显示样式:     当前期刊: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering    加入关注       排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Polymer adsorption on rough surfaces
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-04-07
    Abishek Venkatakrishnan, Vikram Krishna Kuppa

    The adsorption of polymers on smooth or atomistically flat substrates has been a topic of study for decades, and such systems are well-characterized. However, there is little knowledge of the complex interfaces created by adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces: these are fundamental to numerous scientific and industrial systems, including organic optoelectronics, polymer–matrix composites, protein attachment, biomimetics, lubrication, and catalysis. Focusing on physical inhomogeneities, this paper presents an overview of the field of polymer adsorption on rough surfaces, and seeks to elucidate some of the relevant molecular mechanisms. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to study freely rotating chains adjacent to self-affine substrates, exploring the influence of surface fractal dimension and amplitude. The adsorbed polymers are characterized by density profiles and chain topologies evaluated parallel and perpendicular to the nominal surface. Our results reveal chain attachment and film structure can be controlled solely by manipulating entropic factors such as surface physical heterogeneities and adsorbate molecular weight distributions.

    更新日期:2018-04-08
  • Flexibility of metal-organic frameworks for separations: utilization, suppression and regulation
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Hua Jin, Yanshuo Li

    Framework flexibility and dynamic behavior are unique characteristics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Gate-opening, as one of flexibility modes of MOFs, is mainly triggered by guest adsorption. The gate-opening feature of MOFs is influenced by the types of guest molecules, pressure, temperature and crystal size of MOFs. Gate-opening of MOFs led to an unexpected selectivity when used as adsorbents, as a result of guest-dependent gate-opening pressure. However, when MOFs were adapted for membrane separations, the framework flexibility sometimes can be disadvantage, resulting in the absence of sharp molecular sieving. This evokes considerable research efforts in recent years to suppress the negative impacts of framework flexibility, for example, hindering the gate-opening effects, on the gas separation performance of MOF membranes. Very recently, accurate regulation of gate-opening of MOF membranes by applying an external electric field was demonstrated, opening new scenario to develop MOFs with excellent performances for molecular separations.

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds on pillared interlayered clay (PILC)-based catalysts
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Jingrong Li, Maocong Hu, Shufeng Zuo, Xianqin Wang
    更新日期:2018-04-04
  • Nanostructured faceted ceria as oxidation catalyst
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Sukanya Datta, Laura Torrente-Murciano
    更新日期:2018-04-04
  • Facts and alternative facts in chemical kinetics: remarks about the kinetic use of activities, termolecular processes, and linearization techniques
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-31
    Gábor Lente

    This contribution examines three different controversial questions that arise in the everyday practice of chemical kinetics. First, it is argued that concentrations should be used as independent variables in rate equations rather than activities. The occasional use of activities in this context might be a result of a false analogy with well-established thermodynamic practices. Second, it is argued that termolecular elementary reactions might be more common than generally assumed. Formulas are derived to calculate the frequency of three-body collisions and it is pointed out that this frequency is often larger than the rates of third-order reactions. Finally, two experimental examples (exponential curves and Michaelis–Menten kinetics) are shown in order to demonstrate how misleading it can be to use linearized formulas for quantitative evaluation.

    更新日期:2018-04-01
  • Lattice Boltzmann simulations for multi-scale chemical engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Harry EA Van den Akker

    This review starts with a concise explanation of the basics and advantages of the Lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for simulating both single-phase and multiphase complex flow systems. The focus is on recent developments in the field of LBMs, particularly with respect to the multi-component pseudo-potential LBM, which is excellently suitable for simulating individual drops and bubbles as well as emulsions (including surfactants) and bubbly flows. Very promising findings have also been reported on applying the LBM to heat and mass transport and to chemical reactions. It is therefore safe to claim that the LBM is the smartest choice for computationally simulating processes in all types of equipment.

    更新日期:2018-03-29
  • Transformation of CO2 by using nanoscale metal catalysts: cases studies on the formation of formic acid and dimethylether
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Ning Yan, Karine Philippot

    The valorization of CO2 has gained increasing interest in the scientific and industrial communities during the last decades with intensive research devoted to CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. This is because the greenhouse gas emission has become a serious concern to face the global climate change and that efficient solutions are required to reduce the carbon footprint. Up to now the chemical transformation of CO2 into fuels and target molecules has been mainly investigated by using molecular catalysts. However, the ability of heterogeneous catalysts or nanomaterials for this catalysis has been recently explored and promising results achieved in the production of formic acid (FA) and dimethylether (DME) from CO2 with nanoscale metal catalysts. Relevant examples will illustrate the high potential of this class of catalysts that could offer new solutions for the selective transformation of CO2 toward fuels and high added value chemicals in the future.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Quasicrystal: a low-frictional novel material
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    TP Yadav, NK Mukhopadhyay
    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Sub-2 nm particle measurement in high-temperature aerosol reactors: a review
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-24
    Pratim Biswas, Yang Wang, Michel Attoui
    更新日期:2018-03-24
  • Development of ZIF-8 membranes: opportunities and challenges for commercial applications
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-24
    Zhiping Lai

    Metal organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted significant attentions in recent years because of their potentials in gas and liquid separations and other applications such as catalysis and chemical sensors, etc. More than half of the MOF membrane publications up to date are related to ZIF-8 system, because of its easy synthesis, relatively high stability, and excellent gas separation performance, which allows many novel ideas to be easily implemented. Extensive studies have shown that ZIF-8 membranes hold great potentials in gas separations, but may face great challenges in liquid separations mainly because of their poor stability. This is also a common observation for other MOF membranes. As such, in this article we use ZIF-8 membrane as a prototype and focus on its development in gas separations for the discussions of the most concerned issues related to membrane commercialization including membrane synthesis, separation performance, stability, process reproducibility, and finally on the opportunities and challenges that MOF membranes may face in industrial applications.

    更新日期:2018-03-24
  • Numerical bifurcation analysis of large-scale detailed kinetics mechanisms
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Istvan Lengyel, David H West

    Despite the benefits of studying dynamical behavior of chemically reacting systems by bifurcation analysis, its utilization for large mechanisms is greatly limited by the lack of available software, and clear and published strategies for improving the technique. This paper reviews recent progress, and reports strategies we identified that greatly improve reliability and speed of computations. These are tested by combining two open-source software packages: AUTO-07p (bifurcation analysis) and Cantera (kinetics mechanism interpreter). Examples are shown for one-parameter and two-parameter bifurcation curves of methane partial oxidation. Cool and hot-flame regions and their dependence on secondary parameters can be identified and used to gain insight to previously unexplored operating regimes and potentially new reactor designs. Invariance in the bifurcation diagram provides evidence of successful mechanism reduction.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Progress in hydrogen production over transition metal carbide catalysts: challenges and opportunities
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Xiao Zhang, Chuan Shi, Bingbing Chen, Andrew N Kuhn, Ding Ma, Hong Yang

    Incorporation of carbon into metal lattices yields transition metal carbides (TMCs) with properties quite different from their parent metals and corresponding metal oxides. In this short review, we summarize the recent progress on employing TMCs as active catalysts for hydrogen (H2) production, namely by the water-gas-shift reaction, methanol reforming, and the hydrogen evolution reaction in water electrolysis. Special interest is put on comparing the catalytic properties of TMCs with traditional metal oxide catalysts to understand the superior activities of TMCs in H2-production reactions.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • New directions for nonlinear process optimization
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Lorenz T .Biegler

    The last three decades have seen tremendous advances in nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithms and software for process optimization. Moreover, powerful optimization modeling environments enable the formulation and solution of large-scale optimization applications. In fact, the combination of modern NLP algorithms and optimization platforms leads to fast solution strategies that now routinely solve problems with 104–106 variables, with major impacts in process design, operations and control. This is illustrated here with two dynamic optimization case studies to emphasize these characteristics. Moreover, these powerful optimization strategies integrate to accessible optimization modeling platforms that can be incorporated within a broad spectrum of engineering tasks.

    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Alloys with Pt-skin or Pt-rich surface for electrocatalysis
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Jing Li, Li Li, Min Jie Wang, Jianchuan Wang, Zidong Wei
    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Antibody based therapy for childhood solid cancers
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-10
    Kathleen Birley, Kerry Chester, John Anderson
    更新日期:2018-03-12
  • Recent advances in dynamic chemical characterization using Temporal Analysis of Products
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-09
    Rebecca Fushimi, John Gleaves

    The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) technique is a pulse response methodology that reveals the time-dependent evolution of chemical processes between a gas phase molecule and a solid surface. By simplifying both the transport and kinetic processes the complexity of a multistep chemical processes can be distilled to where the underlying fundamental steps can be distinguished. Moreover, the technique is applicable to real materials (e.g. industrial catalysts) and hence the complexity of the solid is studied intact; a ‘top-down’ approach. In this short review we discuss key theoretical advancements in the interpretation of pulse response data; though not yet widely implemented, we will highlight the broader impacts of the Y-Procedure method [ 1••], momentary equilibrium phenomena [ 2••] and kinetic coherency discrimination [3••] over more commonly used analysis techniques. The conventional TAP approach for mechanism development is well-laid out in a recent work focused on the upgrading of ethanol to higher hydrocarbons. This includes detailed comparison of the time characteristics of reactant, intermediate and product pulses in both single pulse and pump/probe modes [4••]. This work calls to mind some of the challenges in the conventionally used residual gas analyzer for pulse response detection of homologous products. A new detection method using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (PEPICO) was recently demonstrated for a TAP-like setup [5••]. This method presents the exciting opportunity to better resolve complex product spectra and even isomeric species. This enables the mechanistic detail of the TAP technique to be applied to more complex probe molecules as are needed for the study of biomass conversion processes. Finally, we discuss directions for the future development of instrumentation that can directly connect this rich kinetic data to features of catalyst structural and composition.

    更新日期:2018-03-11
  • Logical versus kinetic modeling of biological networks: applications in cancer research
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-09
    Laurence Calzone, Emmanuel Barillot, Andrei Zinovyev
    更新日期:2018-03-11
  • Engineering therapeutic antibodies to combat infectious diseases
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Ellen K Wagner, Jennifer A Maynard
    更新日期:2018-03-08
  • 更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Synchronization engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-03-03
    István Z Kiss
    更新日期:2018-03-06
  • Emerging applications of nanocatalysts synthesized by flame aerosol processes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-22
    Yuan Sheng, Markus Kraft, Rong Xu
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Surface-patterning of polymeric membranes: fabrication and performance
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-16
    Ozge Heinz, Masoud Aghajani, Alan R Greenberg, Yifu Ding

    In recent years, surface patterning of membranes has been explored as a new strategy to modify surface properties of polymeric membranes. A variety of methods including template-based micromolding and direct printing have been developed for effective fabrication of surface-patterned membranes. In this review, we compare the underlying pattern replication mechanisms and the advantages and challenges associated with the range of different fabrication methods. The presence of the surface patterns, when properly created, can enlarge the active surface/interfacial area, create more effective conduction pathways, and enhance the hydrodynamic effects. These effects can be harnessed for improving membrane performance for a wide range of applications.

    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Chemical modification of membrane surface — overview
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-22
    Lakshmeesha Upadhyaya, Xianghong Qian, S Ranil Wickramasinghe

    Membrane surface properties critically affect membrane performance as it is the membrane surface that contacts the feed. Chemical modification of membrane surfaces is an attractive method to impart desirable surface properties while retaining the desired bulk polymer properties such as mechanical and chemical resistance and membrane morphology. Fouling or adsorption of undesirable species onto the membrane surface affects membrane properties and leads to compromised performance. Consequently, a great deal of effort has focused on minimizing the unsought accumulation of molecules on the membrane surface. Hence, this review focuses on membrane surface modification for suppression of fouling. Recent progress in the field of chemical modification is highlighted along with challenges and future direction. In particular the development of controlled polymerization methods that permit better control of the three-dimensional structure of the grafted nanolayer has been a major focus of recent research.

    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Nanoporous materials in polymeric membranes for desalination
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Pinar Cay-Durgun, Mary Laura Lind
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Two-dimensional materials: an emerging platform for gas separation membranes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-19
    Farhad Moghadam, Ho Bum Park

    Graphene and its derivatives are of particular interest as emerging platforms for molecular separation. However, there are abundant 2D nanomaterials other than graphene that have unique and intriguing structural features that can be exploited for membrane-based separation that have not been extensively studied. Furthermore, from a materials synthesis standpoint, realizing high yield and scalable methods for massive production of 2D nanomaterials is critical. Liquid-based exfoliation to produce 2D nanosheets from layered bulk crystals has recently drawn considerable attention. Such single-layered or few-layered 2D nanosheets can be formed into laminate membranes with exceptional molecular-sieving properties or more preferably utilized as high aspect ratio nanofillers to improve the separation performance of polymer membranes. Most remarkably, 2D nanosheets can mitigate the well-known plasticization phenomenon in polymer membranes by interacting strongly with the polymer chains. There is no doubt that these emerging 2D nanomaterials will facilitate fabrication of next-generation membranes.

    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Sorption-enhanced membrane materials for gas separation: a road less traveled
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Maryam Omidvar, Hien Nguyen, Junyi Liu, Haiqing Lin
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Mapping serum antibody repertoires using peptide libraries
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Michael L Paull, Patrick S Daugherty
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Animal models for evaluation of albumin-based therapeutics
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Jeannette Nilsen, Inger Sandlie, Derry C Roopenian, Jan Terje Andersen
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Engineering a new generation of carbohydrate-based vaccines
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Kevin B Weyant, Dominic C Mills, Matthew P DeLisa
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Salt-responsive zwitterionic polymer brushes with anti-polyelectrolyte property
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-01-30
    Shengwei Xiao, Baiping Ren, Lei Huang, Mingxue Shen, Yanxian Zhang, Mingqiang Zhong, Jintao Yang, Jie Zheng
    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Emerging trends in bispecific antibody and scaffold protein therapeutics
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Petra Verdino, Shane Atwell, Stephen J Demarest

    Bispecific antibody and protein therapeutics have a long scientific history. In the last few years there has been a renaissance in their design and application. Clinical trial data with both monoclonal antibodies and bispecifics is beginning to provide feedback regarding the most opportunistic areas for bispecifics and the hurdles many of them may face. Bispecific molecules that utilize IgG-fragments or novel scaffolds to bind two antigens or two epitopes on the same antigen are demonstrating their unique strengths as therapeutics and diagnostics, such as in blood–brain-barrier penetration, in the immune synapse and as cancer imaging agents. A push toward bispecifics that have a native IgG architecture has also been widespread over the past few years with the goal of capturing the clinically validated therapeutic properties of standard monoclonal antibodies. Lastly, as the biological mechanisms of diseases become further elucidated, utilizing bispecifics or perhaps tri/tetraspecifics may enable improved therapeutic outcomes.

    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Tunable coefficient of friction with surface texturing in materials engineering and biological systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    JA Sekhar

    A strong influence of the coefficient of friction is noted for multivariate objectives. In this brief review a historical summary of the applications associated with the coefficient of friction and its tunability, as well as the changing drivers for materials’ development from empirical to surface-reconstruction based understanding are discussed. Adhesive, abrasive, noise, and stick-slip friction with nanofeatures and fibrils are studied within the framework of surface texture. Wear, bunching and separation of asperities are discussed for materials and biological systems. It is suggested that the plasticity indices may be employed for the study of the stability of the coefficient of friction. The combination properties of the roughness/auto-correlation length, the critical velocity Vc that is based on the materials’ specific-wear constant, the surface-compositing chemistry, and the contact temperature, are noted to describe the texture for friction.

    更新日期:2018-03-01
  • 更新日期:2018-03-01
  • Immunotherapy for neurodegenerative diseases: the Alzheimer's disease paradigm
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra Villegas

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the progressive accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that eventually lead to the loss of selected neuronal populations. Immunotherapy has been shown in the recent years as a promising approach for targeting, clearing, and reducing the accumulation of protein aggregates. Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, has been the focus of numerous immunotherapeutic studies because the extracellular nature of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. The aim of the current work is to dissect the state-of-the-art of anti-Aβ immunotherapy for AD. The rationale behind anti-Aβ antibodies, what has happened in clinical trials, and which strategies have been designed to avoid side-effects and improve the efficacy of those antibodies are presented.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Reprogramming immune proteins as therapeutics using molecular engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-27
    Rakeeb Kureshi, Michelle Bahri, Jamie B Spangler
    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • 更新日期:2017-12-31
  • T cell receptor signal transduction: affinity, force and conformational change
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    Duane Moogk, Aswin Natarajan, Michelle Krogsgaard

    T cell recognition of antigen and resulting proximal signaling are key steps in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The T cell receptor interaction with antigen drives signal initiation in an affinity-dependent manner, but many aspects of this process remain incompletely understood, including what regions are responsible for structural changes in the TCR upon antigen binding, the importance of extracellular T cell receptor interactions with CD3, how structural changes are integrated with signaling components, and the role of force in signal transduction. Advances in structural modeling of the TCR–CD3 complex and the ability to quantify the affinity and biophysical nature of these molecular interactions have significantly furthered our understanding of the mechanism of transduction of T cell antigen recognition into intracellular signaling. This knowledge is paramount to understanding how T cell perform their critical role in adaptive immune responses, and for the development and improvement of immunotherapies.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Activation of peroxymonosulfate/persulfate by nanomaterials for sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    Ruiyang Xiao, Zonghao Luo, Zongsu Wei, Shuang Luo, Richard Spinney, Weichun Yang, Dionysios D Dionysiou
    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • The exciting potential of modular nanoparticles for rapid development of highly effective vaccines
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-07
    Julie A Fogarty, James R Swartz

    Most current vaccine strategies employ live-attenuated or killed versions of the pathogen. While effective in the developed world, expense and cold-chain dependence make broad access to such vaccines difficult in the developing world. Additionally, current vaccine development processes provide only slow responses to emerging or evolved pathogens. Nanoparticle platform technologies for vaccines can overcome these issues. Polymeric nanoparticles have shown pre-clinical success but suffer from structural heterogeneity, instability, and potential off-target immunogenicity issues. Engineered virus-like particles are emerging as a versatile platform for rapid vaccine development. They can be engineered for high stability, facile antigen conjugation in precise orientations, and high potency. Virus-like particle vaccines are poised to deliver the design features required for worldwide distribution of highly effective vaccines.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-29
    Seyed Soheil Mansouri, Isuru A Udugama, Stefano Cignitti, Aleksandar Mitic, Xavier Flores-Alsina, Krist V Gernaey

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based on the insights gained in this review and assessment of resource recovery technologies in the domain of bio-based production processes, an informed opinion and perspective is provided. The current state of resource recovery and the shortcomings when developing practical resource recovery applications in bio-based production processes are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 3D-printed porous bed structures
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Conan Fee

    The potential for the use of additive manufacturing (‘3D printing’) to fabricate finely controlled mesostructures presents new opportunities for chemical engineers to refresh their approach to the design of unit operations involving porous beds. Having control over the size, shape, position and orientation of every element within a porous bed, along with the growing availability of materials that can be printed and functionalised, means that we no longer have to rely upon random packing of individual particles to achieve intimate fluid–solid contact. New, fresh approaches to the design of not only the solid-phase but also the fluid-phase geometries within a porous bed are now possible, offering the opportunity to increase process efficiency and to customise porous beds for particular applications. This paper outlines some of the opportunities and challenges presented to what, until now, has been considered to be a relatively mature area of chemical engineering science and design, by the rapidly emerging area of additive manufacturing.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Proteins at heterogeneous (lignocellulose) interfaces
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Leyu Zhang, Antonio Carlos Freitas dos Santos, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael Ladisch

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource capable of addressing the increasing worldwide demand for energy and the movement toward low carbon footprint, liquid transportation and aviation biofuels. Purposely grown energy crops (wood and grasses) and crop residues (corn stalks, sugarcane bagasse, and wheat straw) are available for conversion to biofuels if attractive process economics are achieved in hydrolyzing these lignocellulosic materials to sugars and converting the sugars to biofuels and bioproducts. Cellulase enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose to glucose currently contribute operating expenses of $0.15–$0.20 per liter of ethanol out of a total of $0.53. The goal is to decrease enzyme costs to 3–5 ¢/L. The high cost is in part due to the high loading of cellulases needed to make up activity losses when the enzymes bind to lignin rather than the cellulose substrate that is located in close proximity to the lignin. We address the concept of using liquid chromatography columns packed with biomass to efficiently probe partitioning of cellulases and other proteins on the surfaces of various forms of lignocellulose. The correlation of elution profiles to fundamental adsorption behavior provides a pathway to a deeper understanding of inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis due to interactions of proteins at heterogeneous lignocellulosic interfaces.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Bioprocess microfluidics: applying microfluidic devices for bioprocessing
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Marco PC Marques, Nicolas Szita
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Cell free protein synthesis: a viable option for stratified medicines manufacturing?
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Olotu W .Ogonah, Karen M Polizzi, Daniel G Bracewell
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Systems engineering opportunities for agricultural and organic waste management in the food–water–energy nexus
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-08
    Daniel Garcia, Fengqi You

    Managing food, water, and energy waste streams leads to more sustainable production, consumption, and distribution processes in the food–water–energy nexus (FWEN). Agricultural and organic waste streams within the FWEN can be difficult to manage due to both volume and their potential environmental impacts. However, they are also often characterized by a rich mix of organic compounds, ripe for conversion into energy or value-added products. Process systems engineering (PSE) stands uniquely positioned to understand the interconnections between food, water, and energy of agricultural and food wastes, wastewater, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Targeted advances in systems analysis as well as design and optimization of integrated FWEN waste management technologies and processes are expected to have the greatest impact. When building integrated mathematical models, care must be taken to consider waste treatment not as an independent process unaffected by the FWEN, but as a core component of the FWEN, connected to all nexus resources and systems.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Biochar systems in the water-energy-food nexus: the emerging role of process systems engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Beatriz A Belmonte, Michael Francis D Benjamin, Raymond R Tan

    Biochar application to soil is a potentially scalable carbon management strategy with the capability of achieving negative greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, biochar is also linked to the water-energy-food nexus (WEFN) through its potential to modify soil properties to improve agricultural productivity. Potential benefits include increased yield and reduced demand for water, fertilizers and other inputs. However, the current literature on biochar is highly fragmented, with a significant research gap in system-level analysis to synchronize production, logistics and application into a sustainable carbon management strategy. Process systems engineering (PSE) can provide a framework to allow the potential benefits of biochar systems to be optimized. This article gives an overview of biochar as a strategy to address carbon management and WEFN issues, reviews relevant scientific literature, analyzes bibliometric trends, and maps potential areas for the application of PSE to the planning of large-scale biochar systems.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Integrated approaches to the optimisation of regional and local food–energy–water systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-26
    Anton Johannes Veldhuis, Aidong Yang

    Optimisation of regional and local food–energy–water systems that takes into account the connections between the three sectors is classified into ‘integration based on footprint’ and ‘integration based on co-decision’. Footprint-based approaches focus on the decision on one main system while using static footprint data to account for the links with other systems. By contrast, co-decision based approaches aim to simultaneously optimise multiple, interconnected systems. Choosing between these two approaches needs to consider the nature of the interactions between different systems as well as data availability and the feasibility of implementing the optimisation results. Future research in this area is expected to broaden decision targets and to improve the handing of the multiple scales involved in integrated food–energy–water decision making.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Examining the food–energy–water and conflict nexus
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Michele Abbott, Morgan Bazilian, Daniel Egel, Henry H Willis

    There is growing evidence of a strong linkage or ‘nexus’ between conflict — both domestic and international — and food, energy, and water (FEW) resources and services. This article demonstrates a positive, significant correlation between two measures, FEW security and political stability, and reviews the evidence for how each of these three types of resource insecurities affects political and social stability. We describe what is known about the FEW-conflict nexus itself, note that remaining knowledge gaps include evidence on developing governance structures and preparing for climate change, and examine the types of policies that countries and international donors might take to help mitigate the role that FEW can play in affecting stability.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 21st century engineering for on-farm food–energy–water systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Mary Leigh Wolfe, Tom L Richard

    For more than a century, agricultural mechanization encouraged larger fields with more uniform management and increasing impacts on the environment. The trajectory of agricultural technology is now at an inflection point where information technology, including remote sensing, simulation modeling, decision support systems, precision agricultural technologies, and automation, enables site-specific management at small spatial scales with the potential to simultaneously enhance food and bioenergy production, farm profitability, and environmental quality. To achieve these economic and environmental benefits of transforming agricultural landscape design and cropping system management, agricultural producers need increased access to both enabling technologies and engineering expertise. Government policies and programs are also needed to incentivize changes in cropping systems that promote soil health and improve water quality, for example, payments to cover much or all of the cost of transitioning land use to perennials and nutrient trading programs in which agricultural producers contract with industrial and municipal wastewater generators to reduce nutrient loading at a reduced cost. Information technology is providing the tools to target, quantify, and document this re-coupling of economic, environmental, and social sustainability in food–energy–water systems.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Beyond zero sum game allocations: expanding resources potentials through reduced interdependencies and increased resource nexus synergies
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-23
    Rabi H Mohtar, Bassel Daher

    The 2030 goal for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) gives rise to challenging questions stemming from the inherent interconnections and potential competition between primary resources. ‘Economic Growth’ and ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’ are intimately related SDGs. Access to quality water is critical to growth, but as economies and populations grow, so does their demand for water. As pressures on water systems increase, existing and proposed economic activities are subject to growing water related stresses, such as service disruptions, droughts, floods, and contamination. Growth is dependent upon investment in critical resources to mitigate water related risks and for sustainable water allocation. Highly interdependent water, energy, and food systems are reflected in SDGs, raising questions about how to achieve the security goal for water without sacrificing that for food; and giving rise to questions of how to quantify the interconnections and assess the possible trade-offs for sustainable pathways into the future. This commentary addresses these complex and critical challenges to achieving the interconnected goals at different scales and in light of scarce or incompatible data, and the many stakeholders involved. It offers thoughts on holistic approaches to complement the SDGs and facilitate science-based decision making, monitoring, assessment and cooperation. The paper reflects on World Water Week 2016, reviews global risks and societies’ perceptions of those risks. Defining ‘resource nexus’, the paper shares examples that illustrate the concept and calls for efforts to reduce inter-dependencies and increase synergies between the primary resources through technology, policy, and adaptations to human consumption and conservation behaviors. The paradigm shift proposed, while critically needed, is not possible without the resource nexus platform.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Carbon capture and storage technologies: present scenario and drivers of innovation
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-14
    Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, José Luiz de Medeiros
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Renewable energy, bioenergy
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-30
    Yogendra Shastri

    Lignocellulosic and microalgal biofuels are poised to play a significant role in the future energy matrix. This article reviews recent developments related to lignocellulosic and microalgal biofuels from a chemical engineering perspective. The major challenges in the production of these biofuels are identified and potential solutions are discussed. For lignocellulosic biofuels, development of efficient pre-treatment methods and improved enzymes is a key challenge. For microalgal biofuels, increasing culture density and reducing dewatering requirement require immediate efforts. The issues associated with practical implementation and scale-up as well as the value of an integrated biorefinery are discussed. Finally, sustainability related challenges are presented and the value of a systems approach is highlighted.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Emerging challenges and opportunities for the food–energy–water nexus in urban systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Brent R Heard, Shelie A Miller, Sai Liang, Ming Xu
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Incorporating low grade energy recovery in process integrated systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Debalina Sengupta

    Low grade energy streams are available in large quantities and end up as loss in the energy consumption in the United States. For sustainability and security of the energy future, various research efforts are under way to harness this low grade energy. This paper provides a review of low grade energy resources available in industry, and applications where that can be used. Then, an underdeveloped research area is identified in the integration of the low grade energy in process systems. Some of these areas include the use of low grade solar energy or flare systems, and applications include desalination, district heating, refrigeration, etc. A few applications related to saline agriculture are also identified. This work provides a basis where the recovery of low grade energy sources and subsequent integration can provide potential cost savings, environmental benefits and social impacts. The paper also concludes that further research is needed at the systems level for including sustainability considerations in the low grade energy integration of processes.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Energy markets: changes toward decarbonization and valorization
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Yoram Krozer

    Mechanisms of global changes on energy markets are reviewed. The main mechanisms are decarbonization of energy recourses and valorization of energy products. The decarbonization covers modest increases of energy-efficiency in industries and households along with fast substitution of fossil energy resources for renewable ones. This evolves despite availability of energy resources and fluctuating real prices of fossil energy. The valorization evolves when the higher costs of energy resources are outweighed by even higher value of energy products as perceived and purchased by customers. The valorization on energy markets is expressed as electrification, entry of variable renewable energy technologies and distributed energy systems for local energy production and consumption. Regarding these mechanisms on energy markets there is reason for optimism about progress toward sustainable development.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Post-combustion CO2 capture technologies — a review of processes for solvent-based and sorbent-based CO2 capture
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Debangsu Bhattacharyya, David C Miller

    This paper provides a short review of the multitude of processes proposed for solvent-based and sorbent-based post-combustion CO2 capture. (Membrane-based systems, another important technology for CO2 capture is outside the scope of this review.) The majority of process configurations discussed in the open literature focus on reducing the energy penalty with little consideration of capital cost or operability — key factors for industrial implementation. This paper highlights advances in all three areas and identifies opportunities for future research.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
化学 • 材料 期刊列表