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  • Differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Nancy D. Perrier, James D. Brierley, R. Michael Tuttle

    This is a review of the major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual, eighth edition, for differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. All patients younger than 55 years have stage I disease unless they have distant metastases, in which case, their disease is stage II. In patients aged 55 years or older, the presence of distant metastases confers stage IVB, while cases without distant metastases are further categorized based on the presence/absence of gross extrathyroidal extension, tumor size, and lymph node status. Patients aged 55 years or older whose tumor measures 4 cm or smaller (T1-T2) and is confined to the thyroid (N0, NX) have stage I disease, and those whose tumor measures greater than 4 cm and is confined to the thyroid (T3a) have stage II disease regardless of lymph node status. Patients aged 55 years or older whose tumor is confined to the thyroid and measures 4 cm or smaller (T1-T2) with any lymph node metastases present (N1a or N1b) have stage II disease. In patients who demonstrate gross extrathyroidal extension, the disease is considered stage II if only the strap muscles are grossly invaded (T3b); stage III if there is gross invasion of the subcutaneous tissue, larynx, trachea, esophagus, or recurrent laryngeal nerve (T4a); or stage IVA if there is gross invasion of the prevertebral fascia or tumor encasing the carotid artery or internal jugular vein (T4b). The same T definitions will be used for both differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer, but the basic premise of the anatomic stage groups will remain the same. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Melanoma staging: Evidence-based changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Richard A. Scolyer, Kenneth R. Hess, Vernon K. Sondak, Georgina V. Long, Merrick I. Ross, Alexander J. Lazar, Mark B. Faries, John M. Kirkwood, Grant A. McArthur, Lauren E. Haydu, Alexander M. M. Eggermont, Keith T. Flaherty, Charles M. Balch, John F. Thompson,

    To update the melanoma staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) a large database was assembled comprising >46,000 patients from 10 centers worldwide with stages I, II, and III melanoma diagnosed since 1998. Based on analyses of this new database, the existing seventh edition AJCC stage IV database, and contemporary clinical trial data, the AJCC Melanoma Expert Panel introduced several important changes to the Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis (TNM) classification and stage grouping criteria. Key changes in the eighth edition AJCC Cancer Staging Manual include: 1) tumor thickness measurements to be recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm, not 0.01 mm; 2) definitions of T1a and T1b are revised (T1a, <0.8 mm without ulceration; T1b, 0.8-1.0 mm with or without ulceration or <0.8 mm with ulceration), with mitotic rate no longer a T category criterion; 3) pathological (but not clinical) stage IA is revised to include T1b N0 M0 (formerly pathologic stage IB); 4) the N category descriptors “microscopic” and “macroscopic” for regional node metastasis are redefined as “clinically occult” and “clinically apparent”; 5) prognostic stage III groupings are based on N category criteria and T category criteria (ie, primary tumor thickness and ulceration) and increased from 3 to 4 subgroups (stages IIIA-IIID); 6) definitions of N subcategories are revised, with the presence of microsatellites, satellites, or in-transit metastases now categorized as N1c, N2c, or N3c based on the number of tumor-involved regional lymph nodes, if any; 7) descriptors are added to each M1 subcategory designation for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (LDH elevation no longer upstages to M1c); and 8) a new M1d designation is added for central nervous system metastases. This evidence-based revision of the AJCC melanoma staging system will guide patient treatment, provide better prognostic estimates, and refine stratification of patients entering clinical trials. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;000:000-000. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Breast cancer statistics, 2017, racial disparity in mortality by state
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-10-03
    Carol E. DeSantis, Jiemin Ma, Ann Goding Sauer, Lisa A. Newman, Ahmedin Jemal

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 252,710 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,610 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2017. From 2005 to 2014, overall breast cancer incidence rates increased among Asian/Pacific Islander (1.7% per year), non-Hispanic black (NHB) (0.4% per year), and Hispanic (0.3% per year) women but were stable in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. The increasing trends were driven by increases in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which increased among all racial/ethnic groups, whereas rates of hormone receptor-negative breast cancers decreased. From 1989 to 2015, breast cancer death rates decreased by 39%, which translates to 322,600 averted breast cancer deaths in the United States. During 2006 to 2015, death rates decreased in all racial/ethnic groups, including AI/ANs. However, NHB women continued to have higher breast cancer death rates than NHW women, with rates 39% higher (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.43) in NHB women in 2015, although the disparity has ceased to widen since 2011. By state, excess death rates in black women ranged from 20% in Nevada (MRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42) to 66% in Louisiana (MRR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.54, 1.79). Notably, breast cancer death rates were not significantly different in NHB and NHW women in 7 states, perhaps reflecting an elimination of disparities and/or a lack of statistical power. Improving access to care for all populations could eliminate the racial disparity in breast cancer mortality and accelerate the reduction in deaths from this malignancy nationwide. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Key issues surrounding the health impacts of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and other sources of nicotine
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Jeffrey Drope, Zachary Cahn, Rosemary Kennedy, Alex C. Liber, Michal Stoklosa, Rosemarie Henson, Clifford E. Douglas, Jacqui Drope

    Over the last decade, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including the electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, has grown rapidly. More youth now use ENDS than any tobacco product. This extensive research review shows that there are scientifically sound, sometimes competing arguments about ENDS that are not immediately and/or completely resolvable. However, the preponderance of the scientific evidence to date suggests that current-generation ENDS products are demonstrably less harmful than combustible tobacco products such as conventional cigarettes in several key ways, including by generating far lower levels of carcinogens and other toxic compounds than combustible products or those that contain tobacco. To place ENDS in context, the authors begin by reviewing the trends in use of major nicotine-containing products. Because nicotine is the common core—and highly addictive—constituent across all tobacco products, its toxicology is examined. With its long history as the only nicotine product widely accepted as being relatively safe, nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) is also examined. A section is also included that examines snus, the most debated potential harm-reduction product before ENDS. Between discussions of NRT and snus, ENDS are extensively examined: what they are, knowledge about their level of “harm,” their relationship to smoking cessation, the so-called gateway effect, and dual use/poly-use. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  • Treatment of renal cell carcinoma: Current status and future directions
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Pedro C. Barata, Brian I. Rini

    Over the past 12 years, medical treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has transitioned from a nonspecific immune approach (in the cytokine era), to targeted therapy against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and now to novel immunotherapy agents. Multiple agents—including molecules against vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and related receptors; inhibitors of other targets, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin and the MET and AXL tyrosine-protein kinase receptors; and an immune-checkpoint inhibitor—have been approved based on significant activity in patients with advanced RCC. Despite these advances, important questions remain regarding biomarkers of efficacy, patient selection, and the optimal combination and sequencing of agents. The purpose of this review is to summarize present management and future directions in the treatment of metastatic RCC. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Missed therapeutic and prevention opportunities in women with BRCA-mutated epithelial ovarian cancer and their families due to low referral rates for genetic counseling and BRCA testing: A review of the literature
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Paul J. Hoskins, Walter H. Gotlieb

    Fifteen percent of women with epithelial ovarian cancer have inherited mutations in the BRCA breast cancer susceptibility genes. Knowledge of her BRCA status has value both for the woman and for her family. A therapeutic benefit exists for the woman with cancer, because a new family of oral drugs, the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, has recently been approved, and these drugs have the greatest efficacy in women who carry the mutation. For her family, there is the potential to prevent ovarian cancer in those carrying the mutation by using risk-reducing surgery. Such surgery significantly reduces the chance of developing this, for the most part, incurable cancer. Despite these potential benefits, referral rates for genetic counseling and subsequent BRCA testing are low, ranging from 10% to 30%, indicating that these therapeutic and prevention opportunities are being missed. The authors have reviewed the relevant available literature. Topics discussed are BRCA and its relation to ovarian cancer, the rates of referral for genetic counseling/BRCA testing, reasons for these low rates, potential strategies to improve on those rates, lack of effectiveness of current screening strategies, the pros and cons of risk-reducing surgery, other prevention options, and the role and value of PARP inhibitors. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Obesity and adverse breast cancer risk and outcome: Mechanistic insights and strategies for intervention
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Manuel Picon-Ruiz, Cynthia Morata-Tarifa, Janeiro J. Valle-Goffin, Eitan R. Friedman, Joyce M. Slingerland

    Recent decades have seen an unprecedented rise in obesity, and the health impact thereof is increasingly evident. In 2014, worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25-29.9 kg/m2), and of these, over 600 million were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Although the association between obesity and the risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease is widely known, the impact of obesity on cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality is not fully appreciated. Obesity is associated both with a higher risk of developing breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women, and with worse disease outcome for women of all ages. The first part of this review summarizes the relationships between obesity and breast cancer development and outcomes in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and in those with hormone receptor-positive and -negative disease. The second part of this review addresses hypothesized molecular mechanistic insights that may underlie the effects of obesity to increase local and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, promote tumor angiogenesis and stimulate the most malignant cancer stem cell population to drive cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Finally, a review of observational studies demonstrates that increased physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer risk and better outcomes. The effects of recent lifestyle interventions to decrease sex steroids, insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway activation, and inflammatory biomarkers associated with worse breast cancer outcomes in obesity also are discussed. Although many observational studies indicate that exercise with weight loss is associated with improved breast cancer outcome, further prospective studies are needed to determine whether weight reduction will lead to improved patient outcomes. It is hoped that several ongoing lifestyle intervention trials, which are reviewed herein, will support the systematic incorporation of weight loss intervention strategies into care for patients with breast cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;. © 2017 The Authors. CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

  • The importance of immunization in cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Elizabeth M. Ward, Christopher R. Flowers, Ted Gansler, Saad B. Omer, Robert A. Bednarczyk

    A measles outbreak originating in California during 2014 and 2015 called attention to the potential for infectious disease outbreaks related to underimmunized populations in the United States and the potential risk to pediatric patients with cancer attending school when such outbreaks occur. Compliance with vaccine recommendations is important for the prevention of hepatitis B-related and human papillomavirus-related cancers and for protecting immunocompromised patients with cancer, and these points are often overlooked, resulting in the continued occurrence of vaccine-preventable neoplastic and infectious diseases and complications. This article provides an overview of the importance of vaccines in the context of cancer and encourages clinician, health system, and public policy efforts to promote adherence to immunization recommendations in the United States. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Frailty and cancer: Implications for oncology surgery, medical oncology, and radiation oncology
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-07-21
    Cecilia G. Ethun, Mehmet A. Bilen, Ashesh B. Jani, Shishir K. Maithel, Kenneth Ogan, Viraj A. Master

    The concept of frailty has become increasingly recognized as one of the most important issues in health care and health outcomes and is of particular importance in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Because both cancer itself, as well as the therapies offered, can be significant additional stressors that challenge a patient's physiologic reserve, the incidence of frailty in older patients with cancer is especially high—it is estimated that over one-half of older patients with cancer have frailty or prefrailty. Defining frailty can be challenging, however. Put simply, frailty is a state of extreme vulnerability to stressors that leads to adverse health outcomes. In reality, frailty is a complex, multidimensional, and cyclical state of diminished physiologic reserve that results in decreased resiliency and adaptive capacity and increased vulnerability to stressors. In addition, over 70 different measures of frailty have been proposed. Still, it has been demonstrated that frail patients are at increased risk of postoperative complications, chemotherapy intolerance, disease progression, and death. Although international standardization of frailty cutoff points are needed, continued efforts by oncology physicians and surgeons to identify frailty and promote multidisciplinary decision making will help to develop more individualized management strategies and optimize care for patients with cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • The oncologic burden of hepatitis C virus infection: A clinical perspective
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-07-06
    Harrys A. Torres, Terri Lynn Shigle, Nassim Hammoudi, James T. Link, Felipe Samaniego, Ahmed Kaseb, Vincent Mallet

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with cancer. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have changed HCV treatment paradigms, but little is known about the management of HCV infection in patients with cancer. The substantial burden of HCV infection and the inconclusive evidence regarding its detection and management in patients with cancer prompted the authors to review the literature and formulate recommendations. Patients for whom HCV screening is recommended included all patients with hematologic malignancies, hematopoietic cell transplantation candidates, and patients with liver cancer. There is a lack of consensus-based recommendations for the identification of HCV-infected patients with other types of cancer, but physicians may at least consider screening patients who belong to groups at heightened risk of HCV infection, including those born during 1945 through 1965 and those at high risk for infection. Patients with evidence of HCV infection should be assessed by an expert to evaluate liver disease severity, comorbidities associated with HCV infection, and treatment opportunities. DAA therapy should be tailored on the basis of patient prognosis, type of cancer, cancer treatment plan, and hepatic and virologic parameters. HCV-infected patients with cancer who have cirrhosis (or even advanced fibrosis) and those at risk for liver disease progression, especially patients with HCV-associated comorbidities, should have ongoing follow-up, regardless of whether there is a sustained virologic response, to ensure timely detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV infection and its treatment should not be considered contraindications to cancer treatment and should not delay the initiation of an urgent cancer therapy. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • The burden of rare cancers in the United States
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-05-19
    Carol E. DeSantis, Joan L. Kramer, Ahmedin Jemal

    There are limited published data on the burden of rare cancers in the United States. By using data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the authors provide information on incidence rates, stage at diagnosis, and survival for more than 100 rare cancers (defined as an incidence of fewer than 6 cases per 100,000 individuals per year) in the United States. Overall, approximately 20% of patients with cancer in the United States are diagnosed with a rare cancer. Rare cancers make up a larger proportion of cancers diagnosed in Hispanic (24%) and Asian/Pacific Islander (22%) patients compared with non-Hispanic blacks (20%) and non-Hispanic whites (19%). More than two-thirds (71%) of cancers occurring in children and adolescents are rare cancers compared with less than 20% of cancers diagnosed in patients aged 65 years and older. Among solid tumors, 59% of rare cancers are diagnosed at regional or distant stages compared with 45% of common cancers. In part because of this stage distribution, 5-year relative survival is poorer for patients with a rare cancer compared with those diagnosed with a common cancer among both males (55% vs 75%) and females (60% vs 74%). However, 5-year relative survival is substantially higher for children and adolescents diagnosed with a rare cancer (82%) than for adults (46% for ages 65-79 years). Continued efforts are needed to develop interventions for prevention, early detection, and treatment to reduce the burden of rare cancers. Such discoveries can often advance knowledge for all cancers. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:261–272. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Disparities in liver cancer occurrence in the United States by race/ethnicity and state
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-06-06
    Farhad Islami, Kimberly D. Miller, Rebecca L. Siegel, Stacey A. Fedewa, Elizabeth M. Ward, Ahmedin Jemal

    Liver cancer is highly fatal, and death rates in the United States are increasing faster than for any other cancer, having doubled since the mid-1980s. In 2017, it is estimated that the disease will account for about 41,000 new cancer cases and 29,000 cancer deaths in the United States. In this article, data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the National Center for Health Statistics are used to provide an overview of liver cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates and trends, including data by race/ethnicity and state. The prevalence of major risk factors for liver cancer is also reported based on national survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Despite the improvement in liver cancer survival in recent decades, only 1 in 5 patients survives 5 years after diagnosis. There is substantial disparity in liver cancer death rates by race/ethnicity (from 5.5 per 100,000 in non-Hispanic whites to 11.9 per 100,000 in American Indians/Alaska Natives) and state (from 3.8 per 100,000 in North Dakota to 9.6 per 100,000 in the District of Columbia) and by race/ethnicity within states. Differences in risk factor prevalence account for much of the observed variation in liver cancer rates. Thus, in contrast to the growing burden, a substantial proportion of liver cancer deaths could be averted, and existing disparities could be dramatically reduced, through the targeted application of existing knowledge in prevention, early detection, and treatment, including improvements in vaccination against hepatitis B virus, screening and treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infections, maintaining a healthy body weight, access to high-quality diabetes care, preventing excessive alcohol drinking, and tobacco control, at both the state and national levels. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:273–289. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Breast Cancer—Major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-03-14
    Armando E. Giuliano, James L. Connolly, Stephen B. Edge, Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, Hope S. Rugo, Lawrence J. Solin, Donald L. Weaver, David J. Winchester, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

    The revision of the eighth edition of the primary tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of the American Joint Commission of Cancer (AJCC) for breast cancer was determined by a multidisciplinary team of breast cancer experts. The panel recognized the need to incorporate biologic factors, such as tumor grade, proliferation rate, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression, and gene expression prognostic panels into the staging system. AJCC levels of evidence and guidelines for all tumor types were followed as much as possible. The panel felt that, to maintain worldwide value, the tumor staging system should remain based on TNM anatomic factors. However, the recognition of the prognostic influence of grade, hormone receptor expression, and HER2 amplification mandated their inclusion into the staging system. The value of commercially available, gene-based assays was acknowledged and prognostic input added. Tumor biomarkers and low Oncotype DX recurrence scores can alter prognosis and stage. These updates are expected to provide additional precision and flexibility to the staging system and were based on the extent of published information and analysis of large, as yet unpublished databases. The eighth edition of the AJCC TNM staging system, thus, provides a flexible platform for prognostic classification based on traditional anatomic factors, which can be modified and enhanced using patient biomarkers and multifactorial prognostic panel data. The eighth edition remains the worldwide basis for breast cancer staging and will incorporate future online updates to remain timely and relevant. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:290–303. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction—Major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    Thomas W. Rice, Donna M. Gress, Deepa T. Patil, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David P. Kelsen, Eugene H. Blackstone

    New to the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual for epithelial cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction are separate, temporally related cancer classifications: 1) before treatment decision (clinical); 2) after esophagectomy alone (pathologic); and 3) after preresection therapy followed by esophagectomy (postneoadjuvant pathologic). The addition of clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groupings was driven by a lack of correspondence of survival, and thus prognosis, between both clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic cancer categories (facts about the cancer) and pathologic categories. This was revealed by a machine-learning analysis of 6-continent data from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration, with consensus of the AJCC Upper GI Expert Panel. Survival is markedly affected by histopathologic cell type (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) in clinically and pathologically staged patients, requiring separate stage grouping for each cell type. However, postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groups are identical. For the future, more refined and granular data are needed. This requires: 1) more accurate clinical staging; 2) innovative solutions to pathologic staging challenges in endoscopically resected cancers; 3) integration of genomics into staging; and 4) precision cancer care with targeted therapy. It is the responsibility of the oncology team to accurately determine and record registry data, which requires eliminating both common errors and those related to incompleteness and inconsistency. Despite the new complexity of eighth edition staging of cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction, these key concepts and new directions will facilitate precision cancer care. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:304–317. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • A review of family caregiving intervention trials in oncology
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-03-20
    Betty Ferrell, Elaine Wittenberg

    This article contains a review of literature published from 2010 to 2016 on family caregiving in oncology. An analysis of 810 citations resulted in 50 randomized trials. These trials describe the need to prepare family caregivers for the complex role they play in cancer care. Several studies have demonstrated improved quality of life for family caregivers and improved emotional support from interventions. Several studies addressed communication and relational intimacy, which are key concerns. An additional focus of these trials was in the area of caregiving tasks and ways to diminish the burden of caregiving and preparedness for this role. Further research is needed in this area given the shift to outpatient care and as family caregivers become the primary providers of care. Future research should include expanding tested models of family caregiver support in clinical practice and in diverse populations. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:318–325. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  • The role of the microbiome in cancer development and therapy
    CA: Cancer J. Clin. (IF 187.04) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Aadra P. Bhatt, Matthew R. Redinbo, Scott J. Bultman

    The human body harbors enormous numbers of microbiota that influence cancer susceptibility, in part through their prodigious metabolic capacity and their profound influence on immune cell function. Microbial pathogens drive tumorigenesis in 15% to 20% of cancer cases. Even larger numbers of malignancies are associated with an altered composition of commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) based on microbiome studies using metagenomic sequencing. Although association studies cannot distinguish whether changes in microbiota are causes or effects of cancer, a causative role is supported by rigorously controlled preclinical studies using gnotobiotic mouse models colonized with one or more specific bacteria. These studies demonstrate that microbiota can alter cancer susceptibility and progression by diverse mechanisms, such as modulating inflammation, inducing DNA damage, and producing metabolites involved in oncogenesis or tumor suppression. Evidence is emerging that microbiota can be manipulated for improving cancer treatment. By incorporating probiotics as adjuvants for checkpoint immunotherapy or by designing small molecules that target microbial enzymes, microbiota can be harnessed to improve cancer care. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:326–344. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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