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  • Achievements and obstacles of remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Martin Stangel, Tanja Kuhlmann, Paul M. Matthews, Trevor J. Kilpatrick

    Achievements and obstacles of remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis Achievements and obstacles of remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.139 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Inadequate remyelination is central to degeneration and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, all currently approved therapies for MS are primarily immunomodulatory. Here, Martin Stangel and colleagues review our current knowledge of remyelination in MS, discuss results from clinical trials of remyelination-enhancing therapies, and evaluate the opportunities for future regenerative treatments. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Migrainomics — identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Dale R. Nyholt, David Borsook, Lyn R. Griffiths

    Migrainomics — identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine Migrainomics — identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.151 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= The causes of migraine remain unknown despite the high prevalence and societal burden of this disorder. Here, the authors highlight how advances in imaging and genetic studies of migraine provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of this disorder; furthermore, they discuss the potential for genetic and imaging biomarkers to improve our ability to prevent and treat migraine attacks. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Multiple sclerosis: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Ralf Gold

    Multiple sclerosis: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification Multiple sclerosis: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.161 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= A compelling need exists for a more reliable risk evaluation of natalizumab- associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). A new report proposes a refined protocol that uses updated patient-based data and cumulative risk evaluation to provide an improved assessment of the annual risk of PML for patients positive for JC virus. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Motor neuron disease: Positive trial results published for ground-breaking SMA therapies
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Charlotte Ridler

    Motor neuron disease: Positive trial results published for ground-breaking SMA therapies Motor neuron disease: Positive trial results published for ground-breaking SMA therapies, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.163

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Alzheimer disease: Blood-derived Aβ induces AD pathology
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Shimona Starling

    Alzheimer disease: Blood-derived Aβ induces AD pathology Alzheimer disease: Blood-derived Aβ induces AD pathology, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.164

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Achievements and obstacles of remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Martin Stangel, Tanja Kuhlmann, Paul M. Matthews, Trevor J. Kilpatrick

    Achievements and obstacles of remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis Achievements and obstacles of remyelinating therapies in multiple sclerosis, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.139 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= Inadequate remyelination is central to degeneration and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, all currently approved therapies for MS are primarily immunomodulatory. Here, Martin Stangel and colleagues review our current knowledge of remyelination in MS, discuss results from clinical trials of remyelination-enhancing therapies, and evaluate the opportunities for future regenerative treatments. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Migrainomics — identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Dale R. Nyholt, David Borsook, Lyn R. Griffiths

    Migrainomics — identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine Migrainomics — identifying brain and genetic markers of migraine, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.151 NatureArticleSnippet(type=short-summary, markup= The causes of migraine remain unknown despite the high prevalence and societal burden of this disorder. Here, the authors highlight how advances in imaging and genetic studies of migraine provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of this disorder; furthermore, they discuss the potential for genetic and imaging biomarkers to improve our ability to prevent and treat migraine attacks. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Multiple sclerosis: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Ralf Gold

    Multiple sclerosis: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification Multiple sclerosis: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk stratification, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.161 NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup= A compelling need exists for a more reliable risk evaluation of natalizumab- associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). A new report proposes a refined protocol that uses updated patient-based data and cumulative risk evaluation to provide an improved assessment of the annual risk of PML for patients positive for JC virus. , isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Motor neuron disease: Positive trial results published for ground-breaking SMA therapies
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Charlotte Ridler

    Motor neuron disease: Positive trial results published for ground-breaking SMA therapies Motor neuron disease: Positive trial results published for ground-breaking SMA therapies, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.163

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Alzheimer disease: Blood-derived Aβ induces AD pathology
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-17
    Shimona Starling

    Alzheimer disease: Blood-derived Aβ induces AD pathology Alzheimer disease: Blood-derived Aβ induces AD pathology, Published online: 17 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.164

    更新日期:2017-11-17
  • Parkinson disease: What goes around comes around: cognitive impairment as prodromal parkinsonism?
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Yaroslau Compta, Maria J. Martí

    Parkinson disease: What goes around comes around: cognitive impairment as prodromal parkinsonism?Parkinson disease: What goes around comes around: cognitive impairment as prodromal parkinsonism?, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.159NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Patients with prodromal Parkinson disease (PD) are most likely to respond to disease-modifying strategies. To date, cognitive impairment has been viewed as a complication of late-stage disease, but a longitudinal analysis of data from the Rotterdam cohort raises the possibility that such impairments are also associated with prodromal PD., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Alzheimer disease: PINK1 rescues pathology in Alzheimer disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Shimona Starling

    Alzheimer disease: PINK1 rescues pathology in Alzheimer diseaseAlzheimer disease: PINK1 rescues pathology in Alzheimer disease, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.160

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Parkinson disease: What goes around comes around: cognitive impairment as prodromal parkinsonism?
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Yaroslau Compta, Maria J. Martí

    Parkinson disease: What goes around comes around: cognitive impairment as prodromal parkinsonism?Parkinson disease: What goes around comes around: cognitive impairment as prodromal parkinsonism?, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.159NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Patients with prodromal Parkinson disease (PD) are most likely to respond to disease-modifying strategies. To date, cognitive impairment has been viewed as a complication of late-stage disease, but a longitudinal analysis of data from the Rotterdam cohort raises the possibility that such impairments are also associated with prodromal PD., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Alzheimer disease: PINK1 rescues pathology in Alzheimer disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Shimona Starling

    Alzheimer disease: PINK1 rescues pathology in Alzheimer diseaseAlzheimer disease: PINK1 rescues pathology in Alzheimer disease, Published online: 10 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.160

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Inflammatory CNS disease caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors: status and perspectives
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Lidia M. Yshii, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Roland S. Liblau

    Cancer treatment strategies based on immune stimulation have recently entered the clinical arena, with unprecedented success. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work by indiscriminately promoting immune responses, which target tumour-associated antigens or tumour-specific mutations. However, the augmented immune response, most notably the T cell response, can cause either direct neurotoxicity or, more commonly, indirect neurotoxic effects through systemic or local inflammatory mechanisms or autoimmune mechanisms. Consequently, patients treated with ICIs are susceptible to CNS disease, including paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis and hypophysitis. In this Opinion article, we introduce the mechanisms of action of ICIs and review their adverse effects on the CNS. We highlight the importance of early detection of these neurotoxic effects, which should be distinguished from brain metastasis, and the need for early detection of neurotoxicity. It is crucial that physicians are well informed of these neurological adverse effects, given the anticipated increase in the use of immunotherapies to treat cancer.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • A unifying motor control framework for task-specific dystonia
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Anna Sadnicka, Katja Kornysheva, John C. Rothwell, Mark J. Edwards

    Task-specific dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by a painless loss of dexterity specific to a particular motor skill. This disorder is prevalent among writers, musicians, dancers and athletes. No current treatment is predictably effective, and the disorder generally ends the careers of affected individuals. Traditional disease models of dystonia have a number of limitations with regard to task-specific dystonia. We therefore discuss emerging evidence that the disorder has its origins within normal compensatory mechanisms of a healthy motor system in which the representation and reproduction of motor skill are disrupted. We describe how risk factors for task-specific dystonia can be stratified and translated into mechanisms of dysfunctional motor control. The proposed model aims to define new directions for experimental research and stimulate therapeutic advances for this highly disabling disorder.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Alzheimer disease: Is p-tau the missing link between insulin resistance and AD?
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Heather Wood

    Alzheimer disease: Is p-tau the missing link between insulin resistance and AD?Alzheimer disease: Is p-tau the missing link between insulin resistance and AD?, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.158

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Inflammatory CNS disease caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors: status and perspectives
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Lidia M. Yshii, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Roland S. Liblau

    Cancer treatment strategies based on immune stimulation have recently entered the clinical arena, with unprecedented success. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work by indiscriminately promoting immune responses, which target tumour-associated antigens or tumour-specific mutations. However, the augmented immune response, most notably the T cell response, can cause either direct neurotoxicity or, more commonly, indirect neurotoxic effects through systemic or local inflammatory mechanisms or autoimmune mechanisms. Consequently, patients treated with ICIs are susceptible to CNS disease, including paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis and hypophysitis. In this Opinion article, we introduce the mechanisms of action of ICIs and review their adverse effects on the CNS. We highlight the importance of early detection of these neurotoxic effects, which should be distinguished from brain metastasis, and the need for early detection of neurotoxicity. It is crucial that physicians are well informed of these neurological adverse effects, given the anticipated increase in the use of immunotherapies to treat cancer.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • A unifying motor control framework for task-specific dystonia
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Anna Sadnicka, Katja Kornysheva, John C. Rothwell, Mark J. Edwards

    Task-specific dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by a painless loss of dexterity specific to a particular motor skill. This disorder is prevalent among writers, musicians, dancers and athletes. No current treatment is predictably effective, and the disorder generally ends the careers of affected individuals. Traditional disease models of dystonia have a number of limitations with regard to task-specific dystonia. We therefore discuss emerging evidence that the disorder has its origins within normal compensatory mechanisms of a healthy motor system in which the representation and reproduction of motor skill are disrupted. We describe how risk factors for task-specific dystonia can be stratified and translated into mechanisms of dysfunctional motor control. The proposed model aims to define new directions for experimental research and stimulate therapeutic advances for this highly disabling disorder.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Alzheimer disease: Is p-tau the missing link between insulin resistance and AD?
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Heather Wood

    Alzheimer disease: Is p-tau the missing link between insulin resistance and AD?Alzheimer disease: Is p-tau the missing link between insulin resistance and AD?, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.158

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders: Miniaturized protein offers treatment hopes for Rett syndrome
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Charlotte Ridler

    Neurodevelopmental disorders: Miniaturized protein offers treatment hopes for Rett syndrome Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 27 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.156

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Neuromuscular disease: Tadalafil fails to halt the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Heather Wood

    Neuromuscular disease: Tadalafil fails to halt the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.153

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Parkinson disease: Caffeine and nicotine do not provide symptomatic relief in Parkinson disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Heather Wood

    Parkinson disease: Caffeine and nicotine do not provide symptomatic relief in Parkinson disease Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.155

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Neurometabolic disease: Gene therapy success for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Charlotte Ridler

    Neurometabolic disease: Gene therapy success for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.152

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Movement disorders: Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 38 benefit from DHA supplementation
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Heather Wood

    Movement disorders: Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 38 benefit from DHA supplementation Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.154

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders: Miniaturized protein offers treatment hopes for Rett syndrome
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Charlotte Ridler

    Neurodevelopmental disorders: Miniaturized protein offers treatment hopes for Rett syndrome Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 27 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.156

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Neuromuscular disease: Tadalafil fails to halt the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Heather Wood

    Neuromuscular disease: Tadalafil fails to halt the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.153

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Parkinson disease: Caffeine and nicotine do not provide symptomatic relief in Parkinson disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Heather Wood

    Parkinson disease: Caffeine and nicotine do not provide symptomatic relief in Parkinson disease Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.155

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Neurometabolic disease: Gene therapy success for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Charlotte Ridler

    Neurometabolic disease: Gene therapy success for cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.152

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Movement disorders: Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 38 benefit from DHA supplementation
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Heather Wood

    Movement disorders: Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 38 benefit from DHA supplementation Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.154

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Motor neuron disease: Peripheral immune cell levels correlate with disease progression in ALS
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Peter Sidaway

    Motor neuron disease: Peripheral immune cell levels correlate with disease progression in ALS Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.149

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Stroke: Patients with CVT urgently need high-quality evidence
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Nicoletta Riva, Alessandro Squizzato

    Stroke: Patients with CVT urgently need high-quality evidence Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.143 In recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis, the European Stroke Organization has applied a rigorous evidence-based methodology, following the GRADE system. However, the guidelines provide many weak recommendations, reflecting the fact that more high-quality evidence from multicentre observational and experimental studies is needed.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • A systemic view of Alzheimer disease — insights from amyloid-β metabolism beyond the brain
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Jun Wang, Ben J. Gu, Colin L. Masters, Yan-Jiang Wang

    A systemic view of Alzheimer disease — insights from amyloid-β metabolism beyond the brain Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.147

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Stroke: Patients with CVT urgently need high-quality evidence
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Nicoletta Riva, Alessandro Squizzato

    Stroke: Patients with CVT urgently need high-quality evidence Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.143 In recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis, the European Stroke Organization has applied a rigorous evidence-based methodology, following the GRADE system. However, the guidelines provide many weak recommendations, reflecting the fact that more high-quality evidence from multicentre observational and experimental studies is needed.

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • A systemic view of Alzheimer disease — insights from amyloid-β metabolism beyond the brain
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Jun Wang, Ben J. Gu, Colin L. Masters, Yan-Jiang Wang

    A systemic view of Alzheimer disease — insights from amyloid-β metabolism beyond the brain Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.147

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • Motor neuron disease: Peripheral immune cell levels correlate with disease progression in ALS
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Peter Sidaway

    Motor neuron disease: Peripheral immune cell levels correlate with disease progression in ALS Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.149

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • Long-term effects of exercise and physical therapy in people with Parkinson disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Margaret K. Mak, Irene S. Wong-Yu, Xia Shen, Chloe L. Chung

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative movement disorder with symptoms reflecting various impairments and functional limitations, such as postural instability, gait disturbance, immobility and falls. In addition to pharmacological and surgical management of PD, exercise and physical therapy interventions are also being actively researched. This Review provides an overview of the effects of PD on physical activity — including muscle weakness, reduced aerobic capacity, gait impairment, balance disorders and falls. Previously published reviews have discussed only the short-term benefits of exercises and physical therapy for people with PD. However, owing to the progressive nature of PD, the present Review focuses on the long-term effects of such interventions. We also discuss exercise-induced neuroplasticity, present data on the possible risks and adverse effects of exercise training, make recommendations for clinical practice, and describe new treatment approaches. Evidence suggests that a minimum of 4 weeks of gait training or 8 weeks of balance training can have positive effects that persist for 3–12 months after treatment completion. Sustained strength training, aerobic training, tai chi or dance therapy lasting at least 12 weeks can produce long-term beneficial effects. Further studies are needed to verify disease-modifying effects of these interventions.

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • Dementia: Dementia prevention — a call for contextualized evidence
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Louise Lafortune, Carol Brayne

    Dementia: Dementia prevention — a call for contextualized evidence Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.150

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • Fatigue as a symptom or comorbidity of neurological diseases
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Iris-Katharina Penner, Friedemann Paul

    Fatigue, best described as an overwhelming feeling of tiredness and exhaustion, occurs in the context of various neurological diseases. The high prevalence of fatigue as either a symptom or a comorbidity of neurological disease must be taken seriously, as fatigue interferes with patients' activities of daily living, has a remarkable negative impact on quality of life, and is a major reason for early retirement. The tremendous consequences of fatigue are consistent across neurological diseases, as is the uncertainty concerning its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Inconsistencies in defining fatigue contribute to the present situation, in which fatigue represents one of the least-studied and least- understood conditions. Tools for assessing fatigue abound, but few can be recommended for clinical or research use. To make matters worse, evidence-based pharmacological treatment options are scarce. However, non-pharmacological approaches are currently promising and likely to become of increasing importance. In sum, fatigue is challenging for both health-care professionals and patients. The present article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature on fatigue in neurological disease, and to reveal its complexity, as well as weaknesses in the concept of fatigue itself.

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • PET imaging of the neurovascular interface in cerebrovascular disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Nicholas R. Evans, Jason M. Tarkin, John R. Buscombe, Hugh S. Markus, James H. F. Rudd, Elizabeth A. Warburton

    Cerebrovascular disease encompasses a range of pathologies that affect different components of the cerebral vasculature and brain parenchyma. Large artery atherosclerosis, acute cerebral ischaemia, and intracerebral small vessel disease all demonstrate altered metabolic processes that are key to their pathogenesis. Although structural imaging techniques such as MRI are the mainstay of clinical care and research in cerebrovascular disease, they have limited ability to detect these pathophysiological processes in vivo. By contrast, PET can detect and quantify metabolic processes that are relevant to each facet of cerebrovascular disease. Information obtained from PET studies has helped to shape the understanding of key concepts in cerebrovascular medicine, including vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, salvageable ischaemic penumbra, neuroinflammation and selective neuronal loss after ischaemic insult. PET has also helped to elucidate the relationships between chronic hypoxia, neuroinflammation, and amyloid-β deposition in cerebral small vessel disease. This Review describes how PET-based imaging of metabolic processes at the neurovascular interface has contributed to our understanding of cerebrovascular disease.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Human models of migraine — short-term pain for long-term gain
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Messoud Ashina, Jakob Møller Hansen, Bára Oladóttir á Dunga, Jes Olesen

    Migraine is a complex disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache, and is one of the most prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. A key feature of migraine is that various factors can trigger an attack, and this phenomenon provides a unique opportunity to investigate disease mechanisms by experimentally inducing migraine attacks. In this Review, we summarize the existing experimental models of migraine in humans, including those that exploit nitric oxide, histamine, neuropeptide and prostaglandin signalling. We describe the development and use of these models in the discovery of molecular pathways that are responsible for initiation of migraine attacks. Combining experimental human models with advanced imaging techniques might help to identify biomarkers of migraine, and in the ongoing search for new and better migraine treatments, human models will have a key role in the discovery of future targets for more-specific and more-effective mechanism-based antimigraine drugs.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Alzheimer disease: ApoE4 implicated in tau-mediated neurodegeneration
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Heather Wood

    Alzheimer disease: ApoE4 implicated in tau-mediated neurodegeneration Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.145

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Stroke: Tau — a new target in acute brain ischaemia
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Peter Sidaway

    Stroke: Tau — a new target in acute brain ischaemia Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 29 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.141

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • A systemic view of Alzheimer disease — insights from amyloid-β metabolism beyond the brain
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Jun Wang, Ben J. Gu, Colin L. Masters, Yan-Jiang Wang

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, and is currently incurable; existing treatments for AD produce only a modest amelioration of symptoms. Research into this disease has conventionally focused on the CNS. However, several peripheral and systemic abnormalities are now understood to be linked to AD, and our understanding of how these alterations contribute to AD is becoming more clearly defined. This Review focuses on amyloid-β (Aβ), a major hallmark of AD. We review emerging findings of associations between systemic abnormalities and Aβ metabolism, and describe how these associations might interact with or reflect on the central pathways of Aβ production and clearance. On the basis of these findings, we propose that these abnormal systemic changes might not only develop secondary to brain dysfunction but might also affect AD progression, suggesting that the interactions between the brain and the periphery have a crucial role in the development and progression of AD. Such a systemic view of the molecular pathogenesis of AD could provide a novel perspective for understanding this disease and present new opportunities for its early diagnosis and treatment.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Genome engineering: a new approach to gene therapy for neuromuscular disorders
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Christopher E. Nelson, Jacqueline N. Robinson-Hamm, Charles A. Gersbach

    For many neuromuscular disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy and myotonic dystrophy, the genetic causes are well known. Gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of these monogenic neuromuscular diseases, and many such therapies have made substantial strides toward clinical translation. Recently, genome engineering tools, including targeted gene editing and gene regulation, have become available to correct the underlying genetic mutations that cause these diseases. In particular, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, TALENs, and the CRISPR–Cas9 system have been harnessed to make targeted and specific modifications to the genome. However, for most gene therapy applications, including genome engineering, gene delivery remains the primary hurdle to clinical translation. In preclinical models, genome engineering tools have been delivered via gene-modified cells or by non-viral or viral vectors to correct a diverse array of genetic diseases. In light of the positive results of these studies, genome engineering therapies are being enthusiastically explored for several genetic neuromuscular disorders. This Review summarizes the genome engineering strategies that are currently under preclinical evaluation for the treatment of degenerative neuromuscular disorders, with a focus on the molecular tools that show the greatest potential for clinical translation of these therapies.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Parkinson disease: Exenatide – a drug for diabetes and Parkinson disease?
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Joseph Jankovic

    Parkinson disease: Exenatide – a drug for diabetes and Parkinson disease? Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 29 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.140 Preventing the misfolding, aggregation, accumulation and propagation of α-synuclein — pivotal mechanisms that contribute to neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies — is the ultimate goal of research into neuroprotective therapy. Now, exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, has been reported to ameliorate the severity of motor symptoms associated with PD.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Multiple sclerosis: A possible link between multiple sclerosis and gut microbiota
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Jordan Hindson

    Multiple sclerosis: A possible link between multiple sclerosis and gut microbiota Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 29 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.142

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Neuro-oncology: A new role for Zika virus in glioblastoma therapy?
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Heather Wood

    Neuro-oncology: A new role for Zika virus in glioblastoma therapy? Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 22 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.138

    更新日期:2017-09-22
  • Neural repair and rehabilitation: Prolonged neural stem cell maturation restores motor function in spinal cord-lesioned rats
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Mitesh Patel

    Neural repair and rehabilitation: Prolonged neural stem cell maturation restores motor function in spinal cord-lesioned rats Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.133

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Multiple sclerosis: Concussion during adolescence linked to increased risk of MS
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Peter Sidaway

    Multiple sclerosis: Concussion during adolescence linked to increased risk of MS Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.135

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Parkinson disease: CSMD1 gene mutations can lead to familial Parkinson disease
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Mitesh Patel

    Parkinson disease: CSMD1 gene mutations can lead to familial Parkinson disease Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.132

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Parkinson disease: Asthma drug could protect against PD
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Charlotte Ridler

    Parkinson disease: Asthma drug could protect against PD Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.134

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • CIDP and other inflammatory neuropathies in diabetes — diagnosis and management
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-09-15
    Yusuf A. Rajabally, Mark Stettner, Bernd C. Kieseier, Hans-Peter Hartung, Rayaz A. Malik

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) is the most common neuropathy to occur in diabetes mellitus. However, patients with diabetes can also develop inflammatory neuropathies, the most common and most treatable of which is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Whether diabetes is a risk factor for CIDP remains under debate. Early studies suggested that patients with diabetes were at increased risk of CIDP, but epidemiological studies failed to confirm the association, and subsequent data have re-opened the debate. Inadequate interpretation of investigations and differentials between CIDP and other neuropathies that can occur in diabetes, such as DSPN, diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies and vasculitic multiple mononeuropathy, might mean that CIDP is under-recognized. Despite a response rate of >80% to first-line therapies for CIDP in patients with or without diabetes, those with diabetes often present with greater disability owing to late referral and axonal pathology attributed to DSPN. The increasing worldwide prevalence of diabetes creates an urgent need to improve identification of potentially treatable neuropathies, such as CIDP. In this Review, we consider the features of CIDP in patients with diabetes, and discuss how these features can be used to differentiate the condition from other neuropathies. We also review the management options for CIDP and other inflammatory neuropathies in patients with diabetes.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Multiple sclerosis: Intrathecal inflammation mediates mood in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 
    Mitesh Patel

    Multiple sclerosis: Intrathecal inflammation mediates mood in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 15 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.131

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Tuberculous meningitis
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-09-08
    Robert J. Wilkinson, Ursula Rohlwink, Usha Kant Misra, Reinout van Crevel, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Kelly E. Dooley, Maxine Caws, Anthony Figaji, Rada Savic, Regan Solomons, Guy E. Thwaites

    Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, with an estimated 10.4 million cases and 1.8 million deaths resulting from the disease in 2015. The most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis is tuberculous meningitis (TBM), for which more than 100,000 new cases are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Study of TBM pathogenesis is hampered by a lack of experimental models that recapitulate all the features of the human disease. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation. Antibiotic regimens for TBM are based on those used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis, which probably results in suboptimal drug levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, owing to poor blood–brain barrier penetrance. The role of adjunctive anti-inflammatory, host-directed therapies — including corticosteroids, aspirin and thalidomide — has not been extensively explored. To address this deficit, two expert meetings were held in 2009 and 2015 to share findings and define research priorities. This Review summarizes historical and current research into TBM and identifies important gaps in our knowledge. We will discuss advances in the understanding of inflammation in TBM and its potential modulation; vascular and hypoxia-mediated tissue injury; the role of intensified antibiotic treatment; and the importance of rapid and accurate diagnostics and supportive care in TBM.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Brain imaging tests for chronic pain: medical, legal and ethical issues and recommendations
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-09-08
    Karen D. Davis, Herta Flor, Henry T. Greely, Gian Domenico Iannetti, Sean Mackey, Markus Ploner, Amanda Pustilnik, Irene Tracey, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Tor D. Wager

    Brain imaging tests for chronic pain: medical, legal and ethical issues and recommendations Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 8 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.122 Chronic pain is the greatest source of disability globally and claims related to chronic pain feature in many insurance and medico-legal cases. In this Consensus Statement, a presidential task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain examines the capabilities of brain imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pain, and the ethical and legal implications of such uses of brain imaging.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • In the news: EAN highlights European success in neurology
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Ian Fyfe

    The “gross neurological product” of Europe is high and increasing — that was the conclusion from an analysis of neurological publications that was presented by Giorgio Cruccu at the third Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) in Amsterdam in June. This

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Neuroimmunology: New targets in neuropsychiatric lupus
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-08-04
    Ian Fyfe

    Inhibition of neuronal regeneration and activation of microglia by circulating factors might be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), according to two new studies. The authors of both preclinical studies claim that their work identifies novel potential therapeutic targets for NPSLE.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Alzheimer disease: Tau pathology in atomic detail
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-07-21
    Ian Fyfe

    The atomic structures of tau filaments that form in the human brain in sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) have been revealed for the first time in Nature. The work will provide the basis for future investigation of tau filaments as therapeutic targets in tauopathies, and

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Neuro-oncology: A new approach to ependymoma subtyping
    Nat. Rev. Neurol. (IF 20.257) Pub Date : 2017-08-04
    Heather Wood

    Trimethylation of lysine 7 on histone H3 (H3K27me3), as detected by immunohistochemistry, can differentiate subgroups of childhood ependymomas with markedly different prognoses, according to new research published in Acta Neuropathologica. This relatively simple test could aid the tailoring of treatment to ensure that children

    更新日期:2017-08-31
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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