Silanization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the study of its effects on the properties of polyurethane rigid foam nanocomposites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Alireza Yaghoubi, Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje
In the current report, surface modification of hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs) was done by silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and dipodal silane (DSi). Then, rigid polyurethane (PU) foam nanocomposites were prepared by silanized MWCNTs to investigate the effects of the silane-modified MWCNTs on the mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the nanocomposites. Morphological studies showed that the addition of silanized MWCNTs to the PU matrix increases the cell density of nanocomposites. The obtained data from SEM analysis also showed the nanoparticles dispersion for 1.5 wt.% of DSi-MWCNT (dipodal silane - MWCNT) loading when compared to same loading level of Si-MWCNT (APTS - MWCNT) and resulted in improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The results of mechanical tests showed that the Young’s moduli as well as tensile strengths were improved due to the presence of strong interfacial interaction between the PU matrix and the nanotubes in PU nanocomposites.
Influence of Depositing Nano-SiO2 Particles on the Surface Microstructure and Properties of Jute Fibers via In Situ Synthesis Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Xuan Liu, Yihua Cui, Senjie Hao, Haiyan Chen
Jute fibers are finding much interest as the reinforcement of polymer composites. However, surface flaws not only affect the properties of jute fibers, but also lead to the interfacial defects of jute fiber reinforced composites. This study aims to improve the properties of jute fibers, the surface flaws of which were filled up by nano-SiO2 particles via in situ synthesis. The waxy substance covering on jute fibers was removed by alkali pre-treatment, ethanediamine/alkali pre-treatment and acid/alkali pre-treatment, respectively. The acid/alkali pre-treatment was the most effective method among three pre-treatments. The nano-SiO2 particles deposition was prepared by the sol-gel technique. The results showed that the surface flaws of jute fibers could be filled up by nano-SiO2 particles with the tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) concentration of 0.015 mol/L. Compared with acid/alkali pre-treated fibers, the surface free energy and tensile strength of nano-SiO2 deposited fibers were increased by 11.7% and 17.9%, respectively. Moreover, the presence of nano-SiO2 particles contributed to the significant enhancement on the thermal stability of jute fibers.
Low density ablative materials modified by nanoparticles addition: manufacturing and characterization Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 G. Pulci, L. Paglia, V. Genova, C. Bartuli, T. Valente, F. Marra
Ablative materials represent a traditional approach to thermal protection adopted to protect re-entry space vehicles from the severe heating encountered during hypersonic flight through planet or Earth atmosphere. In this paper low density carbon-phenolic ablative materials were modified with addition of ZrO2 nanoparticles with the aim of improving the mechanical properties and the ablation resistance. It is known that an uneven distribution of nano-reinforcement could be responsible for a drastic limitation of potential beneficial effects. For this reason, several surface modification treatments were performed on nanoparticles to limit their agglomeration. The developed ablative materials, modified with different concentrations of nano-ZrO2 particles, were fully characterized for microstructure and mechanical properties (of both virgin and charred materials) and finally tested in an oxyacetylene torch-based facility to compare their thermal performance. Experimental evidence showed that the addition of nano-ZrO2 produces an improvement of both thermal and mechanical performance with respect to base material.
EFFECT OF SEAWATER IMMERSION ON THE EXPLOSIVE BLAST RESPONSE OF A CARBON FIBRE-POLYMER LAMINATE Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 A. Gargano, K. Pingkarawat, V. Pickerd, T. Delaney, R. Das, A.P. Mouritz
Explosions are an ever-present risk to laminates used in naval ships, submarines and offshore oil/gas platforms that are immersed in seawater. This study determines whether the absorption of water by a carbon fibre laminate changes its deformation response and damage resistance when impulsively loading by an explosive blast. The stiffness and strength properties of the laminate were reduced with increasing immersion time in seawater up to and beyond the point of saturation. Explosive blast tests of increasing shock wave impulse were performed on the laminate before immersion and when in the saturated and beyond saturated conditions. Softening and weakening of the laminate caused by absorbed water reduced the resistance against deformation and damage when subjected to an explosive blast. The amount of blast-induced damage to the laminate increased with the immersion time in seawater due to plasticisation of the polymer matrix and weakening of the fibre-matrix interphase region.
Towards robust sequential ultrasonic spot welding of thermoplastic composites: Welding process control strategy for consistent weld quality Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Tian Zhao, Charlotte Broek, Genevieve Palardy, Irene Fernandez Villegas, Rinze Benedictus
The research in this paper is an essential part of a bigger effort on developing robust sequential ultrasonic welding of multi-spot welded joints in thermoplastic composites. It mainly focused on assessing the impact of the changes in boundary conditions on the welding process and whether it could be circumvented by using an appropriate process control strategy. A two-step approach was followed by investigating: (1) the effect of boundary conditions on displacement- and energy-controlled single-spot welded joints and (2) displacement- and energy-controlled sequential ultrasonic welding of double-spot welded joints. The results showed that previous spots indeed affect the energy required to obtain an optimum new welded spot, which challenges the use of energy-controlled welding for this application. Contrarily, displacement-controlled welding was shown to provide consistent-quality welds with a constant set of welding parameters and it was hence identified as the most promising welding strategy for sequential ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic composites.
Poorly-/well-dispersed graphene: Abnormal influence on flammability and fire behavior of intumescent flame retardant Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Bihe Yuan, Yaru Sun, Xianfeng Chen, Yongqian Shi, Huaming Dai, Song He
Surface feature of ammonium polyphosphate is modified by cation exchange reaction with piperazine, and then reduced graphene oxide nanosheets are attached to the surface of modified flame retardant via hydrogen bonding interactions. Good dispersion of graphene in the polypropylene matrix is observed. The dispersion state of graphene has an abnormal effect on the flammability results under small flame and fire behavior under forced flaming condition of intumescent flame retardant (IFR) composites. The well-dispersed graphene results in significantly deteriorated limiting oxygen index and UL-94 rating. The graphene with good dispersion is adverse to flammability results, which is in contrary to the widely-acknowledged flame retardant mechanisms. Low content of well-dispersed graphene exhibits higher reduction effect on heat release than that of poorly-dispersed counterpart. Novel flame retardant mechanism and model are proposed and new understanding of the role of graphene in the combustion of IFR is provided.
Benchmarking of strength models for unidirectional composites under longitudinal tension Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Anthony Bunsell, Larissa Gorbatikh, Hannah Morton, Soraia Pimenta, Ian Sinclair, Mark Spearing, Yentl Swolfs, Alain Thionnet
Several modelling approaches are available in the literature to predict longitudinal tensile failure of fibre–reinforced polymers. However, a systematic, blind and unbiased comparison between the predictions from the different models and against experimental data has never been performed. This paper presents a benchmarking exercise performed for three different models from the literature: (i) an analytical hierarchical scaling law for composite fibre bundles, (ii) direct numerical simulations of composite fibre bundles, and (iii) a multiscale finite–element simulation method. The results show that there are significant discrepancies between the predictions of the different modelling approaches for fibre–break density evolution, cluster formation and ultimate strength, and that each of the three models presents unique advantages over the others. Blind model predictions are also compared against detailed computed–tomography experiments, showing that our understanding of the micromechanics of longitudinal tensile failure of composites needs to be developed further.
Anisotropic Thermally Conductive Flexible Polymer Composites Filled with Hexagonal Born Nitride (h-BN) Platelets and Ammine Carbon Nanotubes (CNT-NH2): Effects of the Filler Distribution and Orientation Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Zheng Su, Hua Wang, Xianzhu Ye, Konghu Tian, Weiqi Huang, Jing He, Yulan Guo, Xingyou Tian
High thermal conductive filler (hexagonal boron nitride and carbon nanotube) reinforced polymer composites have obtained a growing attention in the microelectronic industry for their good thermal conductivity but electrical insulating. In this work, a synergistic hybrid structure of two fillers with different dimensions had been designed and prepared by taking hexagonal born nitride (h-BN) platelets and ammine carbon nanotubes (CNT-NH2) into the flexible polymer matrix. Using cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) as the polymer matrix, a serious of (a) h-BN/CER based, (b) hybrid filler h-BN@CNT-NH2/CER based, and (c) mixed filler CNT-NH2 and h-BN/CER based composites were prepared. In this structure, h-BN (and h-BN@CNT-NH2) platelets stacked along the horizontal direction under the assistance of gravity force and interactivity between the fillers. The orientation of the h-BN platelets was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the cracked cross-section of the composite film and XRD measurement via calculating the orientation function (f). The CNT-NH2 was embedded within the network to improve the filler-filler contact or network-density. Due to the anisotropic properties of h-BN platelets and dispersion states of CNT-NH2, the composites with different structures presented different and special properties, including thermal/electrical conductivity properties, mechanical properties, and thermal decomposition properties. The analysis of structure and mechanism of thermal decomposition were then proposed to explain those interesting properties. The incorporation and dispersion states of CNT-NH2 in the composites played an important effect on the enhancement of the thermal conductivity properties both included in-plane (∼1.76 W/m•K) and through-plane (∼1.09 W/m•K) thermal conductivity. Additionally, the good electrical insulating properties and mechanical properties of the composites provided a potential application in the thermal management areas. The solvent-free procedure was environment friendly, easy operation, and suitable for the practical application in large scale.
Effect of characteristics of assembly unit of CNT/NCB composite fillers on properties of smart cement-based materials Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Liqing Zhang, Siqi Ding, Linwei Li, Sufen Dong, Danna Wang, Xun Yu, Baoguo Han
Electrostatic self-assembled CNT/NCB composite fillers with high CNT aspect ratio and large NCB size is incorporated into cement-based materials to develop smart cement-based composites. The mechanical, electrical and piezoresistive properties of the cement-based materials with CNT/NCB composite fillers are investigated. Percolation equation is used to describe electrically conductive property. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuits are used to explore the conductive and mechanical mechanism. The research results show that cement-based materials with CNT/NCB composite fillers at low content present acceptable mechanical property, high conductive property and stable and sensitive piezoresistive property. The fractional change of electrical resistivity, stress and strain sensitivity of cement-based materials with 1.41 vol.% CNT/NCB composite fillers can reach 13.4%, 3.12%/MPa and 521, respectively. It is concluded that high CNT aspect ratio and large NCB size in CNT/NCB composite fillers are beneficial for improving the properties of smart cement-based composites.
Low velocity impact and compression after impact simulation of thin ply laminates Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 A. Soto, E.V. González, P. Maimí, F. Martín de la Escalera, J.R. Sainz de Aja, E. Alvarez
Numerical simulations can help in the understanding of the damage sequence of polymer based composite laminates during an impact event, which is a difficult experimental task when dealing with a large number of plies. Low velocity impact and compression after impact in thin ply fabric laminates are studied through numerical simulations in which special attention has been devoted towards the computational efficiency. The impact results show the importance of delamination during the damage initiation, which takes place at few interfaces. After damage initiation, delamination and fiber breakage propagate until a last stage which is mainly governed by fiber breakage. Compression after impact shows a brittle behaviour with almost no damage propagation prior to failure. The numerical models indicate that matrix cracking effects can be assumed negligible for the studied thin ply laminates while delamination and especially the fiber constitutive law shape are important for accurate predictions.
First steps in composite materials for schoolchildren: A STEM educational project Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Delphine Depuydt, Kevin Hendrickx, Mahoor Mehdikhani, Nikolay Petrov, Stepan V. Lomov, David Seveno
Composite materials are inseparable from today’s life, yet many schoolchildren (and adults) are not familiar with them. In the framework of InnovationLab, an initiative of KU Leuven, a new Science-Technology-Engineering-and-Mathematics (STEM) project was launched, intended to introduce composite materials to schoolchildren. A toolbox was developed which enables teachers to perform composite-related experiments together with their pupils, actualising the pupils’ knowledge in chemistry, physics and mathematics. The students learn about polymer matrices and fibres, produce a composite themselves, investigate its mechanical properties and finally test a composite catapult. This way the scientific awareness of the students is raised and they gain insight into today’s challenges in composite materials and how engineers respond to them.
Ternary PVDF-based terpolymer nanocomposites with enhanced energy density and high power density Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Feihua Liu, Qi Li, Zeyu Li, Lijie Dong, Qing Wang, Chuanxi Xiong
The development of advanced dielectric materials with high electric energy densities is of crucial importance in modern electronics and electric power systems. Herein, a kind of ternary poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based ferroelectric terpolymer nanocomposites are prepared using a facile solution cast method. The ternary nanocomposite that is composed of barium strontium titanate (BST) and boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) can achieve increased dielectric constant and breakdown strength simultaneously. At the optimized filler contents, the ternary nanocomposite discharges an energy density of 24.4 J/cm3, which is 295% that of pristine terpolymer. Moreover, microsecond discharge speed of 2.81μs along with a power density that is over 13 times that of the current commercial available biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) have been achieved under an electric field of 200 MV/m. The incorporation of uniformly dispersed multicomponents into polymer matrix paves a way to significantly improve energy storage capability for dielectric polymer nanocomposites film capacitors.
Effect of ultraviolet curing kinetics on the mechanical properties of out of die pultruded vinyl ester composites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 I. Saenz-Dominguez, I. Tena, M. Sarrionandia, J. Torre, J. Aurrekoetxea
This paper analyses the effect of curing kinetics on the mechanical properties of composites manufactured by out of die ultraviolet (UV) cured pultrusion. Curing kinetics have been modified using two combinations of depth curing (BAPO) and surface curing (α aminoketone) photoinitiators. The rate constant of the autocatalytic model k, shows that the curing kinetics of the formulation with the higher content of BAPO and lower content of α aminoketone is faster in the studied intensity range. Spectrometry results justify the differences in curing kinetics, since the light transmission through thickness is higher during the whole UV curing process due to photobleaching effect of BAPO. Faster UV curing kinetics generates lower expansion at the exit of the pultrusion die, reducing the void content approximately 90%. Consequently, flexural and interlaminar shear strength, as well as specific energy absorption index of the fast curing resin, are higher.
Forming characteristics and surface damages of stitched multi-layered para-aramid fabrics with various stitching parameters for soft body armour design Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Mulat Alubel Abtew, François Boussu, Pascal Bruniaux, Carmen Loghin, Irina Cristian, Yan Chen, Lichuan Wang
In this study, effects of different stitching parameters on formability behaviour of multi-layerd para-armide panels were investigated. Different stitching pattern namely, Uni-axial longitudinal,Bi-axial straight, Uni-axial-diagonal, Bi-axial-diagonal, Edge stitch and Unstitched were used for binding different layers. Stitch length and gap parameters were also considered while formability using different values. Diamond quilted stitched with less stitch gap and short stitch length shows severe surface wrinkling and stitch thread breakage, whereas unstitched layers show a better deformability without wrinkling and stitch thread breakage. Similarly, diamond quilted stitched shows a very less drawing-in values both in warp and weft directions. As stitch density increases, the drawing-in measurement value reduced due the formation of more rigid layer to resist the deformation. Unstitch and diamond quilted preform possess the highest and least deformation recovery percentage respectivly. Moreover, deformation recovery percentage of the layers become very less as the stich gap and stitch length reduced.
Interface and mechanical/thermal properties of graphene/copper composite with Mo2C nanoparticles grown on graphene Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Ke Chu, Fan Wang, Yu-biao Li, Xiao-hu Wang, Da-jian Huang, Zhong-rong Geng
Mo2C nanoparticles grown on reduced graphene oxide (Mo2C@RGO) were used to prepare the Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite. The Mo2C nanoparticles played a bridging role in not only being firmly attached on RGO but also forming a semi-coherent interface with the Cu matrix, leading to strong interfacial bonding of the composites. The 1 vol% Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite exhibited a yield strength of 238 MPa, 58% and 127% higher than that of 1 vol% RGO/Cu composite and pure Cu, respectively. The strengthening mechanism of Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite relied on the dual role of Mo2C nanoparticles that not only enhanced the load transfer strengthening of RGO but also provided the possible Orowan strengthening themselves. Nevertheless, the Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite showed a drop in coefficient of thermal expansion but a reduced thermal conductivity compared to pure Cu and the RGO/Cu composite. This study provides new insights into the interface structure, strengthening mechanism and thermal behavior of carbide-modified graphene/metal composites.
Investigating the impact behaviour of short hemp fibres reinforced polypropylene biocomposites through high speed imaging and finite element modelling Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 Laurent Puech, Karthik Ram Ramakrishnan, Nicolas Le Moigne, Stéphane Corn, Pierre R. Slangen, Anne Le Duc, Hassane Boudhani, Anne Bergeret
In several industrial sectors, structural composite materials with good impact resistance are required to design parts submitted to crashes or falling objects. This work analyses the impact behaviour of short hemp fibres reinforced biocomposites through mechanical measurements, high speed imaging and finite element modelling. A drop-weight impact machine was instrumented with a high speed camera to measure the propagation of macro-cracks and correlate it to the force-displacement dynamic response at several impact energy levels. PP-hemp composites exhibit higher absorbed energies (up to 40%) than PP-glass composites due to higher strain at break. The video tracking analysis highlights that for a given cumulated crack length, PP-hemp composite absorbs much more energy, related to differences in failure mechanisms. The developed finite element model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and the fracture growth pattern, thus constituting a useful tool to predict the impact response of biocomposite parts.
Development of flame-retarding elastomeric composites with high mechanical performance Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Sherif Araby, Chun-H Wang, Hao Wu, Qingshi Meng, Hsu-Chiang Kuan, Nam Kyeun Kim, Adrian Mouritz, Jun Ma
Flammability of polymers is a severe issue limiting their applications where fire safety is paramount, and a great challenge is to make polymers flame-retarding with no sacrifice of their mechanical performance. This work employed a low-cost graphite intercalation compound (GIC) as a multifunctional additive to improve the flame retardancy and mechanical strength of an elastomer by melt compounding. As characterized by cone calorimetry which presents real fire conditions, the average peak heat release rate and mass loss rate were reduced by 55% and 54% and the fire performance index enhanced by 60% at 12.0 vol% GIC, which implies a lot more time for fire victims to escape and to be saved. It inhibited the elastomer flammability through two consequential processes: (i) endothermic chemical reactions during the GIC expansion and (ii) char layer formation on composite surface protecting the polymer beneath from burning. Tensile strength, Young’s modulus, elongation at break and tear strength were respectively improved by 230%, 100%, 220% and 200%. These findings demonstrate that GICs can provide both flame retardancy and reinforcement to elastomers which are extensively used in industries.
Uncovering the fatigue damage initiation and progression in uni-directional non-crimp fabric reinforced polyester composite Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Kristine M. Jespersen, Jens A. Glud, Jens Zangenberg, Atsushi Hosoi, Hiroyuki Kawada, Lars P. Mikkelsen
The current work studies the fatigue damage initiation and progression in a quasi-unidirectional non-crimp fabric based fibre composite used for wind turbine blades. This is done by combining in-situ transilluminated white light imagining (TWLI) with ex-situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) experiments along with tension clamp X-ray CT experiments. TWLI is used to monitor the off-axis cracks in the thin supporting backing fibre bundles present in quasi-UD composites, and a crack counting algorithm is applied to automatically count the cracks in images obtained in-situ during fatigue testing. It is found that off-axis cracks not only initiate at the specimen edges but also at isolated locations inside the specimen, which could be related to the microstructural features. In addition, a clear effect of strain level on the measured off-axis crack density is observed. From the X-ray CT experiments, it is found that the UD fibre fractures initiate and progress from regions where the off-axis backing fibre bundles are ’in contact’ with a UD fibre bundle. Damage is seen to first initiate at a cross-over region of the backing fibre bundles, and later at a region with only one backing fibre bundle. In addition, applying tension to the specimen during X-ray CT scanning is found to reveal additional UD fibre fractures that are not visible in scans performed the unloaded state. With load applied, a significant number of UD fibre fractures were observed earlier in the fatigue life than expected. Based on the observations of the study a damage progression scheme is presented for quasi-UD fibre composites.
An Assessment of Financial Viability of Recycled Carbon Fibre in Automotive Applications Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Fanran Meng, Jon McKechnie, Steve J. Pickering
Carbon fibre (CF) recycling has been demonstrated to achieve reductions in environmental impacts compared to virgin CF production, but there is limited understanding of the financial viability of recycling and reutilisation of recycled CF (rCF). In this work, cost analysis and identification of market opportunities for rCF are performed by evaluating the cost of recycling, composite manufacture, and applications in automotive industry. Cost impacts of using rCF as a substitute for conventional materials and competitor lightweight materials are assessed over the full life cycle, including in-use implications. Recovery of CF can be achieved at $5/kg and less across a wide range of process parameters, approximately 15% of the cost of producing virgin carbon fibre. The life cycle cost results show that rCF composites, especially aligned rCF composites, give substantial cost reductions relative to virgin CF composites and even steel and aluminium.
High-energy-density with polymer nanocomposites containing of SrTiO3 nanofibers for capacitor application Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Lingmin Yao, Zhongbin Pan, Jiwei Zhai, Guangzu Zhang, Zhiyu Liu, Yuhua Liu
Inorganic/polymer nanocomposite films have attracted pronounced attention for electric energy storage applications since their high power energy density and fast charge-discharge ability. In this work, the flexible nanocomposite films composed by the paraelectric SrTiO3 nanofibers (ST NFs) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were prepared by a solution cast method. The ST NFs, synthesized by an electrospinning method, were coated with a dense and robust dopamine layer which could effectively improve the filler-matrix distributional homogeneity and compatibility. The composite film with an optimized filler content illustrates a high discharge energy density of 9.12 J/cm3 at 360 MV/m, which is about 625% over the biaxially oriented polypropylenes (BOPP) (1.2 J/cm3 at 640 MV/m). Moreover, the composite film shows a superior power density of 2.31 MW/cm3 and ultra-fast discharge speed of 178 ns. Therefore, the present approach might be extended to the fabrication of similar polymeric nanocomposites for high-performance capacitor energy storage devices.
Nano-enhanced interface in carbon fibre polymer composite using halloysite nanotubes Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Miriam Jäger, Omid Zabihi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Quanxiang Li, Andreas Depalmeanar, Minoo Naebe
The carbon fibres (CFs) sizing has a crucial impact on final properties of CFs reinforced polymer composites. Herein, an industrially-adaptable process for sizing of CFs was employed through a dip-coating process which includes using epoxy sizing solutions mixed with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). Potential changes in the mechanical properties of the CFs and the characteristics of the resulting composites were evaluated. Epoxy sizing containing various concentrations of HNTs changed the surface roughness, and friction of CFs. The obtained results demonstrated that HNTs does not significantly affect the tensile strength of CFs, however, surface energies, obtained by an inverse gas chromatography technique, are increased. To demonstrate the effect of HNTs on the fibre/epoxy matrix interactions, single fibre fragmentation tests (SFFT) were conducted and consequently apparent interfacial shear strength (IFSS) were calculated. The IFSS increased up to 23% compared to a pure sized CFs and up to 61% compared to an unsized-CFs.
Modelling Heat Transfer through an FBG Optical Fibre Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 P. Schubel, R. Umer, E.K.G. Boateng
This paper presents a new approach to model heat transfer through an optical fibre. Three thermal strain modelling procedures were evaluated for coated and uncoated FBG optical fibres, considering different layers of sensors that effect strain measurements. The compensation factors required for strain measurements were investigated. The acrylate coating was found unsuitable for thermosetting polymers due to low Tg whereas, polyimide coating was appropriate for cure monitoring due to high Tg than most thermoset resins. Three types of thermal strain models were simulated, and the results were compared with experiments. The heat transfer through the core of an optical fibre was found negligible relative to glass cladding and the coating layers. It was found that thermal strains induced by the glass cladding and protective layers become more dominant as the heating rate and temperature range increases. The uncoated FBGs were found to give better accuracy for high temperature applications.
Microstructure and tensile properties of 5083 Al matrix composites reinforced with graphene oxide and graphene nanoplates prepared by pressure infiltration method Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 Puzhen Shao, Wenshu Yang, Qiang Zhang, Qingyu Meng, Xin Tan, Ziyang Xiu, Jing Qiao, Zhenhe Yu, Gaohui Wu
In the present work, 5083Al matrix composites reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplates (GNPs) have been prepared by the pressure infiltration method. Regardless of the graphene types, no peaks of Al4C3 phase have been detected by the XRD analysis. However, needle-like Al4C3 phase has been observed in the GO/5083Al and the GNPs/5083Al composites, while the content of the Al4C3 phase in the GNPs/5083Al composite was much lower. Furthermore, the segregation of Mg element at the surface of the GNPs has been found in the GNPs/5083Al composite, implying the inhibition effect of Mg element on the formation of the Al4C3 phase. It has been found that the yield strength of the composites was slightly improved by the addition of the GO and GNPs, and the GNPs/5083Al composite demonstrated 14% increment in the tensile strength. Meanwhile, the pulling-out of the GO and GNPs have been observed.
Enhanced interfacial, electrical, and flexural properties of polyphenylene sulfide composites filled with carbon fibers modified by electrophoretic surface deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Min Park, Jong Hyuk Park, B.J. Yang, Jaehyun Cho, Seong Yun Kim, Inhwa Jung
Electrophoresis can be an effective approach for depositing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of carbon fiber (CF). Nevertheless, it has been rarely reported on polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composites filled with CFs surface-modified by CNTs based on electrophoresis. In this study, we investigated the electrophoresis process conditions that can completely coat CF with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using self-manufactured electrophoresis equipment, and the enhancement of interfacial, electrical and flexural properties of PPS composites by introducing CFs coated with MWCNTs based on electrophoresis. In particular, interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the PPS composites was measured by microbond tests and improved by about 41.7 % due to the MWCNTs introduced on the surface of CFs. These enhancements were theoretically explained by an interface-modified CF-based micromechanical model. Introducing MWCNTs on the CF surface based on electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective method for improving the interfacial, electrical and flexural properties of PPS composites.
Effects of Uracil on Crystallization and Rheological Property of Poly(R-3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-4-Hydroxybutyrate) Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Xue-Mei Che, Hai-Mu Ye, Guo-Qiang Chen
Uracil was investigated as a nucleating agent for bacterially synthesized copolymer of R-3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB4HB). The effects of uracil on the crystallization kinetics, melting behavior, spherulite morphology, crystalline structure and rheological behavior of P3HB4HB were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and rheometer. The crystallization half-times (t1/2) of P3HB4HB decreased significantly in the presence of uracil. With addition of 1 wt% uracil, the t1/2 value of P3HB4HB melt crystallizing at 95 °C decreased to 2.37 min, about 3.5% of the neat polymer. In-situ FTIR spectra revealed the clear interactions between uracil and P3HB4HB in composites, inducing some precursory structures. Furthermore, the storage and loss modulus of nucleated P3HB4HB increased exponentially compared with neat P3HB4HB. It was proposed that uracil is an environment friendly nucleating agent and rheological modifier for the P3HB4HB.
Single polymer laminate composites by compression molding of knitted textiles and microparticles of polyamide 6: Preparation and structure-properties relationship Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Shafagh.D. Tohidi, Ana Maria Rocha, Nadya V. Dencheva, Zlatan Denchev
Knitted reinforced single polymer laminate composites based on polyamide 6 (KSPCsPA6 KSPCs PA 6 ) are produced by compression molding of polyamide 6 microparticles (MPsPA6) ( MPs PA 6 ) powder-coating annealed PA6 Rib or Jersey knitted textile structures. The MPsPA6 MPs PA 6 are synthesized by solution/precipitation activated anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam. The tensile properties of KSPCsPA6 KSPCs PA 6 are studied in relation to the knitted reinforcement architecture, fiber volume fraction, ply orientation and stacking orders. The tensile stiffness and strength of the newly prepared KSPCsPA6 KSPCs PA 6 with fiber content of 15% show significant improvements as compared to the neat anionic PA6 matrix and to commercial hydrolytic PA6 (HPA6). The mechanical behavior of the KSPCsPA6 KSPCs PA 6 is correlated with the geometry parameters of the knitted reinforcements, the polymorph content of the samples and their crystallinity indexes determined by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The fracture behavior of KSPCsPA6 KSPCs PA 6 is investigated by electron microscopy complemented by simulation studies.
Exploring excellent dispersion of graphene nanosheets in three-dimensional bacterial cellulose for ultra-strong nanocomposite hydrogels Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Honglin Luo, Jiaojiao Dong, Xinhua Xu, Jie Wang, Zhiwei Yang, Yizao Wan
Homogeneous dispersion of graphene nanosheets in polymer matrices is still a big challenge in the area of nanocomposites. Herein we demonstrate a layer-by-layer (LBL) interface culture strategy to homogeneously distribute graphene (GE) nanosheets in three-dimensional (3D) bacterial cellulose (BC) matrix. In GE/BC nanocomposite hydrogels, the graphene nanosheets are closely bundled by BC nanofibers, which greatly improves the mechanical properties of GE/BC hydrogels. The improvements in tensile strength and modulus over bare BC reach 91% and 279%, respectively, for the GE/BC nanocomposite with 0.30 wt% graphene, which are very impressive for graphene-reinforced hydrogels. The scalable, versatile, and ecofriendly methodology is extendable to the fabrication of other BC-based nanocomposite hydrogels.
Mechanical properties of composite laminates reinforced with rectangular z-pins in monotonic and cyclic tension Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-05 Julian Hoffmann, Gerhard Scharr
This paper presents an experimental study investigating the static and fatigue tensile properties of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates reinforced with rectangular and circular z-pins. All z-pinned laminates showed reduced tensile stiffness and strength compared to unpinned specimens. The insertion of rectangular z-pins that were aligned lengthwise to the fiber direction of a laminate ply was observed to cause minor microstructural damage, such as in-plane fiber waviness. Therefore, the use of rectangular z-pins led to significantly higher tensile stiffness and strength in both unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. Unpinned laminates showed only minor fatigue effects. The insertion of z-pins resulted in a decrease in the fatigue performance of the tested unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. Since this deterioration was primarily caused by the initial knockdown of the static tensile strength of the z-pinned laminates, rectangular z-pins showed superior fatigue performance in both unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates.
Fracture Behaviour of Rubber- and Silica Nanoparticle-Toughened Glass Fibre Composites under Static and Fatigue Loading Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-03 Shamsiah Awang Ngah, Ambrose C. Taylor
The crosslinked polymers used in fibre composites are very brittle, and require toughening for structural applications. Research over many years has increased the fracture energy, but the fatigue resistance of these toughened polymers is very poor, limiting the optimisation of structures. This work reports the first successful use of hybrid toughening to increase both the quasi-static interlaminar fracture energy, GIC, and the fatigue threshold strain-energy release-rate, Gth. Amine-cured epoxy glass-fibre composites were toughened using carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) which forms micron-sized rubber particles and 20 nm-diameter silica nanoparticles. The toughening mechanisms were identified as cavitation of rubber particles and debonding for the silica nanoparticles, followed by plastic void growth. The CTBN greatly increases GIC, and the nanoparticles increase Gth. Combining both particles as a hybrid has a synergistic effect on the fatigue resistance. This demonstrates the effectiveness of hybrid toughening, enabling the design of optimised composites by combining micro- and nanoparticles.
Adhesion enhancement and damage protection for carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites via silica particle coating Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Kyungtae Kim, Yong Chae Jung, B.J. Yang, Jaewoo Kim
Adhesive materials for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have attracted the interest of researchers as an effective means to bond newly developed lightweight and high-performance composite structures. In this study, we developed a novel method to overcome these critical problems through a silica particle coating. Four-step bonding procedures were proposed to bind heterogeneous materials, where various concentrations of silica particles were introduced to coat CFRP composite surfaces uniformly in order to serve as a reinforcement and as a protection barrier layer against CFRP fractures. Experimental evaluations of the mechanics and fractography studies were conducted to clarify the correlations among the silica concentrations, adhesive strength levels, coating properties, and CFRP surface fractures. It was demonstrated that the introduction of the silica surface coating improves the adhesive strength by approximately 20% while also reducing CFRP surface fractures significantly by around 90%.
Laser-based surface patterning of composite plates for improved secondary adhesive bonding Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Ran Tao, Marco Alfano, Gilles Lubineau
The effects of laser irradiation surface pretreatments on the mode I fracture toughness of adhesively bonded composite joints were evaluated. First, pulsed CO2 laser irradiation was uniformly deployed on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates. Next, double cantilever beam (DCB) tests were performed to assess the effects of surface pretreatments on the mode I fracture toughness of the adhesive joints. Then, a thoughtful combination of the proposed surface pretreatments was deployed to fabricate DCB specimens with patterned interfaces. A wide range of techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact profilometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to ascertain the effects of all investigated surface pretreatments. It is shown that patterning promoted damage mechanisms that were not observed in the uniformly treated interfaces, resulting in an effective fracture toughness well above that predicted by a classical rule of mixture.
Dynamic response of circular composite laminates subjected to underwater impulsive loading Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Wei Huang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Chen, Xiongwen Jiang, Jiayi Liu
The dynamic response and failures of carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to underwater impulsive loading are investigated experimentally. The effect of impulsive intensity and thickness of laminates on dynamic deformation, failure modes, and associated mechanisms is identified and quantified respectively. The plates are subjected to underwater impulsive loads of different intensities with a lab-scaled underwater explosive simulator. 3D DIC is employed to capture the dynamic response in terms of response rate, mid-span deflection, and deflection-profile history during the elastic response process, followed by a series of postmortem non-destructive investigation and microscopic examinations to examine the failure modes and its distributions, and analyse the associated mechanisms. The results show that the intensity of impulse, thickness and failure of panels affect the dynamic response of laminate plates significantly. The non-surface failure has very limited influences on the tendency of the deflection-impulse relationship, and the local failure on the surface occurring later than the delamination and fiber fracture through the thickness of laminates. The blast resistance of composite laminates is not enhanced continuously with the increasing thickness due to the inconsistent changes of failure modes. With similar areal mass, meanwhile, composite laminates perform better blast-resistant performance than that of the metallic structures.
MoS2 nanosheets-decorated carbon fiber hybrid for improving the friction and wear properties of polyimide composite Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Beibei Chen, Xiang Li, YuhanJia, Xiaofang Li, Jin Yang, Fengyuan Yan, Changsheng Li
A novel hybrid material composed of micro-carbon fiber (CF) and hexagonal MoS2 nanosheets was prepared via a one-step hydrothermal method. The hybrid simultaneously had both lubricating and reinforcing effects to improve friction and wear properties of polyimide (PI). More importantly, MoS2 nanosheets decorated onto the surface of CF increased the interfacial adhesion between CF and the PI matrix. This enhanced the hardness and thermal stability, and was also favorable for transferring stress from the matrix to CF during friction and wear process. Accordingly, the PI/CF-MoS2 composite exhibited outstanding tribological properties. Also, its friction coefficient and wear rate were only 0.24 and 2.01×10-6mm3/Nm, respectively, which were lower than those of PI, PI/CF and PI/MoS2; this suggested CF-MoS2 hybrid was a promising additive for enhancing the tribological properties of polymers.
A study of the effects of acid, plasticizer, cross-linker, and extracted chitin nanofibers on the properties of chitosan biofilm Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Melikasadat Hejazi, Tayebeh Behzad, Pejman Heidarian, Bijan Nasri-Nasrabadi
A comprehensive research was conducted to compare mechanical, optical, and water absorption properties of chitosan/chitin nanofiber (ChNF) nanocomposites, prepared by acetic acid in form of uncross-linked biofilms and adipic acid in form of physically (uncured) and chemically (cured) cross-linked biofilms. The chemical and morphological characterizations revealed that the isolated ChNFs contained almost 88% chitin, with crystallinity and average diameter of 84% and 21nm. Mechanical properties of uncross-linked chitosan biofilms increased with loading ChNFs up to 5 weight percent (wt.%), albeit their elongations at break declined—this reduction was then compensated using plasticizer. Moreover, it was found that the cured biofilms containing 5 wt.% ChNFs and 20 wt.% glycerol showed the highest strength. The superior resistance to water absorption was also observed in case of the cured biofilms, and transparency test showed that adding ChNFs and glycerol could reduce the transparency of chitosan biofilms.
Effect of resin-rich bond line thickness and fibre migration on the toughness of unidirectional Carbon/PEEK joints Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Francisco Sacchetti, Wouter J.B. Grouve, Laurent L. Warnet, Irene Fernandez Villegas
It is a common practice in fusion bonding of thermoplastic composites to add a matrix layer between the two substrates to be joined. The aim is to ensure proper wetting of the two parts. The effect of this additional matrix layer on the mechanical performance was studied by mode I fracture toughness measurements. The additional matrix was inserted at the interface in the form of films of various thicknesses. Three different manufacturing techniques, namely autoclave consolidation, press consolidation and stamp forming, were used to prepare different sets of specimens with varying resin-rich bond line thickness. The occurrence of fibre migration towards the matrix rich interface was induced by the manufacturing techniques used due to their different processing times. The interlaminar fracture toughness was observed to increase with increasing amount of extra-matrix at the interface, while no effects of the fibre migration on the fracture toughness were observed.
Uniaxial Strength of a Composite Array of Overlaid and Aligned Prepreg Platelets Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Sergii G. Kravchenko, Drew E. Sommer, R. Byron Pipes
The tensile strength of a discontinuous composite system consisting of aligned, unidirectional prepreg platelets is predicted by performing progressive damage analyses in a periodic representative volume element. Interlaminar and in-plane damage mechanisms are combined to yield failure characteristics of the meso-structure. The length-to-thickness ratio of the platelet was found to be the primary variable for control of system strength and failure mode. A critical platelet aspect ratio was determined as that ratio wherein system strength is maximized. Further, composite strength variability was shown to be vary inversely with aspect ratio, while attaining a minimum at the critical aspect ratio.
Experimental investigation of impact behavior of wood-based sandwich structures Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 John Susainathan, Florent Eyma, Emmanuel De Luycker, Arthur Cantarel, Bruno Castanie
Low carbon emission and sustainable development are shared goals throughout the transportation industry. One way to meet such expectations is to introduce lightweight materials based on renewable sources. Sandwich panels with plywood core and fiber reinforced composite skins appear to be good candidates. Additional properties of wood such as fire resistance or thermal and acoustic insulation are also essential for many applications and could lead to a new interest for this old material. In this paper, Sandwich panels with two different types of plywood and four different skins (aluminum and glass, CFRP, or flax reinforced polymer) are tested under low-velocity / low energy impacts and their behavior is discussed.
The brittle-to-ductile transition in tensile and impact behavior of hybrid carbon fibre/self-reinforced polypropylene composites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Marina Selezneva, Yentl Swolfs, Amalia Katalagarianakis, Tomoko Ichikawa, Noriyuki Hirano, Ichiro Taketa, Takuya Karaki, Ignaas Verpoest, Larissa Gorbatikh
Hybrid composites combining two fibre types with distinctly different mechanical properties have the potential to surpass the stiffness-toughness dilemma, which is characteristic to standard (single fibre type) composite materials. The current work demonstrates this potential on the example of carbon fibre/self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) hybrids. The aim is to understand the transition from brittle to ductile behaviour under tensile and impact loadings and to identify the parameters affecting this transition. It was found that the volume fraction (Vf) of carbon fibres at which the transition occurs can be increased by using a dispersed layup with thinner layers. The use of a high adhesion matrix results in higher modulus and yield strength but lowers the transition Vf. The experimental program is supported by analytical models used to predict modulus, strength and energy absorption. Results indicate that pseudo-ductile carbon fibre/SRPP hybrids are competitive with composites produced from bulk and sheet moulding compounds.
Multifunctional Anisotropic Flexible Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites Reinforced by Aligned Graphite Flake with Non-covalent Biomimetic Functionalization Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Zheng Su, Hua Wang, Konghu Tian, Weiqi Huang, Yulan Guo, Jing He, Xingyou Tian
High thermal conductive filler (graphite flake) reinforced polymer composites have obtained a growing attention in the microelectronic industry. In order to overcome the obstacles in surface modification, in this study, dopamine chemistry was used to achieve the facile modification of graphite flake via forming a polydopamine (PDA) shell on the surface in a solvent-free aqueous condition. The strong π-π interaction between the hexagonal structural graphite flake and aromatic dopamine molecules ensured the effective modification. The PDA coating on graphite flake enhanced the compatibility between the filler and the flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) matrix via hydrogen bond, and promoted the epoxy curing process by forming covalent bond. Under the assistance of gravity, the PDA@graphite flake stacked along the horizontal direction in the polymer matrix. The procedure of filler alignment and mechanism of thermal decomposition were investigated by XRD measurement and thermodynamic/kinetics analysis, respectively. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and performance. Due to the combination of surface modification and alignment of PDA@graphite flake, the prepared CER/PDA@graphite has higher in-plane thermal conductivity. In addition, excellent adhesion property and thermal stability demonstrated that the CER/PDA@graphite composites was a good candidate as thermal interface material (TIMs), which could be applied in the thermal management areas. The procedure was environment friendly, easy operation, and suitable for the practical application in large scale.
Core-shell structured carbon nanotube-poly(methylmethacrylate) beads as thermo-conductive filler in epoxy composites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Minh Canh Vu, Young Han Bae, Min Ji Yu, Md. Akhtarul Islam, Sung-Ryong Kim
A facile and novel method has been developed for the preparation of highly thermo-conductive epoxy-based composites. The core-shell structure is formed with ‘functionalized carbon nanotubes (sCNTs)’ as shell encapsulated on the plasma treated poly(methylmethacrylate) (pPMMA) as core. Effective thermo-conductive pathways are realized through core-shell structured bead-bead conduction throughout the composites. The core and shell have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared analysis and zeta potential measurement. The core-shell arrangement has visualized by scanning electron microscopy, which supported the expectation that the shell being positively charged would be assembled on the negatively charged core forming a highly conductive outer surface of the non-conductive core. The thermal conductivity of the epoxy composites increased from 0.19 W.m-1.K-1 of neat epoxy to 0.96 W.m-1.K-1 at 1 wt% of sCNTs in sCNT@pPMMA beads. The method developed in this work introduces a new approach of using non-conductive polymer beads as constituting element in conductive framework formation.
Preparation and properties of carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber/poly (ether ether ketone) multiscale composites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Yanan Su, Shouchun Zhang, Xinghua Zhang, Zhenbo Zhao, Deqi Jing
The carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber/poly (ether ether ketone) (CNTs /CF/PEEK) multiscale composites with excellent properties were prepared by introducing treated CNTs (t-CNTs) into CF/PEEK composites using prepreg spraying method. The effect of t-CNTs content on the mechanical performance of composites such as interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), flexural strength and flexural modulus were investigated. The results indicated that the ILSS, flexural strength and flexural modulus of CNTs/CF/PEEK composites were increased by 35.8%, 25.4% and 23.7% after 0.5wt% t-CNTs introducing. The surface of prepregs and cross-section of the composites displayed evenly t-CNTs dispersion and strong fiber-resin adhesion by scanning electron microscope observation. With the addition of t-CNTs, the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of CNTs/CF/PEEK composites were also markedly improved, in comparison with that of CF/PEEK composites. This suggested that the prepreg spraying method was an effective approach to coat t-CNTs on CF/PEEK prepregs and enhance the performance of CNTs/CF/PEEK composites.
Ti--B--Based Composite Materials: Properties, Basic Fabrication Methods, and Fields of Application (Review) Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 A.S. Konstantinov, P.M. Bazhin, A.M. Stolin, E.V. Kostitsyna, A.S. Ignatov
The basic methods of synthesis and consolidation of Ti--B--based composites are reviewed. Prominence is given to the possibilities of the most important modern methods to manufacture products of various fundamental purposes from these composite materials, namely, powder consolidation in an electromagnetic field, spark plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and magnetic-pulsed pressing. A separate section is devoted to the possibilities and prospects of energy-effective SHS methods, which are intended to burn powders during an exothermic reaction rather than to heat them. The physic-mechanical properties of Ti--B--based composites are described. Their structure is discussed as a function of the technological method of synthesizing a material. The main fields of application of these materials and the products made of them are described, and the prospects of their use in modern industry are considered.
Properties-morphology relationships in electrospun mats based on polylactic acid and graphene nanoplatelets Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti
Aligned and randomly oriented polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposite nanofiber mats filled with Graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) were prepared by electrospinning. The morphological analysis revealed the successful alignment of the fibers achieved by collecting the mats on a high-speed rotary drum. Furthermore, GnP addition on the polymeric solution leads to an increase of the viscosity with a consequent increment of the fiber diameter. Tensile tests demonstrated that the reinforcing effect of GnP when added to the PLA matrix was more than three times higher in the aligned systems if compared with the respective randomly oriented mats. DSC analysis showed that GnPs were able to slightly increase the crystallinity of the composites acting as nucleating agent. TGA measurements highlighted that the incorporation of GnP in PLA electrospun mats leads to an improved thermal stability of the composites. Both thermal analysis indicate that there is no significant effect of the orientation of the fibers.
Improving the Accuracy of the Uniaxial Bias Extension Test on Engineering Fabrics Using a Simple Wrinkle Mitigation Technique Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Philip Harrison, Euan Taylor, Jafar Alsayednoor
Flame retardancy of rice straw-polyethylene composites affected by in situ polymerization of ammonium polyphosphate/silica Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Dong Jiang, Mingzhu Pan, Xin Cai, Yuting Zhao
Rice straw was modified by in situ polymerization of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) polyelectrolyte. FTIR and SEM results indicated that APP polyelectrolyte was grafted into rice straw surface and attracted silica granules. APP polyelectrolyte showed a uniform distribution on surface of rice straw. Composites containing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the modified rice straw with APP polyelectrolyte were prepared. By incorporating APP polyelectrolyte of 15 wt%, limited oxygen index (LOI) of rice straw-HDPE composites (RPCs) reached to 23.5%. Introducing neat rice straw to HDPE resulted in a reduction in peak heat release rate (pHRR) of 563.7 kW/m2 for RPCs compared with 1223.8 kW/m2 for pure HDPE. For RPCs with APP polyelectrolyte of 15 wt%, pHRR reached to 488.4 kW/m2. An intumescent, stable, and compact char layer, consisting of P-C, P-N-C, C=C, Si-O-P, and Si-P, resulted in an improvement on flame retardancy of RPCs.
Permeability and Capillary Effects in a Channel-wise Non-Crimp Fabric Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Damiano Salvatori, Baris Caglar, Helena Teixidó, Véronique Michaud
Flow properties are investigated for a non-crimp glass fabric with large meso-channels designed for high-permeabi-lity, as compared to glass twill woven fabric. Saturated and unsaturated permeability are measured through in-plane, unidirectional, constant-pressure flow experiments. Capillary effects are evaluated following a novel approach based on the ratio of unsaturated and saturated permeability for a set of experiments conducted at capillary numbers varying over a large range from ∼4·10-5 ∼ 4 · 10 - 5 to 4·10-1 4 · 10 - 1 . The mesoscopic pore-space of the compacted fabrics is imaged with X-Ray Tomography, and analyzed to propose permeability predictions based on the channels geometry, which correspond well to experimental results. Permeability is governed by viscous flow in the meso-channels. As a result, provided that the capillary number exceeds a threshold value, the permeability can be rather accurately measured in these dual-scale fabrics by carrying out unsaturated measurements, neglecting micro-flow and capillary effects.
Ultrasonic welding of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites through a PEI thermoplastic coupling layer Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Irene F. Villegas, Regis van Moorleghem
This paper investigates welding of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites using the following procedure. Firstly, the carbon/epoxy composite was made “weldable” through a very thin PEI thermoplastic film co-cured on its surface. During the curing cycle, the PEI resin and the components of the epoxy resin system partially diffused into each other generating a gradient interphase between the original epoxy and PEI resins. Subsequently, the carbon/PEEK composite adherend was welded onto the PEI-rich surface of the weldable carbon/epoxy adherend, exploiting the total miscibility between PEI and PEEK. Thermal degradation of the carbon/epoxy adherend during the welding process was avoided via the ultra-short heating times enabled by the ultrasonic welding technology. In this research, mechanical testing was used to evaluate the weld strength relative to reference joints. Additionally, cross-section scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the morphology of the PEI/epoxy interphase before and after the welding process.
Flexible strain sensor based on aerogel-spun carbon nanotube yarn with a core-sheath structure Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Wei Li, Fujun Xu, Wei Liu, Yang Gao, Kun Zhang, Xiaohua Zhang, Yiping Qiu
Flexible strain sensors with good linear sensitivity, mechanical compatibility with systems and robustness over repeated usages are very desirable in wearable electronics, smart textiles, and other multifunctional structures. To this end, carbon nanotube/polyvinyl alcohol (CNT/PVA) coated yarn with a core-sheath structure (inner pure CNT core and outer CNT-PVA sheath) was fabricated by dipping the aerogel-spun CNT yarn in various PVA solutions for a short period of time. The as-produced CNT/PVA coated yarn has an electrical conductivity of 447.1 S/cm and exhibits a linear piezoresistive response, with a high gauge factor (the ratio of electrical resistance change to strain change) of 2.36. Compared with the pure CNT yarn, the PVA coated yarn has an improved tensile strength by 71.8%, Young’s modulus by 157.3%, abrasion-resistance by 100%, and enhanced stability after cyclic loading. This demonstrates a promising strain sensor for system integration into flexible intelligent devices or other advanced composites.
Micro-crack behavior of carbon fiber reinforced Fe3O4/graphene oxide modified epoxy composites for cryogenic application Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Yuxin He, Qiuyu Chen, Song Yang, Chang Lu, Mengting Feng, Yuanli Jiang, Guoxi Cao, Jianping Zhang, Chuntai Liu
The epoxy nanocomposites with Fe3O4 modified graphene oxide (Fe3O4/GO) were used to influence the micro-cracks resistance of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminate at 77K. Fe3O4/GO with good paramagnetic properties were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to modify epoxy for cryogenic applications. Fe3O4/GO modified CF/EP laminates were also prepared through vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The results show that the Fe3O4/GO can effectively improve the mechanical properties of epoxy (EP) matrix at 77K and reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of EP matrix. It also can obviously improve the micro-cracks resistance of CF/EP composites at 77K. Compared to neat EP, the CTE of Fe3O4/GO modified EP composite is decreased 51.6%. Compared to CF/EP composite, the micro-cracks density of Fe3O4/GO modified CF/EP composite at 77K is decreased 60.0%.
Discrete damage modeling of static bearing failure in laminated composites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Endel V. Iarve, Kevin H.Hoos, Yuriy Nikishkov, Andrew Makeev
Discrete Damage Modeling (DDM) of double shear lap bolted joint was performed. Regularized eXtended Finite Element Method (Rx-FEM) was used for the simulation of matrix cracking at initially unknown locations and in directions independent of the mesh orientation in a ply level 3D model. A set of input properties combining directly measured ply properties and properties empirically reduced from laminate level testing by using common industry practices was used for blind prediction of test data for 1.5D and 3.0D edge distance specimens with clamp-up. The simulations predicted the bearing strength characteristics for 1.5D configuration within 10% window, whereas for the 3.0D case the ultimate bearing strength was underpredicted by 20.3%. X-ray CT imaging of post-peak loaded specimens was performed. The observed failure modes and locations agreed with the experiment in most cases. A limited number of input parameters including fiber failure fracture toughness were varied in a parametric study.
Shape Recovery Characteristics of SiC/C/PLA Composite Filaments and 3D Printed Parts Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Wenbo Liu, Nan Wu, Kishore Pochiraju
The shape recovery characteristics of SiC and Carbon filled (poly) lactic acid (PLA) filaments extruded for use with Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and parts printed with FDM have been analyzed. The SiC/C /PLA composite filaments were made with particle loading up to a maximum weight fraction of 60%. The shape recovery characteristics of the filaments and printed parts were tested with bending and tensile loads. Two parameters, recovery rate and recovery time were defined and monitored during the shape recovery process. This study shows that the recovery time can be correlated to the thermal conductivity of the material. The results show a viable method for tailoring the recovery time. Furthermore, tensile specimens were 3D printed and the shape recovery behavior can be observed in the printed structures. This paper describes fabrication methods, SMP composite response results and a correlation of SMP response with the composite thermal conductivity.
Enhanced dielectric property and energy storage density of PVDF-HFP based dielectric composites by incorporation of silver nanoparticles-decorated exfoliated montmorillonite nanoplatelets Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Huan Wang, Haian Xie, Shan Wang, Zhaodongfang Gao, Chuanbin Li, Guo-Hua Hu, Chuanxi Xiong
Dielectric constant and breakdown strength are two key factors influencing the energy density of a dielectric material. This paper reports a promising strategy to increase both the dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the PVDF-HFP upon incorporating a low content of silver-deposited exfoliated montmorillonite nanoplatelets (Ag-OMMT). Incorporation of the Ag-OMMT nanoplatelets forms a large number of nanocapacitors, resulting in more interfacial polarization compared to the bare PVDF-HFP under the same applied electric field. Meanwhile, the OMMT nanoplatelets act as the insulating barriers, increasing the breakdown strength of the PVDF-HFP. Consequently, great improvements in the energy storage density are achieved in these dielectric composites. The PVDF-HFP/Ag-OMMT composite film with 4 vol.% Ag-OMMT shows an energy density of 10.51 J cm-3 at 400 MV m-1, which is ∼2.25 times that of the pure PVDF-HFP film.
Analysis of the morphometric variations in natural fibres by automated laser scanning: Towards an efficient and reliable assessment of the cross-sectional area Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 William Garat, Stephane Corn, Nicolas Le Moigne, Johnny Beaugrand, Anne Bergeret
The development of natural fibres in engineering applications requires the reliable and accurate assessment of their dimensional characteristics and mechanical properties. Fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) obtained from lateral dimensional measurements should consider the specific cross-sectional shape of natural fibres and its wide lengthwise morphometric variations. In this study, a detailed dimensional analysis was conducted on a selected panel of natural fibres with contrasted morphometric characteristics belonging to various phylogenetic plant species with dissimilar functions in planta. An automated laser scanning technique was used, and geometrical models and filtering data method were developed for calculation of reliable CSAs adapted to each plant fibre species. Results show that CSAs of palm and sisal fibre bundles can be satisfactorily assessed by a circular model with minimal data processing, whereas hemp, flax and nettle fibre bundles require specific data filtering due to partial splicing, and can be better assessed by an elliptic model.
Enhanced thermal conductivity and ideal dielectric properties of epoxy composites containing polymer modified hexagonal boron nitride Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-10 Yunliang Jiang, Xuejun Shi, Yuezhan Feng, Shuai Li, Xingping Zhou, Xiaolin Xie
Surface modification of chemically-inert hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) to reduce its interfacial thermal resistance remains problematic, thereby hindering its application in thermal conductive composites. Here, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the surface of h-BN by using a simple free radical polymerization. The prepared PGMA grafted h-BN (h-BN-PGMA) was incorporated into epoxy (EP) to enhance the thermal conductivity of EP composites. Adding 3, 9 or 15 vol% of h-BN-PGMA into EP leads to 60%, 203% or 505% increases in thermal conductivity, respectively. Meanwhile, the surface modification of h-BN is benefit to enhance the compatibility between the fillers and EP matrix, which reduces the apparent viscosity of composite materials. Furthermore, compared with EP/h-BN, EP/h-BN-PGMA composites with the same filler-loading exhibit higher storage modulus and glass transition temperature. Additionally, the dielectric constant of the composites hardly depends on the testing frequency while the dielectric loss maintained at a very low level.
An experimental study of fibre waviness and its effects on compressive properties of unidirectional NCF composites Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 D. Wilhelmsson, R. Gutkin, F. Edgren, L.E. Asp
In this paper a comprehensive experimental study on effects of different fibre waviness characteristics on the compressive properties of unidirectional non-crimp fabrics (NCF) composites is presented. The fibre waviness ranges from periodic to random with medium to large misalignment angles. As expected, fibre waviness is found to strongly impair the compressive mechanical properties of the composite. It is demonstrated that the maximum fibre misalignment alone can be used to accurately predict strength with analytical kinking criteria. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between waviness and a knock-down factor on stiffness with approximately 5 %/degree mean fibre misalignment angle. Analysis of the extension of the misaligned regions (defects) provides additional evidence that defect extension in the transverse direction is more critical than in the longitudinal direction, supporting earlier theoretical predictions in the open literature.
Tribological Enhancement Effect of Main-Chain Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymer Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Fanglin Xu, Yuanshi Xin, Tongsheng Li
Although main-chain thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) has been extensively investigated as self-reinforcing composites, tribological application is rarely reported. This paper explores tribological enhancement effect of LCP on representative matrix poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). Moreover, structures of PVDF/LCP blends are assessed in detail. Due to immiscibility, LCP in blends is uniformly dispersed in the form of particles or microfibrils, dependent on LCP content. Besides, LCP improves storage modulus of PVDF. Most importantly, tribological performance of PVDF is obviously promoted. Compared with neat PVDF, the wear rate, coefficient of friction and oscillation amplitude of blend containing 20 wt % LCP simultaneously decrease by 97.7%, 80.7% and 80.2%, respectively. In particular, frequency-enhancement phenomenon is observed. By probing worn PVDF domains with nanoindentation test and atomic force microscopy (AFM), preliminary tribological enhancement mechanism of LCP is unveiled. Overall, this finding provides a new, but promising lubrication route of polymer.
Improving interfacial properties of hierarchical reinforcement carbon fibers modified by graphene oxide with different bonding types Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Liu Liu, Fei Yan, Ming Li, Mengjie Zhang, Linghan Xiao, Lei Shang, Yuhui Ao
The deposition of graphene oxide (GO) onto carbon fibers (CF) surface to form a hierarchical reinforcement structure has been achieved via various bonding types: van der Waals forces, zwitterionic interactions and covalent bonds. The functional groups, surface elements, contents of introduced GO, surface structures, morphologies and wettability of GO-deposited CF were characterized by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, Raman, SEM and Dynamic contact angle meter, respectively. Covalently grafting GO onto CF (CF-c-GO) has been proved to be the most effective way to improve the interfacial properties. Compared with pristine CF, the flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength and interfacial shear strength of CF-c-GO composites were increased by 28.7%, 22.7% and 50.6%, respectively. The CF-GO hierarchical composites featured a stronger interfacial bonding as evidenced by the fracture surface analysis, which demonstrated the enhancement in interfacial properties of hierarchical thermoplastic composites.
Enhanced Thermal Conductivity for Ag-deposited Alumina Sphere/Epoxy Resin Composites through Manipulating Interfacial Thermal Resistance Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Linlin Ren, Qiang Li, Jibao Lu, Xiaoliang Zeng, Rong Sun, Jianbo Wu, Jian-Bin Xu, Ching-Ping Wong
Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have a great potential application in modern electronics, due to their light-weight, easy process, low cost and stable physical and chemical properties. Nevertheless, most polymer composites commonly possess unsatisfactory thermal conductivity, primarily because of the high interfacial thermal resistance between inorganic fillers. Herein, we report a novel method through silver-deposition on the surface of the fillers to create a silver nanoparticle “bridge”, to decrease the interfacial thermal resistance between fillers. The results demonstrate that the out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the epoxy resin/sphere alumina composites is increased to 1.304 Wm-1K-1, representing an improvement of 624% compared with pure epoxy resin. This strategy provides an insight for the design of thermally conductive polymer composites with potential to be used in next-generation electronic packaging.
A modern account of Iosipescu testing Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Filip Stojcevski, Tim Hilditch, Luke C. Henderson
The Iosipescu or V-notch shear test is a method capable of determining the shear modulus and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of composites at the fiber-matrix interface. Although it has many advantages relating to its simplicity and the creation of pure shear stress region, it remains significantly underutilized for composite testing in comparison to single fiber fragmentation testing (SFFT) and short beam shear (SBS). Here an update is provided on the current status of Iosipescu testing which highlights developments and advances in modelling, fixture arrangement, testing, and several other remaining concerns relating to implementation.
An improved delamination fatigue cohesive interface model for complex three-dimensional multi-interface cases Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (IF 4.075) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Chongcong Tao, Supratik Mukhopadhyay, Bing Zhang, Luiz F. Kawashita, Jinhao Qiu, Stephen R. Hallett
This work presents a cohesive interface model for predicting interlaminar failure of composite laminates under tension-tension fatigue loading. The model features improvements on previous formulations and utilizes four-integration-point elements, which offer several new advantages, while maintaining the merits of the previous single-integration-point elements. An element-based crack tip tracking algorithm is incorporated to confine fatigue damage to crack-tip elements only. A new local rate approach is proposed to ensure accurate integration of strain energy release rate from local elements. Furthermore, a dynamic fatigue characteristic length is proposed to offer a more accurate estimation of fatigue characteristic length in complex three-dimensional cases. Fatigue initiation is incorporated by using a strength reduction method, without changing the propagation characteristics. The numerical approach has been verified and validated using multiple cases and was then applied to fatigue damage development in open-hole laminates, where a good agreement between numerical analysis and experimental results was obtained.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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