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  • Progress in modelling solidification microstructures in metals and alloys: dendrites and cells from 1700 to 2000
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    Wilfried Kurz, David J. Fisher, Rohit Trivedi

    This is the first account of the history of our understanding of, and ability to model, solidification microstructures. Its objective is to retrace the scientific steps made, from the earliest observations of the eighteenth century to our present-day understanding of dendrites and eutectics. Because of the abundance of information, especially that added during the present century, sub-division was essential: this being the first of three articles. They cover dendrites and cells from 1700 to 2000, and then from 2001 to 2015 and finally eutectics and peritectics from 1700 to 2015. The authors have striven always to identify the genesis of every advance made, being aware that such a compact history must leave many worthy contributions by the wayside; others will doubtless complete the history. This review shows how cross-fertilisation between theory and experiment, and basic and applied research led to both the posing and answering of challenging fundamental questions, thus rewarding society with beneficial results.

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • Development of strong, oxidation and corrosion resistant nickel-based superalloys: critical review of challenges, progress and prospects
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    R. Darolia

    A comprehensive review of alloying effects in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys for turbine blades and vanes operating in a very aggressive environment of stress, oxidation and corrosion is presented. Exceptionally strong single-crystal superalloys have been developed containing increasing amounts of rhenium and decreasing amounts of chromium resulting in reduced environmental resistance. Interactions in a superalloy containing up to 15 alloying elements are complex and poorly understood. The superalloys can form brittle topologically closed-packed (TCP) phases unless the alloying additions are carefully selected. Development of superalloys with a required balance of strength and environmental resistance has been very challenging. Aluminium, chromium and tantalum are essential alloying elements for strength and environmental protection. Aluminium beyond an upper limit can lead to incipient melting during heat treatment necessary for achieving an optimum size and distribution of the γ′ phase. Rhenium and ruthenium additions contribute significantly to strength, while considerably degrading environmental resistance. Hafnium and yttrium singularly or in combinations improve oxidation and corrosion resistance. Progress in modelling based on thermodynamics, kinetics and regression analysis of prior data to simultaneously predict strength and environmental resistance has been limited since the strengthening and environmental degradation are distinctly separate mechanisms. The paper presents a critical review of alloying studies and provides an insight into future developments.

    更新日期:2018-10-12
  • Biodegradable polyol-based polymers for biomedical applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-08-19
    Queeny Dasgupta, Giridhar Madras, Kaushik Chatterjee

    Polyols are multifunctional alcohols, with branched structures, where each arm terminates with an –OH group. These free –OH groups have been utilised to make a variety of polymer structures ranging from cross-linked to linear to starshaped. This review presents a comprehensive account of polyol-based polymers in biomedical applications. The advantages afforded by polyolbased biodegradable polymers are detailed in this review, alongside a general historical perspective on the development of biodegradable polymers. The major advantage of these polyols is that they are endogenous to the human body. Synthesis strategies and fabrication techniques to mould these materials into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are discussed. Modifications to the conventionally used polyol-based polyesters have been achieved by chemically incorporating drugs/ bioactives or by preparing nanocomposites. This review discusses the physicochemical properties and biological responses of these polymers relevant in biomedical applications and further outlines the need for improving their processability and performance.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Metallic composite coatings by electroless technique – a critical review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-08-09
    Jerin K. Pancrecious, Sarah Bill Ulaeto, R. Ramya, T. P. D. Rajan, B. C. Pai

    The development of composite/nanocomposite coatings on various surfaces based on electroless process has much interest among researchers due to their enhanced mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties compared with their metallic or alloy counterparts. These coatings have shown many applications in automotive, aerospace and industrial fields with unique characteristics obtained by the incorporation of secondary particles as reinforcement at micro or nanoscale in the matrix. However, properties of the product depend upon not only the nature of secondary particle used but also the specific characteristics of the metal matrix. This paper critically reviews the recent developments in micro and nanostructured metallic composite coatings formed by electroless coating techniques and retrospect into the various mechanisms of the electroless coating process, its preparation with different metallic systems, properties, and applications in detail.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Bast fibres: structure, processing, properties, and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Vahid Sadrmanesh, Ying Chen

    There is an increasing demand for natural fibres worldwide due to their renewable and biodegradable nature. This paper reviews many aspects of natural fibres, focusing on the bast fibres of plants including hemp, flax, kenaf, jute, and ramie. Important characteristics of these plant fibres include physical, mechanical, dielectric, degradation, hygroscopic, and surface properties. These properties are highly variable, depending on both the chemical composition of the fibre and the environmental conditions. Retting and mechanical are the two main fibre extraction methods. When executed properly, retting produces the highest purity fibre; however, it is time-consuming and generates large amounts of wastewater. In contrast, mechanical extraction is faster and more environmentally friendly but results in low-purity fibre. Despite the drawbacks of bast fibres (e.g. low thermal stability, low hygroscopicity, low surface energy), they have been successfully used in insulation, composite, and geotextiles and many further applications are currently being explored.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Wood-based biochar for the removal of potentially toxic elements in water and wastewater: a critical review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Sabry M. Shaheen, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Noha E. E. Hassan, Irshad Bibi, Hailong Wang, Daniel C. W. Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Nanthi Bolan, Jörg Rinklebe

    Recently, biochar has received significant attention, especially for the removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from water and wastewater. No review has been focused on the potential use of wood-based biochar (WB) for the removal of PTEs in water and wastewater. Here, we have critically reviewed the (i) preparation and characterisation of WB; (ii) removal efficiency of WB for PTEs in water with respect to its physicochemical characteristics, biochar/water ratio, pH, and sorption system; (iii) removal mechanisms of PTEs by WB; (iv) fate of the sorbed PTEs onto WB; and (v) recovery of the sorbed PTEs from the resultant sludge of WB. We also discussed the removal of PTEs by engineered/designer WB as compared to pristine WB. This review demonstrates the overarching scientific opportunities for a comprehensive understanding of using WB as an emerging biosorbent and a promising low-cost and effective material for the remediation of PTEs contaminated water.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Modeling dislocations and heat conduction in crystalline materials: atomistic/continuum coupling approaches
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Shuozhi Xu, Xiang Chen

    Dislocations and heat conduction are essential components that influence properties and performance of crystalline materials, yet the modelling of which remains challenging partly due to their multiscale nature that necessitates simultaneously resolving the short-range dislocation core, the long-range dislocation elastic field, and the transport of heat carriers such as phonons with a wide range of characteristic length scale. In this context, multiscale materials modelling based on atomistic/continuum coupling has attracted increased attention within the materials science community. In this paper, we review key characteristics of five representative atomistic/continuum coupling approaches, including the atomistic-to-continuum method, the bridging domain method, the concurrent atomistic–continuum method, the coupled atomistic/discrete-dislocation method, and the quasicontinuum method, as well as their applications to dislocations, heat conduction, and dislocation/phonon interactions in crystalline materials. Through problem-centric comparisons, we shed light on the advantages and limitations of each method, as well as the path towards enabling them to effectively model various material problems in engineering from nano- to mesoscale.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Surface modification to control the water wettability of electrospun mats
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Rafael S. Kurusu, Nicole R. Demarquette

    Electrospun mats have many possible applications in which it is important to control their interaction with water: when used as separation membranes, superhydrophobic mats can remove oil from water, whereas when used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, hydrophilic mats present better cell affinity. Frequently, however, the surface properties of the polymer fibers that compose the mat need to be modified and tuned. This review covers the main surface modification techniques used to change the water wettability of mats produced by electrospinning. Some basic aspects of the electrospinning process and wetting theories are presented as a starting point for the discussion, highlighting the common wetting switching mechanism found in highly porous structures like electrospun mats. The surface modification techniques are then classified as post-treatments or one-step modification during electrospinning. The fundamental aspects of each technique are followed by a discussion emphasizing their technical advantages and drawbacks.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Size-dependent mechanical responses of metallic glasses
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-05-19
    Yunfeng Shi

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are arguably one of the most exciting metallic systems in the past 30 years, attracting significant research effort and undergoing rapid development. Parallel to research on crystalline metals, the sample size has been exploited as property-tuning parameters for MGs. It has been shown that nanometre-sized MG samples exhibit higher-than-bulk elastic limit, tensile strength, and non-zero tensile ductility. While some of the size-related observations have been generally accepted, others have been poorly understood, even hotly debated. Of particular interests is the importance of sample preparation in experiments and model generation in simulations. Here, we will review how the sample size affects mechanical properties including the elastic, plastic, fracture properties, and fatigue endurance, as well as various proposed size-dependent mechanisms and relevant length scales.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • A review of recent work on discharge characteristics during plasma electrolytic oxidation of various metals
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Trevor William Clyne, Samuel Christopher Troughton

    The review describes recent progress on understanding and quantification of the various phenomena that take place during plasma electrolytic oxidation, which is in increasing industrial use for production of protective coatings and other surface treatment purposes. A general overview of the process and some information about usage of these coatings are provided in the first part of the review. The focus is then on the dielectric breakdown that repeatedly occurs over the surface of the work-piece. These discharges are central to the process, since it is largely via the associated plasmas that oxidation of the substrate takes place and the coating is created. The details are complex, since the discharge characteristics are affected by a number of processing variables. The inter-relationships between electrical conditions, electrolyte composition, coating microstructure and rates of growth, which are linked via the characteristics of the discharges, have become clearer over recent years and these improvements in understanding are summarised here. There is considerable scope for more effective process control, with specific objectives in terms of coating performance and energy efficiency, and an attempt is made to identify key points that are likely to assist this.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Recent advances in fibre-hybrid composites: materials selection, opportunities and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Yentl Swolfs, Ignaas Verpoest, Larissa Gorbatikh

    Fibre-hybrid composites are composed of two or more fibre types in a matrix. Such composites offer more design freedom than non-hybrid composites. The aim is often to alleviate the drawbacks of one of the fibre types while keeping the benefits of the other. The hybridisation can also lead to synergetic effects or to properties that neither of the constituents possess. Even though fibre-hybrid composites are attractive, they also pose more challenges in terms of materials selection than conventional, single fibre type composites. This review analyses the mechanisms for synergetic effects provides guidance on the fibre and matrix selection and describes recent opportunities and trends. It finishes by describing the current applications, and by contrasting how the industrial use is different from the academic research.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Recent concepts in biodegradable polymers for tissue engineering paradigms: a critical review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-04-18
    Naseer Iqbal, Abdul Samad Khan, Anila Asif, Muhammad Yar, John W. Haycock, Ihtesham Ur Rehman

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are emerging as future approaches for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases. Numerous clinical conditions exist today and include congenital disorders, trauma, infection, inflammation, and cancer, in which hard and soft tissue damage, organ failure and loss are still not treated effectively. Researchers are constantly developing new biomaterials and tissue-engineered technologies to stimulate tissue regeneration. Various emerging approaches according to organ, tissue, disease and disorder are identified. Irrespective, engineered biomaterials are required to regenerate and ultimately reproduce the original physiological, biological, chemical, and mechanical properties. Biodegradable materials have been used extensively as regenerative therapies. The selection, design, biological and physicochemical properties of these materials are important and must be considered for stimulating tissue growth. In this review, we critique recently developed biodegradable materials for tissue regeneration of some targeted organs e.g., skin, nerves, blood vessels, heart, cornea, trachea, dental/oral structure and bones.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Magnetically triggered release of biologics
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-04-02
    Olivia L. Lanier, Adam G. Monsalve, Peter S. McFetridge, Jon Dobson

    The development of platforms for the controlled release of therapeutic molecules remains a crucial research focus, as controlled release reduces the frequency of administration, minimizes side effects and improves compliance. However, biological conditions and diseases with a progression that exhibits strong temporal dependence, or those that can result in the evolution of tolerance to the therapeutic during continuous exposure, require the development of sophisticated release systems tailored to the needs to the individual and the disease. Thus, there has been emphasis on the development of platforms with remotely controlled release mechanisms. Specifically, magnetically triggered release utilizes magnetic nanoparticles as the remote control modality. Many reviews discuss the magnetically triggered release of small molecule drugs, however, the release of biomacromolecules has not been reviewed. This review examines the limited work on the magnetically triggered release of biomacromolecules and the challenges associated with their delivery. Important material parameters that have been used in this pursuit are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Microfluidic synthesis of functional inorganic micro-/nanoparticles and applications in biomedical engineering
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Nanjing Hao, Yuan Nie, John X. J. Zhang

    Engineered micro-/nanoparticles of various physicochemical properties play significant roles in biomedical engineering from biosensing, in vivo imaging, in vitro diagnosis, drug delivery to therapy. Compared to conventional batch synthesis, microfluidics-based synthesis enables precise reaction control, enhanced mixing, and rapid chemical reactions, allowing for the flow synthesis of particles in a controllable, sustainable, and costsaving manner that is attractive to industry. This review focuses on the recent advances of using microfluidic devices for the flow synthesis of inorganic micro-/nanoparticles with specific properties and their practical applications. We highlight the principle and the merits of emerging microfluidic techniques over conventional methods, discuss chemical reactions performed in the microfluidic reactors, summarize and tabulate strategies for the flow synthesis of inorganic particles, and provide the established applications of materials from these microfluidic systems. The challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives of microfluidics in the synthesis and applications of inorganic micro-/nanoparticles are furthermore discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Magnesium extrusion alloys: a review of developments and prospects
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Zhuoran Zeng, Nicole Stanford, Christopher Huw John Davies, Jian-Feng Nie, Nick Birbilis

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have received a significant interest in the past 20 years, owing to a nonlinearly increasing demand for lightweight structural materials. Magnesium extrusions alloys to date have had lower industrial uptake than their counterpart aluminium extrusion alloys, predominantly due to lower extrudability and formability, tension-compression yield asymmetry and no clear advantage in the specific strength. Any improvement in extrusion alloy properties requires a better understanding of the effects of alloy composition and processing conditions; and how these dictate the final alloy microstructure. This review sheds insightful information on the processing–microstructure–property relationships of extruded magnesium alloys. Historical and recent progress in magnesium extrusion alloys is critically reviewed, including the advances in extrudability, mechanical properties and microstructural characterisation. The challenges associated with the ‘gap’ in properties between the magnesium and aluminium extrusion alloys are identified, and prospects discussed regarding the development of high performance magnesium extrusion alloys.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Microstructural features, mechanical properties and high temperature failures of ferritic to ferritic dissimilar welds
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Peter Mayr, Christian Schlacher, John A. Siefert, Jonathan D. Parker

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) between ferritic steel grades are found extensively in the construction of thermal power plants. The potential combinations and approaches for joining dissimilar ferritic steels are nearly limitless. For DMWs, the difference in alloy composition (specifically chromium and carbide-forming elements) provides the main driving force for carbon diffusion during welding, post-weld heat treatment and long-term service at elevated temperatures. Since the high temperature creep strength of local, carbon-denuded zones can be dramatically reduced from that of the parent or filler material, the service performance of ferritic DMWs can be severely reduced. This article reviews experimental observations on microstructural evolution in dissimilar ferritic welds, activities to describe the observed phenomena by modelling and simulation and discusses the performance of these welds at high temperature. Lastly, a well-engineered approach to the design of ferritic DMWs is discussed in the context of thermal power plants which are subject to damage by creep.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Powder metallurgy of titanium – past, present, and future
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 12.703) Pub Date : 2017-08-28
    Zhigang Zak Fang, James D. Paramore, Pei Sun, K. S. Ravi Chandran, Ying Zhang, Yang Xia, Fei Cao, Mark Koopman, Michael Free

    Powder metallurgy (PM) of titanium is a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional wrought titanium. This article examines both traditional and emerging technologies, including the production of powder, and the sintering, microstructure, and mechanical properties of PM Ti. The production methods of powder are classified into two categories: (1) powder that is produced as the product of extractive metallurgy processes, and (2) powder that is made from Ti sponge, ingot, mill products, or scrap. A new hydrogen-assisted magnesium reduction (HAMR) process is also discussed. The mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V produced using various PM processes are analyzed based on their dependence on unique microstructural features, oxygen content, porosity, and grain size. In particular, the fatigue properties of PM Ti-6Al-4V are examined as functions of microstructure. A hydrogen-enabled approach for microstructural engineering that can be used to produce PM Ti with wrought-like microstructure and properties is also presented.

    更新日期:2018-09-20
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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