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  • Elastic constant determination of unidirectional composite via ultrasonic bulk wave through transmission measurements: A review
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-20
    David A.P. Paterson, Winifred Ijomah, James F.C. Windmill

    The determination of the elastic constants of unidirectional carbon fibre composite via immersion based ultrasound is an established area with much literature. Existing literature reviews in this area discuss the extant literature but do not offer a deep review of the seminal publications during this period, but instead focus on reporting the contributions of the published literature. Thus, a gap in knowledge exists for a comprehensive literature review charting the evolution of how the elastic constants of uni-directional carbon fibre composite are determined via immersion based ultrasonic through transmission. This work addresses this. Building on previous literature, this paper reviews seminal publications in chronological order, with the benefits, drawbacks and contributions to knowledge of each reviewed publication identified within this work. This review is bounded from 1970-2015, (some 45 years of literature), and maps the progression of technological and scientific advancement of the through transmission technique; that is, seminal literature during this period is both identified and reviewed in chronological order thus demonstrating how each paper builds on previous work. This paper also documents two novel information tables, which for the first time allow the significant contributions to knowledge during this period to be quickly identified

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Titanium Dioxide Nanostructures for Photoelectrochemical Applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
    Shaohua Shen, Jie Chen, Meng Wang, Xia Sheng, Xiangyan Chen, Xinjian Feng, Samuel S. Mao

    This review comprehensively summarized the progresses in the design and modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures as photoelectrode materials for photoelectrochemstry (PEC) applications, mainly in solar-fuel conversion. Various kinds of TiO2 nanostructures including the nanoparticulate, one-dimenstional (nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes), two-dimensional (nanobelt, nanoribbon, nanosheet), three-dimensional (meso/nanoporous, branched nanostructures, etc.), and the cystal-facet tailored TiO2 nanostructures are surveyed and discussed. For each type of nanostructure, the commonly-used and effective modification strategies are reviewed followed with a deep discussion on the properties relevant to PEC performances. Moreover, the surface modification approaches (surface disordering, passivation and decoration) on TiO2 nanostructures are highlighted for developing efficient TiO2-based PEC cells. This review will serve as a good resource or guideline for researchers who are currently focusing on TiO2 materials as well as for those who are interested in versatile semiconductor-based PEC applications.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Nanomaterials as photothermal therapeutic agents
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-07-11
    Junqi Chen, Chengyun Ning, Zhengnan Zhou, Peng Yu, Ye Zhu, Guoxin Tan, Chuanbin Mao

    Curing cancer has been one of the greatest conundrums in the modern medical field. To reduce side-effects associated with the traditional cancer therapy such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been recognized as one of the most promising treatments for cancer over recent years. PTT relies on ablation agents such as nanomaterials with a photothermal effect, for converting light into heat. In this way, elevated temperature could kill cancer cells while avoiding significant side effects on normal cells. This theory works because normal cells have a higher heat tolerance than cancer cells. Thus, nanomaterials with photothermal effects have attracted enormous attention due to their selectivity and non-invasive attributes. This review article summarizes the current status of employing nanomaterials with photothermal effects for anti-cancer treatment. Mechanisms of the photothermal effect and various factors affecting photothermal performance will be discussed. Efficient and selective PTT is believed to play an increasingly prominent role in cancer treatment. Moreover, merging PTT with other methods of cancer therapies is also discussed as a future trend.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • On the morphology and structure formation of carbon fibers from polymer precursor systems
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-07-06
    Muhannad Al Aiti, Dieter Jehnichen, Dieter Fischer, Harald Brünig, Gert Heinrich

    This review paper summarizes and critically discusses the morphology and structure formation of carbon fibers (CFs) from polymer precursor systems. Throughout this review, we focus on the key mutual interactions between the polymeric precursor systems, their physically determined processability into filaments, the thermally initiated crystal conversion mechanisms, as well as the morphological and physical properties of the resulting CFs and graphite fibers (GFs). Understanding the behavior of crystal conversion mechanisms from a polymeric semi-crystalline structure into a turbostratic, glass-like or even a graphite-like carbonaceous crystalline structure is essential to carbon and graphite fiber formation. The nature of the crystal conversion and thermal processing largely determine the recovery degree and behavior of the carbonaceous crystal orientation. Over the last three decades, CFs and GFs have earned a significant reputation as lightweight fibrous reinforcement materials, and considerable advances have been achieved in understanding the structure of CFs and GFs and in tailoring their performance towards specific applications. The utilization of CFs and GFs in different thermoplastics and thermosets, as well as in concrete as reinforcements, is well known thanks to the abundant number of reports and reviews available. Nevertheless, large-scale utilization of CFs in high-technology sectors, such as the aerospace industry, is mainly driven by the required performance of the CFs. For civilian applications such as general engineering and the automotive industry, however, the large-scale production of CFs is immensely limited by production costs. Numerous reports and reviews are available in the field of CFs and its precursors. Therefore, we focus on reviewing the less-discussed structure–property relationship and the influence of the different manufacturing processes on this relationship. Throughout this review, we identify areas that require future research and development regarding the morphology and structure formation of CFs from emerging precursor systems, e.g., lignin.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • On the coupling between martensitic transformation and plasticity in NiTi: Experiments and continuum based modelling
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-07-07
    P. Šittner, P. Sedlák, H. Seiner, P. Sedmák, J. Pilch, R. Delville, L. Heller, L. Kadeřávek

    Recent macroscopic experimental and theoretical evidence on the stress-strain-temperature behavior of NiTi beyond the strain recoverability limits (large strain, high stress, high temperature), where reversible martensitic transformation tends to proceed together with irreversible plastic deformation processes, is reviewed. Model predictions on the transformation – plasticity coupling are laid out based on the mathematical theory of martensitic microstructures and the crystal plasticity theory. A particular attention is paid to the strain compatibility at moving phase interfaces that may have a direct impact on the plasticity accompanying the martensitic transformation. It is suggested that strong transformation-plasticity coupling shall be expected during the reverse martensitic transformation. Macroscopic models from the literature capable of simulation of thermomechanical responses of NiTi polycrystals due to coexisting martensitic transformation and plastic deformation are reviewed. Dedicated thermomechanical loading experiments on superelastic and actuator NiTi wires aimed at improving our understanding of the coupling between martensitic transformation and plasticity are presented. Based on the results of in-situ studies during thermomechanical loading experiments (electric resistance, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, surface strain by DIC, relaxations) and characterization microstructures in deformed wires by TEM, it is shown that: i) microstructures and consequently functional properties of annealed NiTi wires can be purposely manipulated by thermomechanical processing, ii) shape setting of NiTi can be performed at relatively low temperatures (<300 °C), iii) strain drift of NiTi actuators can be brought under control utilizing the knowledge derived from the presented experiments.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • Interdiffusion along grain boundaries – Diffusion Induced Grain Boundary Migration, low temperature homogenization and reactions in nanostructured thin films
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-07-07
    D.L. Beke, Yu. Kaganovskii, G.L. Katona

    Interdiffusion along grain boundaries can lead to shift of grain boundaries in form of Grain Boundary Diffusion Induced Grain Boundary Migration, DIGM, in systems forming wide range solid solutions, and to the Grain Boundary Diffusion Induced Solid State Reactions, in systems containing intermetallic phases. If, during above processes, the grain size of the sample is smaller than the double of the migration distance complete homogenization can also be reached (cold homogenization). Atomic mechanisms and phenomenological description of such alloying are reviewed. The main driving force, at low temperatures where the bulk diffusion is completely frozen out, arises from the unequality of the grain boundary atomic fluxes, leading to stress accumulations. The cold homogenization is the manifestation of such stress relaxations. Reviewing experimental data, we illustrate that DIGM takes place on both sides of a binary AB thin film and the solute content in the DIGM zone is higher on the side of the component of higher melting point (i.e. in the slower component). In binary systems containing intermetallic compounds the cold homogenization can lead, either to the formation of a given stoichiometric compound, or to two phase equilibrium, in accordance with the phase diagram. Different possible applications are likewise surveyed.

    更新日期:2018-07-08
  • Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Their Composites
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Haoling Jia, Gongyao Wang, Shuying Chen, Yanfei Gao, Weidong Li, Peter K. Liaw

    A fundamental understanding of the fatigue and fracture behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and their composites is of critical significance for designing new BMG systems and developing new manufacturing and processing techniques so as to broaden the scope of applications of BMGs and their composites. However, the fatigue and fracture studies on BMGs are limited so far, compared to other mechanical properties. The present work reviews the fatigue and fracture behavior of BMGs and their composites, as well as that of metallic-glass films, ribbons, and wires. The grand challenge for the fatigue and fracture performance of BMGs is: What produces a large difference among the fatigue and fracture results of BMGs? According to the fatigue and fracture investigations of crystalline alloys, many factors could be involved, such as the composition, material quality, specimen geometry, chemical environment, surface condition, temperature, cyclic frequency, mean stress, and residual stress, etc. Based on this challenge, the present work will review and address the factors affecting the fatigue and fracture behavior of BMGs and their composites. Furthermore, the mechanisms of fatigue-crack initiation, propagation, and fracture of BMGs and their composites in different loading conditions and environments will be outlined, analyzed, and discussed. Future research directions of fatigue and fracture of BMGs and their composites are provided for reference.

    更新日期:2018-07-02
  • Recent Development in Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Bulk Materials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-06-30
    Ting Zheng, Jiagang Wu, Dingquan Xiao, Jianguo Zhu

    The elimination of lead in piezoelectric applications remains challenging. Since the advances in the piezoelectricity were found in the perovskite family in 2000, studies into lead-free piezoelectric materials have grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science. In this Review, we highlighted the compelling physical properties of lead-free piezoelectric perovskite materials and summarized their state-of-the-art progress, with an emphasis on recent advances in the piezoelectric effect. We mainly introduced the unique advances in lead-free perovskites piezoelectric bulk materials, along with the descriptions of phase boundaries, domain configurations, and piezoelectric effects, and then the main physical mechanisms of high piezoelectricity were summaried. In particular, the applications of lead-free materials were also introduced and evaluated. Finally, challenge and perspective are featured on the basis of their current developments. This Review provides an overview of the development of lead-free piezoelectric perovskite materials in the past fifteen years along with future prospects, which may inspire material design toward practical applications based on their unique properties.

    更新日期:2018-07-01
  • Recent advancements in the development of bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs)
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Yan-Jie Wang, Baizeng Fang, Xiaomin Wang, Anna Ignaszak, Yuyu Liu, Aijun Li, Lei Zhang, Jiujun Zhang

    An ever-increasing energy demand has stimulated intense research into electrochemical technologies for both energy storage and conversion such as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Due to its high efficiency, low cost, and low environmental impact, the URFC, which combines a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer (PEWE), has been regarded as an important energy technology that can offer new opportunities to not only further reduce investment costs but also to open doors to the mass production of domestic applications. Despite this, URFCs still have to be further improved and optimized to reach a level of maturity of both fuel cells and electrolyzers in terms of energy efficiency and long-term performance. Currently, the major challenge of URFC technology has been the insufficient performance of the bifunctional electrocatalyst. Based on the most recent research trends and progresses of bifunctional oxygen catalyst materials, this review will provide a systematic introduction and a comprehensive assessment of various bifunctional oxygen catalysts; their science and technology, including material selection, synthesis, and characterization, as well as their applications in URFCs. This review aims to correlate the physicochemical characteristics of URFCs with the catalytic activity/stability of these materials.

    更新日期:2018-06-28
  • Grain-Boundary Kinetics: A Unified Approach
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Jian Han, Spencer L. Thomas, David J. Srolovitz

    Grain boundaries (GBs) are central defects for describing polycrystalline materials, and playing major role in a wide-range of physical properties of polycrystals. Control over GB kinetics provides effective means to tailor polycrystal properties through material processing. While many approaches describe different GB kinetic phenomena, this review provides a unifying concept for a wide range of GB kinetic behavior. Our approach rests on a disconnection description of GB kinetics. Disconnections are topological line defects constrained to crystalline interfaces with both step and dislocation character. These characteristics can be completely specified by GB bicrystallography and the macroscopic degrees of freedom of GBs. GB thermal fluctuations, GB migration and the ability of GBs to absorb/emit other defects from/into the delimiting grains can be modeled via the nucleation, propagation and reaction of disconnections in the GB. We review the fundamentals of bicrystallography and its relationship to disconnections and ultimately to the kinetic behavior of GBs. We then relate disconnection dynamics and GB kinetics to microstructural evolution. While this review of the GB kinetics literature is not exhaustive, we review much of the foundational literature and draw comparisons from a wide swath of the extant experimental, simulation, and theoretical GB kinetics literature.

    更新日期:2018-06-08
  • Metastable Si-B-C-N Ceramics and Their Matrix Composites Developed by Inorganic Route Based on Mechanical Alloying: Fabrication, Microstructures, Properties and Their Relevant Basic Scientific Issues
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Dechang Jia, Bin Liang, Zhihua Yang, Yu Zhou

    The development of novel high-temperature structural and multifunctional thermal protection materials for harsh environment applications, such as high-temperature oxidation, severe thermal shock, ablation by combustion gas flow etc., is one of the urgent needs of the modern aerospace industry. Ceramic matrix composites such as Cf/(C, SiC, Si3N4), SiCf/ZrB2, SiCp/(Si3N4, HfB2) have received much attention in recent years. Coincidently, metastable silicoboron carbonitride (Si-B-C-N) ceramics and corresponding matrix composites stand out from all recent materials offering great potential at high temperatures due to their high microstructural stability and excellent high-temperature properties including resistance to oxidation, thermal shock and ablation. Using inorganic powders (such as Si, C, B, BN, etc) instead of organic precursor as raw materials, the inorganic processing route based on mechanical alloying (MA), one of the non-equilibrium processing technique, coupled with sequential sintering, although apparently very ‘hard’ compared to the ‘soft’ polymer precursor method, is actually a simple and effective way to prepare monoliths with the uniform microstructures and superior properties. It has been used to obtain dense Si-B-C-N monoliths and structural parts stable at high temperatures providing new experimental data and therefrom a more detailed understanding of the intrinsic properties of metastable Si-B-C-N materials, benefitting progress towards engineering applications. This review summarizes the state-of-art research in Si-B-C-N ceramics and their matrix composites obtained by the inorganic processing route in the last decade compared with those of precursor-derived counterparts, including material design and preparation, microstructural features and evolutionary process, mechanical and thermophysical properties, resistance to oxidation, thermal shock and ablation, and the mechanisms of oxidation, ablation and crystallization of amorphous Si-B-C-N ceramics. Future trends for Si-B-C-N relevant materials are also pointed out.

    更新日期:2018-06-01
  • Towards the design of high-performance plant fibre composites: How can we best define the diversity and specificities of plant cell walls?
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Alain Bourmaud, Johnny Beaugrand, Darshil U. Shah, Vincent Placet, Christophe Baley

    For the past 15 years, there has been tremendous interest and technological development concerning biocomposites. Plant fibres can be derived from a multitude of natural agro-sources, with the preferred choice as a composite reinforcement often being driven by abundance, geographical location, and historical use. While from a product designer's or engineer's point of view, all plant cell walls are 'similar', they have indeed substantial morphological and mechanical diversity linked to their structure, biochemical composition and the plant growing conditions. Here, we provide a holistic overview of the main types of plant cell walls used as polymer reinforcements. The relationship between their structures and properties, in constant link with potential associated composite, is specifically discussed. Then, the fibre extraction and cultivation modes are compared, through an environmental assessment. We also show how a scientist's point of view on cell wall structure and associated experimental approach lead to distinct results; following a critical review, we make recommendations on appropriate characterisation. A final discussion highlights the pertinent parameters that accurately define a composite reinforcement fibre. The review will serve as a handbook reference for researchers and designers in the field of biomaterials for appropriate selection of plant cell walls for specific composite applications.

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Corrosion in the Molten Fluoride and Chloride Salts and Materials Development for Nuclear Applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Shaoqiang Guo, Jinsuo Zhang, Wei Wu, Wentao Zhou

    Next-generation nuclear reactor concepts and advanced techniques for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are drawing great attention in the nuclear field. Molten halide salts have been proposed as the fuel solvent and coolants for many molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts, and the electrolyte for the electrochemical separation of the SNF. The major concern of using molten salts is the corrosion of the structural materials imposed by these extreme environments. Materials corrosion is more challenging in the molten salt nuclear systems than in the traditional water reactors as the formation of the passivating oxide layer on the corrosion resistant alloys becomes thermodynamically unfavorable in molten salts and the use of many corrosion resistant alloys is restricted. This review takes a comprehensive approach covering all relevant work in the field: corrosion data accumulated since the 1950s to date, major corrosion problems and corresponding mechanisms, metallurgical factors, historical development of corrosion resistant alloys and recent attempts. The key environmental factors influencing corrosion in various nuclear systems, electrode kinetics, thermodynamic properties, and corrosion prevention techniques are also reviewed. Finally, current progress and challenges are summarized with an attempt at identifying knowledge gaps and future research directions.

    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Polyurethane nanocomposite based gas barrier films, membranes and coatings: A review on synthesis, characterization and potential applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Mangala Joshi, Bapan Adak, B.S. Butola

    Polyurethane (PU) and its nanocomposites based gas barrier films and coatings have established a distinctive position among various technologically important materials due to their large-scale potential applications. This review aims at highlighting the gas barrier property of polyurethane nanocomposite (PUNC) based films, membranes and coatings containing platelet-shaped fillers such as clays and graphene in PU matrix. The other fillers such as CNT, POSS, metal nanoparticles and nanocellulose have also been reviewed for their contribution in improving gas barrier property of polymers. The probable transport-mechanism of small gas molecules through PU and PUNCs have been discussed. There is also a discussion on basic PU-chemistry and effect of structure and morphology of PU on its gas barrier property. Various factors which influence the gas permeability through PU and PUNC films and coatings have been scrutinized. Some aspects of improving the gas barrier property of PUNCs have also been discussed. An emphasis is given on various proposed models for prediction of gas permeability through polymer nanocomposites. It also reviews the existing literature related to modeling and prediction of gas permeability of different PUNC membranes, films and coatings. Finally, special attention has been paid to the potential industrial applications of PUNC based films and coatings.

    更新日期:2018-05-16
  • Internal Structure - Na Storage Mechanisms - Electrochemical Performance Relations in Carbons
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Clement Bommier, David Mitlin, Xiulei Ji

    This review focuses on carbon-based sodium ion battery (NIB) negative electrodes, emphasizing the internal structure - Na storage mechanisms - electrochemical performance relations. We bring a unique vantage to the ever-expanding field of NIB anode literature: To quantify the critical emphasis on the structure – properties interdependence, we provide comprehensive data comparisons of representative published studies. This is accomplished through a series of “Master Plots”, which rather than focusing on an individual publication, combine the data by broad features first outlined in the taxonomy section. The advantage of such an approach is that it transcends the paper-to-paper differences in electrochemical performance in a given class of anodes, providing generalizable comparisons that are statistically significant. For instance, we manage to demonstrate that, while N-doped carbons have a slight advantage in terms of capacity, their rate performance at higher currents is unchanged over that of undoped carbons. To our knowledge such broad high-level data analysis has not been done in past reviews on either NIB or LIB carbon anodes. Furthermore, we also discuss a wide range of individual microstructures and chemistries, offering critical analysis when appropriate.

    更新日期:2018-05-01
  • High-performance SnSe thermoelectric materials: Progress and future challenge
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Zhi-Gang Chen, Xiaolei Shi, Li-Dong Zhao, Jin Zou

    Thermoelectric materials offer an alternative opportunity to tackle the energy crisis and environmental problems by enabling the direct solid-state energy conversion. As a promising candidate with full potentials for the next generation thermoelectrics, tin selenide (SnSe) and its associated thermoelectric materials have been attracted extensive attentions due to their ultralow thermal conductivity and high electrical transport performance (power factor). To provide a thorough overview of recent advances in SnSe-based thermoelectric materials that have been revealed as promising thermoelectric materials since 2014, here, we first focus on the inherent relationship between the structural characteristics and the supreme thermoelectric performance of SnSe, including the thermodynamics, crystal structures, and electronic structures. The effects of phonon scattering, pressure or strain, and oxidation behavior on the thermoelectric performance of SnSe are discussed in detail. Besides, we summarize the current theoretical calculations to predict and understand the thermoelectric performance of SnSe, and provide a comprehensive summary on the current synthesis, characterization, and thermoelectric performance of both SnSe crystals and polycrystals, and their associated materials. In the end, we point out the controversies, challenges and strategies toward future enhancements of the SnSe thermoelectric materials.

    更新日期:2018-04-30
  • Polymer/SiO2 Nanocomposites: Production and Applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Shadpour Mallakpour, Mina Naghdi

    At the present modern age, perhaps nanocomposites (NC)s are the most attractive materials which hold their situation in almost all of our life's aspects. Among different kinds of the NCs, polymer based NCs are the most prominent one and have more adherents. Polymers are prepared via easily and relatively inexpensive routes, and have many favorable properties, such as light weight, ductility, and flexibility. The outstanding properties presented by the polymer/SiO2 NC (PSNC)s prompted us to focus particularly on them in this review. First, we briefly elucidate about the nano-building block of these NCs and its preparation methods. After that it was concentrated on the NCs’ fabrication strategies and finally the most important properties and the related practical applications of newly presented will be discussed.

    更新日期:2018-04-28
  • Recent progress on the characterization of the high-pressure behaviour of AVO4 orthovanadates
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Daniel Errandonea, Alka B. Garg

    AVO4 orthovanadates are materials of fundamental and technological importance due to the large variety of functional properties exhibited by them. These materials have potential applications such as scintillators, thermophosphors, photocatalysts, and cathodoluminescence materials among others. They are also used as laser-host crystals. Studies at high pressures and temperatures are helpful for understanding the physical properties of the solid state, in particular, the phase behaviour of AVO4 materials. For instance, they have contributed to the understanding of the macroscopic properties of orthovanadates in terms of microscopic mechanisms. A great progress has been made in the last decade towards the study of the pressure-effects on the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of AVO4 compounds. Thanks to the combination of experimental and theoretical studies, novel metastable structures with interesting physical properties have been discovered and the high-pressure structural sequence followed by AVO4 oxides has been understood. In this article, we will review high-pressure studies carried out on the phase behaviour of different AVO4 compounds. The studied materials include rare-earth orthovanadates and other compounds; for example, BiVO4, FeVO4, CrVO4, and InVO4. In particular, we will focus on discussing the results obtained by different research groups, who have extensively studied orthovanadates up to pressures exceeding 50 GPa. We will make a systematic presentation and discussion of the different results reported in the literature. In addition, with the aim of contributing to the improvement of the actual understanding of the high-pressure properties of ternary oxides, the high-pressure behaviour of orhovanadates will be compared with related compounds; including phosphates, chromates, and arsenates. The behaviour of nanomaterials under compression will also be briefly described and compared with their bulk counterpart. Finally, the implications of the reported studies on technological developments and geophysics will be commented and possible directions for the future studies will be proposed.

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • The Potential of Hyaluronic acid in Immunoprotection and Immunomodulation: Chemistry, Processing and Function
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-22
    Fernanda Zamboni, Silvia Vieira, Rui L. Reis, J. Miguel Oliveira, Maurice N. Collins

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan that is found in extracellular tissue in many parts of the body. It is a material of increasing importance to biomaterials science and is finding applications in diverse areas ranging from tissue culture scaffolds to cosmetic materials. This paper reviews the recent research on the role of HA as a immunoprotective and immunomodulatory biomaterial and the importance of HA in combating immune related diseases such as type 1 diabetes, cancer, and autoimmunity. The chemical modifications and processing methods employed to produce HA-modified materials are discussed, thus giving a better understanding of the structure-function-property relationships that influence immunomodulation, immunoprotection and stability. The article concludes with a discussion on the latest progress in HA materials science which is enabling the realisation of new therapies such as vaccine delivery, immunotherapy, cell encapsulation and transplantation.

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Elastic constant determination of unidirectional composite via ultrasonic bulk wave through transmission measurements: A review
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-20
    David A.P. Paterson, Winifred Ijomah, James F.C. Windmill

    The determination of the elastic constants of unidirectional carbon fibre composite via immersion based ultrasound is an established area with much literature. Existing literature reviews in this area discuss the extant literature but do not offer a deep review of the seminal publications during this period, but instead focus on reporting the contributions of the published literature. Thus, a gap in knowledge exists for a comprehensive literature review charting the evolution of how the elastic constants of uni-directional carbon fibre composite are determined via immersion based ultrasonic through transmission. This work addresses this. Building on previous literature, this paper reviews seminal publications in chronological order, with the benefits, drawbacks and contributions to knowledge of each reviewed publication identified within this work. This review is bounded from 1970-2015, (some 45 years of literature), and maps the progression of technological and scientific advancement of the through transmission technique; that is, seminal literature during this period is both identified and reviewed in chronological order thus demonstrating how each paper builds on previous work. This paper also documents two novel information tables, which for the first time allow the significant contributions to knowledge during this period to be quickly identified

    更新日期:2018-04-25
  • Polymers and Organic Materials-Based pH Sensors for Healthcare Applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Arif Ul Alam, Yiheng Qin, Shruti Nambiar, John T.W. Yeow, Matiar M.R. Howlader, Nan-Xing Hu, M. Jamal Deen

    In this review, we discuss chemical, physical and electrochemical properties of pH-sensitive polymers and organic materials and their sensing mechanisms for healthcare applications. We find that polymers and organic materials, due to their biocompatibility and customizable electrical and electrochemical properties, can be used in pH sensors as structural, pH-sensitive, and passivation materials. To do so, we first identify the properties and sensing mechanisms for pH-sensitive polymers and organic materials. Different functional groups in the materials determine their chemical properties and are involved in redox reactions for chemical sensing of pH. The transport of charge carriers in the polymers and organic materials is influenced by pH-induced electrical field change, which is responsible for physical sensing of pH. Some polymers and organic materials also show hybrid sensing properties, where both functional groups and electrical field-effect contribute to their pH response. Next, we review fabrication technologies for polymers and organic materials, and identify that engineering the materials and new device structures are two possible approaches to improve the sensitivity and reliability of pH sensing devices. We propose that miniaturized sensors can provide enhanced functionality of the sensing materials in constrained spaces. Finally, we present an overview of biocompatible polymers and organic materials for monitoring of pH and pH-related analytes in biological fluids, and for pH-change-triggered drug delivery.

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystals with tailored architectures: A comprehensive review on synthesis, fundamental properties, functional modifications and applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Shaodong Sun, Xiaojing Zhang, Qing Yang, Shuhua Liang, Xiaozhe Zhang, Zhimao Yang

    Better understanding the crystal-facet engineering of a crystal with tailored architecture has demonstrated a significant implication for rational design and synthesis of promising micro-/nanostructure. In the past decades, extensive investigations have been devoted to the development of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystals with tailored architectures, which can provide a meritorious platform for not only revealing the structure-property-performance relationship and but also improving the performances in their practical applications. Several previous reviews have mainly reported the partial summaries of the advances in facet-dependent properties of Cu2O crystals. However, a comprehensive summary on Cu2O crystals is lacking and highly desirable to further promote the development of function-oriented Cu2O-based micro-/nanostructures. In this review, we will comprehensively highlight the important progresses in Cu2O crystals with tailored architectures, including the synthetic strategies and corresponding growth mechanisms, the fundamental properties of different crystallographic facets, the functional modifications (including doping and hybridization), and their potential applications. Several urgent issues and perspective are also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-03-28
  • Generation of 3D representative volume elements for heterogeneous materials: a review
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Swantje Bargmann, Benjamin Klusemann, Jürgen Markmann, Jan Eike Schnabel, Konrad Schneider, Celal Soyarslan, Jana Wilmers

    This work reviews state of the art representative volume element (RVE) generation techniques for heterogeneous materials. To this end, we present a systematic classification considering a wide range of heterogeneous materials of engineering interest. Here, we divide heterogeneous solids into porous and non-porous media, with 0< 0 < void volume fraction <1 < 1 and void volume fraction =0 = 0 , respectively. Further subdivisions are realized based on various morphological features. The corresponding generation methods are classified into three categories: (i) experimental methods targeting reconstruction through experimental characterization of the microstructure, (ii) physics based methods targeting simulation of the physical process(es) responsible for the microstructure formation and evolution, and (iii) geometrical methods concentrating solely on mimicking the morphology (ignoring the physical basis of the microstructure formation process). These comprise of various mathematical tools such as digital image correlation, tessellation, random field generation, differential equation solvers, etc. For completeness, relevant up-to-date software tools, used at various stages of RVE generation — either commercial or open-source — are summarized. Considered methods are reviewed based on their efficiency and predictive performance with respect to geometrical and topological properties of the microstructures.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Recent Advances in Two-dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides-Graphene Heterostructured Materials for Electrochemical Applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-17
    Tran Duy Thanh, Nguyen Dinh Chuong, Hoa Van Hien, Tolendra Kshetri, Le Huu Tuan, Nam Hoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee

    Recently, the research effort on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides/graphene (2D-TMDs/Gr) hybrids has grown. These hybrids are emerging as a promising strategy for the preparation of advanced multifunctional materials with effectively upgraded properties, as well as performances. Due to their outstanding electrical, physical, and chemical properties, these materials have been extensively considered for various applications, both in academia, and industry. This review systematically assesses the important progress to date in the development of 2D-TMDs/Gr hybrids. The synthesis methods of 2D-TMDs/Gr hybrids for fabricating diverse types of nanostructured architectures are highlighted. In addition, the relationships between morphological and structural characteristics, and the physicochemical properties of 2D-TMDs/Gr hybrids, are recognized in detail. This review also discusses recent prospective applications of the 2D-TMDs/Gr hybrids in the areas of energy storage, energy conversion, energy harvesting technologies, and sensors. In summary, although there are still challenges for optimizing the synthesis process and performance of the 2D-TMDs/Gr hybrids, they offer unique candidates for a wide range of promising applications in the future.

    更新日期:2018-03-18
  • Revisiting the electrical and optical transmission properties of co-doped ZnO thin films as n-type TCOs
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-17
    Arindam Mallick, Durga Basak

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCOs) thin film exhibits a very high electrical conductivity and high visible light transparency with considerable practical applications in solar cells and in transparent electronics. As a promising substitute to Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO), doped ZnO thin films are widely considered due to low-cost, non-toxicity and high durability against the H plasma compared with ITO. In this review, by 'co-doping', we mean cation-cation (two iso-valent or heterovalent cations) and cation-anion (one higher valence cation and one lower valence anion) double doping in ZnO film. This article commences with a generalized description of TCOs, ITO and single-doped ZnO followed by a discussion on co-doped ZnO. We systemically present the current progress in both co-doping studies with critically summarized results to gain an overview, especially regarding the electrical properties. The cation-cation co-doping results in a wide range of carrier concentrations and resistivity values due to the competitive Zn site substitution by two different cations simultaneously. Cation-anion co-doping leads to an expected change in the carrier concentration and resistivity values with a higher mobility in general due to fewer lattice defects. Finally, the article concludes with a brief discussion on problems and challenges to be addressed in the near future.

    更新日期:2018-03-18
  • Kinetics of Interface Alloy Phase formation at nanometer length scale in Ultra-thin Films: X-ray and polarized neutron reflectometry
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-16
    Surendra Singh, Mitali Swain, Saibal Basu

    Multilayer thin films of various metal pairs present model systems for studying intermetallic alloy phase formation at interfaces of these heterostructures on annealing and help to understand the kinetics of phase formation. Formation and study of these phases at the interfaces is of deep interest with respect to application and for understanding microscopic kinetics in ultra-thin layers. Also intermetallic phases are known to have extraordinary functions and characteristics that are not observed in bulk metals and alloys. Many intermetallic alloys exhibit attractive combination of physical and mechanical properties, such as high melting point, low density, high strength, good oxidation and creep resistance. In the past two decades x-ray and neutron reflectometry have been established as important non-destructive tools for obtaining physical and magnetic properties in thin film multilayers with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. All the major neutron and synchrotron sources at present provide variants of these techniques, dedicated to studies related to layered structures. This article reviews very slow diffusion at the interfaces of heterostructures, discerning kinetics of intermetallic phase formation at the interfaces in thin films and multilayers on annealing at relatively lower temperatures, primarily using x-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques. It highlights the strength of X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and neutron reflectivity (NR) to measure very low diffusivity (typically ∼10-19 – 10-23 cm2/s) in thin films. We will specifically discuss interdiffusion and formation of binary intermetallic alloys on annealing of several Ni based multilayers, with special emphasis on Ni/Ti, Ni/Al and Ni/Ge multilayers to demonstrate the strength of these techniques. These are well known systems for technological application in the field of shape memory alloys, in aeronautical industries and as corrosion resistant low-resistance contact on semiconductor surface. Especially Ni/Al has been studied at length by many workers in the past for its technological importance. It is a model system for extending several concepts in phase formation kinetics from bulk to thin films. Important studies include effect of interface morphology on phase formation, identification of a kinetic length scale of diffusion and estimation of exact composition of alloy phase at interfaces on annealing the multilayers and self-diffusion in isotopic multilayers. These parameters are responsible in controlling various material composition and properties. We have devised a formalism that uses measurements of XRR and NR on a sample to identify the composition of the binary alloy phase at the interface. This proves to be extremely helpful to estimate composition of an ultra-thin alloy layer of few nanometer thicknesses. Often these alloy phases are either non-stoichiometric or too thin for detection by x-ray diffraction technique. The present review article also includes the effect of interdiffusion on interface magnetism of magnetic/non magnetic multilayers of technological interest, using polarized neutron reflectometry.

    更新日期:2018-03-17
  • Radiation damage in nanostructured materials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
    Xinghang Zhang, Khalid Hattar, Youxing Chen, Lin Shao, Jin Li, Cheng Sun, Kaiyuan Yu, Nan Li, Mitra L. Taheri, Haiyan Wang, Jian Wang, Michael Nastasi

    There is a significant demand for the discovery of advanced materials that can survive high temperature and high doses of irradiations for the next generation nuclear reactors. Materials subjected to high dose irradiation by energetic particles often experience severe damage in the form of drastic increase of defect density, and significant degradation of their mechanical and physical properties. Extensive studies on radiation effects in materials in the past few decades show that, although nearly no materials are immune to radiation damage, the approaches of deliberate introduction of certain types of defects in materials before radiation are effective in mitigating radiation damage. Nanostructured materials with abundant internal defects have been extensively investigated for various applications. However, their impact on the alleviation of radiation damage remains less well understood. In this review article, we summarize and analyze the current understandings on the influence of various types of internal defect sinks on reduction of radiation damage in primarily nanostructured metallic materials, and partially on some nanoceramic materials (nitrides and oxides). We also point out open questions and future directions that may significantly improve our fundamental understanding on radiation damage in nanomaterials. The field of radiation damage in nanostructured materials is an exciting and rapidly evolving new arena, enriched with challenges and opportunities. The integration of extensive research effort, resources and expertise in the field materials science, nuclear science and technology, advanced microscopy, physics, mechanics, chemistry, and modeling and simulations may eventually lead to the design of advanced nanomaterials with unprecedented radiation tolerance.

    更新日期:2018-03-16
  • Anisotropic magnetic nanoparticles: A review of their properties, syntheses and potential applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Darja Lisjak, Alenka Mertelj

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of great scientific interest because of the size effect associated with their magnetic properties and, even more so, because of their wide-ranging application potential in technology and biomedicine. In this review we focus on anisotropic MNPs that exhibit (i) elongated shapes and (ii) plate-like shapes. This is because the shape and magnetocrystalline structure induce direction-dependent magnetic properties. Different synthesis strategies enable a spatially defined particle growth or assembly into an elongated shape, while the synthesis of plate-like MNPs is limited to only a few examples, e.g., hexaferrites. The control of interparticle forces is necessary to exploit the specific behaviour of anisotropic MNPs and to fabricate multifunctional materials. The assembly and/or complexation of anisotropic MNPs with other functional entities are the basis for developing direction-dependent and magnetically sensitive properties (e.g., optical, electrical, mechanical, chemical). In the first part, the magnetic properties, relevant magnetic materials and syntheses of anisotropic (in particular, elongated and plate-like) MNPs are reviewed. In the second part, the interparticle interactions, with an emphasis on the development of new, complex materials with specific behaviours, are presented. The potential applications of these new, anisotropic, multi-functional materials with future perspectives are given in the final part.

    更新日期:2018-03-15
  • Progress in Corrosion Science at Atomic and Nanometric Scales
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Vincent Maurice, Philippe Marcus

    Contemporary aspects of corrosion science are reviewed to show how insightful a surface science approach is to understand the mechanisms of corrosion initiation at the atomic and nanometric scales. The review covers experimental approaches using advanced surface analytical techniques applied to single-crystal surfaces of metal and alloys exposed to corrosive aqueous environments in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ under electrochemical control and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Complementary theoretical approaches based on atomistic modeling are also covered. The discussed aspects include the metal-water interfacial structure and the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of 2D (hyd)oxide precursors, the structure alterations accompanying anodic dissolution processes of metals without or with 2D protective layers and selective dissolution (i.e. dealloying) of alloys, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of ultrathin passive films, the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of passive films and the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at passive films grain boundaries, and the structure of adlayers of organic inhibitor molecules.

    更新日期:2018-03-08
  • Magnetostrictive polymer composites: recent advances in materials, structures and properties
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-24
    Rani Elhajjar, Chiu-Tau Law, Alessandro Pegoretti

    Magnetostrictive polymer composites (MPCs) are a class of materials having the ability to change dimensions, elastic and electromagnetic properties under the presence of a magnetic field. Their advantages over bulk magnetostrictive metals are high resistivity, extended frequency response, lightness, easy formability and improved mechanical properties. In this review, advances in MPCs and their applications since the year 2000 are presented. A wide range of reinforcements and morphologies used to generate magnetostrictive response in polymers are considered, ranging from carbonyl iron, nickel to rare-earth based metal alloys. A critical analysis of the various polymeric systems from stiff thermosets to soft elastomers is provided, focusing on how the material selection influences the magnetorheological and magnetoelectric properties. Multiscale approaches, such as continuum micromechanics based theories and multi-physics finite element approaches, for modeling the coupled magneto-elastic responses are also reviewed. Recognizing their unique electromagnetic properties, recent applications of MPCs in electric current and stress sensing, vibration damping, actuation, health monitoring and biomedical fields are presented. The review of the literature points to new directions for fundamental research, interface studies and modeling improvements that can help in advancing this emerging area of magnetostrictive polymer composites.

    更新日期:2018-02-25
  • Transparent glass-ceramics functionalized by dispersed crystals
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Xiaofeng Liu, Jiajia Zhou, Shifeng Zhou, Yuanzheng Yue, Jianrong Qiu

    Transparent glass ceramics (TGCs) with minimized scattering loss offer the combined characteristics of both glasses and (transparent) ceramics. The functionalities of the dispered crystals make TGCs a new generation of tailorable optical materials with a wide range of applications from optics to photonics. Most of conventional glass ceramics (GCs), e.g., silicate glass ceramics, contain crystals involving both network formers and modifiers, and they are known for their superior mechanical/thermal performances. In this paper, we pay more attention to those TGCs containing crystalline phases composed of only network modifiers, including nanocrystals of noble metals, metal fluorides, oxides, chalcogenides, etc. We review recent advances in conventional fabrication methods as well as in emerging techniques for the production of TGCs, such as solid state reaction, sol–gel and laser–induced crystallization. We then discuss the applications of TGCs, particularly the TGCs functionalized by crystals that exhibit various optical functionalities, including photoluminescence, optical nonlinearity, plasmonic absorption, etc. Experimental advances in the use of TGCs for lasers, optical amplifiers and different spectral converters are highlighted. We also anticipate that TGCs will find new applications, and the investigations into TGCs will unravel the mechanism of crystal formation, and hence, lead to the discovery of novel TGC systems.

    更新日期:2018-02-24
  • Transparent Heat Regulating (THR) Materials and Coatings for Energy Saving Window Applications: Impact of Materials Design, Micro-Structural, and Interface Quality on the THR Performance
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Goutam Kumar Dalapati, Ajay Kumar Kushwaha, Mohit Sharma, Vignesh Suresh, Santiranjan Shannigrahi, Siarhei Zhuk, Saeid Masudy-Panah

    This review highlights the development of energy saving transparent heat regulating (THR) materials and coating for energy saving window applications. Current state-of-the- art technologies including transparent heat reflecting mirror (THM), thermo-chromic (TC), transparent solar cells (TSC), and luminescent based materials have been discussed. The coating performance primarily depends on the selection of materials, surface and structural morphology, dielectric passivation growth process and architecture of the multi-layered structure. The micro-structural properties of thin metal/metal oxide layer, and its impact on the heat reflecting coating have been studied extensively. Growth of high quality continuous thin film with fewer defects is an essential part of the infrared reflecting and/or heat regulating coatings. Henceforth, in this review, detailed analysis of growth of continuous and thin metal layer influence of the seed layer (germanium and nickel) and doping on the growth mechanism of thin metal have been discussed. Surface morphology and electronic properties of metal layer/multi-layered coatings have been studied in detail for THR applications. A wide range of metal oxides and their physical properties have been considered for use as passivation layer in the THR coating structure. Among several THR structures, the architecture comprising of dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) stack is known to exhibit the best heat reflecting performances. While the metal component typically comprises of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and nitride based materials, dielectrics are made from metal oxides such as BaSnO3, TiO2, SnO2, ZnO, HfO2, Cu2O, and ZrO2. Selection of passivation layer and tuning of micro-structural properties are very crucial to enhance the visible transmittance without sacrificing infrared reflectance. Optical properties of the dielectric layer can be controlled with growth mechanism and varying content of impurity dopant. Metal doped dielectrics play a key role to enhance the visible light transmission while maintaining infra-red reflection. Through in-situ materials engineering, crystal quality of the dielectric improves which has significant role on the THR performance. Furthermore, impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique to improve crystal quality of metal oxides without oxidizing the thin metal layer is also emphasized. In the subsequent sections, synthesis of thin films by using sputtering methods, thermal evaporation and e-beam evaporation methods using inexpensive materials for large scale deployment of coating have been discussed. Neutral coloured Cu-based THR smart windows is developed through tuning the structural property of TiO2. The simulated Cu-based THR window shows ≥10°C temperature reduction when compared to conventional glass based windows. Thermal stability of copper and silver based multilayer enhanced through ultra-thin metal and dielectric interface engineering. Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are also an essential candidate for the wide band gap semiconductor based THR application. Recent progress in TCOs material has been briefly discussed in one of the section of the review. Hetero-epitaxy of metal oxides (ITO/ZnO) shows promising characteristics as heat insulating materials. Impact of growth process and surface morphology of the TCO have been studied to evaluate the performance of the TCO as heat insulating materials. In addition, advanced hybrid composite based heat reflector coatings for energy efficient building applications is also highlighted in the later section of the review. The industrial utilization and efficacy of heat reflector metal oxides, when incorporated into polymeric/pigments/fibers and heat reflecting durable paints as advanced hybrid composites coatings has been discussed. The progression of solution based metal nanowire (MNW) and optical properties for the heat regulating applications have been included. Dielectric/metal-NW/dielectric multilayer can be a potential candidate for the development of low cost THR film. The solution based THR methods has potential to be mass customized in economic ways and can be viable at industrial scale. Thermo-chromic materials are also considered as prospective candidate for the transparent coating applications. Recent development of VO2 bilayer, trilayer, micro-pattern and nano-plate films have been discusses to enhance the luminous transmittance and solar modulation ability. Transparent solar cells, based on the infra-red absorption through up-conversion nanoparticles are viable candidates for the development of environmental friendly heat regulating systems. Recent advancement of inorganic, polymer, perovskite, and luminescent based transparent solar cell (TSCs) with heat reflecting mirror have been evaluated for smart windows applications. For the deployment of large scale THR film, low cost materials, roll-to-roll (R2R) sputter and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) have been assessed for the industrial applicability. The progression of THR materials with thermo-chromics, self-cleaning and TSCs materials can enhance the overall performance of the smart/transparent coatings for thermal management and heat regulating functionalities.

    更新日期:2018-02-19
  • Computational Microstructure Characterization and Reconstruction: Review of the State-of-the-art Techniques
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-09
    Ramin Bostanabad, Yichi Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Tucker Kearney, L. Catherine Brinson, Daniel W. Apley, Wing Kam Liu, Wei Chen

    Building sensible processing-structure-property (PSP) links to gain fundamental insights and understanding of materials behavior has been the focus of many works in computational materials science. Microstructure characterization and reconstruction (MCR), coupled with machine learning techniques and materials modeling and simulation, is an important component of discovering PSP relations and inverse material design in the era of high-throughput computational materials science. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of representative approaches for MCR and elaborate on their algorithmic details, computational costs, and how they fit into the PSP mapping problems. Multiple categories of MCR methods relying on statistical functions (such as n-point correlation functions), physical descriptors, spectral density function, texture synthesis, and supervised/unsupervised learning are reviewed. As no MCR method is applicable to the analysis and (inverse) design of all material systems, our goal is to provide the scientific community with a close examination of the state-of-the-art techniques for MCR, as well as useful guidance on which MCR method to choose and how to systematically apply it to a problem at hand. We illustrate applications of MCR on materials modeling and building structure-property relations via two examples: One on learning the materials law of a class of composite microstructures, and the second on relating the permittivity and dielectric loss to a structural parameter in nanodielectrics.

    更新日期:2018-02-09
  • Metal recovery by microbial electro-metallurgy
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Xochitl Dominguez-Benetton, Jeet Chandrakant Varia, Guillermo Pozo, Oskar Modin, Annemiek ter-Heijne, Jan Fransaer, Korneel Rabaey

    Raw metals are fundamental to the global economy as they are essential to maintain the quality of our life as well as industrial performance. A number of metal-bearing aqueous matrices are appealing as alternative supplies to conventional mining, like solid industrial and urban waste leachates, wastewaters and even some natural extreme environments (e.g. deep marine sediments, geothermal brines). Some of these sources are already managed for recovery, while others are not suitable either because they are too low in content of recoverable metals or they contain too many impurities that would interfere with classical recovery processes or would be cost-prohibitive. Microbial electro-metallurgy, which results from the interactions between microorganisms, metals and electrodes, in which the electron transfer chain associated with microbial respiration plays a key role, can contribute to overcome these challenges. This review provides the state of the art on this subject, and summarizes the general routes through which microbes can catalyse or support metal recovery, leading to nano- and macro-scale materials. Competing sorption and electrochemical technologies are briefly revisited. The relevant sources of metals are highlighted as well as the challenges and opportunities to turn microbial electro-metallurgy into a sustainable industrial technology in the near future. Finally, an outlook to pursue functional materials through microbial electrometallurgy is provided.

    更新日期:2018-02-07
  • Review on superior strength and enhanced ductility of metallic nanomaterials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    I.A. Ovid'ko, R.Z. Valiev, Y.T. Zhu

    Nanostructured metallic materials having nanocrystalline and ultrafine-grained structures show exceptional mechanical properties, e.g. superior strength, that are very attractive for various applications. However, superstrong metallic nanomaterials typically have low ductility at ambient temperatures, which significantly limits their applications. Nevertheless, several examples of nanostructured metals and alloys with concurrent high strength and good ductility have been reported. Such strong and ductile materials are ideal for a broad range of structural applications in transportation, medicine, energy, etc. Strong and ductile metallic nanomaterials are also important for functional applications where these properties are critical for the lifetime of nanomaterial-based devices. This article presents an overview of experimental data and theoretical concepts addressing the unique combination of superior strength and enhanced ductility of metallic nanomaterials. We consider the basic approaches and methods for simultaneously optimizing their strength and ductility, employing principal deformation mechanisms, crystallographic texture, chemical composition as well as second-phase nano-precipitates, carbon nanotubes and graphene. Examples of achieving such superior properties in industrial materials are reviewed and discussed.

    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • Analytical and numerical approaches to modelling of severe plastic deformation
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-02-03
    Alexei Vinogradov, Yuri Estrin

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has established itself as a potent means of producing bulk ultrafine grained and nanostructured materials. It has given rise to burgeoning research that has become an integral part of the present day materials science. This research has received a broad coverage in literature, and several recent publications (including reviews in Progress in Materials Science) provide a very good introduction to the history, the current status, and the potential applications of SPD technologies. There is one aspect of SPD-related research, though, which despite its enormous importance has not been covered by any substantive review, viz. the modelling and simulation work. Due to the complexity of SPD processing and the specificity of material behaviour at the extremely large strains involved, analytical and computational studies have been indispensable for process design, parameter optimisation, and the prediction of the microstructures and properties of the ultrafine grained materials produced. The pertinent literature is vast and often difficult to navigate. The present article addresses this aspect of SPD and provides a commented exposé of a modelling and numerical simulation toolkit that has been, or can potentially be, applied in the context of severe plastic deformation.

    更新日期:2018-02-04
  • Recent Developments of Metallic Nanoparticle-Graphene Nanocatalysts
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Changlong Wang, Didier Astruc
    更新日期:2018-02-01
  • Progress of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies on the mechanical behavior of materials at small scales
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Thomas W. Cornelius, Olivier Thomas

    In recent years, the mechanical behavior of low-dimensional materials has been attracting lots of attention triggered both by the ongoing miniaturization and the extraordinary properties demonstrated for nanostructures. It is now well established that mechanical properties of small objects differ fundamentally from their bulk counterpart and in particular that “smaller is stronger” but many questions on the deformation mechanisms remain open. Most of the knowledge obtained on small- scale mechanics is based on ex-situ and in-situ characterizations using electron microscopy. However, these techniques suffer from the fact that imaging or scattering information is either limited to the surface or from a 2D projection of a thin foil of material. Within the last two decades tremendous progress was achieved at 3rd generation synchrotrons making it possible to focus hard X-ray beams down to the 100-nm scale. Modern synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods may thus provide structural information with good spatial resolution and fully 3D. In this review, we discuss the progress achieved on in-situ micro- and nano-mechanical tests coupled with different synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques to monitor the elastic and plastic deformation, highlighting the advantages of these approaches, which offer at the same time versatile sample environments and extreme precision in displacement fields.

    更新日期:2018-02-01
  • Thermomechanical processing of advanced high strength steels
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Jingwei Zhao, Zhengyi Jiang

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSSs) are regarded as the most promising materials for vehicles in the 21st century. AHSSs are complex and sophisticated materials, with microstructures being controlled by precise thermomechanical processing (TMP) technologies. TMP is an established and strategic method for improving the mechanical properties of AHSSs through control of microstructures and is among the most important industrial technologies for producing high quality AHSSs with the necessary mechanical properties. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent progress in TMP of AHSSs, with focus on the processing-microstructure-property relationships of the processed AHSSs. We first present an introduction to the background of the TMP of AHSSs. Then, the recent progress and the latest achievements in TMP of the first, second and third generations of AHSSs and Nano Hiten steels are reviewed in detail, and the mechanisms of the TMP-induced microstructural evolution and mechanical properties variation are addressed and discussed. The present review concludes with a summary on the TMP of AHSSs currently under development, and also offers an outlook of the future opportunities which will inspire more in-depth research and eventually advance practical applications of this innovative field.

    更新日期:2018-02-01
  • Freeze Casting – A Review of Processing, Microstructure and Properties via the Open Data Repository, FreezeCasting.net
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Kristen L. Scotti, David C. Dunand

    Freeze-casting produces materials with complex, three-dimensional pore structures which may be tuned during the solidification process. The range of potential applications of freeze-cast materials is vast, and includes: structural materials, biomaterials, filtration membranes, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Fabrication of materials with application-specific microstructures is possible via freeze casting, however, the templating process is highly complex and the underlying principles are only partially understood. Here, we report the creation of a freeze-casting experimental data repository, which contains data extracted from ∼800 different freeze-casting papers (as of August 2017). These data pertain to variables that link processing conditions to microstructural characteristics, and finally, mechanical properties. The aim of this work is to facilitate broad dissemination of relevant data to freeze-casting researchers, promote better informed experimental design, and encourage modeling efforts that relate processing conditions to microstructure formation and material properties. An initial, systematic analysis of these data is provided and key processing-structure-property relationships posited in the freeze-casting literature are discussed and tested against the database. Tools for data visualization and exploration available through the web interface are also provided.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Towards high-efficiency sorptive capture of radionuclides in solution and gas
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    Kowsalya Vellingiri, Ki-Hyun Kim, Anastasia Pournara, Akash Deep

    As globalization and rapid population growth have raised global energy needs, the demand for nuclear energy has increased drastically. To make use of such energy reliably, the efficient disposal of nuclear wastes has become a major challenge. With this in mind, numerous research efforts have been made to store, capture, and immobilize radioactive waste. To date, a variety of sorbent materials with different physical, chemical, and structural properties have been discovered and tested for the capture of soluble and gaseous forms of a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the pre-/post-synthetic modification of these sorbent materials has gained significant attention in attempts to enhance their overall stability, tunability, and capacity, while also preserving the main framework. In this review, we explored the performance of different materials for the sorption of uranium, cobalt, europium, iodine, cesium, strontium, technetium, krypton, xenon, and argon. To begin with, we classified sorbent materials into three categories by considering their structural improvements over time. We also pointed out the structural importance, reversibility, and renewability aspects of the proposed sorbents along with their basic sorption properties. Finally, we proposed some future aspects of these materials by carefully listing their features, applications, and present limitations.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Bespoke photonic devices using ultrafast laser driven ion migration in glasses
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-12-29
    T.T. Fernandez, M. Sakakura, S.M. Eaton, B. Sotillo, J. Siegel, J. Solis, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura

    This Review provides an exhaustive and detailed description of ion migration phenomena which occur inside transparent dielectric media due to the interaction with intense ultrashort pulses. The paper differentiates various processes underlying the ion migration influenced by simultaneous heat accumulation and diffusion. The femtosecond laser induced temperature distribution, the major driving force of ions in dielectrics, is described in detail. This discussion is based on three meticulous analysis methods including the thermal modification of transparent dielectrics at various ambient temperatures, numerical simulations and comparison with direct observation of the light-matter interaction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The ion migration phenomena studied have been triggered in four different configurations: at low repetition and high repetition rates, and observations perpendicular and parallel to the laser irradiation direction. Inspired by this research, potential applications are highlighted including space-selective phase separation, a laser-based ion exchange fabrication method and optical micropipetting by tailoring the plasma profile.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Mechanical metamaterials associated with stiffness, rigidity and compressibility: a brief review
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-12-21
    Xianglong Yu, Ji Zhou, Haiyi Liang, Zhengyi Jiang, Lingling Wu
    更新日期:2017-12-22
  • Properties and Chemical Modifications of Lignin: Towards Lignin-Based Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Patrícia Figueiredo, Kalle Lintinen, Jouni T. Hirvonen, Mauri A. Kostiainen, Hélder A. Santos

    Biorenewable polymers have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional metallic and organic materials for a variety of different applications. This is mainly because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and low cost of production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable carbon-containing source on Earth. Depending on the origin and species of the biomass, lignin consists of 20–35% of the lignocellulosic biomass. After it has been extracted, lignin can be modified through diverse chemical reactions. There are different categories of chemical modifications, such as lignin depolymerization or fragmentation, modification by synthesizing new chemically active sites, chemical modification of the hydroxyl groups, and the production of lignin graft copolymers. Lignin can be used for different industrial and biomedical applications, including biofuels, chemicals and polymers, and the development of nanomaterials for drug delivery but these uses depend on the source, chemical modifications and physicochemical properties. We provide an overview on the composition and properties, extraction methods and chemical modifications of lignin in this review. Furthermore, we describe different preparation methods for lignin-based nanomaterials with antioxidant UV-absorbing and antimicrobial properties that can be used as reinforcing agents in nanocomposites, in drug delivery and gene delivery vehicles for biomedical applications.

    更新日期:2017-12-12
  • Chalcogenide Glass-Ceramics: Functional Design and Crystallization Mechanism
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Changgui Lin, Christian Rüssel, Shixun Dai

    Chalcogenide glasses are defined as a new category of non-crystalline solids on the basis of their characteristic covalent bonds and unique properties, such as broad infrared transmission window, low maximum phonon energy, high optical nonlinearity, semiconductivity, and photosensitivity. Inspired by the great successes that have been achieved in the development of oxide glass-ceramics, functionalized chalcogenide glass-ceramics have received intensive research attention. Moreover, the inherent properties of chalcogenide glasses have been explored and modified through controlled crystallization, to generate novel and unique features. This review aims to present a critical overview of the current state of the art in the controllable fabrication of functionalized chalcogenide glass-ceramics. The first section provides a brief introduction to chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics. The succeeding sections detail the fabrication strategies of chalcogenide glass-ceramics with various functions through different precipitated crystals and microstructures. This review provides a discussion of the mechanism that underlie the resultant properties of chalcogenide glass-ceramics. Furthermore, the crystallization mechanisms of chalcogenide glasses are discussed through the comparison of molecular-scale and nanoscale phase separation assisted crystallization mechanisms in oxide and oxyfluoride glasses. Finally, the remain section presents the key questions that remain unanswered, as well as provide perspectives on the future research trends.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Magnetocaloric effect: from materials research to refrigeration devices
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    V. Franco, J.S. Blázquez, J.J. Ipus, J.Y. Law, L.M. Moreno-Ramírez, A. Conde

    The magnetocaloric effect and its most straightforward application, magnetic refrigeration, are topics of current interest due to the potential improvement of energy efficiency of cooling and temperature control systems, in combination with other environmental benefits associated to a technology that does not rely on the compression/expansion of harmful gases. This review presents the fundamentals of the effect, the techniques for its measurement with consideration of possible artifacts found in the characterization of the samples, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of different magnetocaloric materials, as well as possible routes to improve their performance. An overview of the different magnetocaloric prototypes found in literature as well as alternative applications of the magnetocaloric effect for fundamental studies of phase transitions are also included.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Towards Sustainable Ultrafast Molecular-Separation Membranes: from Conventional Polymers to Emerging Materials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Xi Quan Cheng, Zhen Xing Wang, Xu Jiang, Tingxi Li, Cher Hon Lau, Zhanhu Guo, Jun Ma, Lu Shao

    Ultrafast molecular separation (UMS) membranes are highly selective towards active organic molecules such as antibiotics, amino acids and proteins that are 0.5-5 nm wide while lacking a phase transition and requiring a low energy input to achieve high speed separation. These advantages are the keys for deploying UMS membranes in a plethora of industries, including petrochemical, food, pharmaceutical, and water treatment industries, especially for dilute system separations. Most recently, advanced nanotechnology and cutting-edge nanomaterials have been combined with membrane separation technologies to generate tremendous potential for accelerating the development of UMS membranes. It is therefore critical to update the broader scientific community on the important advances in this exciting, interdisciplinary field. This review emphasizes the unique separation capabilities of UMS membranes, theories underpinning UMS membranes, traditional polymeric materials and nanomaterials emerging on the horizon for advanced UMS membrane fabrication and technical applications to address the existing knowledge gap. This work includes detailed discussions regarding existing challenges, as well as perspectives on this promising field.

    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • The double-edge effect of second-phase particles on the recrystallization behaviour and associated mechanical properties of metallic materials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Ke Huang, Knut Marthinsen, Qinglong Zhao, Roland E. Logé

    Most industrial alloys contain a matrix phase and dispersed second-phase particles. Several thermomechanical processing (TMP) steps are usually needed to produce a final product, during which recrystallization and its related phenomena may take place. Second-phase particles may retard or accelerate recrystallization, depending on their size and spatial distribution, the TMP conditions, among others. Besides their effect on recrystallization kinetics, the introduction of second-phase particles creates additional interfaces within the matrix, it also modifies the grain structure and crystallographic texture after recrystallization, which then either improves or deteriorates the associated mechanical properties of the investigated materials. The interactions between second-phase particles and recrystallization are further complicated when these particles are not stable. In addition to particle coarsening, they can also precipitate out or dissolve into the matrix before, simultaneously with or after recrystallization. This review article attempts to summarize the recent progresses on the complex interaction between second-phase particles and recrystallization and the science behind them. This double-edge effect of second-phase particles on recrystallization behaviour and mechanical properties of metallic materials is still far from being clear. A better understanding of this issue is of high academic and industrial interests, since it provides potential freedom for TMP design and microstructure control.

    更新日期:2017-10-28
  • A Literature Review of Ti-6Al-4V Linear Friction Welding
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Anthony R. McAndrew, Paul A. Colegrove, Clement Bühr, Bertrand C.D. Flipo, Achilleas Vairis

    Linear friction welding (LFW) is a solid-state joining process that is an established technology for the fabrication of titanium alloy bladed disks (blisks) in aero-engines. Owing to the economic benefits, LFW has been identified as a technology capable of manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V aircraft structural components. However, LFW of Ti-6Al-4V has seen limited industrial implementation outside of blisk manufacture, which is partly due to the knowledge and benefits of the process being widely unknown. This article provides a review of the published works up-to-date on the subject to identify the “state-of-the-art”. First, the background, fundamentals, advantages and industrial applications of the process are described. This is followed by a description of the microstructure, mechanical properties, flash morphology, interface contaminant removal, residual stresses and energy usage of Ti-6Al-4V linear friction welds. A brief discussion on the machine tooling effects is also included. Next, the work on analytical and numerical modelling is discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the review are presented, which include practical implications for the manufacturing sector and recommendations for further research and development. The purpose of this article is to inform industry and academia of the benefits of LFW so that the process may be better exploited.

    更新日期:2017-10-25
  • Phonons and Anomalous Thermal Expansion Behaviour in Crystalline Solids
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    R. Mittal, M.K. Gupta, S.L. Chaplot

    Anomalous thermal expansion behaviour of several open frame-work compounds has been extensively investigated using the techniques of inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics. These compounds involve increasing level of structural complexity and flexibility, which leads to increased values of thermal expansion coefficients approaching colossal values. In several compounds, neutron inelastic scattering experiments have produced quantitative estimates of the anharmonicity of phonons over a range of low energies, and thereby explained the observed thermal expansion quantitatively. The anharmonicity is found to be an order of magnitude larger than that in usual materials. Lattice dynamical calculations have correctly predicted the observed anharmonicity in the neutron experiments and revealed the overall nature of phonons involved. In compounds showing negative thermal expansion, the phonons responsible have rather low energies up to 10 meV. In most compounds, the anharmonic phonons span all over the Brillouin zone, while in some cases the specific phonons are limited to certain wave-vectors. The nature of specific phonons responsible for anomalous behavior is found to be different in all these compounds. These phonons generally involve transverse vibrations, librations and internal distortions of the polyhedral units. The paper reviews recent advances in the understanding of anomalous thermal expansion behaviour.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Conductive polymers: Creating their niche in thermoelectric domain
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-14
    Meetu Bharti, Ajay Singh, Soumen Samanta, D.K. Aswal
    更新日期:2017-10-14
  • Advanced Catalysts for Sustainable Hydrogen Generation and Storage via Hydrogen Evolution and Carbon Dioxide/Nitrogen Reduction Reactions
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Kai-Hua Liu, Hai-Xia Zhong, Si-Jia Li, Yan-Xin Duan, Miao-Miao Shi, Xin-Bo Zhang, Jun-Min Yan, Qing Jiang

    Accompanied by continuous increasing energy crisis and CO2-induced global warming, constructing renewable energy system becomes one of the major scientific challenges. Thereinto, electrocatalysis plays a critical role in clean energy conversion, enabling a series of sustainable chemistries and processes for future technologies. Herein, we mainly discuss recent advances of heterogeneous electrocatalysts for hydrogen production and storage via several clean energy reactions such as hydrogen evolution, carbon dioxide and nitrogen reduction. Emphasis is given to the structure/composition–catalytic activity relationship and strategies of performance improvement. Certainly, several challenges and research directions toward these reactions are also discussed. The comprehensive review might provide guidance to design robust electrocatalysts that allow for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals.

    更新日期:2017-10-13
  • Additive manufacturing of metallic components – process, structure and properties
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-10-07
    T. DebRoy, H.L. Wei, J.S. Zuback, T. Mukherjee, J.W. Elmer, J.O. Milewski, A.M. Beese, A. Wilson-Heid, A. De, W. Zhang

    Since its inception, significant progress has been made in understanding additive manufacturing (AM) processes and the structure and properties of the fabricated metallic components. Because the field is rapidly evolving, a periodic critical assessment of our understanding is useful and this paper seeks to address this need. It covers the emerging research on AM of metallic materials and provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts. The uniqueness of this review includes substantive discussions on refractory alloys, precious metals and compositionally graded alloys, a succinct comparison of AM with welding and a critical examination of the printability of various engineering alloys based on experiments and theory. An assessment of the status of the field, the gaps in the scientific understanding and the research needs for the expansion of AM of metallic components are provided.

    更新日期:2017-10-08
  • Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation for semiconductor processing: a review
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-09-20
    Ignacio Martin-Bragado, Ricardo Borges, Juan Pablo-Balbuena, Martin Jaraiz

    The Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm is a particularly apt technique to simulate the complex processing of semiconductor devices. In this review, some of the main processes used for semiconductor industries to manufacture transistor from semiconductor materials, namely implantation, annealing and epitaxial growth are reviewed. The evolution of defects created during such processing for the particular, and well known case, of silicon, is commented. Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling is introduced and contrasted briefly with a continuum approach. Particular models of different phenomena, using both object and lattice KMC, are shown: point defect migration, cluster formation, dopant activation and deactivation, damage accumulation, amorphization, recrystallization, solid phase and selective epitaxial regrowth, etc.In this work we describe the models, its implementation into KMC, and we show several comparisons with significant experimental data validating the KMC approach and showing its capabilities. How extra capabilities can be included by extending the models to current problems in the semiconductor industry is also commented, in particular the use of SiGe alloys and the introduction of stress dependencies.

    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • Nitrogen-doped simple and complex oxides for photocatalysis: a review
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-09-15
    Wei Wang, Moses O. Tadé, Zongping Shao

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis plays a vital role in counteracting worldwide environmental pollution and energy shortage. How to design a visible-light-active photocatalyst is critical for efficient solar energy utilization. Many oxides including TiO2 are only photoactive in ultraviolet light and doping is an important strategy to extend the photoactive zone. Anion doping is superior to cation doping, which generates more harmful electron-hole recombination centers. Nitrogen doping is more effective than carbon/sulfur doping to achieve high visible-light response. Since 2001, nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts have attracted increasing attention due to their strong oxidizing power and considerable visible light response. Considering the fixed atomic environment in simple oxides, complex oxides are more attractive as photocatalysts because of their more flexible physical and chemical properties. To date, no review focuses on the designation strategies for nitrogen-doped simple/complex oxides with high visible-light photoactivity. In this review, the recent progress involving nitrogen-doped simple/complex oxides for photocatalysis is comprehensively summarized. Emphasis is placed on the factors that determine photocatalytic activity and related strategies for the design of active nitrogen-doped oxides. The future challenges are also discussed. This review aims to provide a summary of recent progress in nitrogen-doped oxides for photocatalysis and some useful guidelines for the future development.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-08-26
    Susmita Bose, Dongxu Ke, Himanshu Sahasrabudhe, Amit Bandyopadhyay

    Biomaterials are used to engineer functional restoration of different tissues to improve human health and the quality of life. Biomaterials can be natural or synthetic. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a novel materials processing approach to create parts or prototypes layer-by-layer directly from a computer aided design (CAD) file. The combination of additive manufacturing and biomaterials is very promising, especially towards patient specific clinical applications. Challenges of AM technology along with related materials issues need to be realized to make this approach feasible for broader clinical needs. This approach is already making a significant gain towards numerous commercial biomedical devices. In this review, key additive manufacturing methods are first introduced followed by AM of different materials, and finally applications of AM in various treatment options. Realization of critical challenges and technical issues for different AM methods and biomaterial selections based on clinical needs are vital. Multidisciplinary research will be necessary to face those challenges and fully realize the potential of AM in the coming days.

    更新日期:2017-08-28
  • Polymer capsules as micro-/nanoreactors for therapeutic applications: Current strategies to control membrane permeability
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    A. Larrañaga, M. Lomora, J.R. Sarasua, C.G. Palivan, A. Pandit

    Polymer capsules, fabricated either with the aid of a sacrificial template or via the self-assembly of block copolymers into polymer vesicles (polymersomes), have attracted a great deal of attention for their potential use as micro-/nanoreactors and artificial organelles for therapeutic applications. Compared to other biomedical applications of polymer capsules, such as drug delivery vehicles, where the polymer shell undergoes irreversible disruption/rupture that allows the release of the payload, the polymer shell in polymer micro-/nanoreactors has to maintain mechanical integrity while allowing the selective diffusion of reagents/reaction products. In the present review, strategies that permit precise control of the permeability of the polymer shell while preserving its architecture are documented and critiqued. Together with these strategies, specific examples where these polymer capsules have been employed as micro-/nanoreactors as well as approaches to scale-up and optimize these systems along with future perspectives for therapeutic applications in several degenerative diseases are elucidated.

    更新日期:2017-08-17
  • Graphene: A Versatile Platform for Nanotheranostics and Tissue Engineering
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Renu Geetha Bai, Neethu Ninan, Kasturi Muthoosamy, Sivakumar Manickam
    更新日期:2017-08-09
  • Biotemplated Synthesis of Inorganic Materials: An Emerging Paradigm for Nanomaterial Synthesis Inspired by Nature
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Brad A. Krajina, Amy C. Proctor, Alia P. Schoen, Andrew J. Spakowitz, Sarah C. Heilshorn

    Biomineralization, the process by which biological systems direct the synthesis of inorganic structures from organic templates, is an exquisite example of nanomaterial self-assembly in nature. Its products include the shells of mollusks and the bones and teeth of vertebrates. By comparison, conventional inorganic synthesis techniques provide limited control over inorganic nanomaterial architecture. Inspired by biomineralization in nature, over the last two decades, the field of biotemplating has emerged as a new paradigm for inorganic nanomaterial assembly, wherein researchers seek to design novel nano-structures in which inorganic nanomaterial synthesis is directed from an underlying biomolecular template. Here, we review the motivation, mechanistic understanding, progress, and challenges for the field of biotemplating. We highlight the interdisciplinary nature of this field, and survey a broad range of examples of bio-templated engineering: ranging from strategies that exploit the inherent capabilities of proteins in nature, to genetically-engineered systems that unlock new capabilities for self-assembly with biomolecules. We illustrate that the use of biological materials as templates for inorganic self-assembly holds tremendous potential for nanomaterial engineering, with applications that range from electronics and energy to medicine.

    更新日期:2017-08-09
  • Serration and Noise Behavior in Materials
    Prog. Mater. Sci. (IF 23.75) Pub Date : 2017-08-04
    Yong Zhang, Jun Peng Liu, Shu Ying Chen, Xie Xie, Peter K. Liaw, Karin A. Dahmen, Jun Wei Qiao, Yan Li Wang

    Serrations and noise behaviors in plastically deforming solids are related to avalanches of deformation processes. In the stress-strain curves, the serrations characteristics are visible as stress drops or strain jumps. In fact, similar serration characteristics are ubiquitous in many structural and functional materials, such as amorphous materials [also metallic glasses, or bulk metallic glasses (BMGs)], high-entropy alloys (HEAs), superalloys, ordered intermetallics, shape-memory alloys (SMAs), electrochemical noise, carbon steels, twinning-induced plasticity steels (TWIP steels), phase-transformation-induced plasticity steels (TRIP steels), Al-Mg alloys, nano-materials, magnetic functional materials, and so on. Because of their unique and universal properties, many researchers have focused on this field to find out what causes the serration behaviors and what can be learned about the material from the serration characteristics. For example, the serration characteristics contain information about the mechanisms of plastic deformation and the structural evolution during deformation. However, due to many factors affecting the serration behavior and some uncertain or uncontrolled factors, it’s a difficult task to give a unified picture of a vast amount of serration data. This review article summarizes the results of previous studies in this rapidly-developing field, attempting to provide a new perspective in expounding the connection between macroscopic properties and micro-mechanisms. In this review paper, serration behavior of a wide range of materials will be discussed. One of the most important goals is to investigate the factors influencing serration characteristics and deformation mechanisms. Several statistical properties, such as distributions of stress drop sizes and waiting times, are reviewed and used to quantify the serration behavior. Moreover, models and theories on the serrated flow will be discussed that quantify the deformation mechanism in this field. Besides discussing serrations in stress-strain curves of many solid materials, this review paper will also cover other systerms with serrations and collective noise, such as crackling noise in the earth’s crust (earthquakes), volume fluctuations in a granular medium and jamming behavior in random-packing systems.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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