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  • Continuous-wave lasing in an organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Yufei Jia, Ross A. Kerner, Alex J. Grede, Barry P. Rand, Noel C. Giebink

    Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1,2,3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of ~17 kW cm–2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

    更新日期:2017-11-21
  • Publisher Correction: Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Hongtao Lin, Yi Song, Yizhong Huang, Derek Kita, Skylar Deckoff-Jones, Kaiqi Wang, Lan Li, Junying Li, Hanyu Zheng, Zhengqian Luo, Haozhe Wang, Spencer Novak, Anupama Yadav, Chung-Che Huang, Ren-Jye Shiue, Dirk Englund, Tian Gu, Daniel Hewak, Kathleen Richardson, Jing Kong, Juejun Hu

    Publisher Correction: Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics Publisher Correction: Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics, Published online: 16 November 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0066-3

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Hard X-ray free-electron laser with femtosecond-scale timing jitter
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Heung-Sik Kang, Chang-Ki Min, Hoon Heo, Changbum Kim, Haeryong Yang, Gyujin Kim, Inhyuk Nam, Soung Youl Baek, Hyo-Jin Choi, Geonyeong Mun, Byoung Ryul Park, Young Jin Suh, Dong Cheol Shin, Jinyul Hu, Juho Hong, Seonghoon Jung, Sang-Hee Kim, KwangHoon Kim, Donghyun Na, Soung Soo Park, Yong Jung Park, Jang-Hui Han, Young Gyu Jung, Seong Hun Jeong, Hong Gi Lee, Sangbong Lee, Sojeong Lee, Woul-Woo Lee, Bonggi Oh, Hyung Suck Suh, Yong Woon Parc, Sung-Ju Park, Min Ho Kim, Nam-Suk Jung, Young-Chan Kim, Mong-Soo Lee, Bong-Ho Lee, Chi-Won Sung, Ik-Su Mok, Jung-Moo Yang, Chae-Soon Lee, Hocheol Shin, Ji Hwa Kim, Yongsam Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Sang-Youn Park, Jangwoo Kim, Jaeku Park, Intae Eom, Seungyu Rah, Sunam Kim, Ki Hyun Nam, Jaehyun Park, Jaehun Park, Sangsoo Kim, Soonam Kwon, Sang Han Park, Kyung Sook Kim, Hyojung Hyun, Seung Nam Kim, Seonghan Kim, Sun-min Hwang, Myong Jin Kim, Chae-yong Lim, Chung-Jong Yu, Bong-Soo Kim, Tai-Hee Kang, Kwang-Woo Kim, Seung-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seock Lee, Heun..

    The hard X-ray free-electron laser at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL-XFEL) in the Republic of Korea achieved saturation of a 0.144 nm free-electron laser beam on 27 November 2016, making it the third hard X-ray free-electron laser in the world, following the demonstrations of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA). The use of electron-beam-based alignment incorporating undulator radiation spectrum analysis has allowed reliable operation of PAL-XFEL with unprecedented temporal stability and dispersion-free orbits. In particular, a timing jitter of just 20 fs for the free-electron laser photon beam is consistently achieved due to the use of a state-of-the-art design of the electron linear accelerator and electron-beam-based alignment. The low timing jitter of the electron beam makes it possible to observe Bi(111) phonon dynamics without the need for timing-jitter correction, indicating that PAL-XFEL will be an extremely useful tool for hard X-ray time-resolved experiments.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Long lifetimes and effective isolation of ions in optical and electrostatic traps
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Alexander Lambrecht, Julian Schmidt, Pascal Weckesser, Markus Debatin, Leon Karpa, Tobias Schaetz

    Long trapping times, as well as low heating and decoherence rates, essentially isolating individual particles from the environment, are crucial ingredients for controlling these particles on the quantum level1. Here, we demonstrate that optical trapping and isolation of ions can be performed on a level comparable to neutral atoms, boosting their lifetime by three orders of magnitude compared to previous work2,3, and measure an upper bound of the total heating rate. The achieved isolation from the environment opens a path to a novel regime of ultracold interactions of ions and atoms at previously inaccessible collision energies4,5,6 and may permit a novel class of experimental quantum simulations with ions and atoms in a variety of versatile optical trapping geometries7, for example, bichromatic traps or higher-dimensional optical lattices8,9.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Ions captured in the spotlight
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Dietrich Leibfried

    Ions captured in the spotlightIons captured in the spotlight, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0036-9NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Optical trapping of ions is relatively new and has been limited to a few milliseconds so far. Now researchers have trapped a single barium ion for several seconds, putting experiments with ultracold atoms and ions within reach., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    On our bookshelfOn our bookshelf, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0035-x

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Practical photon counting
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Oliver Graydon

    Practical photon countingPractical photon counting, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0042-y

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Straightening light sheets
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Juan José Sáenz

    Straightening light sheetsStraightening light sheets, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0039-6NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Diffraction-free light-sheet beams, strongly confined in one axis, are typically thought to self-bend during propagation in free space and cannot be made flat. Now, diffraction-free planar light sheets in air have been realized by exploiting polychromatic pulsed beams., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Industry of the future
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Rachel Won

    Industry of the futureIndustry of the future, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0040-0NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Giorgio Anania, the vice president of Photonics21 and CEO of Aledia, a French developer of GaN microwire LEDs, discusses the impact of the Photonics Public Private Partnership on jobs and growth in Europe and the importance of investing in future industries., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • A triumph of sensitivity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    A triumph of sensitivityA triumph of sensitivity, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0046-7NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=The Nobel Prize-winning observation of gravitational waves has required laser interferometry to be pushed to extreme limits of sensitivity., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Hard X-ray free-electron laser with femtosecond-scale timing jitter
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Heung-Sik Kang, Chang-Ki Min, Hoon Heo, Changbum Kim, Haeryong Yang, Gyujin Kim, Inhyuk Nam, Soung Youl Baek, Hyo-Jin Choi, Geonyeong Mun, Byoung Ryul Park, Young Jin Suh, Dong Cheol Shin, Jinyul Hu, Juho Hong, Seonghoon Jung, Sang-Hee Kim, KwangHoon Kim, Donghyun Na, Soung Soo Park, Yong Jung Park, Jang-Hui Han, Young Gyu Jung, Seong Hun Jeong, Hong Gi Lee, Sangbong Lee, Sojeong Lee, Woul-Woo Lee, Bonggi Oh, Hyung Suck Suh, Yong Woon Parc, Sung-Ju Park, Min Ho Kim, Nam-Suk Jung, Young-Chan Kim, Mong-Soo Lee, Bong-Ho Lee, Chi-Won Sung, Ik-Su Mok, Jung-Moo Yang, Chae-Soon Lee, Hocheol Shin, Ji Hwa Kim, Yongsam Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Sang-Youn Park, Jangwoo Kim, Jaeku Park, Intae Eom, Seungyu Rah, Sunam Kim, Ki Hyun Nam, Jaehyun Park, Jaehun Park, Sangsoo Kim, Soonam Kwon, Sang Han Park, Kyung Sook Kim, Hyojung Hyun, Seung Nam Kim, Seonghan Kim, Sun-min Hwang, Myong Jin Kim, Chae-yong Lim, Chung-Jong Yu, Bong-Soo Kim, Tai-Hee Kang, Kwang-Woo Kim, Seung-Hwan Kim, Hee-Seock Lee, Heun..

    The hard X-ray free-electron laser at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL-XFEL) in the Republic of Korea achieved saturation of a 0.144 nm free-electron laser beam on 27 November 2016, making it the third hard X-ray free-electron laser in the world, following the demonstrations of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA). The use of electron-beam-based alignment incorporating undulator radiation spectrum analysis has allowed reliable operation of PAL-XFEL with unprecedented temporal stability and dispersion-free orbits. In particular, a timing jitter of just 20 fs for the free-electron laser photon beam is consistently achieved due to the use of a state-of-the-art design of the electron linear accelerator and electron-beam-based alignment. The low timing jitter of the electron beam makes it possible to observe Bi(111) phonon dynamics without the need for timing-jitter correction, indicating that PAL-XFEL will be an extremely useful tool for hard X-ray time-resolved experiments.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Long lifetimes and effective isolation of ions in optical and electrostatic traps
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Alexander Lambrecht, Julian Schmidt, Pascal Weckesser, Markus Debatin, Leon Karpa, Tobias Schaetz

    Long trapping times, as well as low heating and decoherence rates, essentially isolating individual particles from the environment, are crucial ingredients for controlling these particles on the quantum level1. Here, we demonstrate that optical trapping and isolation of ions can be performed on a level comparable to neutral atoms, boosting their lifetime by three orders of magnitude compared to previous work2,3, and measure an upper bound of the total heating rate. The achieved isolation from the environment opens a path to a novel regime of ultracold interactions of ions and atoms at previously inaccessible collision energies4,5,6 and may permit a novel class of experimental quantum simulations with ions and atoms in a variety of versatile optical trapping geometries7, for example, bichromatic traps or higher-dimensional optical lattices8,9.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Ions captured in the spotlight
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Dietrich Leibfried

    Ions captured in the spotlightNature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0036-9Optical trapping of ions is relatively new and has been limited to a few milliseconds so far. Now researchers have trapped a single barium ion for several seconds, putting experiments with ultracold atoms and ions within reach.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • On our bookshelf
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    On our bookshelfNature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0035-x

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Practical photon counting
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Oliver Graydon

    Practical photon countingNature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0042-y

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Straightening light sheets
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Juan José Sáenz

    Straightening light sheetsNature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0039-6Diffraction-free light-sheet beams, strongly confined in one axis, are typically thought to self-bend during propagation in free space and cannot be made flat. Now, diffraction-free planar light sheets in air have been realized by exploiting polychromatic pulsed beams.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Industry of the future
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Rachel Won

    Industry of the futureNature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0040-0Giorgio Anania, the vice president of Photonics21 and CEO of Aledia, a French developer of GaN microwire LEDs, discusses the impact of the Photonics Public Private Partnership on jobs and growth in Europe and the importance of investing in future industries.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • A triumph of sensitivity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-31

    A triumph of sensitivityNature Photonics, Published online: 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0046-7The Nobel Prize-winning observation of gravitational waves has required laser interferometry to be pushed to extreme limits of sensitivity.

    更新日期:2017-10-31
  • Chalcogenide glass-on-graphene photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Hongtao Lin, Yi Song, Yizhong Huang, Derek Kita, Skylar Deckoff-Jones, Kaiqi Wang, Lan Li, Junying Li, Hanyu Zheng, Zhengqian Luo, Haozhe Wang, Spencer Novak, Anupama Yadav, Chung-Che Huang, Ren-Jye Shiue, Dirk Englund, Tian Gu, Daniel Hewak, Kathleen Richardson, Jing Kong, Juejun Hu

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are of tremendous interest to integrated photonics, given their singular optical characteristics spanning light emission, modulation, saturable absorption and nonlinear optics. To harness their optical properties, these atomically thin materials are usually attached onto prefabricated devices via a transfer process. Here, we present a new route for 2D material integration with planar photonics. Central to this approach is the use of chalcogenide glass, a multifunctional material that can be directly deposited and patterned on a wide variety of 2D materials and can simultaneously function as the light-guiding medium, a gate dielectric and a passivation layer for 2D materials. Besides achieving improved fabrication yield and throughput compared with the traditional transfer process, our technique also enables unconventional multilayer device geometries optimally designed for enhancing light–matter interactions in the 2D layers. Capitalizing on this facile integration method, we demonstrate a series of high-performance glass-on-graphene devices including ultra-broadband on-chip polarizers, energy-efficient thermo-optic switches, as well as graphene-based mid-infrared waveguide-integrated photodetectors and modulators.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Self-starting harmonic frequency comb generation in a quantum cascade laser
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Dmitry Kazakov, Marco Piccardo, Yongrui Wang, Paul Chevalier, Tobias S. Mansuripur, Feng Xie, Chung-en Zah, Kevin Lascola, Alexey Belyanin, Federico Capasso

    Optical frequency combs1,2 establish a rigid phase-coherent link between microwave and optical domains and are emerging as high-precision tools in an increasing number of applications3. Frequency combs with large intermodal spacing are employed in the field of microwave photonics for radiofrequency arbitrary waveform synthesis4,5 and for the generation of terahertz tones of high spectral purity in future wireless communication networks6,7. Here, we demonstrate self-starting harmonic frequency comb generation with a terahertz repetition rate in a quantum cascade laser. The large intermodal spacing caused by the suppression of tens of adjacent cavity modes originates from a parametric contribution to the gain due to temporal modulations of population inversion in the laser8,9. Using multiheterodyne self-detection, the mode spacing of the harmonic comb is shown to be uniform to within 5 × 10−12 parts of the central frequency. This new harmonic comb state extends the range of applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs10,11,12,13.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Rabi oscillations of X-ray radiation between two nuclear ensembles
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Johann Haber, Xiangjin Kong, Cornelius Strohm, Svenja Willing, Jakob Gollwitzer, Lars Bocklage, Rudolf Rüffer, Adriana Pálffy, Ralf Röhlsberger

    The realization of the strong coupling regime between a single cavity mode and an electromagnetic resonance is a centrepiece of quantum optics. In this regime, the reversible exchange of a photon between the two components of the system leads to so-called Rabi oscillations. Strong coupling is used in the optical and infrared regimes, for instance, to produce non-classical states of light, enhance optical nonlinearities and control quantum states. Here, we report the first observation of Rabi oscillations of an X-ray photon between two resonant 57Fe layers embedded in two coupled cavities. The system is described by an effective Hamiltonian, in which the two layers couple strongly. We observe sinusoidal beating as the signature of the Rabi oscillations in the system’s temporal evolution, as well as the splitting of nuclear resonances in the reflected light spectrum. Our results significantly advance the development of the new field of X-ray quantum optics.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Unconditional violation of the shot-noise limit in photonic quantum metrology
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-09
    Sergei Slussarenko, Morgan M. Weston, Helen M. Chrzanowski, Lynden K. Shalm, Varun B. Verma, Sae Woo Nam, Geoff J. Pryde

    Interferometric phase measurement is widely used to precisely determine quantities such as length, speed and material properties1,2,3. Without quantum correlations, the best phase sensitivity Δϕ Δ ϕ achievable using n photons is the shot-noise limit, Δϕ=1/n‾√ Δ ϕ = 1 ∕ n . Quantum-enhanced metrology promises better sensitivity, but, despite theoretical proposals stretching back decades3,4, no measurement using photonic (that is, definite photon number) quantum states has truly surpassed the shot-noise limit. Instead, all such demonstrations, by discounting photon loss, detector inefficiency or other imperfections, have considered only a subset of the photons used. Here, we use an ultrahigh-efficiency photon source and detectors to perform unconditional entanglement-enhanced photonic interferometry. Sampling a birefringent phase shift, we demonstrate precision beyond the shot-noise limit without artificially correcting our results for loss and imperfections. Our results enable quantum-enhanced phase measurements at low photon flux and open the door to the next generation of optical quantum metrology advances.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Cs2AgBiBr6 single-crystal X-ray detectors with a low detection limit
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-02
    Weicheng Pan, Haodi Wu, Jiajun Luo, Zhenzhou Deng, Cong Ge, Chao Chen, Xiaowei Jiang, Wan-Jian Yin, Guangda Niu, Lujun Zhu, Lixiao Yin, Ying Zhou, Qingguo Xie, Xiaoxing Ke, Manling Sui, Jiang Tang

    Sensitive X-ray detection is crucial for medical diagnosis, industrial inspection and scientific research. The recently described hybrid lead halide perovskites have demonstrated low-cost fabrication and outstanding performance for direct X-ray detection, but they all contain toxic Pb in a soluble form. Here, we report sensitive X-ray detectors using solution-processed double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystals. Through thermal annealing and surface treatment, we largely eliminate Ag+/Bi3+ disordering and improve the crystal resistivity, resulting in a detector with a minimum detectable dose rate as low as 59.7 nGyair s−1, comparable to the latest record of 0.036 μGyair s−1 using CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals. Suppressed ion migration in Cs2AgBiBr6 permits relatively large external bias, guaranteeing efficient charge collection without a substantial increase in noise current and thus enabling the low detection limit.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Experimental nested purification for a linear optical quantum repeater
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-10-02
    Luo-Kan Chen, Hai-Lin Yong, Ping Xu, Xing-Can Yao, Tong Xiang, Zheng-Da Li, Chang Liu, He Lu, Nai-Le Liu, Li Li, Tao Yang, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Bo Zhao, Yu-Ao Chen, Jian-Wei Pan

    Quantum repeaters1,2,3,4 are essential elements for demonstrating global-scale quantum communication. Over the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been dedicated to implementing a practical quantum repeater5,6,7,8,9,10. However, nested purification1, the backbone of a quantum repeater, remains a challenge because the capacity for successive entanglement manipulation is still absent. Here, we propose and demonstrate an architecture of nested purification using spontaneous parametric downconversion sources11. A heralded entangled photon pair with higher fidelity is successfully purified from two copies of low-fidelity pairs that experience entanglement swapping and noisy channels. By delicately designing the optical circuits, double-pair emission noise is eliminated automatically and the purified state can be used for scalable entanglement connections to extend the communication distance. Combined with a quantum memory, our approach can be applied immediately in the implemention of a practical quantum repeater.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Levitating the fridge
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Andrew Geraci

    Levitating the fridge Nature Photonics, Published online: 29 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0014-2 Simultaneous trapping, alignment and anti-Stokes fluorescence cooling of Yb3+:YLF nanocrystals from room temperature to temperatures as low as about 130 K can now be realized using a single-beam optical dipole trap within a low-pressure environment.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Coherence converter
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Oliver Graydon

    Coherence converter Nature Photonics, Published online: 29 September 2017; doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0019-x

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Ultrafast synthesis and switching of light polarization in nonlinear anisotropic metamaterials
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Luke H. Nicholls, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, Mazhar E. Nasir, R. Margoth Córdova-Castro, Nicolas Olivier, Gregory A. Wurtz, Anatoly V. Zayats

    Optical communications, laser science, microscopy and metrology demand control of light polarization, which is also used as a probe of chemical and biological systems. Typically, certain polarization states of light are achieved using macroscopic anisotropic crystals. Metamaterials and metasurfaces have recently been developed to act as efficient passive polarization components of subwavelength dimensions1,2,3,4. However, active polarization control has so far been mainly limited to microwave and terahertz wavelengths5,6,7. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of visible light polarization, achieving up to 60° rotation of the polarization ellipse at picosecond timescales. This is accomplished both under control illumination and in a self-phase modulation regime, where the intensity of light affects its own polarization state, by exploiting the strong anisotropy and nonlinear response of a hyperbolic metamaterial3,8,9,10. The effects are general for any resonant, anisotropic, nonlinear nanoantennas and metasurfaces and are suited to numerous photonic applications and material characterization techniques where ultrafast polarization shaping is required.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Fano still resonating
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01

    More than half a century after describing interference of discrete states with a continuum, Ugo Fano's work is as relevant as ever. And Fermi beat him to it.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Quantum optics: Nanotube chemistry tunes light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Kartik Srinivasan, Ming Zheng

    Room-temperature single-photon emission at several wavelengths in the near-infrared, including the telecom window, is realized by organic colour centres chemically implanted on chirality-defined single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Frequency combs: Cavity solitons come of age
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Andrew M. Weiner

    The generation and manipulation of cavity solitons in microresonators is creating new opportunities for Kerr combs to aid applications such as optical communications and spectroscopy.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • View from... OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress 2017: Imaging with algorithms
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    David Pile

    Application of computational techniques, such as machine learning, is rapidly growing in the field of imaging.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Optical communications: Embracing nonlinearity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Antonio Mecozzi

    An innovative data transmission protocol that effectively makes an optical fibre link linear in its behaviour is shown to benefit high-speed, long-distance optical communication operating at high signal powers.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Fano resonances in photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Mikhail F. Limonov, Mikhail V. Rybin, Alexander N. Poddubny, Yuri S. Kivshar

    Rapid progress in photonics and nanotechnology brings many examples of resonant optical phenomena associated with the physics of Fano resonances, with applications in optical switching and sensing. For successful design of photonic devices, it is important to gain deep insight into different resonant phenomena and understand their connection. Here, we review a broad range of resonant electromagnetic effects by using two effective coupled oscillators, including the Fano resonance, electromagnetically induced transparency, Kerker and Borrmann effects, and parity–time symmetry breaking. We discuss how to introduce the Fano parameter for describing a transition between two seemingly different spectroscopic signatures associated with asymmetric Fano and symmetric Lorentzian shapes. We also review the recent results on Fano resonances in dielectric nanostructures and metasurfaces.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Unidirectional photonic wire laser
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Ali Khalatpour, John L. Reno, Nazir P. Kherani, Qing Hu

    A unidirectional photonic wire laser has been developed by integrating reflectors into terahertz quantum cascade lasers. The transverse dimension is much smaller than the lasing wavelength (80 μm). A record wall-plug power efficiency of 1% is achieved.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Qi-Fan Yang, Xu Yi, Ki Youl Yang, Kerry Vahala

    Counter-propagating solitons are generated in microresonator systems, producing dual-soliton frequency-comb streams with different repetition rates but high relative coherence useful for spectroscopy and laser ranging systems.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Variable potentials for thermalized light and coupled condensates
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    David Dung, Christian Kurtscheid, Tobias Damm, Julian Schmitt, Frank Vewinger, Martin Weitz, Jan Klaers

    Variable micropotentials for light are created by thermo-optic imprinting of a dye–polymer solution within a microcavity. A thermalized photon Bose–Einstein condensate as well as the coupling and eigenstate hybridization of sites are demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Nonlinear signal multiplexing for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Son Thai Le, Vahid Aref, Henning Buelow

    Current optical fibre transmission systems rely on modulation, coding and multiplexing techniques that were originally developed for linear communication channels. However, linear transmission techniques are not fully compatible with a transmission medium with a nonlinear response, which is the case for an optical fibre. As a consequence, the Kerr nonlinearity in fibre imposes a limit on the performance and the achievable transmission rate of the conventional optical fibre communication systems. Here we show that a transmission performance beyond the conventional Kerr nonlinearity limit can be achieved by encoding all the available degrees of freedom and nonlinearly multiplexing signals in the so-called nonlinear Fourier spectrum, which evolves linearly along the fibre link. This result strongly motivates a fundamental paradigm shift in modulation, coding and signal-processing techniques for optical fibre transmission technology.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Tunable room-temperature single-photon emission at telecom wavelengths from sp3 defects in carbon nanotubes
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Xiaowei He, Nicolai F. Hartmann, Xuedan Ma, Younghee Kim, Rachelle Ihly, Jeffrey L. Blackburn, Weilu Gao, Junichiro Kono, Yohei Yomogida, Atsushi Hirano, Takeshi Tanaka, Hiromichi Kataura, Han Htoon, Stephen K. Doorn

    Generating quantum light emitters that operate at room temperature and at telecom wavelengths remains a significant materials challenge. To achieve this goal requires light sources that emit in the near-infrared wavelength region and that, ideally, are tunable to allow desired output wavelengths to be accessed in a controllable manner. Here, we show that exciton localization at covalently introduced aryl sp3 defect sites in single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a route to room-temperature single-photon emission with ultrahigh single-photon purity (99%) and enhanced emission stability approaching the shot-noise limit. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inherent optical tunability of single-walled carbon nanotubes, present in their structural diversity, allows us to generate room-temperature single-photon emission spanning the entire telecom band. Single-photon emission deep into the centre of the telecom C band (1.55 µm) is achieved at the largest nanotube diameters we explore (0.936 nm).

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Norman Lippok, Martin Villiger, Alexandre Albanese, Eelco F. J. Meijer, Kwanghun Chung, Timothy P. Padera, Sangeeta N. Bhatia, Brett E. Bouma

    Owing to their electromagnetic properties, tunability and biocompatibility, gold nanorods are being investigated as multifunctional probes for a range of biomedical applications. However, detection beyond the reach of traditional fluorescence and two-photon approaches and quantitation of their concentration in biological tissue remain challenging tasks in microscopy. Here, we show how the size and aspect ratio that impart gold nanorods with their plasmonic properties also make them a source of entropy. We report on how depolarization can be exploited as a strategy to visualize gold nanorod diffusion and distribution in biologically relevant scenarios ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo. We identify a deterministic relation between depolarization and nanoparticle concentration. As a result, some of the most stringent experimental conditions can be relaxed, and susceptibility to artefacts is reduced, enabling microscopic and macroscopic applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Hao Sun, Leijun Yin, Zhicheng Liu, Yize Zheng, Fan Fan, Shilong Zhao, Xue Feng, Yongzhuo Li, C. Z. Ning

    Rare-earth optical materials with large optical gain are of great importance for a wide variety of applications in photonics and quantum information due to their long carrier lifetimes and quantum coherence times, especially in the realization of efficient lasers and amplifiers. Until now, such materials have achieved a gain of less than a few dB cm–1, rendering them unsuitable for applications in nanophotonic integrated circuits. Here, we report the results of the signal enhancement and transmission experiments on a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire. Our experiments demonstrate that a net material gain over 100 dB cm–1 at wavelengths around 1,530 nm is possible due to the nanowire's single-crystalline material quality and its high erbium concentration. Our results establish that such rare-earth-compound nanowires are a potentially important class of nanomaterials for a variety of applications including, for example, subwavelength-scale optical amplifiers and lasers for integrated nanophotonics, and quantum information.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Integrating solids and gases for attosecond pulse generation
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    T. J. Hammond, Sylvain Monchocé, Chunmei Zhang, Giulio Vampa, Dennis Klug, A. Yu. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum

    Control of the field of few-cycle optical pulses has had an enormous impact on attosecond science. Subcycle pulses open the potential for non-adiabatic phase matching while concentrating the electric field so it can be used most efficiently. However, subcycle field transients have been difficult to generate. We exploit the perturbative response of a sub-100 µm thick monocrystalline quartz plate irradiated by an intense few-cycle 1.8 µm pulse, which creates a phase-controlled supercontinuum spectrum. Within the quartz, the pulse becomes space–time coupled as it generates a parallel second harmonic. Vacuum propagation naturally leads to a subcycle electric-field transient whose envelope is sculpted by the carrier envelope phase of the incident radiation. We show that a second medium (either gas or solid) can generate isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet region. With no optical elements between the components, the process is scalable to very high energy pulses and allows the use of diverse media.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Ewelina Obrzud, Steve Lecomte, Tobias Herr

    Continuous-wave laser-driven, high-Q Kerr–nonlinear optical microresonators have enabled the generation of optical frequency combs, ultralow-noise microwaves and ultrashort optical pulses at tens of gigahertz repetition rate. Here, we break with the paradigm of the continuous-wave driving and instead use periodic, picosecond optical pulses. In a fibre-based Fabry–Pérot microresonator we observe the deterministic generation of stable femtosecond dissipative cavity solitons ‘on top’ of the resonantly enhanced driving pulses. The solitons lock to the driving pulse, which enables direct all-optical control of the soliton's repetition rate and tuning of its carrier-envelope offset frequency. When compared with continuous-wave-driven microresonators or non-resonant pulsed supercontinuum generation, this new approach is more efficient and can yield broadband frequency combs at an average driving power significantly below the continuous-wave parametric threshold. Bridging the fields of continuous-wave-driven resonant and pulse-driven non-resonant nonlinear optics, these results enable efficient microresonator frequency combs, resonant supercontinuum generation and microphotonic pulse compression.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Light is in the air
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01

    The International Day of Light, which will be held on 16 May every year, is a day for celebrating and highlighting the importance of light.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • 2D materials: Valley polaritons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Gabriele Grosso

    Spin–valley coupling in transition metal dichalcogenides has been shown to persist at room temperature when excitons are coherently coupled to cavity photons.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Free-space communications: Quantum space race heats up
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Richard J. Hughes, Jane E. Nordholt

    The realization of satellite-to-ground quantum cryptography would make quantum-secured communications possible on a global scale. Four recent breakthroughs suggest that this compelling capability could be achieved by the end of this decade.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Silicon photonics: Modulators make efficiency leap
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Jeremy Witzens

    Significant improvements in the loss and drive voltage of silicon photonics-based optical phase modulators look set to benefit both short-reach and long-distance data communications.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • View from... SPP8: The rise of plasmonic metasurfaces
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Rachel Won

    Ultrathin, versatile, integrated optical devices and high-speed optical information processing could be the upcoming real-world opportunities of plasmonic metasurfaces.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, T. Taubner

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) provide a unique combination of properties. On transformation from the amorphous to crystalline state, their optical properties change drastically. Short optical or electrical pulses can be utilized to switch between these states, making PCMs attractive for photonic applications. We review recent developments in PCMs and evaluate the potential for all-photonic memories. Towards this goal, the progress and existing challenges to realize waveguides with stepwise adjustable transmission are presented. Colour-rendering and nanopixel displays form another interesting application. Finally, nanophotonic applications based on plasmonic nanostructures are introduced. They provide reconfigurable, non-volatile functionality enabling manipulation and control of light. Requirements and perspectives to successfully implement PCMs in emerging areas of photonics are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Evanescent single-molecule biosensing with quantum-limited precision
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    N. P. Mauranyapin, L. S. Madsen, M. A. Taylor, M. Waleed, W. P. Bowen

    An evanescent single-molecule biosensor that operates at the fundamental precision limit, allowing a four-order-of-magnitude reduction in optical intensity while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity, is demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Heterogeneously integrated III–V/Si MOS capacitor Mach–Zehnder modulator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Tatsurou Hiraki, Takuma Aihara, Koichi Hasebe, Koji Takeda, Takuro Fujii, Takaaki Kakitsuka, Tai Tsuchizawa, Hiroshi Fukuda, Shinji Matsuo

    Hybrid silicon optical modulator brings efficiency benefits.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Jae-Hoon Han, Frederic Boeuf, Junichi Fujikata, Shigeki Takahashi, Shinichi Takagi, Mitsuru Takenaka

    Hybrid InGaAsP/Si optical modulator gives silicon photonics an efficient scheme for phase modulation.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Optical control of room-temperature valley polaritons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Zheng Sun, Jie Gu, Areg Ghazaryan, Zav Shotan, Christopher R. Considine, Michael Dollar, Biswanath Chakraborty, Xiaoze Liu, Pouyan Ghaemi, Stéphane Kéna-Cohen, Vinod M. Menon

    Valley-polarized light–matter quasiparticles in two-dimensional semiconductor microcavities are demonstrated. Access to spin–valley physics may be useful for photonic quantum technologies.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Valley-addressable polaritons in atomically thin semiconductors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    S. Dufferwiel, T. P. Lyons, D. D. Solnyshkov, A. A. P. Trichet, F. Withers, S. Schwarz, G. Malpuech, J. M. Smith, K. S. Novoselov, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. I. Tartakovskii

    Researchers excite valley-addressable polaritons in MoSe2 incorporated in a photonic microcavity. Understanding of the valley pseudospin retention is revealed and robust states demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Satellite-to-ground quantum-limited communication using a 50-kg-class microsatellite
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Hideki Takenaka, Alberto Carrasco-Casado, Mikio Fujiwara, Mitsuo Kitamura, Masahide Sasaki, Morio Toyoshima

    The recent rapid growth of satellite-constellation programmes for remote sensing and communications, enabled by the availability of small-sized and low-cost satellites, has provided impetus for the development of high-capacity laser communication (lasercom) in space. Quantum-limited communication can enhance the performance of lasercom and is also a prerequisite for the intrinsically hack-proof secure communication known as quantum key distribution. Here, we report a quantum-limited communication experiment between a microsatellite (48 kg, 50 cm cube) in low Earth orbit and a ground station. Non-orthogonal polarization states were transmitted from the satellite at a 10 MHz repetition rate. On the ground, by post-processing the received quantum states with ∼0.146 photons per pulse, clock data recovery and polarization reference-frame synchronization were successfully achieved, even under remarkable Doppler shifts. The quantum states were discriminated by a receiver with four photon counters, with a quantum bit error rate below 5%, validating the applicability of our technology to satellite-to-ground lasercom and quantum key distribution.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Sheng-Kai Liao, Hai-Lin Yong, Chang Liu, Guo-Liang Shentu, Dong-Dong Li, Jin Lin, Hui Dai, Shuang-Qiang Zhao, Bo Li, Jian-Yu Guan, Wei Chen, Yun-Hong Gong, Yang Li, Ze-Hong Lin, Ge-Sheng Pan, Jason S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Wen-Zhuo Zhang, Wei-Yue Liu, Juan Yin, Ji-Gang Ren, Xiang-Bin Wang, Qiang Zhang, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Jian-Wei Pan

    In the past, long-distance free-space quantum communication experiments could only be implemented at night. During the daytime, the bright background sunlight prohibits quantum communication in transmission under conditions of high channel loss over long distances. Here, by choosing a working wavelength of 1,550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre-coupling technology and ultralow-noise upconversion single-photon detectors, we have overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate free-space quantum key distribution over 53 km during the day. The total channel loss is ∼48 dB, which is greater than the 40 dB channel loss between the satellite and ground and between low-Earth-orbit satellites. Our system thus demonstrates the feasibility of satellite-based quantum communication in daylight. Moreover, given that our working wavelength is located in the optical telecom band, our system is naturally compatible with ground fibre networks and thus represents an essential step towards a satellite-constellation-based global quantum network.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • High-order multiphoton Thomson scattering
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Wenchao Yan, Colton Fruhling, Grigory Golovin, Daniel Haden, Ji Luo, Ping Zhang, Baozhen Zhao, Jun Zhang, Cheng Liu, Min Chen, Shouyuan Chen, Sudeep Banerjee, Donald Umstadter

    Electron–photon scattering, or Thomson scattering, is one of the most fundamental mechanisms in electrodynamics, underlying laboratory and astrophysical sources of high-energy X-rays. After a century of studies, it is only recently that sufficiently high electromagnetic field strengths have been available to experimentally study the nonlinear regime of Thomson scattering in the laboratory. Making use of a high-power laser and a laser-driven electron accelerator, we made the first measurements of high-order multiphoton scattering, in which more than 500 near-infrared laser photons were scattered by a single electron into a single X-ray photon. Both the electron motion and the scattered photons were found to depend nonlinearly on field strength. The observed angular distribution of scattered X-rays permits independent measurement of absolute intensity, in situ, during interactions of ultra-intense laser light with free electrons. Furthermore, the experiment's potential to generate attosecond-duration hard X-ray pulses can enable the study of ultrafast nuclear dynamics.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Phonon scattering inhibits simultaneous near-unity efficiency and indistinguishability in semiconductor single-photon sources
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Jake Iles-Smith, Dara P. S. McCutcheon, Ahsan Nazir, Jesper Mørk

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently emerged as a leading platform to generate highly indistinguishable photons efficiently, and this work addresses the timely question of how good these solid-state sources can ultimately be. We establish the crucial role of lattice relaxation in these systems in giving rise to trade-offs between indistinguishability and efficiency. We analyse the two source architectures most commonly employed: a QD embedded in a waveguide and a QD coupled to an optical cavity. For waveguides, we demonstrate that the broadband Purcell effect results in a simple inverse relationship, in which indistinguishability and efficiency cannot be simultaneously increased. For cavities, the frequency selectivity of the Purcell enhancement results in a more subtle trade-off, in which indistinguishability and efficiency can be increased simultaneously, although not arbitrarily, which limits a source with near-unity indistinguishability (>99%) to an efficiency of approximately 96% for realistic parameters.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Tunable room-temperature single-photon emission at telecom wavelengths from sp3 defects in carbon nanotubes
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Xiaowei He, Nicolai F. Hartmann, Xuedan Ma, Younghee Kim, Rachelle Ihly, Jeffrey L. Blackburn, Weilu Gao, Junichiro Kono, Yohei Yomogida, Atsushi Hirano, Takeshi Tanaka, Hiromichi Kataura, Han Htoon, Stephen K. Doorn

    Generating quantum light emitters that operate at room temperature and at telecom wavelengths remains a significant materials challenge. To achieve this goal requires light sources that emit in the near-infrared wavelength region and that, ideally, are tunable to allow desired output wavelengths to be accessed in a controllable manner. Here, we show that exciton localization at covalently introduced aryl sp3 defect sites in single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a route to room-temperature single-photon emission with ultrahigh single-photon purity (99%) and enhanced emission stability approaching the shot-noise limit. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inherent optical tunability of single-walled carbon nanotubes, present in their structural diversity, allows us to generate room-temperature single-photon emission spanning the entire telecom band. Single-photon emission deep into the centre of the telecom C band (1.55 µm) is achieved at the largest nanotube diameters we explore (0.936 nm).

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Nonlinear signal multiplexing for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Son Thai Le, Vahid Aref, Henning Buelow

    Current optical fibre transmission systems rely on modulation, coding and multiplexing techniques that were originally developed for linear communication channels. However, linear transmission techniques are not fully compatible with a transmission medium with a nonlinear response, which is the case for an optical fibre. As a consequence, the Kerr nonlinearity in fibre imposes a limit on the performance and the achievable transmission rate of the conventional optical fibre communication systems. Here we show that a transmission performance beyond the conventional Kerr nonlinearity limit can be achieved by encoding all the available degrees of freedom and nonlinearly multiplexing signals in the so-called nonlinear Fourier spectrum, which evolves linearly along the fibre link. This result strongly motivates a fundamental paradigm shift in modulation, coding and signal-processing techniques for optical fibre transmission technology.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Norman Lippok, Martin Villiger, Alexandre Albanese, Eelco F. J. Meijer, Kwanghun Chung, Timothy P. Padera, Sangeeta N. Bhatia, Brett E. Bouma

    Owing to their electromagnetic properties, tunability and biocompatibility, gold nanorods are being investigated as multifunctional probes for a range of biomedical applications. However, detection beyond the reach of traditional fluorescence and two-photon approaches and quantitation of their concentration in biological tissue remain challenging tasks in microscopy. Here, we show how the size and aspect ratio that impart gold nanorods with their plasmonic properties also make them a source of entropy. We report on how depolarization can be exploited as a strategy to visualize gold nanorod diffusion and distribution in biologically relevant scenarios ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo. We identify a deterministic relation between depolarization and nanoparticle concentration. As a result, some of the most stringent experimental conditions can be relaxed, and susceptibility to artefacts is reduced, enabling microscopic and macroscopic applications.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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