralog GluD2 in cerebellum, we searched for a role of GluD1 in slow glutamatergic transmission mediated by metabotropic receptor mGlu1 in midbrain dopamine neurons, whose dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia. We found that an mGlu1 agonist elicits a slow depolarizing current in HEK cells co-expressing mGlu1 and GluD1, but not in cells expressing mGlu1 or GluD1 alone. This current is abolished by additional co-expression of a dominant-negative GluD1 dead pore mutant. We then characterized mGlu1-dependent currents in dopamine neurons from midbrain slices. Both the agonist-evoked and the slow postsynaptic currents are abolished by expression of the dominant-negative GluD1 mutant, pointing to the involvement of native GluD1 channels in these currents. Likewise, both mGlu1-dependent currents are suppressed in GRID1 knockout mice, which reportedly display endophenotypes relevant for schizophrenia. It is known that mGlu1 activation triggers the transition from tonic to burst firing of dopamine neurons, which signals salient stimuli and encodes reward prediction. In vivo recordings of dopamine neurons showed that their spontaneous burst firing is abolished in GRID1 knockout mice or upon targeted expression of the dominant-negative GluD1 mutant in wild-type mice. Our results de-orphanize GluD1, unravel its key role in slow glutamatergic transmission and provide insights into how GRID1 gene alterations can lead to dopaminergic dysfunctions in schizophrenia.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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