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  • Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline binary and ternary metal oxides
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Markus B. Schütz, Lisong Xiao, Thomas Lehnen, Thomas Fischer, Sanjay Mathur

    Interplay of chemistry and nanotechnology has effectively substantiated the ever-expanding horizons of materials chemistry, leading to a paradigm shift in (nano)materials synthesis. Current challenges of chemically processed materials include efforts to redesign synthetic procedures by using less hazardous starting materials, choosing milder reaction conditions, shortening time scale of chemical transformations and most importantly reduction of energy requirements. In this context, successful substitution of classical energy input by microwave radiation is a promising alternative in most fields of common chemical synthesis. This review highlights the latest developments in the synthesis of advanced inorganic materials by microwave-assisted chemical reactions. When compared to conventional convective and conductive heating techniques, microwave irradiation provides efficient internal volumetric heating through generation of localised high temperature zones in the reaction media by direct coupling of microwave energy to the molecules present in the reaction mixture, thereby enabling rapid synthesis with superior yield and both reduced reaction time as well as processing steps.

    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Review: microstructure-development mechanism during sintering in polycrystalline zirconia
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-11-21
    Koji Matsui, Hidehiro Yoshida, Yuichi Ikuhara

    Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2 (YSZ) ceramics have been used for various engineering applications since Garvie et al. discovered phase-transformation toughening in 1975. The performance of YSZ ceramics depends on the YSZ microstructure. In the present review, the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation and grain growth are first discussed, organised according to existing hypotheses of microstructure-development mechanisms in YSZ during sintering. We demonstrate that the phase transformation and grain growth can be most reasonably understood by a grain boundary segregation-induced phase transformation (GBSIPT) mechanism and that the solute-drag effect of Y3+ ions segregating along the grain boundaries, respectively. Next, the Al2O3-doping effect is discussed with emphasis on the microstructure-development behaviour in a small amount of Al2O3-doped YSZ, which is widely used in engineering applications. We further discuss the effect of GBSIPT on low-temperature degradation resistance and the effect of grain size on superplasticity, focusing on the nanocrystalline YSZ, which was created by applying the Al2O3-doping effect.

    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Corrosion-fatigue: a review of damage tolerance models
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    N. O. Larrosa, R. Akid, R. A. Ainsworth

    The synergistic combination of mechanical fatigue stresses and environmental agents acting together can be more detrimental than that of the summation of the contributions of each mechanism acting separately. Major attempts to understand the contribution of the different agents (microstructure, chemical composition of environment, temperature, loading conditions, etc.) have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, current knowledge is insufficient to address life estimation with a sound physical basis from the initiation of localised corrosion (such as pitting) to the estimation of crack propagation. Major simplifications and assumptions have been required in the development of life prediction methodologies. This paper reviews recent efforts made by the different interested parties, in both academia and industry, in the development of corrosion fatigue (CF) lifetime prediction procedures. The paper mainly focuses on the methodologies proposed in the literature for oil and gas, nuclear, energy generation and aerospace applications, dealing with pitting CF damage in aluminium alloys, carbon and stainless steels. The transition of a pit into a small crack (SC) and its growth is influenced by the interaction of the pit stress/strain concentration and the local environmental conditions, making the modelling of this stage of the utmost complexity. A major trend in the models reviewed in this paper is to simplify the analysis by assuming the pit (a volumetric defect) as a sharp crack, decouple the CF problem and account for the mechanical and environmental contributions separately. These procedures heavily rely on fitting experimental data and exhibit low generality in terms of application to varying system conditions. There is a clear opportunity in this field to develop mechanistically based methodologies, considering the inherent dependence of the damage mechanism on the interaction of environmental, metallurgical and mechanical features, allowing more realistic lifetime estimates and defect tolerance arguments, where pit-to-crack transition and SC initiation stages pose a significant challenge.

    更新日期:2018-03-16
  • Tribological behaviour of self-lubricating materials at high temperatures
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Hector Torres, Manel Rodríguez Ripoll, Braham Prakash

    Self-lubricating materials are becoming more widespread in fields like metal forming or power generation due to the inability to use conventional lubricants in high-temperature (HT) applications. In an effort to summarise the progress done in this field, a detailed literature review has been carried out, ranging from micron-thickness thin films to hardfacings and bulk materials, and classified by the reported solid lubricants. Moreover, the most-cited deposition techniques have been reviewed for each lubricant class in addition to their advantages and limitations. HT friction and wear data for self-lubricating materials have also been examined in order to identify effective lubrication ranges and general trends in their tribological behaviour, which is expected to be useful for researchers interested in this field. Finally, several apparent research gaps have been described, with suggestions for new experimental work that could lead to the development of new high-temperature self-lubricating materials.

    更新日期:2018-03-16
  • Ultrafast laser processing of silicon for photovoltaics
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Benjamin Franta, Eric Mazur, S. K. Sundaram

    The photovoltaics market has been growing rapidly in the past decade or so, driven by policy support, growing economies of scale, and technological improvements. Continued advances in photovoltaics manufacturing and technologies may drive further cost reductions and facilitate market growth going forward. Here, we review one such potential advance: the use of ultrafast laser processing in silicon photovoltaic production. We provide an overview of the current major capabilities of ultrafast laser processing of silicon, including texturing, hyperdoping, and combined texturing and hyperdoping. We describe each process, survey recent advances, compare to alternative methods, and report the state-of-the-art of each process in relation to photovoltaic devices. We also discuss the major challenges facing each process. We close with a prospectus for research and applications. We conclude that there are no major technical obstacles to the application of ultrafast laser texturing to photovoltaics manufacturing currently, while ultrafast laser hyperdoping requires further research and development before adoption. We also show that the use of hyperdoping for intermediate band silicon photovoltaics likely requires concurrent surface texturing or other absorption-enhancement techniques to yield photoconversion efficiency improvements.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Catalytic materials for biofuel conversion
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Shelley D. Minteer

    Over the last three decades, there has been a large increase in the production and use of biofuels. This has led researchers to study alternative strategies for converting biofuel energy into electrical energy. This review starts with an introduction to the field, including a brief discussion of the production of common biofuels from a variety of biomass sources. The main focus of the review is on the variety of catalytic materials that have been developed for biofuel conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. The scope of the article ranges from soft materials (organic and biological catalysts) to metallic catalytic materials to ceramic catalytic materials. The review covers biofuels from biohydrogen to bioethanol to biodiesel to glycerol to glucose. As a critical review, this review describes the state-of-the-art electrocatalysts for biofuel oxidation and provides a critical discussion of the practical properties of desired catalytic materials and areas of need for the coming decade.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Nanostructured photocatalysis in the visible spectrum for the decontamination of air and water
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-09-30
    Srikanth Gunti, Ashok Kumar, Manoj K. Ram

    Photocatalytic remediation aligns with the zero waste schemes of waste and wastewater industries with low cost, environment-friendly and sustainable treatment technologies. Efforts are made to increase the photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts (titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and tungsten oxide (WO3)) by altering their shape (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, etc.), size and doping (nitrogen, metal and carbon). The photocatalytic properties of various photocatalysts in visible light radiation have been reviewed critically. The nanostructure, doping and composite formation of photocatalysts have profound impact on the remediation of various organics in both air and water. The article also emphasises on attempts to enhance the contact of insoluble pollutants by the use of surfactants and biosurfactants in photocatalytic remediation methods. The comparative photocatalytic activities using doping, surfactants and biosurfactants have been discussed to show the effective remediation of organics under visible light. This review depicts, as the first attempt, organic remediation in visible light using various photocatalytic materials.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Polymer derived silicon oxycarbide-based coatings
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-05-18
    Kathy Lu, Donald Erb

    Silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) is a promising protective coating material. However, so far there has not been any comprehensive review to systematically evaluate the characteristics and properties of this material as coatings. In this review, SiOC compositions and fillers are examined based on their fundamental functions in the coating materials. From a processing point of view, different coating formation processes, such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, dip coating, and spin coating, are discussed. As an intrinsic requirement and one of the most challenging aspects for SiOC to be used as coating materials, the stability of SiOC in air conditions is analysed and the degradation mechanisms of SiOC are discussed. Lastly, for different application needs, the physical and mechanical behaviours, electrical conductivity, and optical property of the coatings are presented. This first-ever systematic review on the SiOC system as coating materials is intended to provide guidance for future SiOC coating development.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Progress in CVD synthesis of layered hexagonal boron nitride with tunable properties and their applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-05-15
    Malay Jana, Raj N. Singh

    A very thin layer of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an important 2D nanomaterial, sometimes called ‘white graphene’, with many properties distinct from graphene. However, the lack of controlled synthesis of high quality and wide-area films largely prevents realisation of the full potential of this material. In this review article, a comprehensive overview of the current status of the synthesis, growth mechanism using chemical vapour deposition, structure and electronic properties to tune the bandgap is covered. In particular, the progress towards achieving the improved quality and functionalities of the h-BN films via epitaxial growth and control of grain size, number of layers, morphology and orientation have been critically reviewed. In addition to synthesis and properties of the atomically thin (mono and few layer) h-BN, the applications in possible and emerging areas are also described and discussed.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Three-dimensional graphene monolith-based composite: superiority in properties and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 8.605) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Bo Tang, Shuli Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhengwei Wang, Yanfeng He, Weiqiu Huang

    With the development of graphene research, the three-dimensional graphene monolith (3DGM), which can be prepared by the chemical vapour deposition method (CVD-3DGM) and the self-assembly of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGO-3DGM), has drawn increasing attention because of its properties and application prospects that are better than those of two-dimensional graphene nanosheets. By utilising its excellent electrical property, large BET area and favourable mechanical strength, some research findings on the 3DGM-assisted thermal interface materials, conductive polymers and films, dye-sensitised solar cells and supercapacitors have been reported. In this perspective, we review recent progress in the synthesis and application of 3DGM-based composites and devices. In particular, the advantages of the CVD-3DGM are highlighted after comparing the reports, and the specific reasons are analysed and discussed. Finally, the probable directions of development, research focus and corresponding challenges for the preparation and application of the CVD-3DGM in the future are proposed.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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