Fabrication of CuCo2S4 hollow sphere @N/S doped graphene composites as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Pengxiang Wang, Yu Zhang, Bin Guan, Lishuang Fan, Naiqing Zhang, Kening Sun
CuCo2S4 hollow spheres are synthesized from CuCo2O4 hollow spheres without destroying the hollow structure, and N/S doped graphene is coated simultaneously through an electrostatic self-assembly method. Benefiting from the simultaneously design of composition and structure of mixed metal sulfides, the composite exhibit excellent cycle stability and rate capability.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Silicon Carbide Nanoscale Material Removal Behavior Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Yao Liu, Beizhi Li, Lingfei Kong
The scratching processes of monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon carbide (SiC) with diamond grit were studied by molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the material removal behavior in this study. The results showed that, for both monocrystalline and polycrystalline SiC, the material removal process was achieved by the phase transition to the amorphous structure. Large depth of cut and low scratching speed induced the large scratching forces, stress, and surface damage layer thickness. Less amorphous structure phase transition, smaller normal scratching force, and higher tangential stress were found in polycrystalline SiC, comparing the monocrystalline SiC, due to the material soften caused by the microstructure in all scratching conditions. Furthermore, the tangential stress showed highly dependent on the grain geometry and grain boundary (GB) location in polycrystalline. The subsurface damage layer in polycrystalline was little thinner than that in monocrystalline before the new GB generation at a low depth of cut and deteriorated at large depth of cut. In addition to the plastic deformation, which occurred in the monocrystalline SiC nanoscale scratching, the intergranular fracture and transgranular fracture were also observed through the GB generation and connection in polycrystalline SiC.
Black Plasma-Sprayed Ta2O5 Coatings with Photothermal Effect for Bone Tumor Therapy Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Ding Ding, Youtao Xie, Kai Li, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
In this work, a black vacuum-plasma-sprayed Ta2O5 coating (VTO) was fabricated using white Ta2O5 powder as a raw material. Interestingly, a gray Ta2O5 coating was obtained by heat treatment of VCO coating (HVTO). The morphology, phase composition, photothermal conversion and cancer therapy effect in vitro of VTO and HVTO were comprehensively evaluated. Experimental results showed that VTO exhibited higher photothermal conversion effect and had an efficiency of 30.8% with high photostability. It has been proved that the VTO coating could be used in potential applications for bone tumor therapy.
Carrier transport mechanism and bipolar resistive switching behavior of a nano-scale thin film TiO2 memristor Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Fatih Gul
A titanium dioxide (TiO2) based memristor device having an active layer thickness of 10 nm was fabricated using radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering and its resistive switching characteristics and carrier transport mechanisms were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm the structural properties of the device. Measurement of the time-dependent current-voltage (I-V-t) was used to characterize resistive switching and memristive behavior. The characteristic pinched hysteresis I-V loops of the memristor were apparent. Bipolar and homogeneous resistive switching characteristics and a forming voltage of 2 V were detected in the device. The retention time exceeded 103 seconds and the endurance test was reasonably acceptable. In addition, the carrier transport mechanism of the device was revealed. The linear region of the low electric field demonstrated ohmic behavior, whereas the non-linear high electric field region was dominated by a Schottky emission carrier transport mechanism. A Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism acted as a secondary conduction mechanism. It was proposed that the Poole-Frenkel and Schottky emission mechanisms were associated with oxygen vacancies in the TiO2.
Study of the structure, properties, scratch resistance and deformation behavior of graded Cr-CrN-Cr(1-x)AlxN coatings Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Mohammad Sharear Kabir, Paul Munroe, Zhifeng Zhou, Zonghan Xie
An in-depth investigation of the structure, properties, scratch adhesion characteristics of graded Cr-CrN-Cr(1-x)AlxN coatings synthesized onto M42 steel substrates using closed – field unbalanced magnetron sputtering (CFUBMS) was carried out. Advanced microscopy (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), focused ion beam (FIB) imaging, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro–scratch tests was used to investigate the microstructure, mechanical properties and scratch performance as a function of Al content. FIB and TEM investigations revealed that the coatings exhibited a distinct structure; i.e., an adhesive Cr layer, a CrN transition layer and a graded CrAlN top layer with a face centered cubic (FCC) B1 structure. A columnar morphology was exhibited by the coatings and the dimensions of the columnar grains decreased with increasing Al content. Residual stress measurements, obtained from the XRD - sin2ψ method, revealed increasing compressive stresses with increasing Al content. Furthermore, nanoindentation tests showed an increase in mechanical properties, fracture toughness index (H/E) and plastic deformation resistance (H3/E2) as the Al content increased, accompanied by a decrease in the critical load, LC, during scratch testing implying a decrease in scratch toughness.
Silver-doped pseudowollastonite synthesized from rice husk ash: antimicrobial evaluation, bioactivity and cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stem cells Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Farah ‘Atiqah Abdul Azam, Roslinda Shamsudin, Min Hwei Ng, Asmat Ahmad, Muhammad Afiq Mohamed Akbar, Zahra Rashidbenam
Research into biomaterials has grown rapidly in recent years due to the clinical need for organ and tissue replacement and regeneration. One of the most serious complications in orthopaedic implants is surgical site infection. Therefore, many attempts have been made to develop biocompatible materials with antibacterial properties. In this study, a newly-synthesised pseudowollastonite (PSW), synthesized from rice husk ash and a limestone precursor, was incorporated with different concentrations of silver (Ag) and sintered to enhance the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of pseudowollastonite-silver (PSW/Ag) biocomposites. The antibacterial test revealed that PSW, with the addition of silver up to 5 wt%, was able to inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria. The bioactivity test for the PSW/5 wt% Ag biocomposite also displayed the existence of an apatite peak in the X-ray diffraction pattern. The apatite microstructure was observed with FESEM-EDX after seven days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions. Cytotoxic effects of the composite were observed after 24 hours of incubation in 10% leachate containing hMSC cells. After 72 hours of incubation, the survival cells were proliferated considerably. The viability was shown with the positive increment after 72 hours of incubation for PSW with the addition of 5 wt% Ag. Thus, although PSW/5 wt% Ag synthesised from the rice husk ash and limestone was shown to be bioactive and have good antimicrobial properties, the composite still needs to be optimized to control cytotoxic effects.
Synthesis and characterization of yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles doped with cobalt Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 R. Peña-Garcia, Y. Guerra, D. Martínez Buitrago, L.R.F. Leal, F.E.P. Santos, E. Padrón-Hernández
In this work, we have synthesized and characterized yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles doped with cobalt. The X-ray diffraction data showed a single phase, belonging to the cubic structure of Y3Fe5O12. Rietveld refinement revealed variation of the angles and interionic distances (Fe3+(a)-O2-Y3+(c) and Fe3+(d)-O2--Y3+(c) when Fe3+ ions are replaced by Co3+ ions in the tetrahedral (d) and octahedral (a) sites of YIG. In addition, the lattice parameter a, decreases from 12.3846 Å to 12.3830 Å with the increasing of cobalt concentration. The analysis by Infrared and Raman spectroscopies has shown a slight stretching at lower wave numbers as the dopant concentration increased. The magnetic measurements confirm the substitution of Fe3+ by Co3+ in the a-sites and d-sites with the reduction of the saturation magnetization from 26.63 emu/g to 24.92 emu/g, for 0.000 ≤ y ≤ 0.030. Changes in the coercive field varying the dopant concentration were related to the particle size and pinning centers existence.
In-situ fabrication of laminated SiC/TiSi2 and SiC/Ti3SiC2 ceramics by liquid silicon infiltration Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Mengyong Sun, Yuhang Bai, Mingxing Li, Shangwu Fan, Laifei Cheng
The laminated silicon carbide/titanium silicon (SiC/TiSi2) and silicon carbide/titanium silicon carbide (SiC/Ti3SiC2) ceramics were successfully designed and fabricated by liquid silicon (Si) infiltration. When the thickness of TiC layer was 150 and 450 μm, the TiSi2 and Ti3SiC2 phases were the main products in the TiC layer, respectively. The as-fabricated structural unit of laminated SiC/Ti3SiC2 ceramics consisted of five layers of functionally graded materials, which has multiscale layered structure containing macro layered structure and nano layered structure. The generation of hierarchical structure was attributed to the diffusion of Ti elements and in-situ formation of TiSi2 and Ti3SiC2. The growth direction of Ti3SiC2 was anisotropic, thus providing more paths for the crack propagation via deflection, branching, and delamination during fracture process. However, the crack propagation inside the Ti3SiC2 phase included the pull out, bridging, lamination, deflection, and fracture of the single layer, which are the energy absorption and damage tolerance mechanisms of the Ti3SiC2 phase.
Tailoring of Optical Band Gap and Electrical Conductivity in a-axis oriented Ni doped Chromium Oxide Thin Films Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Saima Shaukat, M. Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, Usman Ilyas, Shahzad Naseem, I.M. Dildar, A. Latif, R.S. Rawat
Ni doped Cr2O3 (NCO) films have attracted much attention due to their applications in the field of photovoltaics. This study reports the tailoring of structural, electrical and optical properties as a function of Ni doping in Chromium oxide (Cr2O3). NCO thin films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) using 2nd harmonic Nd: YAG Laser on n-Si (100) with in-situ annealing of 450 °C . Structural analyses based on X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy showed the inconsistent variation in crystallinity and shift in A1g A 1 g band in turn revealing the successful incorporation of Ni into Chromium oxide host lattice. In addition, electrical measurements also showed an inconsistent variation in resistivity ranging from 102 to 104Ω−cm Ω − cm . The properties showed widening of band gap energy (Eg) from 3.41–3.60 eV as a function of Ni doping concentration with significantly decreased reflectance in the range of 500–600 nm thereby increasing the absorption, a pre-requisite for solar absorbers.
Surface and Grain Boundary Excess of ZnO-Doped TiO2 Anatase Nanopowders Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Henry Gandelman, Andre L. da Silva, Lorena Batista Caliman, Douglas Gouvêa
In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0–10 mol% ZnO were synthesized using the polymeric precursor method. The surface excess of ZnO on the TiO2 surface was measured by the selective lixiviation method, and the grain boundary (GB) excess was calculated considering the total amount of ZnO and its solubility in the TiO2 bulk. The results showed that ZnO segregates on both the surface and GBs of the TiO2 nanopowder and that the GBs are richer in ZnO at high ZnO concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that ZnO segregated on the TiO2 surface. However, after acid lixiviation, the same analysis showed a considerable reduction of the surface concentration of ZnO. A systematic reduction in the crystallite size and an increase in the specific surface area of TiO2 were observed when increasing the ZnO concentration, which confirms the nanoparticle stability provided by the interfaces enrichment with ZnO. By measuring the electrophoretic mobility, it was possible to show the changes to the surface composition of the TiO2 nanoparticles and the pH for ZnO solubilization.
Fabrication and Characterization of MnO2 based Composite Sheets for Development of Flexible Energy Storage Electrodes Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Tanveer Farid, Adeel Islam, Aneeqa Masood, Faisal Iqbal, M. Yasir Rafiq, Aamir Razaq
Development of cost efficient, flexible and light weight paper electrodes for high-tech applications is high in demand in era of modern disposable technology. In this study α-MnO2 nanorods were fabricated through hydrothermal method by varying growth time and further combined with lignocelluloses fibers extracted from self growing plant, Monochoria Vaginalis. Crystal structure, morphology and thermal properties of MnO2 nanorods were characterized by X. Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), respectively. FESEM image analysis revealed the highest aspect ratio of 48.016 for 4 h treated MnO2 sample and high purity level was confirmed by XRD. MnO2 sample with high aspect ratio, relatively pure and larger yield was selected for incorporation of lignocelluloses fibers to fabricate flexible, light-weight and environmentally safe LC/MnO2 composite paper sheet. Furthermore, LC/MnO2 composite sheet was employed as working electrode in 2 M sodium sulfate electrolyte for cyclic voltammetry measurements. Presented LC/MnO2 composite sheet revealed specific capacitances 117, 59, 39, 25 and 23 F/g at scan rates of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mV/s, respectively. Incorporation of LC fibers within MnO2 nanorods as binders will open the possibilities to fabricate the flexible paper electrode for application in supercapacitors and batteries due to facile synthesis, light-weight and environmentally friendly aspects.
A Comparative Study on the Effect of Loading Speed and Surface Scratches on the Flexural Strength of Aluminosilicate Glass: Annealed vs. Chemically Strengthened Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Wang Zhen, Hu Zhenbiao, Suo Tao, Zhou Fenghua, Li Yulong, Muhammad Zakir Sheikh, Wang Xiang, Wang Yinmao
Quasi-static and dynamic three-point-bending experiments were conducted on both annealed and chemically strengthened aluminosilicate glass scratched by different normal loads. Scratched areas were observed by optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Chemically strengthened glass shows better resistance to surface scratch. These dynamic experiments were carried out using a modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) device and a pulse-shaping technique was used to keep constant loading speed to the specimens. In tests, high-speed photography was also used to observe the failure process of the specimens. The test results showed that the flexural strength of aluminosilicate glass (AG) strongly depends on the applied loading speed. Compared with its annealed counterpart, the chemically strengthened glass (CSG) showed higher flexural strength to both static and dynamic loadings. Moreover, the three-point bending experiments were conducted on scratched AG and CSG specimens and decrease of 20–40 percent in flexural strength was observed. The fractography analysis showed that in dynamic loading conditions the fracture surface was not smooth and has more secondary cracks as compared to static loading.
Pairing high piezoelectric properties and enhanced thermal stability in grain-oriented BNT-based lead-free piezoceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Wangfeng Bai, Leijie Wang, Peng Zheng, Fei Wen, Jiwei Zhai, Zhenguo Ji
(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT)-based piezoceramics usually exhibit enhanced piezoelectric coefficient d33 together with the deterioration of depolarization temperature Td, which is the common drawback limiting their use in practical application. Here, we demonstrate that harnessing the microstructure in BNT-based ceramics will be an efficient way to resolve this obstacle. <00 l> oriented piezoelectric ceramics 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3−0.06BaTiO3 was engineered by templated grain growth (TGG) using NaNbO3 (NN) as templates. The manufactured textured ceramics with the optimized microstructure was characterized by not only approximately 200% enhancement in the magnitude of piezoelectric response (d33~297pC/N) but also improved thermal stability (Td~57 °C) in comparison to its randomly oriented counterparts (d33~151pC/N and Td~32 °C). Moreover, the enhanced piezoelectricity in grain oriented specimens primarily originated from a high degree of non-180° domain switching as c°mpared to the randomly axed ones. The current study opens the door to pair high piezoelectric properties and enhanced thermal stability in BNT-related materials though texture technique.
Laser sintering of screen-printed TiO2 nanoparticles for improvement of mechanical and electrical properties Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 M. Radović, G. Dubourg, S. Kojić, Z. Dohčević-Mitrović, B. Stojadinović, M. Bokorov, V. Crnojević-Bengin
Conducted research presents a rapid and cost-effective approach to technological processing of screen-printed films with anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, by utilizing the high fluence laser radiation. The influence of laser sintering on the screen-printed films was characterized with optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindenter measurements and current vs voltage measurements. Investigation of surface morphology of screen-printed films revealed that higher laser fluences caused significant decrease in film thickness, trough evaporation of organic additives used in the paste matrix. EDX mapping of carbon content in untreated and laser sintered surface confirmed removal of organic additives. Laser sintering stimulated breaking of large agglomerates into much finer nano-sized particles and promoted formation of necking between individual grains. Crystal structure and vibrational properties of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles was monitored with Raman spectroscopy before and after laser sintering. Obtained results point out that anatase polymorph was preserved during the sintering process, without appearance of other phases. From observation of the behavior of the most intense Eg Raman active mode it was deduced that laser sintering provoked a formation of structural defects i.e. oxygen vacancies in TiO2 nanoparticles, whose concentration increased in the samples treated with higher laser fluences. Mechanical properties of untreated and laser sintered samples were investigated with nanoindenter measurements using several load forces, in order to carefully probe the Young modulus and mechanical hardness. From the analysis of collected data, we established that overall improvement of the mechanical properties with laser sintering originates from formation of very dense ceramic layer with enhanced interconnectivity between individual TiO2 nanoparticles. Measurements of current vs voltage characteristics clearly demonstrated that increase in laser fluence leads to drastic increase in current values and improvement of electric conductivity.
Structure and electrical properties of Ca2+-doped (Na0.47Bi0.47Ba0.06)TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Han-li Lian, Xiao-jing Shao, Xiao-ming Chen
The lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Na0.47Bi0.47Ba0.06)1-xCaxTiO3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, abbreviated as BNBTC/0, BNBTC/1, BNBTC/2, BNBTC/3, BNBTC/5, and BNBTC/8, respectively) were obtained using the solid-state reaction method. The structure, electric conductivity, and dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the Ca2+-doped (Na0.47Bi0.47Ba0.06)TiO3 ceramics were thoroughly investigated. The ceramics sintered at 1200 °C exhibit dense microstructures, having relative densities higher than 96%. The X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that all ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The mean grain sizes of the ceramics are related to the Ca2+ quantity. A small quantity of Ca2+ ions (x≤0.03) improves the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the samples. The dielectric behavior of the samples is sensitive to the Ca2+ content and electric poling. The results demonstrate that the electrical properties of the (Na0.47Bi0.47Ba0.06)TiO3 lead-free ceramics can be well tuned by varying the Ca2+ quantity.
Vibrations of beam-type implants made of 3D printed bredigite-magnetite bio-nanocomposite scaffolds under axial compression: Application, communication and simulation Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 S. Sahmani, A. Khandan, S. Saber-Samandari, M.M. Aghdam
Due to the Si-O-Si bonding, silicate bioceramics have enhanced mechanical characteristics than their calcium phosphate (CaP) counterparts. Bredigite with orthorhombic crystal system is one of the most efficient bioceramics in osteoblast and bone growth. On the other hand, biosilicate-magnetite composites (e.g. bredigite-magnetite and hardystonite-magnetite) are excellent candidates for hyperthermia applications. In the current study, the vibrational response of a beam-type bone implant subjected to axial compression is investigated. The implant is made of bredigite-magnetite bio-nanocomposite scaffold fabricated by 3D printing machine including 0.8mm 0.8 mm pore size. The Young's modulus of the scaffold is extracted experimentally corresponding to different magnetite nanoparticle (MNP) weight fractions, crystalline nanocomposite particle size, and various shapes of morphology. The morphology shape is determined corresponding to different MNP weight fractions and temperatures using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thereafter, an analytical solution is presented to express explicitly the load-frequency and frequency-deflection responses of the axially loaded beam-type bone implant. It is observed that in the prebuckling domain, by increasing the axial compressive load, the influence of the MNP weight fraction on the natural frequency of the bio-nanocomposite implant increases while in the postbuckling regime, increment in the axial compression has no effect on the significance of the MNP weight fraction effect.
Vanadium trioxide nanowire arrays as a cathode material for lithium-ion battery Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Kang Hua, Xiujuan Li, Dong Fang, Rui Bao, Jianhong Yi, Zhiping Luo, Zewei Fu, Juntao Hu
This paper reports a study on the electrochemical performance of vanadium trioxide (V2O3) nanowire arrays as a cathode material for Li-ion battery. V2O3 nanowire arrays are formed via thermal treatment of ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4V4O10) nanowires in a 5% H2 and 95% Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction confirms the thermal reduction. The V2O3 nanowire arrays as an anode of lithium-ion battery exhibit high reversible capacity and excellent long-term cycling stability. The discharge capacity increases from 243 to 428 mAh g-1 at the first 20 cycles. After 100 cycles, a stable capacity of 444 mAh g-1 is retained at a current density of 30 mA g-1.
Thermophysical Properties of Novel Pyrochlore-Type Ca3RE3Ti7Ta2O26.5 (RE=La, Sm) Oxides Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Zhang Hongsong, Yang Shusen, Lu Chunxiang, Chen Xioage, Ren Bo, Tang An, Lu Kui
Two kinds of Ca3RE3Ti7Ta2O26.5 (RE=La and Sm) oxides were prepared via pressureless sintering at 1873K for ten hours. The synthesized samples have single pyrochlore-type structure as displayed by XRD. Owing to the relative stronger phonon scattering, the Ca3Sm3Ti7Ta2O26.5 has lower thermal conductivity as compared with that of Ca3La3Ti7Ta2O26.5. Due to its relative greater average interionic distance, the Ca3La3Ti7Ta2O26.5 shows higher thermal expansion coefficient than Ca3Sm3Ti7Ta2O26.5. The synthesized Ca3RE3Ti7Ta2O26.5 (RE=La and Sm) oxides also perform excellent phase-stability up to 1473 K.
Effects of HfC nanowire amount on the microstructure and ablation resistance of CVD-HfC coating Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Jincui Ren, Yulei Zhang, Jian Zhang, Yanqin Fu, Song Tian
To improve the ablation resistance of HfC coating for carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, various fractions of HfC nanowires were incorporated into the HfC coating by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Effects of HfC nanowire amount on the microstructure and ablation resistance of the CVD-HfC coating were investigated. Results indicated that the HfC nanowire layer became thicker and denser with the deposition time extending. HfC nanowires could inhibit the formation of cracks and interlaminar gaps in the HfC coating. With the increase of HfC nanowire amount, the HfC coating became thicker, while its porosity and roughness firstly decreased and then increased. Ablation tests indicated that the incorporation of HfC nanowires could effectively improve the ablation resistance of the HfC coating, which could be ascribed to the decreasing surface temperature of the coated samples and the effective alleviation of cracking and delamination of the coating during ablation. The HfC coating with HfC nanowires deposited for 1 h exhibited better ablation resistance owing to its compact microstructure, and its mass and linear ablation rates were only 0.41 mg/s and −1.53 μm/s after ablation for 120 s.
Tribological Performance of SiC Coating for Carbon/Carbon Composites at Elevated Temperatures Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Chen Zishan, Chen Yu, Dong Dachao, Yang Qing
SiC coating was deposited on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The effects of elevated temperatures on tribological performance of SiC coating were investigated. The related microstructure and wear mechanism were analyzed. The results show that the as-deposited SiC coating consists of uniformity of β-SiC phase. The mild abrasive and slight adhesive wear were the main wear mechanisms at room temperature, and the SiC coating presented the maximum friction coefficient and the minimum wear rate. Slight oxidation of debris was occurred when the temperature rose to 300 °C. As the temperature was above 600 °C, dense oxide film formed on the worn surface. The silica tribo-film replaced the mechanical fracture and dominated the frication process. However, the aggravation of oxidation at elevated temperatures was responsible for the decrease of friction coefficient and the deterioration of wear rate. The SiC coating presented the minimum friction coefficient and the maximum wear rate when the temperature was 800 °C.
Investigation of calcium zirconate formation by sintering zirconium dioxide with calcium hydroxide Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 C. Jahn, S. Schafföner, C. Ode, H. Jansen, C.G. Aneziris
The present paper analysed the formation of calcium zirconate from zirconium dioxide and calcium hydroxide through solid state reaction. Different mole ratios and sintering temperatures are investigated. The sintering temperature was reduced to 1200 °C. Due to the decomposition process of the calcia source while firing a volume expansion in the sintered samples was remarkable. A good homogenisation of the raw mixture is necessary to obtain a complete reaction of the material. The microstructure of the calcium zirconate gained from calcium hydroxide and from calcium carbonate did not differ. Moreover, the difference in reactivity due to varying microstructure and temperature of decomposition between the different calcia sources could not be determined. Thus calcium carbonate is less hazardous and resulted in a higher yield of calcium zirconate compared to calcium hydroxide as calcia source.
Large Strain of Temperature Insensitive in (1–x)(0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.06BaTiO3) –xSr0.7La0.2TiO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Nianshun Zhao, Huiqing Fan, Jiangwei Ma, Xiaohu Ren, Yungui Shi, Yunyan Zhou
Novel (1–x)(0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.06BaTiO3) –xSr0.7La0.2TiO3 ternary lead-free ceramics (BNBT–xSL, x = 0.00–0.08) were fabricated by the widely used solid-state sintering technique. The crystal phase, microstructure, dielectric relaxation, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of each composition were systematically analyzed. It is found that the addition of SL has little effect on the crystal phase and grain morphology, but it can remarkably improved the relaxation property of the ceramic sample and gave rise to favourable dielectric properties in a wide range of temperatures. In addition, as the SL content increases, the ferroelectric to relaxor temperature (TF-R) is adjusted to below ambient temperature. More importantly, the decay of ferroelectric phase resulted in a significant increase in strain value: the large strain of 0.5% with normalized strain of 625 pm/V was obtained at 80kv/cm and x = 0.04. Finally, the composition exhibited high strain of temperature insensitivity range from room temperature to 100 °C, the strain value remained above 0.4% and kept within 5%. The results are due to the coexistence of rhombohedral polar-nanoregions (PNRs) and tetragonal PNRs during the relaxor region. This result is of great importance to the developments of temperature-insensitive strain sensors and actuators.
Microstructure assessment of suspension plasma spraying coatings from multicomponent submicronic Y-TZP/Al2O3/SiC particles Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Víctor Carnicer, Ma José Orts, Rodrigo Moreno, Enrique Sánchez
In this research, Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) technique was used for the thermal deposition of a multicomponent mixture made up of an Y-TZP/Al2O3 matrix with SiC particles. Two suspensions of Y-TZP and Al2O3 with different SiC particles content (6 wt% and 12 wt%) were tested as feedstocks in the SPS process. Three stand-off distances were varied in order to assess coating microstructure and evaluate the presence of SiC in the final coatings. Coatings were characterised in terms of porosity, microstructure and phase distribution. The estimate of the amount of SiC in the coating was carried out by XRD technique. Findings showed typical cauliflower-like SPS microstructure which intensifies with stand-off distance. Coatings porosity varied significantly between 8 to 25% whereas minimum porosity was found for the intermedium stand-off distance of 40 mm. Microstructure analysis also revealed the presence of SiC particles in the coatings which was confirmed by EDX analysis, overall XRD tests as well as TG analysis . Finally, evaluation of SiC content in the final coatings by means of XRD analysis showed that most of SiC particles (c.a 80%) of the feedstocks were preserved in the final coatings.
Thermal Conductivity of SiC Microwires: Effect of Temperature and Structural Domain Size Uncovered by 0 K limit Phonon Scattering Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Bowen Zhu, Ridong Wang, Shay Harrison, Kirk Williams, Ram Goduguchinta, John Schneiter, Joseph Pegna, Erik Vaaler, Xinwei Wang
A comparative study of structure and thermal properties is reported for three 3C crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) microwires, including Sylramic, Hi-Nicalon S and a sample fabricated by laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD). Structural characterization by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) finds that the LCVD-based sample contains excessive silicon and smallest grains of SiC but detectable free carbon. Thermal characterization from room temperature down to 20 K uncovers the effect of nanosized grain on thermal properties. The thermal properties are correlated with the structure via structural thermal domain (STD) size, defined as the grain boundary-induced phonon mean free path at the 0 K limit. The STD size of the three samples is found as 9.35, 1.42 and 1.03 nm for the Sylramic, Hi-Nicalon S and LCVD SiC fibers, proportional to and nearly one order of magnification smaller than the corresponding crystalline size determined by XRD: 67~113, 14.6~18.4, and 5.85~7.84 nm.
Sol-gel Synthesis, Characterization, and Supercapacitor Applications of MCo2O4 (M = Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn) Cobaltite Spinels Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Loubna Merabet, Kamel Rida, Nawel Boukmouche
High performance MCo2O4spinels (M = Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn) were synthesized by the sol gel method (citrate) and their capacitive behavior was investigated in alkaline electrolyte. Their structural, morphological, functional groups and textural properties were characterized by TG/DSC, XRD, SEM, FTIR, EDS and BET. The capacitive properties of spinel MCo2O4 samples were thoroughly investigated in 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results revealed high stability of the samples and excellent electrochemical reversibility, and exhibited specific capacity depending on the nature of the transition metal ion M. A high specific capacitance of 285 F g−1 was measured for CuCo2O4 and a low capacitance of 158 F g−1 for ZnCo2O4.In addition, MCo2O4 spinels displayed good stability during long-term cycles with a cycling efficiency which exceeds75% after 1000 cycles. The obtained results classified MCo2O4 cobaltite spinels as most promising materials for their application in super capacitors.
Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and performance of a ceramic coating obtained by the slurry method Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Kui Xiao, Wei Xue, Zhaoliang Li, Jirui Wang, Xueming Li, Chaofang Dong, Junsheng Wu, Xiaogang Li, Dan Wei
In this paper, SiO2, Cr2O3, Al2O3, and MgO were used as ceramic aggregates, and a small amount of Al powder was added. A ceramic coating was prepared on a Q235 steel substrate. The effect of the sintering temperature on the coating microstructure, phase structure and wear resistance was studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and friction and wear testing. The results show that the tensile strength of the ceramic coating is increased after sintering, the structure becomes dense, and the size of coated micropores is increased to release the internal tensile stress. With the increase of the sintering temperature and tensile stress, the micropores begin to release the excess tensile stress in the form of crack initiation and expansion. The mineralization of MgO, Cr2O3, nMgO and mSiO2 phases can be achieved by sintering the coating at 200 °C; the oxygen in the atmosphere migrates along the micropores in the coating to react with Fe in the steel substrate, forming FeO, and the resulting FeO reacts with the SiO2 in the coating to form the Fe2SiO4 phase. The coating has the best wear resistance after being sintered at 400 °C, and the abrasion resistance of the sample is 6.7 times higher than that of the sample dried at room temperature.
Crystal structure, Raman spectra and microwave dielectric properties of Li2Mg3Ti1-x(Mg1/3Nb2/3)xO6 (0≤x≤0.25) ceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Y.K. Yang, H.L. Pan, H.T. Wu
Li2Mg3Ti1-X(Mg1/3Nb2/3)XO6 (0≤x≤0.25) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction process. Their crystal structures, sintering characteristics, Raman spectra and microwave dielectric properties were then investigated. XRD patterns of the sintered samples indicated that all compositions showed a single phase and the rock-salt structure. As the (Mg1/3Nb2/3)4+ contents increase, the variations of εr values showed a downward trend, which could be explained by the changes of polarizabilities and the shift of Raman vibration modes. Q·f values initially increased to a maximum value and then decreased with increasing of x values. In addition, τf values decreased almost linearly with the x values, which significantly correlated with the thermal expansion coefficient. Excellent combined microwave dielectric properties with εr=14.79, Q·f=204,900 GHz and τf=−18.43 ppm/°C were obtained for Li2Mg3Ti0.95(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.05O6 ceramic sintered at 1550 °C.
Enhanced energy-storage performance and dielectric temperature stability of (1-x)(0.65Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3−0.35Bi0.1Sr0.85TiO3)-xKNbO3 ceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Bin Hu, Huiqing Fan, Li Ning, Shang Gao, Zhaojun Yao, Qiang Li
Leed-free ferroelectric (1-x)(0.65Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3−0.35Bi0.1Sr0.85TiO3)-xKNbO3 (BNBST-xKN) ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid state sintering method. The dielectric, ferroelectric and energy-storage properties were systematically investigated. Temperature dependent permittivity curves showed the relaxation properties of BNBST ceramics enhanced with the increase of KNbO3. BNBST-15kN exhibited a high permittivity of 3484 and low dielectric loss of 0.003 at 150 °C. Furthermore, Δε/ε150°C varied no more than 10% within the tmperature range of 30–297 °C, indicating an excellent dielectric temperature stability. The introduction of KNbO3 gave rise to a large Pm while P-E loops kept slim in shape. Therefore, the optimum energy-storage performance was realized in BNBST-15kN with an energy-storage density Wrec of 1.32 J/cm3 and energy-storage efficiency η of 82.5% at 95 kV/cm, accompanied with superior temperature stability and fatigue performance. The results demonstrated that BNBST-xKN system was a promising lead-free candidate for energy-storage applications.
Structural design and properties of fine scale 2-2-2 PZT/epoxy piezoelectric composites for high frequency application Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Shanling Yi, Wenkang Zhang, Guangpeng Gao, Hongchao Xu, Dongyu Xu
A kind of fine scale 2-2-2 PZT/epoxy piezoelectric composites consisting of PZT phase of uniform and Gaussian distribution were designed and prepared by cutting and filling method. The effects of thickness parameter on piezoelectric, dielectric and electromechanical coupling properties of the piezoelectric materials were investigated. The results show that piezoelectric composites exhibit large piezoelectric voltage constant and thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient. The relative permittivity, piezoelectric strain constant and planner electromechanical coupling coefficient increase with increasing the thickness of supporting base, and the piezoelectric voltage constant and thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient show the opposite variation. The Gaussian PZT/epoxy composite has larger piezoelectric voltage constant and thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient than the uniform PZT/epoxy composite.
Comparison of Electrophoretic Deposition Kinetics of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets in Organic and Aqueous Solutions Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 A. Hajizadeh, M. Aliofkhazraei, M. Hasanpoor, E. Mohammadi
Preparation of nickel coating on ZTA particles by electroless plating Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Lei Fan, Qiang Wang, Peng Yang, Huahui Chen, Haiping Hong, Wanting Zhang, Jie Ren
With the aim to effectively improve the interface between ZrO2 toughened Al2O3 (ZTA) particles and metal matrix, nickel was deposited on the surface of ZTA particles by electroless plating method. Formation mechanism of nickel coating and effects of the solution pH, loading capacity of ZTA particles and temperature on the nickel deposition were investigated. Microstructures, thickness and element distributions of nickel coating were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the nickel was successfully deposited on the surface of ZTA particles by electroless plating without noticeable defects. The process of electroless nickel plating could be explained by combination of atomic hydrogen and electrochemistry theories. The interfacial nucleation of nickel is easier to form than spontaneous nucleation in the solution. Deposited Nickel has priority on the surface of ZTA particles comparing to that in solution. The optimal conditions to coat nickel on the surface of ZTA particles are: solution pH 4.7–4.8, loading capacity 15–20 g/L, and electroless plating temperature 85 ℃. The ZTA particle reinforced iron matrix composites prepared by powder metallurgy could have better interfacial bonding between ZTA particle and iron matrix because of the nickel coating on the surface of ZTA particle. Nickel diffuses into the iron matrix during the sintering preparation of composite materials. The interface between ZTA particle and iron matrix presents the evidence of non-chemical bonding.
Size and morphology-controlled synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanocrystals by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Govindan Suresh Kumar, Gopalu Karunakaran, Easwaradas Kreedapathy Girija, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Nguyen Van Minh, Mikhail V. Gorshenkov, Denis Kuznetsov
We report the rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals with controlled size, morphology, and surface area using various organic modifiers as regulators. The products were analyzed for their crystalline nature, phase purity, morphology, particle size and pore size distribution. Results indicated that ascorbic acid, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) play an important role to obtain needle like, rod like and fiber like mesoporous HAp nanocrystals with different specific surface area by controlling growth habit of HAp along c-axis. In addition, the prepared samples were B-type carbonated HAp similar to bone minerals. Therefore, the present approach can be a promising way to obtain precursor for making tissue engineering scaffolds, drug/protein delivery carriers and bone fillers with tunable characteristics.
Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of nickel-containing polymer-derived SiCN ceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yu Liu, Yurun Feng, Hongyu Gong, Yujun Zhang, Xiao Lin, Bingying Xie, Junjie Mao
Nickel-containing polymer-derived SiCN ceramics (PDC-SiCN (Ni) ceramics) were prepared with different adding amounts of Ni nanopowders by a polymer-derived method. The compositions, microstructure, electromagnetic (EM) properties and microwave absorption properties of the PDC-SiCN (Ni) ceramics in the 2–18 GHz frequency range were investigated. Results showed that the Ni nanoparticles were distributed in the SiCN amorphous matrix. Moreover, the electromagnetic properties could be tuned by varying the Ni adding amounts. The best absorption properties with a maximum reflection loss (RL) of −39 dB at 17.2 GHz was obtained in the PDC-SiCN (Ni) ceramics with 10 wt% adding amount and the effective absorption width (RL< −10 dB) was 1.7 GHz with a thickness of 2 mm. Thus the synergetic effect of both the dielectric and magnetic loss endowed the PDC-SiCN (Ni) ceramics with excellent microwave absorption performance.
Effect of siliconizing temperature on microstructure and phase constitution of Mo–MoSi2 functionally graded materials Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yingyi Zhang, Wenjie Ni, Yungang Li
Mo–MoSi2 functionally graded materials were prepared by a liquid phase siliconizing method. The microstructure, phase constitution, cross-section elemental distribution, grains size, and coating thickness of these materials were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), back scattered electron (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), glow discharge spectrum (GDS) and X–ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the Mo–MoSi2 functionally graded materials have a dense multi-layer structure, mainly composed of surface layer (Si–MoSi2 layer, 1–10 μm), intermediate layer (MoSi2 layer, 22–40 μm), transitional layer (Mo5Si3 and Mo3Si layer, 2–3 μm) and Mo substrate. Moreover, the silicon concentration, grains size, and coating thickness increase gradually with the increasing temperature. The surfaces silicon concentrations are about 68 to 75 wt.%, the average grains sizes of MoSi2 columnar crystals are about 7.1 to 9.4 μm, and the coating thicknesses are about 28 to 35 μm.
Conductivity- Permittivity Relations in oxygen deficient CaCu3Ti4O12 Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 X.J. Luo, K. Bärner, Y.T. Zhang, T. Gao, C.P. Yang, Y.S. Liu
The correlation between conductance, capacitance and oxygen content is discussed in the colossal dielectric permittivity perovskite oxide CaCu3Ti4O12. We found an unusual positive conductivity- permittivity relation which is very sensitive to the oxygen content. In particular, we ascribe the oxygen content sensitivity of both the capacitance and the conductance to a repositioning of charges on oxygen vacancy related defects and/or on the migration of the defects themselves. We find that in the charge repositioning process a Jonscher type of global conduction is accompanied by a Debye-type local electronic relaxation in and between the boundaries of a specific grain. A closer investigation of these processes suggest that the local polaronic relaxation of charges on oxygen vacancy related defects is mainly responsible for the large dielectric constant of CaCu3Ti4O12 and also for the ac conduction at low to medium temperatures.
Freeze-casting of Alumina Ultra-filtration Membranes with Good Performance for Anionic Dye Separation Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Yang Liu, Weiya Zhu, Kang Guan, Cheng Peng, Jianqing Wu
Nowadays, ceramic membranes occupy small share in filter membranes due to their high preparation costs and complex manufacturing processes. In this account, a super-fast and one step molding method was developed for preparing alumina ultra-filtration membranes. The procedure is based on camphene freeze-casting process with airflow treatment on the surface, where a thin separation layer and its macroporous support could naturally form. The results confirmed formation of an upper separation layer due to the rapid camphene evaporation controlled by airflow treatment on its surface. The membrane optimized by calcination at 1150 °C yielded most frequent pore size of 33.0 nm, pure water flux of 458.0 L m−2 h−1 bar−1, and bending strength of 36.5 MPa. Also, the membrane possessed high rejection rate of 99.6% towards Direct Red 80 solutions with permeate flux of 230.3 L m−2 h−1 at applied pressure of 2 bar. This method may render preparation processes simple and efficient, making it very promising for large-scale applications.
Sintering and microstructural characterization of calcium alumino-titanate-bauxite-SiC composite refractories Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Jianwei Chen, Huizhong Zhao, Han Zhang, Zhengkun Li, Jiaqin Zhang
Calcium alumino-titanate (CAT) is a composite refractory material that exhibits a low thermal conductivity, high melting point, high refractoriness, low thermal expansion coefficient, and good thermal shock resistance. CAT-bauxite-SiC composites were prepared by using bauxite, CAT, SiC, α-Al2O3, metallic Si, and Guangxi white clay as starting materials and an Al(H2PO4)3 solution as a binder. Their densification behavior, phase changes, and microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermodynamic analysis. The results show that the bulk density initially increases and then decreases with temperature because of SiC oxidation and the formation of a liquid phase. In addition, the aggregation of corundum particles is enhanced at higher temperatures for bauxite grains, and excessively high temperatures cause abnormal growth of the corundum particles. Furthermore, the mullite whiskers present in the CAT grains begin to break through the surface of the liquid phase at firing temperatures above 1450 °C; these whiskers show perfect crystallization at 1600 °C. Finally, the quantity of Ca-rich (anorthite) regions around the SiC grains increase with temperature due to an increase in SiC oxidation and calcium ion diffusion.
Wavelength dependence of Tb3+ doped Magneto-Optical Glass Verdet constant Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Yin Hai-Rong, Gao Yang, Gong Yu-Xuan, Relva Buchanan, Song Jian-Bo, Li Ming-Yang
Magneto-optical glass is a category of optical materials. In this study, a series of Tb3+ doped Ga2O3–B2O3–SiO2 (GBSG) glasses were prepared and studied. Through the density test, it was found that the structure of the magneto-optical glass tended to be dense. At the same time, the result of infrared spectrum shows that some changes happened to the structure of the sample with different Tb3 + concentration, resulting in the change of the density of the magneto-optical glass. The wavelength dependence of the Verdet constant has been studied. The results show that the rate of change of the Verdet constant at different wavelengths has nothing to do with the Tb3+ concentration, but only with the effective transition wavelength. The effective transition wavelength of the sample was calculated by the formula, and the source of the magneto-optical effect of the rare earth doped magneto-optical glass was confirmed.
Microstructure of high battery-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powder synthesized by combining different carbon sources in spray-freezing/freeze-drying process Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Yukiko Fujita, Tomoaki Hira, Kenji Shida, Masayuki Tsushida, Jinsun Liao, Motohide Matsuda
Spray-freezing/freeze-drying technique was applied to the synthesis of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders using solutions containing various carbon sources, water-soluble and colloidal carbon, followed by heat treatment. The effects of the carbon sources on the microstructure and battery performance of the synthesized composite powders were investigated. The microstructures of the composite powders were clearly different when different carbon sources were used, ascribed from the thermal behavior of the carbon sources during the heat treatment. It was possible to control the microstructures of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders by combining different carbon sources, and the synthesized composite powders exhibited high discharge capacities by mixing with only a binder for cathode. The composite powders using glucose and Ketjenblack dispersion as carbon sources delivered 165 mAh/g at first discharge capacity at 0.1 C. The developed chain structure suitable for conducting paths in the electrodes and a higher-specific BET surface area, attributed from Ketjenblack, were likely responsible for the higher performance.
Fabrication of WC-Co cemented carbides with gradient distribution of WC grain size and Co composition by lamination pressing and microwave sintering Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Jianfeng Li, Jigui Cheng, Pengqi Chen, Wenchao Chen, Chenlong Wei
WC-Co composite powders with different particle sizes and Co contents were prepared by ball milling WC and Co powder mixtures for different durations. Functionally graded WC-Co cemented carbides with both Co content and WC grain size gradient were prepared by lamination pressing different WC-xCo (x=10, 15, 20) powder mixtures and microwave sintering the layered compacts. The WC-xCo powder mixtures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the phase composition and microstructure of the functionally graded cemented carbides (FGCCs) were investigated by XRD, and FE-SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical behaviors of the layered WC-Co materials were measured and compared with those of WC-Co cemented carbides with single composition. The results showed that increasing the milling time from 6 to 24 h, results in the decrease of the particle size of WC-Co composite powders from 0.31 to 0.11 μm. After lamination pressing and microwave sintering, the WC-Co samples show nearly complete densification with a relative density higher than 99.7% and no ƞ-phase was detected in the FGCCs. The Co content and WC grain size in FGCCs decrease from the core to the surface. Homogenization of Co has hardly occurred and no cracks have formed between the layers in the sintered samples. In the inner layer, the mean WC grain size is 529 nm, while in the outer layer it is only 274 nm. Because of the difference in Co content and WC grain size, FGCCs have a Rockwell hardness of 90.75 HRA at the surface, which decreases to 86.75 HRA in the core. However the fracture toughness increases from 11.53 at the surface to 18.12 MPa∙m−1/2 in the core. The present results show that FGCCs with high outer layer hardness and high inner layer toughness were successfully prepared.
Photoluminescence properties of SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions obtained by TiO2-assisted chemical vapour deposition Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Xiaoyu Chen, Xinhong Liu, Xinjia Geng, Quanli Jia
SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions have been synthesized at 1400 °C by chemical vapor deposition, using Si and phenolic resin powder as starting materials and TiO2 nanoparticles as catalyst. The morphology of the SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions consists of chain-bead shaped and core-shell chains, and the heterojunctions are up to several hundred microns in length, with diameters of 0.3–1 µm in the chains and 2–8 µm in the beads. A vapor-solid tip-growth mechanism for the formation of the heterojunctions is proposed. Photoluminescence spectra of SiC/SiO2 heterojunctions exhibit a significant blue-shift, which indicates that these materials are ideal for application in new optoelectronic devices. The TiO2 nanoparticles play a key role in promoting the formation and growth of the heterojunction nanochains as well as in enhancing their luminescence properties.
Preparation and characterization of spinel type Zn2TiO4 nanocomposite Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Alima Mebrek, Safia Alleg, Sihem Benayache, Mohamed Benabdeslem
Zinc orthotitanate Zn2TiO4 spinel structures have been prepared by solid state reaction in two stages. First, a mixture of ZnO and TiO2 (67% anatase+33%rutile) in a molar ratio of 2:1 was mechanically milled for 6 and 18 h, at room temperature, in a high energy planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere. Next, the ball milled powders were calcined at 900 °C for 2 h, pressed into pellets and then sintered for 4 h at 1100 °C in air. Phase formation, microstructure, surface morphology and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometery. The mechanical milling process for 6 h gives rise to the formation of nanocrystalline orthotitanate Zn2TiO4 (15.5%,
= 13.2 nm) in addition to unreacted rutile TiO2, anatase TiO2 and ZnO structures. As the milling process progresses up to 18 h, the volume fraction of Zn2TiO4 increases to about 44.5%. The sintered pellets exhibit a composite structure where about a small amount of rutile nanograins are dispersed into the Zn2TiO4 matrix. FT-IR and Raman results confirm the biphasic character of the sintered pellets. The band gap energy is milling time dependent. It varies from 3.22 for pellet 6 h to 3.45 for pellet 18 h.
An Efficient Electrochemical Performance of Fe2O3/CNT Nanocomposite Coated Dried Lagenariasiceraria shell Electrode for Electrochemical Capacitor Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-19 Raja Mohan, Rini Paulose
Efficient dual emission mode of green emitting perovskite BaTiO3: Er3+ phosphors for display and temperature sensing applications Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 Dhananjay Kumar Singh, J. Manam
Er3+ ions activated perovskite BaTiO3 green emitting phosphors were synthesized via conventional solid-state reaction method to study the optical spectroscopy and temperature sensing behaviors. Structural analysis based on the X-ray diffraction studies indicates that the phosphors possess the tetragonal structure with space group P4mm (99). The Ba(1-x)TiO3:xEr3 phosphors exhibited efficient dual emission mode with a sharp and intense visible green emission peaks centred at 525 nm (2H11/2→4I15/2) and 550 nm (4S3/2 →4I15/2) via the up-conversion process by using 980 nm Laser source excitation and the down-conversion process upon the 380 nm UV-Light excitation. The fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) method was employed to analyze the sensing performances of two thermally coupled energy levels (2H11/2 and 4S3/2) of Er3+ ion in the prepared phosphors. The temperature sensitivity was tested over a wide range of temperature 300–450 K and maximum sensitivity was observed as 0.0032 K−1 at 400 K for optimized stoichiometry Ba(0.9925)TiO3:0.0075Er3+. Also, the diffuse reflectance spectra were utilized to estimate the optical band gap of Ba(1-x)TiO3:xEr3+ phosphors are obtained in the range 3.344 − 3.351 eV. Furthermore, the decay time analysis and CIE chromaticity color coordinates were studied in the present work. Therefore, these experimental results indicated the suitability of the Ba(1-x)TiO3:xEr3+ phosphors for display and temperature sensing applications.
Regulation of pore cell structures of coal-based carbon foams based on the nucleation mechanism of microcellular polymer Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 Guozhong Xu, Ruiyuan Gao, Wenwu Jin, Jizhao Zou, Xinbai Xiong, Xiaohua Li, Xierong Zeng
It is widely accepted that the performance of carbon foams can be regulated by the tailoring of pore cell structures to meet the requirements of various applications. However, no theory has been used to date for guiding such regulation. In this work, carbon foams were prepared by saturating vitrinite concentrate with nitrogen gas under high pressure. The influence of key factors on the pore cell structure of carbon foams was investigated systematically. The results showed that the mean cell diameter and the bulk density of carbon foams can be regulated, respectively, in the ranges 140–440 μm and 0.29–0.75 g/cm3, which indicates that vitrinite concentrate separated from fat coal is highly suitable for the preparation of carbon foams. The variation trends of the pore cell structures were well explained by combining the homogeneous nucleation mechanism of microcellular polymer with the viscosity of the fusant formed from vitrinite concentrate. The inherent reason for all the variation trends is related to the gas nuclei density and viscosity of the fusant. More importantly, a strategy is suggested to successfully accomplish the design and regulation of the pore structure of carbon foams by taking into account the homogeneous nucleation mechanism and viscosity of the fusant.
Effects of Na2O/BaO ratio on the structure and the physical properties of low-temperature glass-ceramic vitrified bonds Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 Jiang Shi, Feng He, Junlin Xie, Xiaoqing Liu, Hu Yang
Effects of Na2O/BaO ratio on the structure and the physical properties of Li2O-Al2O-B2O3-SiO2 low-temperature glass-ceramic vitrified bonds had been systematically studied. Structure and properties of as-quenched samples were analyzed by DSC, FTIR, and Raman. According to the results of (X3)2/X2 derived from deconvolution results of Raman, the degree of polymerization (DOP) of glass structure decreased with increasing Na2O/BaO. In addition, LiAlSi2O6 and LiAlSi3O8 were the major crystalline phases in the vitrified bonds sintered at 730 °C for 2 h. Meanwhile, Li2SiO3 and BaAl2Si2O8 were determined as the minor crystalline phases by XRD. The results showed that the addition of Na2O promoted the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of vitrified bonds sintered at 730 °C for 2 h. Bending strength tests and SEM indicated that the optimum content of dispersed plate-like BaAl2Si2O8 crystals inlaid in A2 (Na2O/BaO =0.33) vitrified bonds contributed to showing the highest mechanical strength among the five samples. Moreover, SEM and EDS proved the wettability between A2 vitrified bonds and cBN grains were effective.
Synthesis, Characterization and Electrical conductivity of BaTh1-xYbxO3-x/2 Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 M. Bootharajan, R. Kumar, V. Jayaraman
Pristine as well as ytterbium substituted barium thorates, BaTh1-xYbxO3-δ (x = 0 - 0.2) were synthesized using a modified solid state method. Electrical conductivity behavior of the sintered specimens in various atmospheres in temperature range from 300 to 600 °C was explained. Substitution of ytterbium into barium thorate was found to enhance its conductivity in oxygen ambience. The same was found to be enhanced further when the ambience was changed to hydrogen for the composition up to x=0.1 but, marginally decreased from thereon for the composition with x=0.15. Retention of hydrogen in thorate matrix was elucidated.
Transparent Sapphire Substrates with Tunable Optical Properties by Decorating with Nanometric Oxide on Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Patterns Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Chien-Wan Hun, Chuan-Chan Chang, Shih-Hsun Chen, Chien Chon Chen, Alex Fang, Yu-Lin Kuo
A method to achieve transparent sapphire substrates with tunable optical properties is proposed. After establishing a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on sapphire, a thin Sn layer was deposited onto the AAO nano-patterned structure and then oxidized to tin monoxide (SnO). Typically, a thin SnO coating has two characteristic absorption peaks within the visible light region, but when deposited on the high-aspect-ratio AAO, more peaks were observed due to multiple interactions. This simple multilayered structure and its investigations exhibited a new potential application for sapphire in optical controls.
Modeling for electrical impedance spectroscopy of (4E)−2-amino-3-cyanobenzo[b]oxocin-6-one by artificial neural network Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 H.A.M. Ali, R.A. Mohamed
The efficiency of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for modeling the electrical impedance spectroscopy of (4E)−2-amino-3-cyanobenzo[b]oxocin-6-one was investigated. The experimental data for electrical impedance and dissipation factor were used as input data for the model. The optimum network structure was obtained by testing different numbers of neurons with altered transfer functions to normalize the data. This structure simulated the experimental data with a very high accuracy and predicted new values that were untested experimentally. A nonlinear equation indicates the relation between inputs and output was introduced based on ANN model. The performances of the optimum network are obtained. Finally, this study showed that neural networks are a very effective tool in modeling and are able to follow the patterns of the experimental data with a high precision.
High Oxygen Permeation through A-site deficient K2NiF4+δ-type Oxide Hollow-Fiber Membrane Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Qing Liao, Libin Zhuang, Yanying Wei, Jian Xue, Haihui Wang
Suppressing the effect of cullet composition on the formation and properties of foamed glass Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jakob König, Rasmus R. Petersen, Niels Iversen, Yuanzheng Yue
The process of foaming glass is very dependent on the chemical composition of the glass. In this study we used a foaming-agent/oxidizing-agent couple and a crystallization inhibitor to foam cullets of flat, container and CRT-panel glass. Foamed glass with a density of 110–120 kg m–3, a thermal conductivity of 50–52 mW m–1 K–1 and a homogeneous pore structure was obtained from a mixture of panel glass, 0.33 wt.% carbon and 4.45 wt.% Fe2O3. We also showed that it is possible to fabricate foamed glass with the same density or pore structure as mentioned above by adding up to 50 wt.% container cullet or 70 wt.% flat glass to the mixture. In the foamed samples with a low content of panel glass, crystals form, resulting in an increased open porosity, density and inhomogeneous pore structure. The crystallization can, however, be inhibited by adding calcium phosphate, so enabling the preparation of high-quality foamed glass from flat glass or flat/container-glass mixture. The pore gas is predominantly CO2 and the pressure inside the pores is 0.36–0.47 bar. The reduced effect of the composition on the foaming process suggests that there is a great potential for stabilizing the production of foamed glass and ensuring the product's quality.
Physicochemical Characterization of Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxynitride Thin Film Transistors Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jinsoo Kim, Jin-Ha Hwang
Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O experiences device instability in thin-film transistors (TFTs) due to the vulnerability of oxide channel materials under ambient conditions. Nitrogenation of In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs by partial oxygen substation of nitrogen was performed to enhance stability. The nitrogenated In-Ga-Zn-O thin films were deposited under plasma conditions involving nitrogen gas molecules. The TFT stability was tested under various conditions of temperature, illumination, time, and sweeping. Despite the minor weakness at elevated operation temperature, the nitrogenated In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs exhibited superior tolerance against sweeping operations in TFT devices, illumination, and time-dependent degradation. The improved stability is attributed to the incorporation of nitrogen into In-Ga-Zn-O via oxygen vacancy and its corresponding interface trap improvement.
Rod-like grains with high aspect ratio and adjustment of competitive growth of perovskite and tungsten bronze structure in (1–x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3FeTaO5 ceramics Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Han Bai, Jun Li, You Wu, Kouzhong Shi, Yang Hong, Zhongxiang Zhou
(1–x)Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3FeTaO5 (abbreviated as BXT–x, where x = 0.4, 0.5, 0.8 and 1) ceramics were successfully prepared through a conventional solid-state reaction method. The evolutions of structure and surface morphology with change of the component and the competitive growth of perovskite structure and tungsten bronze structure were investigated. BXT–1 ceramic is composed of rod-like grains with high aspect ratio (20–40) of tungsten bronze structure. Dielectric anomaly accompanied by frequency dispersion was observed in all BXT–x ceramics. We concluded that the dielectric relaxation in the ceramics is derived from electron hopping in the dipole composed of Fe2+ and Fe3+ and XPS data confirmed the coexistence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the ceramics. Moreover, the sintering atmosphere plays an important role in the competitive growth of perovskite structure and tungsten bronze structure.
Novel Continuous Microwave Assisted Flow Synthesis of Nanosized Manganese Substituted Hydroxyapatite Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Aneela Anwar, Samina Akbar
In this paper, we reported a novel continuous microwave assisted flow synthesis (CMFS) of nanosized manganese substituted hydroxyapatite particles by using calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate precursor solutions in only 7 minutes retention time at pH 9. The identification of nanoproduct was made by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that nanosized manganese substituted hydroxyapatite particles were synthesized successfully in a shorter time period. The degree of crystallinity of the nanoproduct decreased with increasing manganese contents from 0 to 4%. At such conditions, variations in particles’ size and morphology from larger rod shaped particles (~110 nm) to smaller semispherical form (~75 nm) was observed. Thus the use of continuous microwave assisted flow synthesis procedure facilitated faster production of manganese substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suitable for bone replacement applications.
Glass Bonding with a Reactive Bonding Layer Fabricated by Aerosol Deposition Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Ji-Ho Lim, Chun-Kil Park, Sung Hwan Cho, Jin-Woo Kim, Hyung Sun Kim, Dae-Yong Jeong
The bonding temperature was lowered by placing intermediate layers that are reactive with a glass bonding frit. A dense reactive intermediate layer, ~6 μm in thickness, was anchored on STS304 by aerosol deposition (AD). The intermediate layer with PbO reacted chemically with glass frit, lowering the glass temperature. Microstructure analysis showed that the intermediate layer disappeared during the bonding process due to a reaction with the glass frit. When a TiO2/PbO mixture was deposited as an intermediate layer, TiO2 did not react with the glass frit and remained under the same heating conditions. Unreactive TiO2 contributed physically to the improvement of the bonding strength by supplying a large bonding interface area and active PbO provided a large bonding interface through a chemical reaction with the glass frit.
Structural-microstructural characterization and optical properties of Eu3+,Tb3+-codoped LaPO4∙nH2O and LaPO4 nanorods hydrothermally synthesized with microwaves Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 María T. Colomer, Lidia Zur, Maurizio Ferrari, Angel L. Ortiz
Laser initiated Ti3SiC2 powder and coating synthesis Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Paweł Rutkowski, Jan Huebner, Dariusz Kata, Jerzy Lis, Adrian Graboś, Leszek Chlubny
In the work the SHS synthesis of MAX phases from Ti-Si-C system were carried and initiated with use of 30 W laser beam with 40 μm spot. That kind of initiation allows locally and rapidly start the SHS synthesis and avoid the contamination coming from heating wire present during conventional method. The reaction was monitored by high-accuracy radiation pyrometer and high quality optical camera. The recorded data, together with reaction bed thermal conductivity measurements allowed to correlate to obtained powders composition and reaction speed. The reaction bed morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy with element distribution (EDS). The second part of the paper concerns laser reactive deposition of SHS in-situ synthetized MAX phases layer on silicon carbide substrate. The paths of deposited layer were formed under argon overpressure of 2 bar using 120 W of laser power.
Synthesis and photoluminescence of ultra-pure α-Ge3N4 nanowires Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Zhifeng Huang, Rui Su, Hailong Yuan, Jianwen Zhang, Fei Chen, Qiang Shen, Lianmeng Zhang
It is a challenge to synthesize ultra-pure one-dimensional Ge3N4 nanomaterials because the current synthetic approaches are difficult to avoid oxygen to form GeOx. In this paper, we provide a novel approach to synthesize ultra-pure Ge3N4 nanowires by directly nitriding nanocrystalline Ge powder at a relatively lower temperature of 600 °C in NH3 atmosphere. The nanocrystalline Ge powder is prepared using a liquid nitrogen cryomilling method, and an amorphous GeNx layer is formed on the surface of Ge powder to significantly block oxidation. The obtained single-crystal α-Ge3N4 nanowires are ~ 80 nm in width and several tens of micrometers in length. The photoluminescence property of α-Ge3N4 nanowires has also been investigated. The result exhibits a blue-green luminescence property with the main peak at 440 nm, which is originated from the electronic transition from the conduction band to valence band.
Microstructure and Antioxidation Performance of SiC-ZrO-MoSi2/Ni Coated Carbon Fiber Produced by Composite Electroplating Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Guangyuan Yang, Xu Wang, Zhixiong Huang
To improve the oxidation resistance ability of carbon fiber (CF) in the high temperature environment, the composite electroplating method had been used to fabricate SiC-ZrO-MoSi2/Ni coating at the surface of CF. Both nanoparticles and Ni-matrix were plated onto CF successfully while the mechanical property of coated CF was only slightly weakened. The oxidation resistance performance of CF and the CF reinforced phenolic resin composites had been improved obviously. The microstructure of coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal gravimetric analysis was applied to test the anti-oxidation ability of coated CF. The mechanism of oxidation process had been discussed. It can be concluded that composite plating is an effective way to make composite coatings which can enhance the anti-oxidation ability of CF.
THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE OF BODY COMPONENTS ON THE PROCESSING PARAMETERS OF SEMI TRANSPARENT PORCELAIN Ceram. Int. (IF 2.986) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Fazilet Güngör, Nuran Ay
The effect of the particle size of quartz and K- feldspar on the sintering behaviour and technical properties of semi transparent porcelain were investigated. This study was implemented by “the Factorial Experimental Design Method” to determine the effect of factors on semi vitreous porcelain production. The sintering behaviour of the samples were examined by using an optical dilatometer. The phases and their respective amounts in the microstructure were determined by way of Rietvelt X- ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Furthermore, the values such as shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, porosity, thermal expansion, light transmission measurements were taken on the samples and the microstructures were studied by SEM. It was observed that as the particle size of quartz and K- feldspar decreased; the viscosity of the liquid phase fell down, the relative amount of secondary mullite crystals increased and the large pores were removed among the particles and the densification rate increased. Data were analysed by Minitab 13.20 software, and assessed in relation to the amount of glassy phase and its viscosity. The effect of K- feldspar particle size on the densification of porcelain is less than the change of heat treatment and quartz particle size.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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