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  • Thermodynamic costs of dynamic function in active soft matter
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-12-05
    Yong Dou, Kiran Dhatt-Gauthier, Kyle J.M. Bishop

    Living matter combines complex structures and dissipative processes to achieve dynamic functions that rely on material organization in space and time. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in creating synthetic material systems capable of four such functions–keeping time, powering motion, building structures, and making copies. Chemical oscillators coordinate the temporal activity of material assemblies; molecular motors and active colloids convert chemical energy into mechanical forces and motions; chemical activation of self-assembling components provides temporal control over dissipative structures; information-rich nanomaterials replicate their structures in exponential fashion. These and other dynamic functions cannot be achieved at thermodynamic equilibrium but instead require flows of energy and matter to create and maintain spatiotemporal order. Such systems are captured within the framework of stochastic thermodynamics, which describes the fluctuating thermodynamic quantities of driven systems. Even far from equilibrium, these quantities obey universal relations, which establish fundamental trade-offs between the rate of energy dissipation and performance metrics such as precision, efficiency, and speed. For each function considered, we present a simple kinetic model that offers general insights that inform the design and creation of dissipative material systems capable of dynamic functions. Overall, we aim to bridge experimental efforts in active soft matter and theoretical advances from stochastic thermodynamics to inform future research on material systems inspired by living matter.

    更新日期:2018-12-06
  • Dynamics in hard condensed matter probed by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy: Present and beyond
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Qingteng Zhang (张庆腾), Eric M. Dufresne, Alec R. Sandy

    Insight into the spatial ordering and dynamics of structural heterogeneity in materials is at the heart of understanding their structure and function. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measures the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t) providing information on the spontaneous low-energy dynamics intrinsic to many materials. Combined with in situ and in operando capabilities, XPCS provides unique insight into a variety of scientific areas, including phase separation in binary alloys, aging in metallic glasses, surface dynamics during growth, domain wall dynamics in ferroic complex oxides and charge and spin density wave motion in quantum materials. This review summarizes some recent XPCS work in these areas and discusses scientific opportunities that will be made possible with the many-fold increase in coherent flux provided by the world-wide construction and commissioning of X-ray sources based on multi-bend achromat (MBA) storage ring (SR) lattices and high repetition rate free electron lasers (FELs).

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Modeling tribocorrosion of passive metals – A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-07-07
    Shoufan Cao, Stefano Mischler

    Tribocorrosion is a material degradation phenomenon resulting from interactive effects between wear and corrosion. It is commonly found in engineering applications (e.g. biomedical implants and marine equipment) which involve relative motion of contacting metals in a corrosive environment. In this study, models describing tribocorrosion of passive metals in sliding contacts were reviewed. Different categories of models (two-body or three-body contact models, lubricated tribocorrosion model, empirical models, multi-degradation models) were found in the literature. Through the identification of relevant chemo-mechanical degradation mechanisms, robust analytical expressions accurately predicting the overall material loss in tribocorrosion have been developed. Numerical methods have been used to describe time dependent transitions in tribocorrosion. Possibilities and limits of the proposed models in the literature as well as future trends are discussed in this review.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Nanomechanical testing of third bodies
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-06-27
    Richard R. Chromik, Yinyin Zhang

    During wear, materials undergo chemical and mechanical changes that lead to the formation of what are known as ‘third bodies’. Tribologists have long understood that third bodies have significant influence on the friction and wear performance of materials. However, the inhomogeneous nature of third bodies and how they form at the ‘buried interface’ of a sliding tribological contact has long made it difficult to fully characterize and study them. Recently, there have been significant advancements in nanomechanical testing such that researchers have begun to use these techniques to, for the first time, determine mechanical properties of third bodies. Coupling these measurements with high resolution electron microscopy and surface chemical analysis has finally given tribologists the ability to obtain the necessary data to understand and model third bodies and their connections to friction and wear. This review will present recent work on the topic of nanomechanical testing of third bodies while at the same time identifying the challenges and opportunities this research presents.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Current developments of nanoscale insight into corrosion protection by passive oxide films
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Vincent Maurice, Philippe Marcus

    Oxide passive films are a key for the durability of metals and alloys components as well as a central issue in corrosion science and engineering. Herein, we discuss current developments of the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale knowledge of the barrier properties and adsorption properties of passive oxide films brought by recent model experimental and theoretical investigations. The discussed aspects include (i) the chromium enrichment and its homogeneity at the nanoscale in passive films formed on Cr-bearing alloys such as stainless steel, (ii) the corrosion properties of grain boundaries in early intergranular corrosion before penetration and propagation in the grain boundary network, and (iii) the interaction of organic inhibitor molecules with incompletely passivated metallic surfaces. In all three cases, key issues are highlighted and future developments that we consider as most relevant are identified.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Recent progress of NiCo2O4-based anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-06-06
    Xiao Han, Xuan Gui, Ting-Feng Yi, Yanwei Li, Caibo Yue

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are deemed as the most promising energy storage devices due to their high power density, excellent safety performance and superior cyclability. However, traditional carbon-based anodes are incapable of satisfying the ever-growing demand for high energy density owing to their low intrinsic theoretical capacity. Therefore, the research of post-carbon anodes (such as transition metal) for LIBs has exponentially increased. Among them, NiCo2O4 together with its composites have been widely studied by academic workers due to their high theoretical capacity and excellent electronic conductivity. In this review, the electrochemical reaction mechanism and recent progress including the synthetic method, various nanostructures and the strategies for improving performance of NiCo2O4 are summarized and discussed here. Specially, the hollow porous nanostructured NiCo2O4-based materials composed of 2D structures usually exhibit excellent capacity and stable cyclability. This review also offers some rational understandings and new thinking of the relationship between the synthetic method, morphologies, blending, current collector and electrochemical performance of NiCo2O4-based anodes. We have reason to believe that the integration of NiCo2O4 materials in these clean energy devices provides important chances to address challenges driven by increasing world energy demand.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Recent advances and an industrial perspective of cellulose nanocrystal functionalization through polymer grafting
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-24
    Stephanie A. Kedzior, Justin O. Zoppe, Richard M. Berry, Emily D. Cranston

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an emerging nanomaterial for applications ranging from coatings and construction to adhesives and biomedical devices. Owing to their high aspect ratio, stiffness, and reinforcing potential, CNCs have shown great promise to be used in polymer nanocomposites. However, due to their inherent hydrophilicity and compatibility with polar environments, the use of CNCs in hydrophobic polymer matrices or in organic solvent-based formulations has been limited. To overcome this incompatibility, many reports on grafting polymers onto the surface of CNCs have been published over the past ten years. This review describes the recent advances in CNC surface functionalization through polymer grafting, and comprehensively covers the existing work to date. Methods including polymer “grafting to” and “grafting from” are described in detail, using polymerization techniques such as free radical, ring opening, and controlled radical polymerization. Purification and characterization of polymer-grafted CNCs, the potential for upscaling these functionalization methods, and current perspectives from academic and industrial viewpoints are presented.

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Superior wear resistance of diamond and DLC coatings
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-20
    Ali Erdemir, Jean Michel Martin

    As the hardest known material, diamond and its coatings continue to generate significant attention for stringent applications involving extreme tribological conditions. Likewise, diamond-like carbon (DLC, especially the tetragonal amorphous carbon, ta-C) coatings have also maintained a high level interest for numerous industrial applications where efficiency, performance, and reliability are of great importance. The strong covalent bonding or sp3-hybridizaiton in diamond and ta-C coatings assures high mechanical hardness, stiffness, chemical and thermal stability that make them well-suited for harsh tribological conditions involving high-speeds, loads, and temperatures. In particular, unique chemical and mechanical nature of diamond and ta-C surfaces plays an important role in their unusual friction and wear behaviors. As with all other tribomaterials, both diamond and ta-C coatings strongly interact with the chemical species in their surroundings during sliding and hence produce a chemically passive top surface layer which ultimately determines the extent of friction and wear. Thick micro-crystalline diamond films are most preferred for tooling applications, while thinner nano/ultranano-crysalline diamond films are well-suited for mechanical devices ranging from nano- (such as NEMS) to micro- (MEMS and AFM tips) as well as macro-scale devices including mechanical pump seals. The ta-C coatings have lately become indispensable for a variety of automotive applications and are used in very large volumes in tappets, piston pins, rings, and a variety of gears and bearings, especially in the Asian market. This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in tribology of super-hard diamond and DLC (ta-C) films with a special emphasis on their friction and wear mechanisms that are key to their extraordinary tribological performance under harsh tribological conditions. Based on the results of recent studies, the paper will also attempt to highlight what lies ahead for these films in tribology and other demanding industrial applications.

    更新日期:2018-11-24
  • Recent advances in the manipulation of circularly polarised light with cellulose nanocrystal films
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    S.N. Fernandes, L.F. Lopes, M.H. Godinho

    Significant advances have been made to control the iridescence and the selective reflection of left circularly polarised (LCP) light, and transmission of right circularly polarised (RCP) light of solid films prepared from cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). However the manipulation of the photonic properties of the CNCs films, which reflect both RCP and LCP light is less investigated. Solid films prepare from natural sources as CNCs have advantageous characteristics that are absent in other synthetic structures, such as wide availability and renewability. Here we review and compare recent research activity involving the production and characterization of photonic band gap structures resulting from an anisotropic layer inserted between two cholesteric layers with different helical pitches but the same handedness. We make connections between systems existing in Nature and synthetic ones with the hope of advancing in the production and manipulation of CNCs-based photonic structures.

    更新日期:2018-11-20
  • Flexible strain sensors fabricated using carbon-based nanomaterials: A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-10
    Tao Yan, Zhe Wang, Zhi-Juan Pan

    Flexible strain sensors have experienced growing demand due to their several potential applications, such as personalized health monitoring, human motion detection, structural health monitoring, smart garments, and robots. Recently, several academic results have been reported concerning flexible and stretchable strain sensors. These reports indicate that the materials and design methods have an important influence on the performance of strain sensors. Carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon-based nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon black nanoparticles play a key role in the fabrication of flexible strain sensors with excellent properties. In terms of design, carbon-based nanomaterials are generally combined with polymers to maintain the flexibility and stability of a strain sensor. Various combined methods were successfully developed using different assembly structures of carbon-based nanomaterials in polymers, such as uniform mixing and ordered structures, including films, fibers, nanofiber membranes, yarns, foams, and fabrics. The working mechanisms of the flexible strain sensors, including changing the conductive network between overlapped nanomaterials, tunneling effect, and crack propagation, are also different compared with that of traditional semiconductor and metal sensors. The effects of the carbon-based nanomaterial structures in polymers on the strain sensing performance have been comprehensively studied and analyzed. The potential applications of flexible strain sensors and current challenges have been summarized and evaluated. This review provides some suggestions for further development of flexible and stretchable strain sensors with outstanding performance.

    更新日期:2018-11-10
  • Emerging methods and opportunities in nanoscale materials characterization
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-11-03
    Paul G. Evans

    The emergence of powerful nanomaterials characterization techniques promises to underpin a new range of advances in materials research. There have been significant developments in the characterization of the phase, structure, composition, and dynamics of materials at the nanoscale. Articles in this issue report recent advances in three areas: atom probe tomography, x-ray nanobeam scattering and diffraction, and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Each of these provides three-dimensional insight into hard materials in ways that have been previously unavailable. Taken together, these emerging methods have the potential to provide new tests for materials theory and computation and to extend significantly the range of questions that can be answered in materials research.

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Bioinspired structural color sensors based on responsive soft materials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Meng Qin, Mo Sun, Mutian Hua, Ximin He

    Structural colors in nature have inspired the design of diverse photonic structures, which can interact with light via interference, diffraction or scattering. Among them, responsive soft material-involved photonic structures uniquely feature large volumetric changes upon external stimuli. The volumetric changes result in peak/valley shift of reflection spectra and perceptible color changes, providing responsive soft material-based structural color systems capability of serving as sensors for detecting chemical and biological analytes. Synthetic polymers and some natural materials are the most studied and utilized responsive soft materials for constructing structural color sensors, by tuning the thickness and morphology of formed films, or incorporating them into template structures, or their self-assembling. In this review article, structural colors in nature are firstly introduced, followed by discussing recent developments of promising responsive soft material-based structural color sensors, including the design of structural color sensors based on synthetic polymers and natural materials, as well as their applications for chemical sensing, biosensing, and multi-analyte sensing with sensor arrays. For specific sensing of chemicals and biomolecules, the sensing performance is evaluated in terms of detection range, sensitivity, response time, and selectivity. For multi-analyte sensing, cross-reactive structural sensor arrays based on simply a single soft material will be shown capable of discriminating various series of similar compounds. The future development of structural color sensors is also proposed and discussed.

    更新日期:2018-10-10
  • 更新日期:2018-10-01
  • X-ray nanobeam diffraction imaging of materials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Tobias U. Schϋlli, Steven J. Leake
    更新日期:2018-10-01
  • Crystallization of amorphous complex oxides: New geometries and new compositions via solid phase epitaxy
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Paul G. Evans, Yajin Chen, Jack A. Tilka, Susan E. Babcock, Thomas F. Kuech

    The crystallization of amorphous complex oxides via solid phase epitaxy enables a wide range of opportunities in the formation of oxide materials in new geometries and with previously inaccessible compositions. Emerging methods for controlling crystallization from the amorphous form arise from recent advances in the deposition of amorphous oxides, the formation and placement of crystalline seeds, and have built on an expanded understanding of the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth. Key discoveries include methods for the creation of epitaxial layers in perovskite, spinel, and pyrochlore complex oxides. The creation of nanoscale homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial seeds has the potential to enable new directions in the integration of complex oxides with semiconductors and in devices based on oxygen ion transport. Future opportunities include the creation of complex oxides in morphologies and compositions exhibiting electronic, thermal, and magnetic phenomena enabling a variety of applications.

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • 更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Predicting whether a material is ductile or brittle
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.548) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    R.P. Thompson, W.J. Clegg

    In this paper we discuss the various models that have been used to predict whether a material will tend to be ductile or brittle. The most widely used is the Pugh ratio, G/KG/K, but we also examine the Cauchy pressure as defined by Pettifor, a combined criterion proposed by Niu, the Rice and Thomson model, the Rice model, and the Zhou-Carlsson-Thomson model. We argue that no simple model that works on the basis of simple relations of bulk polycrystalline properties can represent the failure mode of different materials, particularly where geometric effects occur, such as small sample sizes. Instead the processes of flow and fracture must be considered in detail for each material structure, in particular the effects of crystal structure on these processes.

    更新日期:2018-05-01
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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