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  • Publisher Correction: Integrating uncertainty into public energy research and development decisions
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Erin Baker, Laura Díaz Anadón, Valentina Bosetti

    Publisher Correction: Integrating uncertainty into public energy research and development decisions Publisher Correction: Integrating uncertainty into public energy research and development decisions, Published online: 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0052-5 Publisher Correction: Integrating uncertainty into public energy research and development decisions

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Francesco Fuso Nerini, Julia Tomei, Long Seng To, Iwona Bisaga, Priti Parikh, Mairi Black, Aiduan Borrion, Catalina Spataru, Vanesa Castán Broto, Gabrial Anandarajah, Ben Milligan, Yacob Mulugetta

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—including 17 interconnected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets—is a global plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. SDG7 calls for action to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Here we characterize synergies and trade-offs between efforts to achieve SDG7 and delivery of the 2030 Agenda as a whole. We identify 113 targets requiring actions to change energy systems, and published evidence of relationships between 143 targets (143 synergies, 65 trade-offs) and efforts to achieve SDG7. Synergies and trade-offs exist in three key domains, where decisions about SDG7 affect humanity’s ability to: realize aspirations of greater welfare and well-being; build physical and social infrastructures for sustainable development; and achieve sustainable management of the natural environment. There is an urgent need to better organize, connect and extend this evidence, to help all actors work together to achieve sustainable development.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • Thermo-electrochemical production of compressed hydrogen from methane with near-zero energy loss
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Harald Malerød-Fjeld, Daniel Clark, Irene Yuste-Tirados, Raquel Zanón, David Catalán-Martinez, Dustin Beeaff, Selene H. Morejudo, Per K. Vestre, Truls Norby, Reidar Haugsrud, José M. Serra, Christian Kjølseth

    Conventional production of hydrogen requires large industrial plants to minimize energy losses and capital costs associated with steam reforming, water–gas shift, product separation and compression. Here we present a protonic membrane reformer (PMR) that produces high-purity hydrogen from steam methane reforming in a single-stage process with near-zero energy loss. We use a BaZrO3-based proton-conducting electrolyte deposited as a dense film on a porous Ni composite electrode with dual function as a reforming catalyst. At 800 °C, we achieve full methane conversion by removing 99% of the formed hydrogen, which is simultaneously compressed electrochemically up to 50 bar. A thermally balanced operation regime is achieved by coupling several thermo-chemical processes. Modelling of a small-scale (10 kg H2 day−1) hydrogen plant reveals an overall energy efficiency of >87%. The results suggest that future declining electricity prices could make PMRs a competitive alternative for industrial-scale hydrogen plants integrating CO2 capture.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • In the dark
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Elisabeth Jeffries

    In the darkIn the dark, Published online: 13 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0034-7NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Millions of refugees need heat and light, but many barriers prevent its sustainable supply., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Policy sequencing toward decarbonization
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Jonas Meckling, Thomas Sterner, Gernot Wagner

    Many economists have long held that carbon pricing—either through a carbon tax or cap-and-trade—is the most cost-effective way to decarbonize energy systems, along with subsidies for basic research and development. Meanwhile, green innovation and industrial policies aimed at fostering low-carbon energy technologies have proliferated widely. Most of these predate direct carbon pricing. Low-carbon leaders such as California and the European Union (EU) have followed a distinct policy sequence that helps overcome some of the political challenges facing low-carbon policy by building economic interest groups in support of decarbonization and reducing the cost of technologies required for emissions reductions. However, while politically effective, this policy pathway faces significant challenges to environmental and cost effectiveness, including excess rent capture and lock-in. Here we discuss options for addressing these challenges under political constraints. As countries move toward deeper emissions cuts, combining and sequencing policies will prove critical to avoid environmental, economic, and political dead-ends in decarbonizing energy systems.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Dawn of the three-legged beast
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Elsa Couderc

    Dawn of the three-legged beastDawn of the three-legged beast, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0038-3

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Thermoelectric avenue
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    James Gallagher

    Thermoelectric avenueThermoelectric avenue, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0040-9

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Vacancies for reversible insertion
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Changjun Zhang

    Vacancies for reversible insertionVacancies for reversible insertion, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0039-2

    更新日期:2017-11-09
  • Collaborate to innovate
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-09

    Collaborate to innovateCollaborate to innovate, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0046-3NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=New approaches to collaboration between private and public sectors can speed up innovation, but greater coordination is required to make even greater gains., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-09
  • A penny for your preferences
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Fouad Khan

    A penny for your preferencesA penny for your preferences, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0041-8

    更新日期:2017-11-09
  • Shrink-wrapping water to conduct protons
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    George K. H. Shimizu

    Shrink-wrapping water to conduct protonsShrink-wrapping water to conduct protons, Published online: 09 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0035-6NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=For proton-conducting metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) to find application as the electrolyte in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, materials with better stability and conductivity are required. Now, a structurally flexible MOF that is also highly stable is demonstrated to possess high proton conductivity over a range of humidities., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-09
  • Publisher Correction: The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Matúš Mišík, Andrej Nosko

    Publisher Correction: The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challengePublisher Correction: The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0050-7

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • High voltage, please!
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Susanne Siebentritt

    High voltage, please!High voltage, please!, Published online: 06 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0031-xNatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Kesterite solar cells are low-cost alternatives for photovoltaics, based only on abundant metals, but they exhibit limited voltages. A new wide-gap kesterite solar cell provides a much higher voltage at a good efficiency., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Efficient kesterite solar cells with high open-circuit voltage for applications in powering distributed devices
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Priscilla D. Antunez, Douglas M. Bishop, Yu Luo, Richard Haight

    Simultaneously achieving high voltage and high efficiency in thin-film solar cells is of paramount importance for real-world applications. While solar cells fabricated from the Earth-abundant kesterite absorber Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1−x)4 provide an attractive, non-toxic, energy harvesting solution, their utilization has been constrained by relatively low open-circuit voltages that limit efficiency. Increasing the sulfur content to widen the bandgap boosts the voltage, but usually at the expense of efficiency. Here, we report important progress on this fundamental problem by fabricating solar cells with high sulfur content that exhibit efficiencies up to 11.89% with open-circuit voltages as high as 670 mV. In a multistep process, fully functional solar cells are separated from their growth substrate, and a high-work-function back contact is subsequently deposited. With this approach, we fabricated a series-connected device that produces 5.7 V under 1 Sun illumination and ~2 V under low lighting conditions, below 10−3 Suns.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Matúš Mišík, Andrej Nosko

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Greener and cheaper
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Laifa Shen, Yan Yu

    Greener and cheaper Nature Energy, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0026-7 Using cheap organic material as the cathode and abundant sodium as the charge carrier is attractive for sustainable battery technologies. Now, highly reversible four-sodium storage in a nano-sized disodium rhodizonate organic cathode is achieved.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Emergence of highly transparent photovoltaics for distributed applications
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Christopher J. Traverse, Richa Pandey, Miles C. Barr, Richard R. Lunt

    Solar energy offers a viable solution to our growing energy need. While adoption of conventional photovoltaics on rooftops and in solar farms has grown rapidly in the last decade, there is still plenty of opportunity for expansion. See-through solar technologies with partial light transmission developed over the past 30 years have initiated methods of integration not possible with conventional modules. The large-scale deployment necessary to offset global energy consumption could be further accelerated by developing fully invisible solar cells that selectively absorb ultraviolet and near-infrared light, allowing many of the surfaces of our built environment to be turned into solar harvesting arrays without impacting the function or aesthetics. Here, we review recent advances in photovoltaics with varying degrees of visible light transparency. We discuss the figures of merit necessary to characterize transparent photovoltaics, and outline the requirements to enable their widespread adoption in buildings, windows, electronic device displays, and automobiles.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Analysing oil-production subsidies
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Ronald Steenblik

    Analysing oil-production subsidies Nature Energy, Published online: 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0027-6 Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US$50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • A flexible metal–organic framework with a high density of sulfonic acid sites for proton conduction
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Fan Yang, Gang Xu, Yibo Dou, Bin Wang, Heng Zhang, Hui Wu, Wei Zhou, Jian-Rong Li, Banglin Chen

    The design of stable electrolyte materials with high proton conductivity for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells remains a challenge. Most of the materials explored have good conductivity at high relative humidity (RH), but significantly decreased conductivity at reduced RH. Here we report a chemically stable and structurally flexible metal–organic framework (MOF), BUT-8(Cr)A, possessing a three-dimensional framework structure with one-dimensional channels, in which high-density sulfonic acid (–SO3H) sites arrange on channel surfaces for proton conduction. We propose that its flexible nature, together with its –SO3H sites, could allow BUT-8(Cr)A to self-adapt its framework under different humid environments to ensure smooth proton conduction pathways mediated by water molecules. Relative to other MOFs, BUT-8(Cr)A not only has a high proton conductivity of 1.27 × 10−1 S cm−1 at 100% RH and 80 °C but also maintains moderately high proton conductivity at a wide range of RH and temperature.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Reactive power control
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    Elsa Couderc

    Reactive power control Nature Energy, Published online: 10 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0020-0

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Energizing equality
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-10

    Energizing equality Nature Energy, Published online: 10 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0024-9 We all stand to gain by doing more to combat gender inequality.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Young, transient and cold
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    Jenn Richler

    Young, transient and cold Nature Energy, Published online: 10 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0023-x

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Improving power and stability
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    Changjun Zhang

    Improving power and stability Nature Energy, Published online: 10 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0021-z

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Microwaving coke
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    James Gallagher

    Microwaving coke Nature Energy, Published online: 10 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0022-y

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-09
    Minah Lee, Jihyun Hong, Jeffrey Lopez, Yongming Sun, Dawei Feng, Kipil Lim, William C. Chueh, Michael F. Toney, Yi Cui, Zhenan Bao

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g−1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na2C6O6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. Here, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na2C6O6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na2C6O6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. On the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na2C6O6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g−1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg−1cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Incorporating nitrogen atoms into cobalt nanosheets as a strategy to boost catalytic activity toward CO2 hydrogenation
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-09
    Liangbing Wang, Wenbo Zhang, Xusheng Zheng, Yizhen Chen, Wenlong Wu, Jianxiang Qiu, Xiangchen Zhao, Xiao Zhao, Yizhou Dai, Jie Zeng

    Hydrogenation of CO2 into fuels and useful chemicals could help to reduce reliance on fossil fuels. Although great progress has been made over the past decades to improve the activity of catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation, more efficient catalysts, especially those based on non-noble metals, are desired. Here we incorporate N atoms into Co nanosheets to boost the catalytic activity toward CO2 hydrogenation. For the hydrogenation of CO2, Co4N nanosheets exhibited a turnover frequency of 25.6 h−1 in a slurry reactor under 32 bar pressure at 150 °C, which was 64 times that of Co nanosheets. The activation energy for Co4N nanosheets was 43.3 kJ mol−1, less than half of that for Co nanosheets. Mechanistic studies revealed that Co4N nanosheets were reconstructed into Co4NH x , wherein the amido-hydrogen atoms directly interacted with the CO2 to form HCOO* intermediates. In addition, the adsorbed H2O* activated amido-hydrogen atoms via the interaction of hydrogen bonds.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Understanding the life cycle surface land requirements of natural gas-fired electricity
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-10-02
    Sarah M. Jordaan, Garvin A. Heath, Jordan Macknick, Brian W. Bush, Ehsan Mohammadi, Dan Ben-Horin, Victoria Urrea, Danielle Marceau

    The surface land use of fossil fuel acquisition and utilization has not been well characterized, inhibiting consistent comparisons of different electricity generation technologies. Here we present a method for robust estimation of the life cycle land use of electricity generated from natural gas through a case study that includes inventories of infrastructure, satellite imagery and well-level production. Approximately 500 sites in the Barnett Shale of Texas were sampled across five life cycle stages (production, gathering, processing, transmission and power generation). Total land use (0.62 m2 MWh−1, 95% confidence intervals ±0.01 m2 MWh−1) was dominated by midstream infrastructure, particularly pipelines (74%). Our results were sensitive to power plant heat rate (85–190% of the base case), facility lifetime (89–169%), number of wells per site (16–100%), well lifetime (92–154%) and pipeline right of way (58–142%). When replicated for other gas-producing regions and different fuels, our approach offers a route to enable empirically grounded comparisons of the land footprint of energy choices.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • An index of inequality in China
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Dabo Guan

    An index of inequality in China Nature Energy, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0013-z Household income is a typical measure of inequality, but it is limited by under-reporting, especially for rural Chinese households. A new study shows that energy consumption measures service flows of household durable electronics, which can provide more precise measurement of rural wealth inequalities and distributions.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Hydrogen separation by nanocrystalline titanium nitride membranes with high hydride ion conductivity
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Chiharu Kura, Yuji Kunisada, Etsushi Tsuji, Chunyu Zhu, Hiroki Habazaki, Shinji Nagata, Michael P. Müller, Roger A. De Souza, Yoshitaka Aoki

    The production of pure hydrogen for use in energy applications and related industries often relies on the permeation of hydrogen through palladium-based membranes. However, the scarcity of Pd reserves necessitates the development of affordable alternatives with high hydrogen permeability. Here we report room-temperature hydrogen permeability of titanium nitrides (widely used as tough and inert coating materials) enabled by mixed hydride ion–electron conductivity. Combined spectroscopic, permeability and microgravimetric measurements reveal that nanocrystalline TiN x membranes feature enhanced grain-boundary diffusion of hydride anions associated with interfacial Ti cations on nanograins. Since the corresponding activation energies are very low (<10 kJ mol–1), these membranes yield a considerably higher room-temperature hydrogen flux than Pd membranes of equivalent thickness. Overall, the current study establishes general guidelines for developing hydride ion transport membranes based on a simple transition metal nitride for hydrogen purification, membrane reactors and other applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Growing instead of confining
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Yang-Kook Sun, Chong Seung Yoon

    Growing instead of confining Nature Energy, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0008-9 Confining sulfur in high-surface-area carbon is a widely adapted approach in Li–S batteries, but it often results in low sulfur utilization and low energy density. Now, controlled nucleation of discrete Li2S particles on a network of low-surface-area carbon fibres provides a possible solution to the endemic problems of Li–S batteries.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Rescue US energy innovation
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Laura Diaz Anadon, Kelly Sims Gallagher, John P. Holdren

    Rescue US energy innovation Nature Energy, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0012-0 President Trump has proposed severe cuts to US government spending on energy research, development and demonstration, but Congress has the ‘power of the purse’ and can rescue US energy innovation. If serious cuts are enacted, the pace of innovation will slow, harming the economy, energy security and global environmental quality.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Non-encapsulation approach for high-performance Li–S batteries through controlled nucleation and growth
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Huilin Pan, Junzheng Chen, Ruiguo Cao, Vijay Murugesan, Nav Nidhi Rajput, Kee Sung Han, Kristin Persson, Luis Estevez, Mark H. Engelhard, Ji-Guang Zhang, Karl T. Mueller, Yi Cui, Yuyan Shao, Jun Liu

    High-surface-area, nanostructured carbon is widely used for encapsulating sulfur and improving the cyclic stability of Li–S batteries, but the high carbon content and low packing density limit the specific energy that can be achieved. Here we report an approach that does not rely on sulfur encapsulation. We used a low-surface-area, open carbon fibre architecture to control the nucleation and growth of the sulfur species by manipulating the carbon surface chemistry and the solvent properties, such as donor number and Li+ diffusivity. Our approach facilitates the formation of large open spheres and prevents the production of an undesired insulating sulfur-containing film on the carbon surface. This mechanism leads to ~100% sulfur utilization, almost no capacity fading, over 99% coulombic efficiency and high energy density (1,835 Wh kg−1 and 2,317 Wh l−1). This finding offers an alternative approach for designing high-energy and low-cost Li–S batteries through controlling sulfur reaction on low-surface-area carbon.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Measurement of inequality using household energy consumption data in rural China
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Shimei Wu, Xinye Zheng, Chu Wei

    Measuring inequality can be challenging due to the limitations of using household income or expenditure data. Because actual energy consumption can be measured more easily and accurately and is relatively more stable, it may be a better measure of inequality. Here we use data on energy consumption for specific devices from a large nation-wide household survey (n = 3,404 rural households from 12 provinces) to assess inequality in rural China. We find that the overall inequality of energy consumption and expenditure varies greatly in terms of energy type, end-use demand, regions and climatic zones. Biomass, space heating and cooking, intraregional differences, and climatic zones characterized as cold or hot summer/cold winter contribute the most to total inequality for each indicator, respectively. The results suggest that the expansion of infrastructure does not accompany alleviation of energy inequality, and that energy affordability should be improved through income growth and targeted safety-net programmes instead of energy subsidies.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Author Correction: Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Nicholas C. Davy, Melda Sezen-Edmonds, Jia Gao, Xin Lin, Amy Liu, Nan Yao, Antoine Kahn, Yueh-Lin Loo

    Author Correction: Pairing of near-ultraviolet solar cells with electrochromic windows for smart management of the solar spectrum Nature Energy, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0017-8

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Stretchable and waterproof elastomer-coated organic photovoltaics for washable electronic textile applications
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Hiroaki Jinno, Kenjiro Fukuda, Xiaomin Xu, Sungjun Park, Yasuhito Suzuki, Mari Koizumi, Tomoyuki Yokota, Itaru Osaka, Kazuo Takimiya, Takao Someya

    Textile-compatible photovoltaics play a crucial role as a continuous source of energy in wearable devices. In contrast to other types of energy harvester, they can harvest sufficient electricity (on the order of milliwatts) for wearable devices by utilizing the cloth itself as the platform for photovoltaics. Three features are important for textile-compatible photovoltaics, namely environmental stability, sufficient energy efficiency and mechanical robustness. However, achieving these simultaneously remains difficult because of the low gas barrier properties of ultrathin superstrates and substrates. Here, we report on ultraflexible organic photovoltaics coated on both sides with elastomer that simultaneously realize stretchability and stability in water whilst maintaining a high efficiency of 7.9%. The efficiency of double-side-coated devices decreases only by 5.4% after immersion in water for 120 min. Furthermore, the efficiency of the devices remains at 80% of the initial value even after 52% mechanical compression for 20 cycles with 100 min of water exposure.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • High-resolution assessment of global technical and economic hydropower potential
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    David E. H. J. Gernaat, Patrick W. Bogaart, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Hester Biemans, Robin Niessink

    Hydropower is the most important renewable energy source to date, providing over 72% of all renewable electricity globally. Yet, only limited information is available on the global potential supply of hydropower and the associated costs. Here we provide a high-resolution assessment of the technical and economic potential of hydropower at a near-global scale. Using 15”×15” discharge and 3”×3” digital elevation maps, we built virtual hydropower installations at >3.8 million sites across the globe and calculated their potential using cost optimization methods. This way we identified over 60,000 suitable sites, which together represent a remaining global potential of 9.49 PWh yr−1 below US$0.50 kWh−1. The largest remaining potential is found in Asia Pacific (39%), South America (25%) and Africa (24%), of which a large part can be produced at low cost (

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Washing away barriers
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Ning Li, Christoph J. Brabec

    Washing away barriers Nature Energy, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0011-1 Light-weight and stretchable, organic photovoltaics offer unique integration prospects. Now, organic solar cells and modules can also be washed while maintaining good photoconversion efficiencies.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Energy policy: Guiding green lighting
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    Nicky Dean

    Energy policy: Guiding green lighting Nature Energy, Published online: 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.146

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Solar heating: Warm with thy neighbour
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    Elsa Couderc

    Solar heating: Warm with thy neighbour Nature Energy, Published online: 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.147

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Business as unusual
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-12

    Business as unusual Nature Energy, Published online: 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.150 Energy models provide powerful insights for decision-makers, but more care is needed around the choice of reference scenarios and the transparency of assumptions.

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Oil production: Impact of age
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    James Gallagher

    Oil production: Impact of age Nature Energy, Published online: 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.148

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Aqueous batteries: Versatile quinones
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    Changjun Zhang

    Aqueous batteries: Versatile quinones Nature Energy, Published online: 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.149

    更新日期:2017-09-12
  • Radiative cooling: Energy savings from the sky
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Geoff Smith, Angus Gentle

    Radiative cooling: Energy savings from the sky Nature Energy, Published online: 4 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.142 Environmental heat sinks beyond local air are available for use with normal air conditioners to increase their efficiency. A study has exploited outer space and the atmosphere as remote sinks to demonstrate daytime sub-ambient fluid cooling and its application in reducing the energy needed to cool an interior.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Sub-ambient non-evaporative fluid cooling with the sky
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Eli A. Goldstein, Aaswath P. Raman, Shanhui Fan

    Cooling systems consume 15% of electricity generated globally and account for 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for cooling expected to grow tenfold by 2050, improving the efficiency of cooling systems is a critical part of the twenty-first-century energy challenge. Building upon recent demonstrations of daytime radiative sky cooling, here we demonstrate fluid cooling panels that harness radiative sky cooling to cool fluids below the air temperature with zero evaporative losses, and use almost no electricity. Over three days of testing, we show that the panels cool water up to 5 ∘C below the ambient air temperature at water flow rates of 0.2 l min−1 m−2, corresponding to an effective heat rejection flux of up to 70 W m−2. We further show through modelling that, when integrated on the condenser side of the cooling system of a two-storey office building in a hot dry climate (Las Vegas, USA), electricity consumption for cooling during the summer could be reduced by 21% (14.3 MWh).

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Felix Creutzig, Peter Agoston, Jan Christoph Goldschmidt, Gunnar Luderer, Gregory Nemet, Robert C. Pietzcker

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fifth assessment report emphasizes the importance of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage for achieving climate goals, but it does not identify solar energy as a strategically important technology option. That is surprising given the strong growth, large resource, and low environmental footprint of photovoltaics (PV). Here we explore how models have consistently underestimated PV deployment and identify the reasons for underlying bias in models. Our analysis reveals that rapid technological learning and technology-specific policy support were crucial to PV deployment in the past, but that future success will depend on adequate financing instruments and the management of system integration. We propose that with coordinated advances in multiple components of the energy system, PV could supply 30–50% of electricity in competitive markets.

    更新日期:2017-08-25
  • Raising the one-sun conversion efficiency of III–V/Si solar cells to 32.8% for two junctions and 35.9% for three junctions
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Stephanie Essig, Christophe Allebé, Timothy Remo, John F. Geisz, Myles A. Steiner, Kelsey Horowitz, Loris Barraud, J. Scott Ward, Manuel Schnabel, Antoine Descoeudres, David L. Young, Michael Woodhouse, Matthieu Despeisse, Christophe Ballif, Adele Tamboli

    Today’s dominant photovoltaic technologies rely on single-junction devices, which are approaching their practical efficiency limit of 25–27%. Therefore, researchers are increasingly turning to multi-junction devices, which consist of two or more stacked subcells, each absorbing a different part of the solar spectrum. Here, we show that dual-junction III–V//Sidevices with mechanically stacked, independently operated III–V and Si cells reach cumulative one-sun efficiencies up to 32.8%. Efficiencies up to 35.9% were achieved when combining a GaInP/GaAs dual-junction cell with a Si single-junction cell. These efficiencies exceed both the theoretical 29.4% efficiency limit of conventional Si technology and the efficiency of the record III–V dual-junction device (32.6%), highlighting the potential of Si-based multi-junction solar cells. However, techno-economic analysis reveals an order-of-magnitude disparity between the costs for III–V//Si tandem cells and conventional Si solar cells, which can be reduced if research advances in low-cost III–V growth techniques and new substrate materials are successful.

    更新日期:2017-08-25
  • Withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement hurts the US
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Jason Bordoff

    Withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement hurts the US Nature Energy, Published online: 25 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.145 The Trump administration's domestic plans would have curtailed the nation's climate action even if it had stayed in the Paris Agreement. Yet, the decision to leave the agreement undermines US international energy and climate leadership and the prospects of ramping up global climate policy ambition.

    更新日期:2017-08-25
  • The climate and air-quality benefits of wind and solar power in the United States
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Dev Millstein, Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger, Galen Barbose

    Wind and solar energy reduce combustion-based electricity generation and provide air-quality and greenhouse gas emission benefits. These benefits vary dramatically by region and over time. From 2007 to 2015, solar and wind power deployment increased rapidly while regulatory changes and fossil fuel price changes led to steep cuts in overall power-sector emissions. Here we evaluate how wind and solar climate and air-quality benefits evolved during this time period. We find cumulative wind and solar air-quality benefits of 2015 US$29.7–112.8 billion mostly from 3,000 to 12,700 avoided premature mortalities, and cumulative climate benefits of 2015 US$5.3–106.8 billion. The ranges span results across a suite of air-quality and health impact models and social cost of carbon estimates. We find that binding cap-and-trade pollutant markets may reduce these cumulative benefits by up to 16%. In 2015, based on central estimates, combined marginal benefits equal 7.3 ¢ kWh−1 (wind) and 4.0 ¢ kWh−1 (solar).

    更新日期:2017-08-15
  • Efficient ambient-air-stable solar cells with 2D–3D heterostructured butylammonium-caesium-formamidinium lead halide perovskites
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Zhiping Wang, Qianqian Lin, Francis P. Chmiel, Nobuya Sakai, Laura M. Herz, Henry J. Snaith

    Perovskite solar cells are remarkably efficient; however, they are prone to degradation in water, oxygen and ultraviolet light. Cation engineering in 3D perovskite absorbers has led to reduced degradation. Alternatively, 2D Ruddlesden–Popper layered perovskites exhibit improved stability, but have not delivered efficient solar cells so far. Here, we introduce n-butylammonium cations into a mixed-cation lead mixed-halide FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(IyBr1−y)3 3D perovskite. We observe the formation of 2D perovskite platelets, interspersed between highly orientated 3D perovskite grains, which suppress non-radiative charge recombination. We investigate the relationship between thin-film composition, crystal alignment and device performance. Solar cells with an optimal butylammonium content exhibit average stabilized power conversion efficiency of 17.5 ± 1.3% with a 1.61-eV-bandgap perovskite and 15.8 ± 0.8% with a 1.72-eV-bandgap perovskite. The stability under simulated sunlight is also enhanced. Cells sustain 80% of their ‘post burn-in’ efficiency after 1,000 h in air, and close to 4,000 h when encapsulated.

    更新日期:2017-08-15
  • Energy innovation: Disinterest impedes adoption
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Jenn Richler

    Energy innovation: Disinterest impedes adoption Nature Energy, Published online: 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.136

    更新日期:2017-08-08
  • Thermoelectrics: Invisible harvest
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Elsa Couderc

    Thermoelectrics: Invisible harvest Nature Energy, Published online: 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.137

    更新日期:2017-08-08
  • Fuel cells: Making membranes
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    James Gallagher

    Fuel cells: Making membranes Nature Energy, Published online: 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.138

    更新日期:2017-08-08
  • Conditions for capture
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-08

    Conditions for capture Nature Energy, Published online: 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.141 Recent large-scale carbon-capture schemes in the energy sector point to progress, but further development and support are still required to improve viability and widespread deployment.

    更新日期:2017-08-08
  • Electrochemical storage: Liquefied gas solvents
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Changjun Zhang

    Electrochemical storage: Liquefied gas solvents Nature Energy, Published online: 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.139

    更新日期:2017-08-08
  • Bioinspired catalytic materials for energy-relevant conversions
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Vincent Artero

    Bioinspired catalytic materials for energy-relevant conversions Nature Energy, Published online: 7 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.131 The structure of active sites of enzymes involved in bioenergetic processes can inspire design of active, stable and cost-effective catalysts for renewable-energy technologies. For these materials to reach maturity, the benefits of bioinspired systems must be combined with practical technological requirements.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • Li–air batteries: Decouple to stabilize
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Ji-Jing Xu, Xin-Bo Zhang

    Li–air batteries: Decouple to stabilize Nature Energy, Published online: 7 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.133 The utilization of porous carbon cathodes in lithium–air batteries is hindered by their severe decomposition during battery cycling. Now, dual redox mediators are shown to decouple the complex electrochemical reactions at the cathode, avoiding cathode passivation and decomposition.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • Energy storage deployment and innovation for the clean energy transition
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Noah Kittner, Felix Lill, Daniel M. Kammen

    The clean energy transition requires a co-evolution of innovation, investment, and deployment strategies for emerging energy storage technologies. A deeply decarbonized energy system research platform needs materials science advances in battery technology to overcome the intermittency challenges of wind and solar electricity. Simultaneously, policies designed to build market growth and innovation in battery storage may complement cost reductions across a suite of clean energy technologies. Further integration of R&D and deployment of new storage technologies paves a clear route toward cost-effective low-carbon electricity. Here we analyse deployment and innovation using a two-factor model that integrates the value of investment in materials innovation and technology deployment over time from an empirical dataset covering battery storage technology. Complementary advances in battery storage are of utmost importance to decarbonization alongside improvements in renewable electricity sources. We find and chart a viable path to dispatchable US$1 W−1 solar with US$100 kWh−1 battery storage that enables combinations of solar, wind, and storage to compete directly with fossil-based electricity options.

    更新日期:2017-07-31
  • Self-optimizing, highly surface-active layered metal dichalcogenide catalysts for hydrogen evolution
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Yuanyue Liu, Jingjie Wu, Ken P. Hackenberg, Jing Zhang, Y. Morris Wang, Yingchao Yang, Kunttal Keyshar, Jing Gu, Tadashi Ogitsu, Robert Vajtai, Jun Lou, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Brandon C. Wood, Boris I. Yakobson

    Low-cost, layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (MX2) based on molybdenum and tungsten have attracted substantial interest as alternative catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). These materials have high intrinsic per-site HER activity; however, a significant challenge is the limited density of active sites, which are concentrated at the layer edges. Here we unravel electronic factors underlying catalytic activity on MX2 surfaces, and leverage the understanding to report group-5 MX2 (H-TaS2 and H-NbS2) electrocatalysts whose performance instead mainly derives from highly active basal-plane sites, as suggested by our first-principles calculations and performance comparisons with edge-active counterparts. Beyond high catalytic activity, they are found to exhibit an unusual ability to optimize their morphology for enhanced charge transfer and accessibility of active sites as the HER proceeds, offering a practical advantage for scalable processing. The catalysts reach 10 mA cm−2 current density at an overpotential of ∼50–60 mV with a loading of 10–55 μg cm−2, surpassing other reported MX2 candidates without any performance-enhancing additives.

    更新日期:2017-07-31
  • Hydrogen evolution: Not living on the edge
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Danielle N. Chirdon, Yiying Wu

    Hydrogen evolution: Not living on the edge Nature Energy, Published online: 31 July 2017; doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.132 Transition-metal dichalcogenides are appealing catalysts for H2 generation from water. They tend to rely on scarce edge sites, rather than the more abundant basal-plane sites, to drive catalysis. Now, guided by computation, H-TaS2 and H-NbS2 are proposed as highly basal-plane-active catalysts that improve with electrochemical cycling.

    更新日期:2017-07-31
  • A rechargeable lithium–oxygen battery with dual mediators stabilizing the carbon cathode
    Nat. Energy Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Xiangwen Gao, Yuhui Chen, Lee R. Johnson, Zarko P. Jovanov, Peter G. Bruce

    At the cathode of a Li–O2 battery, O2 is reduced to Li2O2 on discharge, the process being reversed on charge. Li2O2 is an insulating and insoluble solid, leading ultimately to low rates, low capacities and early cell death if formed on the cathode surface. Here we show that when using dual mediators, 2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone [DBBQ] on discharge and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy [TEMPO] on charge, the electrochemistry at the cathode surface is decoupled from Li2O2 formation/decomposition in solution. Capacities of 2 mAh cmareal−2 at 1 mA cmareal−2 with low polarization on charge/discharge are demonstrated, and up to 40 mAh cmareal−2 at rates ≫1 mA cmareal−2 are anticipated if suitable gas diffusion electrodes can be devised. One of the major barriers to the progress of Li–O2 cells is decomposition of the carbon cathode. By forming/decomposing Li2O2 in solution and avoiding high charge potentials, the carbon instability is significantly mitigated (<0.008% decomposition per cycle compared with 0.12% without mediators).

    更新日期:2017-07-31
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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