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  • On the properties of poly(isoprene-b-ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate) block copolymers
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Sergey Chernyy, Jacob Judas Kain Kirkensgaard, Anders Bakke, Kell Mortensen, Kristoffer Almdal

    By combining poly(1,4-isoprene) (PI) with poly(ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate) (PFMMA) in a diblock copolymer structure by means of anionic polymerization we obtained narrowly dispersed PI-b-PFMMA copolymers with molecular weight ranging from 13000 to 62000 g/mol. The products were stable up to 228 °C, according to thermal gravimetry, which allowed us to further investigate their viscoelastic and X-ray scattering properties at elevated temperature by rheology and SAXS, respectively. For PI-b-PFMMA with total molecular weight 13400 g/mol a phase transition at 105 °C was identified leading to the segmental mixing at T > 105 °C and microphase separation at T < 105 °C. The microphase separated morphology acquired hexahonally packed cylinder (HEX) microstructure in bulk. The explanation of the ordered HEX morphology was derived from a quantification of the thermodynamic immiscibility between PI and PFMMA segments via random phase approximation theory yielding generally accepted dependency of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) on temperature.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • The influence of the grafting density of glycopolymers on the lectin binding affinity of block copolymer micelles
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Michael Pröhl, Susanne Seupel, Pelin Sungur, Stephanie Höppener, Michael Gottschaldt, Johannes C. Brendel, Ulrich S. Schubert

    The integration of natural carbohydrates as ligands for the targeting of specific cell types into synthetic drug delivery systems such as polymer micelles has gained increasing attention, which is based on the expression of selective receptors or lectins in the cell membrane. While several structural aspects of this interaction are well-understood, only limited knowledge exists on the impact of the grafting density of sugar groups on this interaction. In the presented approach, we created core-shell-corona micelles with comparable size and shape, but a variable density of d-mannosylated chains sticking out from the surface, and investigated their interaction with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A). The polymers were synthesized using the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) providing excellent control and narrow distributions for all materials. The blocks based on butyl acrylate and N-acryloyl morpholine form the core and shell of the micelles, respectively, while an additional d-mannosylated block, which forms the corona, is introduced applying a previously reported post-polymerisation functionalization of a reactive bromine precursor with α-d-thiomannose. Varying the ratios of the diblock and triblock polymers in the assembly process, the density of the d-mannosylated chains could easily be adjusted in this mixed micelles approach. All micelles revealed sizes of around 50 nm (estimated by light scattering and cryo-TEM) and similar morphologies, an aspect that is crucial for the direct evaluation of the influence of the grafting density on the binding affinity. The subsequent binding studies with the lectin Con A revealed a clear trend that binding affinity increases with increasing sugar content and a minimum of 10% of d-mannosylated chains is required for an effective and detectible aggregation. However, it is noteworthy that the full coverage of the micelles with sugar chains is detrimental for the binding to Con A and a significant reduction of the clustering rate was observed, while a ligand density of around 50–60% was favorable for the best interaction. These finding substantiate the importance of the ligand density for the design of targeting delivery systems.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched polyimides from a novel B’B2-type triamine with tert-butyl side group
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Lang Yi, Xiuming Wu, Chen Shu, Wei Huang, Deyue Yan

    A novel triamine (1) with tert-butyl side group, N1,N1-bis(4-aminophenyl)-4-(tert-butyl)benzene-1,3-diamine, is synthesized and then polymerized with the dianhydride 6FDA (A2) at the different feed molar ratio. Monitoring by 1H NMR spectrum, the reactivity of 3-amino group with ortho-tert-butyl is much lower than that of 4’/4″-amino groups in triamine 1. Thus AB2-type amic acid (B’A2 intermediates) can be formed rapidly in situ when the polymerization is processed at 20 °C and the molar ratio of 1/6FDA is 1:2. Subsequently with increasing the polymerization temperature, 3-amino group with ortho-tert-butyl in AB2-type intermediates is activated and self-polycondensed with anhydride groups to produce hyperbranched polyimide (HBPI) without gelation. This indicates that it’s an effective approach to decrease the reactivity of amino groups in triamine by introducing tert-butyl into its ortho-position and HBPIs can be prepared conveniently through the method of ‘A2+B’B2′ based on the principle of unequal reactivity of functional groups.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • AIE-active florescent polymers: The design, synthesis and the cell imaging application
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Lei Lei, Hengchang Ma, Yanfang Qin, Manyi Yang, Yucheng Ma, Tao Wang, Yuan Yang, Ziqiang Lei, Dedai Lu, Xiaolin Guan

    Fluorescence imaging, especially specific organelle imaging, has become a significant technology to comprehending cell transplantation, migration, division, fusion, and lysis. In this paper, we designed and synthesized a water soluble and fluorescent polymer named as Poly(AA-TPA-d), which was pH-responsive by the fluorescence channel due to the presence of poly acrylic acid as the polymer backbone. The research results demonstrated that Poly(AA-TPA-d) exhibits novel aggregation-induced-emission (AIE) property. Additionally, due to the hydrogen bond formation and C=O···π interactions between methyl acrylate groups, Poly(AA-TPA-d) was of excellent hydrogel formation ability. Moreover, Poly(AA-TPA-d) displayed good bio-compatibility with the living MPC5 cells and highly specific cytoplasm-targeting ability by MTT assay and cell staining experiment respectively.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Effect of Fe3O4 NPs on micellization and release behavior of CBABC-type pentablock copolymer
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Aniruddha Pal, Sagar Pal

    Amphiphilic pentablock copolymer (CBABC-type) based on poly(propylene oxide), poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) has been synthesized through ring opening polymerization (ROP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) techniques. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results envisage the control nature of polymerization. Structural property and thermal behavior of the pentablock copolymer have been analyzed through various characterization techniques. Further, a novel nanocomposite comprised of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and penta block copolymer has been successfully developed and characterized using various techniques. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) results indicate that the presence of copolymer has no adverse effect towards the magnetic property of Fe3O4NPs. Comparative studies towards micellar stability and pH-triggered release behavior of pentablock copolymer and nanocomposite have been discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Highly stable and reduction responsive micelles from a novel polymeric surfactant with a repeating disulfide-based gemini structure for efficient drug delivery
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Hyun-Chul Kim, Eunjoo Kim, Tae-Lin Ha, Se Geun Lee, Sung Jun Lee, Sang Won Jeong

    The synthesis of a novel polymeric surfactant with a repeating disulfide-based gemini structure (poly(gemini surfactant)) and its micellar properties for GSH-dependent intracellular drug delivery are described. A linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) was end-functionalized with N-stearoylcysteine and the cysteine thiol groups of the telechelic surfactant were oxidized intermolecularly in the micellar state to produce poly(gemini surfactant). Compared with the telechelic surfactant, poly(gemini surfactant) possessed a lower critical micelle concentration and higher solubilization capacity for doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, the poly(gemini surfactant) micelles revealed excellent colloidal stability against excess sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a micelle-destabilizing agent. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that poly(gemini surfactant) composed of PEG, cysteine, and stearic acid was virtually non-cytotoxic up to 100 mg L−1. In the presence of glutathione (GSH), poly(gemini surfactant) was degraded back into the telechelic surfactant, leading to the release of encapsulated DOX to induce cytotoxicity against cancer cells.

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Diffusion-assisted post-crosslinking of polymer microspheres containing epoxy functional groups
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Joon-Suk Oh, Minsoo P. Kim, Joo-Hyung Kim, Hyunjong Son, Kyung-Heum Kim, Sang-Hoon Kim, Ji-Beom Yoo, Youngkwan Lee, Gi-Ra Yi, Jae-Do Nam

    With a diffusion-assisted post-crosslinking method, polymer microspheres containing epoxy groups are crosslinked with ethylenediamine (EDA), gradually diffusing and reacting in the particles via amine/epoxy ring-opening reactions as confirmed by FT-IR and DSC results. Using a microcompression test, we find that the mechanical property (deformability under different applied force, breaking points, and recoverability) of the crosslinked microspheres is varied when different amounts of EDA are used in the system, resulting from different crosslinking density of the particles. An additional feature of the EDA treatment is to generate amine groups on the surface of the microspheres, enabling us to produce hybrid microspheres. We exploit them as immobilization sites for gold nanoparticles, forming gold-coated crosslinked microspheres. We also introduce a sequential functionalization method to fabricate crosslinked microspheres with selective functional groups on the surface. This approach can be a facile method to produce functional microspheres with controlled mechanical and surface properties.

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Dynamic viscoelasticity of a series of poly(4-n-alkylstyrene)s and their alkyl chain length dependence
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Satoru Matsushima, Atsushi Takano, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Yushu Matsushita

    Dynamic viscoelastic measurements were performed for a series of poly(4-n-alkylstyrene)s with six different n-alkyl side chains, that is, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl and octyl groups. Based on the time-temperature superposition principle, storage modulus G′, loss modulus G″ and loss tangent tan δ were shifted with horizontal shift factor aT and vertical shift factor bT, giving well superposed master curves for all the polymers. With increase of the number of carbon atoms, plateau modulus GN0, which corresponds to G′ value at minimum tan δ, decreases, while entanglement molecular weight Me(=ρRT/GN0) increases, where ρ is the polymer density, R is the gas constant and T is the absolute temperature. Degree of polymerization at onset of entanglement, Ne, which defined as Me/M0, where M0 denotes the molecular weight of each monomer, also increases with increase of n-alkyl side chain length. Packing length estimated from the empirical equation by Fetters also increases with increase of n-alkyl lengths. These results are presumably due to large polymer chain thickness caused directly by substituents on phenyl rings of styrene units.

    更新日期:2017-11-15
  • Synthesis of new 2,6-bis(6-fluoro-2-hexyl-2H-benzotriazol-4-yl)-4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene based D-A conjugated terpolymers for photovoltaic application
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    M.L. Keshtov, S.A. Kuklin, A.R. Khokhlov, I.O. Konstantinov, N.V. Nekrasova, Zhi-yuan Xie, Ganesh D. Sharma

    Two D1-A-D2-A conjugated terpolymers with same A (fluorinated benzotriazole, fBTz), D2 (dithienosilole, DTS) and different D1 (bis(undecyl)benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene for P1 and didodecyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene for P2) were synthesized and their optical and electrochemical properties were investigated. Compared to P1, the P2 with didodecyloxy side chains in benzodithiophene showed strong interchain π-π interaction, more redshifted absorption spectrum and higher molar extinction coefficient. The X-ray diffraction results indicated their excellent crystallinity and molecular stacking features, especially P2 containing didodecyloxy side chains in BDT. These two terpolymers were used as donor along with PC71BM for the fabrication of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. After the optimization of active layers, i.e. weight ratios of terpolymer to PC71BM and concentration of solvent additive (DIO) in the host solvent, the resultant polymer solar cells showed overall power conversion efficiency of 6.95% (Jsc = 12.23 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.93 V and FF = 0.61) and 8.14% (Jsc = 14.08 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.85 V and FF = 0.68) for P1 and P2 based bulk heterojunction active layers, respectively. The higher power conversion efficiency of P2 based polymer solar cell than P1 based counterpart, may be attributed to the more exciton dissociation, better nanoscale morphology and higher hole mobility in P2:PC71BM active layer than P1:PC71BM.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Plasticisation and compatibilisation of poly(propylene) with poly(lauryl acrylate) surface modified MWCNTs
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Jaipal Gupta, Chaoying Wan, David M. Haddleton, Tony McNally

    Poly(lauryl acrylate) P[LA] synthesised using Cu(0)-mediated polymerisation was used to non-covalently functionalise multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) achieved via combined CH-π interactions and physical wrapping. The inclusion of P[LA] competed with the attractive van der Waals forces between MWCNTs altering interfacial interactions between neighbouring CNTs and, assisted their dispersion and distribution in a poly(propylene) (PP) matrix, confirmed from SEM/HR-TEM imaging and oscillatory rheology measurements. A rheological percolation threshold measured for composites of unmodified MWCNTs and PP at ∼0.5 wt% was shifted to lower MWCNT concentrations (∼0.25 wt%) for P[LA] functionalised MWCNTs. Addition of P[LA] also reduced the nucleating effect of MWCNTs for PP as a coating of P[LA] on the nanotube surfaces hindered trans-crystallisation of the PP. Evidence from static and dynamic mechanical measurements confirmed the P[LA] plasticised PP as both an increase in ductility and a decrease in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PP of up to 25 °C was obtained. Addition of unmodified MWCNTs to PP resulted in an increase in the DC electrical conductivity of PP of 15 orders of magnitude, from 10−14 S/m to 101 S/m for a MWCNT loading of 5 wt%. Non-covalent functionalisation of MWCNTs utilising P[LA] only degraded electrical conductivity by about 2 orders of magnitude across the composition range.

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Investigation of the 3-hydroxyvalerate content and degree of crystallinity of P3HB-co-3HV cast films using Raman spectroscopy
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Verena Jost, Matthias Schwarz, Horst-Christian Langowski

    The structural properties of extruded cast films of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (P3HB-co-3HV) were analysed by Raman spectroscopy. A sensitive band for the side chain of the 3HV was found at 844 cm−1 (νCC, νC-COO). Using an internal standard at 1101 cm−1 (νsC-O-C, ρCH3), a model for calculation of the 3HV content was developed. This was based on analysis of samples with a 3HV content of 0–12 mol%. Additionally, P3HB-co-3HV samples were tempered in order to create different degrees of crystallinity. The induced changes in the Raman spectra were analysed. The Raman model to determine the degree of crystallinity considers the sensitive band at 2999 cm−1 (νasCH2) and the internal standard at 1059 cm−1 (νC-O, νC-CH3, ρCH2). The investigated crystallinity was in a range of 0.69–0.86.

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Preparation and characterization of crosslinked electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous membranes
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Jeffrey A. Quinn, Yi Yang, Alexander N. Buffington, Felicia N. Romero, Matthew D. Green

    Membranes prepared by electrospinning nonwoven mats have been receiving an increasing amount of interest recently with potential applications as water filtration membranes, drug delivery mats, and environmental sensors. Innovations in membrane processing and characteristics enabled by electrospinning could impact the industry. In this investigation, we demonstrate the effects of changing the chain length of an α,ω-bis(2-carboxymethyl)poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG diacid) crosslinker on the physical properties of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibrous mats. Analysis of as-spun PVA mats showed average fiber diameters of 0.13 ± 0.02 μm with average pore areas of 1.67 ± 0.51 μm2. Average fiber diameters for mats crosslinked with a shorter PEG diacid (Mn = 250) were 0.20 ± 0.04 μm with average pore areas of 0.64 ± 0.18 μm2. Similarly, mats crosslinked with a longer PEG diacid (Mn = 600) had average fiber diameters of 0.22 ± 0.04 μm with average pore areas of 0.44 ± 0.23 μm2. Further studies on the durability of the mats showed dramatic improvements in the Young's modulus, the stress at break, and the strain at break that increased with the length of the crosslinker. Developing further knowledge regarding the enhancement and control of electrospun membranes can help improve the field of electrospun membrane with great potential for water purification and can reveal new opportunities for existing technologies moving forward.

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Efficient benzodithiophene and thienopyrroledione containing random polymers as components for organic solar cells
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Özge Azeri, Ece Aktas, Cagla Istanbulluoglu, Serife O. Hacioglu, Sevki Can Cevher, Levent Toppare, Ali Cirpan

    Benzodithiophene and thienopyrroledione containing two random copolymers were designed and synthesized. Electrochemical and optical studies prove that these copolymers could be candidates for organic solar cells applications. The HOMO and LUMO values were determined using cyclic voltammetry as −5.53 and −3.43 eV for P1 and -5.54 and −3.53 eV for P2, respectively. The optical band gaps of the polymers were calculated as 2.10 and 2.01 eV using UV-VIS spectroscopy for P1 and P2, correspondingly. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells were constructed with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Polymer:PC71BM/LiF/Al and the synthesized polymers were used as the electron donors and PC71BM as the electron acceptor in the active layer. The best performance was observed for device of P2 1:2 (w:w) ratio with a Voc 0.80 V, a Jsc of 14.02 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 52%, and a PCE of 5.83% under standard AM 1.5 G at 100 mW/cm2.

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Development of complete silica thin films based on functional hyperbranched polyalkoxysiloxanes
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Garima Agrawal, Xiaomin Zhu, Martin Moeller, Veena Choudhary

    A precursor polymer has been designed on the basis of an idea of conversion of hyperbranched polymer to an inorganic substance by lithographic procedure. For this purpose hyperbranched polyethoxysiloxane (PEOS) was synthesized via a one-pot catalytic condensation reaction of tetraethoxysilane with acetic anhydride. PEOS was modified with cyclohexanol via a catalytic trans-esterification reaction. The products were characterized by means of 1H and 29Si NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and size exclusion chromatography. The thin silica films were formed by spin-coating of chloroform solutions of PEOS and cyclohexanol-modified PEOS (CH-PEOS) on silicon wafer substrates with subsequent H2-plasma treatment. CH-PEOS layer containing a photoacid could be cross-linked upon UV-irradiation. This approach was used to develop patterned thin silica films, which were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microcopy and atomic force microscopy. Well defined sharp silica patterns were obtained and further conversion of the layer to pure silica was carried out by removing organic species using H2 plasma treatment.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Surface and mechanical properties of waterborne polyurethane films reinforced by hydroxyl-terminated poly(fluoroalkyl methacrylates)
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Wei Yang, Xu Cheng, Haibo Wang, Yuansen Liu, Zongliang Du

    Novel waterborne fluorinated polyurethane (WFPU) based on hydroxyl-terminated poly(fluoroalkyl methacrylates) (HTPFMA) was prepared successfully. The microstructures and micro-phase separation of WFPU were evaluated through infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). FT-IR revealed that the H-bonded carbonyl in hard domains increased with the increasing of fluorine content, resulting in enhancing the extent of micro-phase separation between hard and soft segments. XRD results indicated that the crystallinity of hard segment was enhanced with the increasing of fluorine content. The direct visual microstructures by SEM showed that the micro-phase separation was more significant when the fluorine content increased. DMA also revealed strengthened micro-phase separation with increasing fluorine content. The studies of mechanical properties confirmed that WFPU based on HTPFMA had outstanding mechanical properties. The effects of fluorine content on the static contact angles, surface free energy, and surface composition were also studied. The static contact angles of the WFPU films against water and methylene iodide reached around 108° and 84°, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the fluorine surface enrichment factor in the outermost 10 nm depth was about 10–18 fold higher than its bulk level.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Thermally healable and remendable lignin-based materials through Diels – Alder click polymerization
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Pietro Buono, Antoine Duval, Luc Averous, Youssef Habibi

    We report in this work the preparation and in-depth characterization of thermo-reversible healable materials based on lignin, a major naturally occurring aromatic biopolymer. Following an environmentally friendly chemical pathway, a derivative of soda lignin (SL) bearing maleimide groups and poly-functional furan linkers were clicked through the furan – maleimide Diels – Alder (D-A) polymerization in a solvent free media and without the use of catalyst. The furan linkers were obtained by the thiol – epoxy reaction between furfuryl glycidyl ether and thiols of functionalities from 2 to 4. The different degree of substitution of maleimide lignin derivatives and linker functionalities allowed the tuning of the thermo-mechanical properties of the resultant materials. The latter exhibit on demand thermally induced disassembly and reassembly of the polymeric networks when heated at 110–130 °C and then cured at 60 °C, providing controlled self-healing properties and an efficient reprocessing with a limited impact on the thermo-mechanical properties and the thermal stability of the final materials. This study provides interesting perspectives for the production of renewable lignin-based aromatic polymers, demonstrating that an effective chemical modification together with tailored molecular architectures could pave the way for the development of high value-added materials from this underused aromatic feedstock.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Thermoresponsive and pH triggered drug release of cholate functionalized poly(organophosphazene) - Polylactic acid co-polymeric nanostructure integrated with ICG
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Sivaraj Mehnath, Mariappan Rajan, Gnanasekar Sathishkumar, Rajendran Amarnath Praphakar, Murugaraj Jeyaraj

    This study demonstrates the development of pH and thermosresponsive nanoparticles (NPs) composed via cholic acid, PCPP-PLA hybrid polymer integrated with indocyanine green (ICG) for site specific delivery hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel). Drug and ICG were physically encapsulated by poly (bis(carboxyphenoxy)phosphazene) (PCPP)-poly lactic acid hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer solution showed reversible gelation behaviour at the temperature between 37 °C and 20 °C and also it showed pH dependent drug release capability at acidic pH due to the pH responsive quenching effects of PCPP-PLA. The size (150–200 nm) and morphology of drug-loaded polymeric NPs were characterized using SEM and HR-TEM. Further, the release of loaded paclitaxel (PTX) from polymer was significantly sustained over 12 days. Drug release from the nanoparticles was effectively controlled by the mechanical strength of the polymer. All of these results demonstrate that pH triggered hybrid polymeric NPs are potential carriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery and also it exhibits great strength at 37 °C.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A dynamic supramolecular polyurethane network whose mechanical properties are kinetically controlled
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Xuegang Tang, Antonio Feula, Benjamin C. Baker, Kelly Melia, Daniel Hermida Merino, Ian W. Hamley, C. Paul Buckley, Wayne Hayes, Clive R. Siviour

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a kinetically controlled, thermoreversible supramolecular polyurethane whose mechanical properties depend unusually strongly on the processing history. Materials were prepared by solution casting, quenching and annealing of quenched material, allowing pronounced micro-structural evolution, which leads to rapid increases in modulus as determined by rheological analysis. Tensile tests showed that the quenched material is soft, weak and ductile (shear modulus ∼ 5 MPa, elongation ∼ 250%), but after annealing, at 70 °C for 1 h, it becomes stiffer, stronger and more brittle (∼20 MPa, ∼20%). FTIR and NMR spectroscopic analysis, coupled with MDSC and SAXS, were performed to investigate the network's dynamic structural changes. SAXS results suggest the presence of a lamellar structure in the sample when solution cast at high temperature, or annealed. This ordering is unique when compared to structurally-related supramolecular bisurethane and bisurea polymers, and may be the cause of the observed path dependence. These mechanical properties, which can be switched repeatedly by simple thermal treatments, coupled with its adhesion properties as determined from peel and tack tests, make it an excellent candidate as a recyclable material for adhesives and coatings.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Dual thermoresponsive homopolypeptide with LCST-Type linkages and UCST-Type pendants: Synthesis, characterization, and thermoresponsive properties
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Minjie Li, Xiongliang He, Ying Ling, Haoyu Tang

    Water-soluble homopolypeptides bearing di(ethylene glycol) (DEG) linkages and various ionic liquid (IL) pendants with both lower and upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST) or a UCST were prepared and systematically investigated. Poly (γ-2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethyl l-glutamate) (PCEELG) with DEG linkage and reactive chloro groups can be readily prepared from ring-opening polymerization of γ-2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethyl l-glutamic acid based N-carboxyanhydride. Homopolypeptides were conjugated with various IL pendants and counteranions by nucleophilic substitutions and subsequent ion-exchange reactions. Homopolypeptide with DEG linkages and tributylphosphonium iodide (PEELG-TBP-I) showed interesting LCST < UCST (i.e., soluble-insoluble-soluble) dual thermoresponsive behavior in DI-H2O and NaI aqueous solutions. The LCST-type and UCST-type phase transition temperatures (Tpts) were tunable by polymer concentration, molar mass, and NaI concentration. Homopolypeptide with DEG linkages and tributylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate showed a UCST both in DI-H2O and PBS buffer while homopolypeptide with DEG linkages and triphenylphosphonium iodide (or tetrafluoroborate) or with alkyl linkages and tributylphosphonium iodide (or tetrafluoroborate) showed a UCST in PBS buffer. The UCST-type Tpt in PBS buffer was in a broad temperature range of 20–90 °C which was tunable by adjusting the polymer concentration, molar mass, IL moieties, and counteranions.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Preparation of porous polyurethanes by emulsion-templated step growth polymerization
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Imane Barbara, Marie-Anne Dourges, Hervé Deleuze

    A new class of emulsion-templated macroporous polymers (polyHIPEs) was prepared by step-growth polymerization involving a low molecular weight triol and a commercially available diisocyanate. Several water-in-oil High Internal Phase Emulsions (HIPEs) were formulated by varying the nature of the monomer and the volume fraction of the inner phase. The addition of particles in the continuous phase to obtain composites was studied. The preparation of Pickering emulsions and non-aqueous emulsions was also investigated. The addition of a catalyst to the HIPE and subsequent polymerization followed by solvent elimination led to the corresponding polyurethane polyHIPEs. These materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, 13C solid NMR, mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption and thermal analysis. The materials obtained shows porosities up to 80% and a thermal stability comparable to commercial polyurethane foams.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Adsorption behavior and conformational changes of acrylpimaric acid polyglycol esters at the air-water interface
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Juying Zhou, Xia Zhang, Yanjiao Lan, Yanzhi Zhao, Fuhou Lei, Hao Li, Pengfei Li, Haitang Xu, Qin Huang

    Three acrylpimaric acid polyglycol esters (APAPG) with different molecular weight were successfully prepared. The surface properties of three esters were investigated by surface tension and fluorescence techniques. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were detected. Reorientation theory was proposed to describe the adsorption behavior and the conformational changes of these surfactant molecules at the air-water interface. With increasing ester concentration the molar fraction of solvent decreased and that of surfactant molecules increased. The adsorption amount of state 1 presented unimodal shape and adsorption amount of state 2 presented sigmoid with the growth of П. The free energy of adsorption is more negative than that of micellization, thus the surfactant molecules adsorb on the surface firstly and then form micelles after saturation adsorption.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Synthesis of poly(benzobisoxazole-co-imide) and fabrication of high-performance fibers
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Yang Cheng, Jie Dong, Cairan Yang, Tingting Wu, Xin Zhao, Qinghua Zhang

    A novel heterocyclic and plank-shape diamine monomer, 2,6-(4,4′-diaminodiphenyl) benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d'] bisoxazole (PBOA), was successfully synthesized from readily available compounds of 4,6-diaminoresorcinol dihydrochloride (DAR) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). A series of poly(benzobisoxazole-co-imide) (PBOI) fibers based on 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic anhydride (BPDA), 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA) and PBOA were fabricated via a two-step wet-spinning method. PBOA was characterized in detail, and the effect of the monomer in the polymer backbones on the fibers' microstructure and properties were described. 2D wide-angle X-ray diffraction indicated that the incorporated PBOA in the BPDA-ODA polyimide backbone is beneficial for forming well-defined crystalline regions in the resulted fibers during the thermal stretching process and significantly improving the crystallinity and crystal orientation of the drawn PBOI fibers. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns of the drawn PBOI fibers suggested the presence of typical periodic lamellar crystal in the fibers. It is shown that increasing PBOA contents will result in higher values of the long period (L) and the lamellar thickness (lC). Maximum improvements of 153% in tensile strength and 282% in modulus were achieved when increasing the molar content of PBOA in the mixed diamine from 10 mol% to 50 mol%. Correspondingly, the temperature at the maximum degradation rate (Td-max) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of resulted PBOI fibers in nitrogen increased by 28 and 30 °C, respectively, making these novel polymeric fibers as good reinforcements in fabricating advanced composites.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Synthesis and mechanical properties of flame retardant vinyl ester resin for structural composites
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Siddharth Dev, Priyank N. Shah, Yipei Zhang, David Ryan, Christopher J. Hansen, Yongwoo Lee

    Halogen-based fire retardants are often used to reduce flammability and improve the fire resistance properties of polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPs). Brominated vinyl ester resins (Br-VERs) are a class of halogenated polymer matrices that are economically viable, high performance materials that are widely utilized in composites for specialty applications, such as the fabrication of hulls in naval vessels. In this work, Br-VE polymer is synthesized from tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) precursors, and which can be derived from the wastes of the biodiesel and wood pulp industries, respectively. The Br-VE reaction products are analyzed by 1H NMR and the presence of unreacted (nonfunctional), monofunctional and difunctional TBBPA are confirmed. A baseline formulation of difunctional Br-VE and styrene (40 wt %) is mixed with a commercial brominated vinyl ester resin (Derakane 510-40A) in ratios of 20, 50 and 80 pph. Two reduced styrene content formulations of Br-VER (30 wt % styrene and 20 wt % styrene) were also prepared. The thermomechanical properties of all seven neat resin formulations were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The autocatalytic cure kinetics parameters and chemorheological behavior enable development of a cure cycle for the thermosetting resin. The DMA results demonstrate that all resin formulations comprising Br-VER exhibit improved mechanical performance as compared to the commercial vinyl ester resin.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Absorption of Cu(II) in layered diaminoalkyl- and monoaminoalkyl-polysilsesquioxane
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Teppei Takagi, Izuru Kawamura, Yasunori Oumi, Yohei Miwa, Hideaki Yoshitake

    Lamellar polysilsesquioxane containing two kinds of aminoalkyl groups were synthesized using alkanoic acids. Our intension with this synthesis was to increase the exposure to the absorbate of the absorption sites in the polymer solid without sacrificing its high density of sites. That is, this method is designed to weaken the interactions around the amine sites that inhibit diffusion of the aqueous cation pollutants. The mixing ratio, x: y, of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AP silane) and N-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AeAP silane) in the liquid precursor agrees well with that of the AP and AeAP groups in the solid, [(C13H27COOH)x(C12H23CH(COOH)CH2COOH)y(NH2C3H6)x(NH2C2H4NHC3H6)ySi10O15]n or [(MAS)x(C12SA)y(AP)x(AeAP)ySi10O1.5]n (x + y = 10). A good lamellar structure was obtained with x: y ratio higher than 2: 8. FT-IR spectroscopy reveals that increasing the x: y ratio enhances the bands due to hydrogen-bonded –COOH and dissociated –COO-, suggesting an increase in water molecule insertion around the carboxyl and amine groups with x: y. In 13C CP-MAS NMR, unresolved peaks due to carboxylate carbons disappear at x: y = 4: 6 and 2: 8, suggesting that carboxylate is isolated at these mixing ratios probably due to hydration. In addition, continuous growth of the peak due to ionized carboxylate is observed. The amount of absorbed aqueous Cu(II) is particularly large when x: y = 4: 6, which is revealed by analysis with the Langmuir equation. In contrast, the ESR spectrum of Cu(II) is independent on the x: y ratio, suggesting the accessibility of the absorption sites is simply improved when x: y = 4: 6. It is likely that this mixing ratio provides a particularly effective structure for exposing the absorption sites of aqueous Cu(II).

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Finite extensibility and deviation from Gaussian elasticity of dimethylacrylamide-based gels with different charge density: Insight into pH/solvent-dependent swelling and surfactant interactions
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Nermin Orakdogen, Talin Boyaci

    The quasi-binary ionic gels composed of non-ionic N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) and ionic comonomer sodium acrylate (NaA) were prepared to investigate the charge density dependence of the equilibrium swelling and elasticity under various environmental conditions. By altering the chemical composition, highly ionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) P(DMAAm-co-NaA) hydrogels and cryogels were obtained which were highly sensitive to pH- and ion-concentration of the external solution containing surfactant or halide ions. The mechanical properties and the corresponding degree of swelling in water/solvent mixtures both for hydrogels and cryogels were followed by the pulsatile swelling/deswelling experiments. The swelling behaviors of the prepared hydrogels and cryogels with specific network structures were dependent on the pH of external solution, NaA content, associative interactions between polymer and surfactant species and the concentration of the monovalent-salt solutions. By the results of dynamic swelling test, the influence of NaA content on the swelling rate, swelling coefficients and diffusional behavior of water in the prepared gels were determined. The variation in the charge density in P(DMAAm-co-NaA) hydrogel networks was theoretically explained in the framework of model which treats to explain the dependence of the elastic free energy on their swelling ratio. Although the introduction of electrostatic interactions decreased the reduced elastic modulus at low swelling degree, the deviation from Gaussian elasticity due to finite chain extensibility was clearly detected at higher ionic comonomer concentration in which the reduced modulus increases with increasing swelling. The elasticity data showed that Gaussian statistics fails to describe the statistical properties of PDMAAm chains at higher swelling degree and the equilibrium swollen P(DMAAm-co-NaA) hydrogels are in the non-Gaussian regime. Developed theory containing adjustable parameters allows to obtain semiquantitative matching of experimental results on swollen state properties of highly charged gels and non-Gaussian elasticity.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Influence of counterion type on dielectric and electrorheological responses of poly(ionic liquid)s
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Yuezhen Dong, Yang Liu, Bo Wang, Liqin Xiang, Xiaopeng Zhao, Jianbo Yin

    Different from classic water activated polyelectrolytes, poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) bearing hydrophobic counterions show high electrorheological (ER) response in dry state. This offers opportunity for practical applications of polyelectrolyte-based ER materials in wide temperature region. For guiding the design of PIL-based ER materials with improved performance, understanding the structure-property relationship is very important. In this paper, a series of poly(p-vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium)-based PIL particles with different counteranions ([PVBTMA][X]) were synthesized with the goal of understanding the role of mobile counterions on ER response of PILs. To exclude particle shape effect, the PIL series were controlled to be monodisperse spheres with a similar diameter via microwave-assisted dispersion polymerization. Under electric fields, the ER response of PIL particles when dispersed in insulating oil was investigated by temperature-modulated rheological test. It showed that the ER response of PILs depends on the type of counteranions. The order of magnitude of ER response of PILs with different counteranion is trifluoromethanesulfonate (TfO−) > tetrafluoroborates (BF4−) > bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide) (TFSI−) > hexafluorophosphates (PF6−). The mechanism behind the influence of counterion type on ER response was analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It demonstrated that the influence of counteranion type on ER response may be related to the variation of size and plasticization effect of counteranions that has altered the transport dynamic of mobile counterions and ion motion-induced interfacial polarization.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Synthesis and dynamic de-wetting properties of poly(arylene ether sulfone)-graft-poly(dimethyl siloxane)
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Kunzhi Shen, Heng Hu, Jian Wang, Guojun Liu

    Many test liquids cleanly glide down crosslinked coatings bearing nanopools of a grafted liquid ingredient for dewetting enablement (NP-GLIDE coatings) at low substrate tilt angles. It was unclear if an engineering plastic with a high glass transition temperature Tg could replace a crosslinked coating matrix to support an NP-GLIDE coating. This paper reports the uniform grafting via click chemistry of liquid poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) onto poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES, Tg = 185 °C) to yield graft copolymers PAES-g-PDMS with low polydispersity indices. Hexadecane droplets (5 μL) cleanly glided down at sliding angles (SAs) of less than 3 ± 1° on all of the coatings prepared from PAES-g-PDMS with PDMS weight fractions of 3.4%, 19%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. Further, an oil-based ink readily contracted on them. The sliding angle of 15 μL droplets decreased from 47 ± 2° to 13 ± 1° as the PDMS weight fraction increased from 3.4% to 30%.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Preparation of polystyrene nanocomposites with functionalized carbon nanotubes by melt and solution mixing: Investigation of dispersion, melt rheology, electrical and thermal properties
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Fabio Faraguna, Petra Pötschke, Jürgen Pionteck

    Nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) varying in molecular mass (PS1, PS2) and differently functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, 0.1–5.0 wt%) were prepared by melt and solution mixing. As fillers, pristine MWCNTs, phenyl propane ester and polystyrene functionalized MWCNTs as well as an in situ synthesized polystyrene masterbatch (DPS) were used. Functionalization procedure and characterization of functionalized MWCNTs are described. Dispersion of MWCNTs as well as electrical, thermal and rheological properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed. Independent of the preparation procedure, the best MWCNT macrodispersion is achieved using DPS. When using solution mixing, the difference in macrodispersion between different MWCNTs is less pronounced in comparison to melt mixing. Solution mixed nanocomposites exhibit lower percolation thresholds in a similar range (PS1 < 0.20 wt%; PS2 < 0.30 wt%) whereas among melt mixed nanocomposites DPS shows the lowest electrical percolation threshold (PS1 0.27 wt%; PS2 0.49 wt%).

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Thermal conductivity, morphology and mechanical properties for thermally reduced graphite oxide-filled ethylene vinylacetate copolymers
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Volkan Cecen, Ralf Thomann, Rolf Mülhaupt, Christian Friedrich

    Systematic variation of copolymers (Poly (ethylene-covinylacetate)) composition provide an opportunity to change matrix polarities and thus explore their effects on the polymer/filler interactions and composite properties. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of vinyl acetate (VA) content on the extent of exfoliation and dispersion of thermally reduced graphite oxide (TrGO), as well as its impact on the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of the resultant composites. The use of ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA) copolymers of different (0–40 wt%) vinyl acetate content with similar melt viscosities allowed us to keep the processing conditions constant and quantitatively compare the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of composites with different matrix polarities. Composites with conductive graphite (GT) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were also prepared and examined for comparison. Melt dispersion of TrGO in EVA copolymers was quantified using a range of characterization techniques: transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray scattering measurements. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed highly exfoliated morphology of TrGO throughout the entire matrix, while GT remained multi-layer even after melt processing. Nanocomposites reinforced with TrGO showed significantly improved thermal conductivities and mechanical properties combined with low rheological percolation thresholds comparable to those achieved using MWCNT and GT. We propose a formalism to assess the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of graphene nanocomposites based upon the interfacial excess energies of EVA copolymers.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Overview of polymer nanocomposites: Computer simulation understanding of physical properties
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jinbo Zhao, Lili Wu, Chuanxing Zhan, Qian Shao, Zhanhu Guo, Liqun Zhang

    Computer simulations are an important implementation to experimental methods working on polymer nanocomposites (PNCs), which have advanced properties because of their unique hierarchy microstructures. In this paper, different computer simulation methods applied to investigate the structures and properties of PNCs and the simulation predicted physical properties of PNCs are reviewed. The fundamentals of applying molecular dynamics simulation method to calculate different physical properties of PNCs are explained accompanied with detailed examples. The results can help to understand the progress on PNC field using simulation methods especially different-sized molecular dynamics simulation methods.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Aliphatic flexible spacer length controls photomechanical response in compact, ordered liquid crystalline polymer networks
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-05
    Amir Skandani, J. Arul Clement, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, M. Ravi Shankar

    The aliphatic spacer length connected to the rigid mesogenic cores is shown to control the structural organization and mechanical actuation in response to light-stimulus in azobenzene-functionalized liquid crystalline polymers networks. The spacer lengths in the mesogenic host (non-photochromic) and in the photo-active azobenzene-functionalized cross linker are parametrically varied to create monodomain liquid crystalline samples. A suite of thermomechanical, photomechanical and structural characterization is used to characterize the binary co-polymers. The photomechanical responses are compared by calculating a figure-of-merit – Photocompliance (Cp). This parameter, Cp, which characterizes the incremental strain generated in response to unit intensity of irradiation (W/cm2), is found to correlate strongly with the Sxray order parameter and the D-spacings. We show that compact (smaller D) and higher ordering of the mesogens that result in copolymers with longer flexible spacers manifest greater photomechanical activity.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Melt electrospinning: Electrodynamics and spinnability
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-05
    Huaizhong Xu, Masaki Yamamoto, Hideki Yamane

    The electrodynamics of the polymer melt as well as its effects on fiber spinnability in the framework of laser-heated melt electrospinning was investigated. We challenge the classic views in the aspects of the molten Taylor-cone, the thinning process, and the jet deformation. A temperature-voltage phase diagram was constructed to distinguish the regimes of the bending, the whipping, and the break-up of the jet. These jet kinematics are significantly dependent on the molten Taylor-cone, the jet thinning, and the forces exerted on the jet. The surface tension restricts the growth of the jet while it can be safely neglected after jet initiation. Jet breaks up periodically at the tip of Taylor-cone if the polymer viscosity is too low or the elongation rate is not high enough to stretch the jet. The elongation rate for each segment of the jet keeps almost constant at a certain melt temperature, while the elongation rate increases and the solidification point of the jet shifts from the Taylor-cone to the target with increasing melt temperature. An analytic equation is proposed to estimate the jet diameter along the spinline before jet solidifies. Additionally, the experiment of coiling proved that the electrical and the elastic as the dominant forces for bending are gradually replaced by the inertial and the viscous forces for whipping.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • 更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Immiscible polymer blends compatibilized with reactive hybrid nanoparticles: Morphologies and properties
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-05
    Zhiang Fu, Hengti Wang, Xuewen Zhao, Shin Horiuchi, Yongjin Li
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Mixed conductivity of polythiophene-based ionic polymers under controlled conditions
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    R. Merkle, P. Gutbrod, P. Reinold, M. Katzmaier, R. Tkachov, J. Maier, S. Ludwigs
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Structure–property relations for temperature-responsive gels
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    A.D. Drozdov, J. deClaville Christiansen
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Time-Temperature-Water Content equivalence on dynamic mechanical response of polyamide 6,6
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Victor Fabre, Grégoire Quandalle, Noëlle Billon, Sabine Cantournet
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • On the role of nano-silica in the kinetics of peroxide vulcanization of ethylene propylene diene rubber
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Seyed Mostaffa Hosseini, Mehdi Razzaghi-Kashani
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • 更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Morphological and rheological properties of zirconia filled polyethylene
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    M.-C. Auscher, R. Fulchiron, T. Périé, P. Cassagnau
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • The fabrication of the ultra-thin polyvinylidene fluoride dielectric films for nanoscale high energy density capacitors
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Xiong Xie, Mengbin Zhou, Luqiang Lv, Shuangyi Liu, Jun Shen
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Processing and characterization of bio-polyester reactive blends: From thermoplastic blends to cross-linked networks
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Davide Nocita, Giuseppe Forte, Stavros X. Drakopoulos, Annamaria Visco, Alberto Gianporcaro, Sara Ronca
    更新日期:2017-11-05
  • Effect of polymer concentration and thermal history on the inverse thermogelation of HydroxyPropylCellulose aqueous solutions
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Salvatore Costanzo, Rossana Pasquino, Roberto Donato, Nino Grizzuti
    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • Unilamellar polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes) with tunable permeabilities for macromolecular solutes with different shapes and sizes
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Omer F. Mutaf, Yasutaka Anraku, Akihiro Kishimura, Kazunori Kataoka
    更新日期:2017-11-02
  • A novel insight into the origin of toughness in polypropylene–calcium carbonate microcomposites: Multivariate analysis of ss-NMR spectra
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Olivia Kukackova, Nguyen Viet Dung, Sabina Abbrent, Martina Urbanova, Jiri Kotek, Jiri Brus
    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • Protein exclusion is preserved by temperature sensitive PEG brushes
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Rafael L. Schoch, Gustav Emilsson, Andreas B. Dahlin, Roderick Y.H. Lim
    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • Deep eutectic solvents (DES): Excellent green solvents for rapid SARA ATRP of biorelevant hydrophilic monomers at ambient temperature
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Patrícia V. Mendonça, Mafalda S. Lima, Tamaz Guliashvili, Arménio C. Serra, Jorge F.J. Coelho
    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Aluminium trihydroxide: Novel reinforcing filler in Polychloroprene rubber
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Dhanya Vijayan, A. Mathiazhagan, Rani Joseph
    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Sustainable terpolyester of high Tg based on bio heterocyclic monomer of dimethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate and isosorbide
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-28
    Taeho Kim, Jun Mo Koo, Mi Hee Rye, Hyeonyeol Jeon, Seon-Mi Kim, Seul-A. Park, Dongyeop X. Oh, Jeyoung Park, Sung Yeon Hwang
    更新日期:2017-10-28
  • 更新日期:2017-10-28
  • The effect of pendant alkyl chain length on the barrier properties of epoxy/amine crosslinked networks
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-28
    J.H. Vergara, J.J. La Scala, C.K. Henry, J.M. Sadler, S.K. Yadav, G.R. Palmese
    更新日期:2017-10-28
  • Synthesis of artificial urushi via ring-opening reaction of benzoxazine with renewable cardanol
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Hong-Xia Ma, Zhi-Bo Xu, Jin-Jun Qiu, Cheng-Mei Liu
    更新日期:2017-10-27
  • Hydrodynamic fluorescence emission behavior of molecular rotor-based vinyl polymers used as viscosity sensors
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Young-Jae Jin, Hyosang Park, Young-Jin Ohk, Giseop Kwak
    更新日期:2017-10-27
  • NiCo2O4 nanostructure-decorated PAN/lignin based carbon nanofiber electrodes with excellent cyclability for flexible hybrid supercapacitors
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Danyun Lei, Xiang-Dan Li, Min-Kang Seo, Myung-Seob Khil, Hak-Yong Kim, Byoung-Suhk Kim
    更新日期:2017-10-27
  • Systematic comparison of single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(vinyl acetate) graft-to reactions
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Adam J. Clancy, James M. Serginson, Jake L. Greenfield, Milo S.P. Shaffer
    更新日期:2017-10-24
  • Self-healable hydrogels with crosslinking induced thermo-responsiveness and regulated properties from water soluble polymer
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Xuemeng Wang, Limin Chang, Juan Hu, Xiaojie Lang, Xuehong Fu, Heng An, Yong Wang, Haijun Wang, Jianglei Qin
    更新日期:2017-10-23
  • 更新日期:2017-10-23
  • A molecular interplay for osmolytes-induced phase behaviour of poly (vinyl methyl ether)
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Payal Narang, Pannuru Venkatesu
    更新日期:2017-10-23
  • Theoretical study of inclusion complex formation of cyclodextrin and single polymer chain
    Polymer (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Tsutomu Furuya, Tsuyoshi Koga
    更新日期:2017-10-23
  • 更新日期:2017-10-21
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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