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  • Immunotherapy for neurodegenerative diseases: the Alzheimer's disease paradigm
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra Villegas

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the progressive accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that eventually lead to the loss of selected neuronal populations. Immunotherapy has been shown in the recent years as a promising approach for targeting, clearing, and reducing the accumulation of protein aggregates. Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, has been the focus of numerous immunotherapeutic studies because the extracellular nature of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. The aim of the current work is to dissect the state-of-the-art of anti-Aβ immunotherapy for AD. The rationale behind anti-Aβ antibodies, what has happened in clinical trials, and which strategies have been designed to avoid side-effects and improve the efficacy of those antibodies are presented.

  • Reprogramming immune proteins as therapeutics using molecular engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-27
    Rakeeb Kureshi, Michelle Bahri, Jamie B Spangler
  • 更新日期:2017-12-31
  • T cell receptor signal transduction: affinity, force and conformational change
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    Duane Moogk, Aswin Natarajan, Michelle Krogsgaard

    T cell recognition of antigen and resulting proximal signaling are key steps in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The T cell receptor interaction with antigen drives signal initiation in an affinity-dependent manner, but many aspects of this process remain incompletely understood, including what regions are responsible for structural changes in the TCR upon antigen binding, the importance of extracellular T cell receptor interactions with CD3, how structural changes are integrated with signaling components, and the role of force in signal transduction. Advances in structural modeling of the TCR–CD3 complex and the ability to quantify the affinity and biophysical nature of these molecular interactions have significantly furthered our understanding of the mechanism of transduction of T cell antigen recognition into intracellular signaling. This knowledge is paramount to understanding how T cell perform their critical role in adaptive immune responses, and for the development and improvement of immunotherapies.

  • Activation of peroxymonosulfate/persulfate by nanomaterials for sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    Ruiyang Xiao, Zonghao Luo, Zongsu Wei, Shuang Luo, Richard Spinney, Weichun Yang, Dionysios D Dionysiou
  • The exciting potential of modular nanoparticles for rapid development of highly effective vaccines
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-12-07
    Julie A Fogarty, James R Swartz

    Most current vaccine strategies employ live-attenuated or killed versions of the pathogen. While effective in the developed world, expense and cold-chain dependence make broad access to such vaccines difficult in the developing world. Additionally, current vaccine development processes provide only slow responses to emerging or evolved pathogens. Nanoparticle platform technologies for vaccines can overcome these issues. Polymeric nanoparticles have shown pre-clinical success but suffer from structural heterogeneity, instability, and potential off-target immunogenicity issues. Engineered virus-like particles are emerging as a versatile platform for rapid vaccine development. They can be engineered for high stability, facile antigen conjugation in precise orientations, and high potency. Virus-like particle vaccines are poised to deliver the design features required for worldwide distribution of highly effective vaccines.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-29
    Seyed Soheil Mansouri, Isuru A Udugama, Stefano Cignitti, Aleksandar Mitic, Xavier Flores-Alsina, Krist V Gernaey

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based on the insights gained in this review and assessment of resource recovery technologies in the domain of bio-based production processes, an informed opinion and perspective is provided. The current state of resource recovery and the shortcomings when developing practical resource recovery applications in bio-based production processes are discussed.

  • 3D-printed porous bed structures
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Conan Fee

    The potential for the use of additive manufacturing (‘3D printing’) to fabricate finely controlled mesostructures presents new opportunities for chemical engineers to refresh their approach to the design of unit operations involving porous beds. Having control over the size, shape, position and orientation of every element within a porous bed, along with the growing availability of materials that can be printed and functionalised, means that we no longer have to rely upon random packing of individual particles to achieve intimate fluid–solid contact. New, fresh approaches to the design of not only the solid-phase but also the fluid-phase geometries within a porous bed are now possible, offering the opportunity to increase process efficiency and to customise porous beds for particular applications. This paper outlines some of the opportunities and challenges presented to what, until now, has been considered to be a relatively mature area of chemical engineering science and design, by the rapidly emerging area of additive manufacturing.

  • Proteins at heterogeneous (lignocellulose) interfaces
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Leyu Zhang, Antonio Carlos Freitas dos Santos, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael Ladisch

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource capable of addressing the increasing worldwide demand for energy and the movement toward low carbon footprint, liquid transportation and aviation biofuels. Purposely grown energy crops (wood and grasses) and crop residues (corn stalks, sugarcane bagasse, and wheat straw) are available for conversion to biofuels if attractive process economics are achieved in hydrolyzing these lignocellulosic materials to sugars and converting the sugars to biofuels and bioproducts. Cellulase enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose to glucose currently contribute operating expenses of $0.15–$0.20 per liter of ethanol out of a total of $0.53. The goal is to decrease enzyme costs to 3–5 ¢/L. The high cost is in part due to the high loading of cellulases needed to make up activity losses when the enzymes bind to lignin rather than the cellulose substrate that is located in close proximity to the lignin. We address the concept of using liquid chromatography columns packed with biomass to efficiently probe partitioning of cellulases and other proteins on the surfaces of various forms of lignocellulose. The correlation of elution profiles to fundamental adsorption behavior provides a pathway to a deeper understanding of inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis due to interactions of proteins at heterogeneous lignocellulosic interfaces.

  • Bioprocess microfluidics: applying microfluidic devices for bioprocessing
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Marco PC Marques, Nicolas Szita
  • Cell free protein synthesis: a viable option for stratified medicines manufacturing?
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Olotu W .Ogonah, Karen M Polizzi, Daniel G Bracewell
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Systems engineering opportunities for agricultural and organic waste management in the food–water–energy nexus
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-08
    Daniel Garcia, Fengqi You

    Managing food, water, and energy waste streams leads to more sustainable production, consumption, and distribution processes in the food–water–energy nexus (FWEN). Agricultural and organic waste streams within the FWEN can be difficult to manage due to both volume and their potential environmental impacts. However, they are also often characterized by a rich mix of organic compounds, ripe for conversion into energy or value-added products. Process systems engineering (PSE) stands uniquely positioned to understand the interconnections between food, water, and energy of agricultural and food wastes, wastewater, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Targeted advances in systems analysis as well as design and optimization of integrated FWEN waste management technologies and processes are expected to have the greatest impact. When building integrated mathematical models, care must be taken to consider waste treatment not as an independent process unaffected by the FWEN, but as a core component of the FWEN, connected to all nexus resources and systems.

  • Biochar systems in the water-energy-food nexus: the emerging role of process systems engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Beatriz A Belmonte, Michael Francis D Benjamin, Raymond R Tan

    Biochar application to soil is a potentially scalable carbon management strategy with the capability of achieving negative greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, biochar is also linked to the water-energy-food nexus (WEFN) through its potential to modify soil properties to improve agricultural productivity. Potential benefits include increased yield and reduced demand for water, fertilizers and other inputs. However, the current literature on biochar is highly fragmented, with a significant research gap in system-level analysis to synchronize production, logistics and application into a sustainable carbon management strategy. Process systems engineering (PSE) can provide a framework to allow the potential benefits of biochar systems to be optimized. This article gives an overview of biochar as a strategy to address carbon management and WEFN issues, reviews relevant scientific literature, analyzes bibliometric trends, and maps potential areas for the application of PSE to the planning of large-scale biochar systems.

  • Integrated approaches to the optimisation of regional and local food–energy–water systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-26
    Anton Johannes Veldhuis, Aidong Yang

    Optimisation of regional and local food–energy–water systems that takes into account the connections between the three sectors is classified into ‘integration based on footprint’ and ‘integration based on co-decision’. Footprint-based approaches focus on the decision on one main system while using static footprint data to account for the links with other systems. By contrast, co-decision based approaches aim to simultaneously optimise multiple, interconnected systems. Choosing between these two approaches needs to consider the nature of the interactions between different systems as well as data availability and the feasibility of implementing the optimisation results. Future research in this area is expected to broaden decision targets and to improve the handing of the multiple scales involved in integrated food–energy–water decision making.

  • Examining the food–energy–water and conflict nexus
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Michele Abbott, Morgan Bazilian, Daniel Egel, Henry H Willis

    There is growing evidence of a strong linkage or ‘nexus’ between conflict — both domestic and international — and food, energy, and water (FEW) resources and services. This article demonstrates a positive, significant correlation between two measures, FEW security and political stability, and reviews the evidence for how each of these three types of resource insecurities affects political and social stability. We describe what is known about the FEW-conflict nexus itself, note that remaining knowledge gaps include evidence on developing governance structures and preparing for climate change, and examine the types of policies that countries and international donors might take to help mitigate the role that FEW can play in affecting stability.

  • 21st century engineering for on-farm food–energy–water systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Mary Leigh Wolfe, Tom L Richard

    For more than a century, agricultural mechanization encouraged larger fields with more uniform management and increasing impacts on the environment. The trajectory of agricultural technology is now at an inflection point where information technology, including remote sensing, simulation modeling, decision support systems, precision agricultural technologies, and automation, enables site-specific management at small spatial scales with the potential to simultaneously enhance food and bioenergy production, farm profitability, and environmental quality. To achieve these economic and environmental benefits of transforming agricultural landscape design and cropping system management, agricultural producers need increased access to both enabling technologies and engineering expertise. Government policies and programs are also needed to incentivize changes in cropping systems that promote soil health and improve water quality, for example, payments to cover much or all of the cost of transitioning land use to perennials and nutrient trading programs in which agricultural producers contract with industrial and municipal wastewater generators to reduce nutrient loading at a reduced cost. Information technology is providing the tools to target, quantify, and document this re-coupling of economic, environmental, and social sustainability in food–energy–water systems.

  • Beyond zero sum game allocations: expanding resources potentials through reduced interdependencies and increased resource nexus synergies
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-11-23
    Rabi H Mohtar, Bassel Daher

    The 2030 goal for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) gives rise to challenging questions stemming from the inherent interconnections and potential competition between primary resources. ‘Economic Growth’ and ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’ are intimately related SDGs. Access to quality water is critical to growth, but as economies and populations grow, so does their demand for water. As pressures on water systems increase, existing and proposed economic activities are subject to growing water related stresses, such as service disruptions, droughts, floods, and contamination. Growth is dependent upon investment in critical resources to mitigate water related risks and for sustainable water allocation. Highly interdependent water, energy, and food systems are reflected in SDGs, raising questions about how to achieve the security goal for water without sacrificing that for food; and giving rise to questions of how to quantify the interconnections and assess the possible trade-offs for sustainable pathways into the future. This commentary addresses these complex and critical challenges to achieving the interconnected goals at different scales and in light of scarce or incompatible data, and the many stakeholders involved. It offers thoughts on holistic approaches to complement the SDGs and facilitate science-based decision making, monitoring, assessment and cooperation. The paper reflects on World Water Week 2016, reviews global risks and societies’ perceptions of those risks. Defining ‘resource nexus’, the paper shares examples that illustrate the concept and calls for efforts to reduce inter-dependencies and increase synergies between the primary resources through technology, policy, and adaptations to human consumption and conservation behaviors. The paradigm shift proposed, while critically needed, is not possible without the resource nexus platform.

  • Carbon capture and storage technologies: present scenario and drivers of innovation
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-14
    Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, José Luiz de Medeiros
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Renewable energy, bioenergy
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-30
    Yogendra Shastri

    Lignocellulosic and microalgal biofuels are poised to play a significant role in the future energy matrix. This article reviews recent developments related to lignocellulosic and microalgal biofuels from a chemical engineering perspective. The major challenges in the production of these biofuels are identified and potential solutions are discussed. For lignocellulosic biofuels, development of efficient pre-treatment methods and improved enzymes is a key challenge. For microalgal biofuels, increasing culture density and reducing dewatering requirement require immediate efforts. The issues associated with practical implementation and scale-up as well as the value of an integrated biorefinery are discussed. Finally, sustainability related challenges are presented and the value of a systems approach is highlighted.

  • Emerging challenges and opportunities for the food–energy–water nexus in urban systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Brent R Heard, Shelie A Miller, Sai Liang, Ming Xu
  • Incorporating low grade energy recovery in process integrated systems
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Debalina Sengupta

    Low grade energy streams are available in large quantities and end up as loss in the energy consumption in the United States. For sustainability and security of the energy future, various research efforts are under way to harness this low grade energy. This paper provides a review of low grade energy resources available in industry, and applications where that can be used. Then, an underdeveloped research area is identified in the integration of the low grade energy in process systems. Some of these areas include the use of low grade solar energy or flare systems, and applications include desalination, district heating, refrigeration, etc. A few applications related to saline agriculture are also identified. This work provides a basis where the recovery of low grade energy sources and subsequent integration can provide potential cost savings, environmental benefits and social impacts. The paper also concludes that further research is needed at the systems level for including sustainability considerations in the low grade energy integration of processes.

  • Energy markets: changes toward decarbonization and valorization
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Yoram Krozer

    Mechanisms of global changes on energy markets are reviewed. The main mechanisms are decarbonization of energy recourses and valorization of energy products. The decarbonization covers modest increases of energy-efficiency in industries and households along with fast substitution of fossil energy resources for renewable ones. This evolves despite availability of energy resources and fluctuating real prices of fossil energy. The valorization evolves when the higher costs of energy resources are outweighed by even higher value of energy products as perceived and purchased by customers. The valorization on energy markets is expressed as electrification, entry of variable renewable energy technologies and distributed energy systems for local energy production and consumption. Regarding these mechanisms on energy markets there is reason for optimism about progress toward sustainable development.

  • Post-combustion CO2 capture technologies — a review of processes for solvent-based and sorbent-based CO2 capture
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Debangsu Bhattacharyya, David C Miller

    This paper provides a short review of the multitude of processes proposed for solvent-based and sorbent-based post-combustion CO2 capture. (Membrane-based systems, another important technology for CO2 capture is outside the scope of this review.) The majority of process configurations discussed in the open literature focus on reducing the energy penalty with little consideration of capital cost or operability — key factors for industrial implementation. This paper highlights advances in all three areas and identifies opportunities for future research.

  • Bioenergy provision: utilizing contextual resources
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Michael Narodoslawsky

    Bioenergy is an indispensable element of any future de-carbonized energy system. Bio-resources however are on the one hand highly contested and on the other hand context dependent sources. The first aspect calls for innovative and highly interlinked technology systems to realize the full potential of bio-resources. The latter aspect of bio-resources needs adapting technologies to their context, leading to tailor-made solutions that are defined by the availability of resources, their particular properties as well as requirements defined by their natural and the techno-economic context. Utilization of bio-resources therefore entails widening the focus of technology development, taking their spatial context as well as their role in eco-systems into account. The paper provides insight on the current state of discourse regarding the integration of bio-resource based technologies into their spatial, environmental and technological context.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Intensification of chemical processing applications using ultrasonic and microwave irradiations
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-03
    Parag R Gogate

    The present work offers insights into the use of ultrasonic and microwave irradiations for the intensification of chemical processing applications. A critical opinion on the governing mechanisms, reactor designs and effects of the operating parameters on the degree of intensification has been presented. Discussion on the possible combined application of ultrasound and microwave to yield synergistic effects have also been presented. Overall, it appears that significant process intensification benefits in terms of reduced reaction times, higher yields, use of ambient conditions and reduced chemical requirement can be harnessed based on the use of irradiations, possibly leading to considerable economic savings.

  • Advances and trends in two-zone fluidized-bed reactors
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-04
    J Herguido, M Menéndez

    Two-zone fluidized bed reactors, devices to carry on two reactions in a single reactor, have been widely studied in our group. This work summarizes the developments achieved after a previous review published in 2005 and shows how this technology can be applied in a wide variety of reactions. The advantages for each kind of process are discussed, as well as several proposals for improvement of the reactor aimed to achieve new functions or to improve the process performance. Finally, the possibilities of this kind of reactors at industrial scale are discussed.

  • Characteristics and applications of plasma assisted chemical processes and reactors
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Xin Chen, Yan Cheng, Tianyang Li, Yi Cheng

    Plasma assisted chemical processes and reactors have drawn more and more attention in academic research and industrial applications. On one hand, plasmas change the fluid properties at atomic/molecular scale. On the other hand, the mutual contact between plasmas and the substances are alternated at meso-scale, bringing up unique features of transport phenomena and reactions in such chemical reactors. This short review aims to introduce some fundamental and practical aspects of thermal and non-thermal plasmas with their broad applications in chemical reaction engineering.

  • Unconventional microreactor designs for process intensification in the distributed reforming of hydrocarbons: a review of recent developments at Texas A&M University
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    Benjamin A Wilhite

    Microreactor technology promises a modular process intensification technology capable of removing heat-transfer limitations on endothermic and exothermic processes central to on-demand hydrogen production and commodity chemicals production from distributed hydrocarbon resources while providing several pathways to heat integration for these processes. Additionally, the incorporation of hydrogen-permselective membranes allows further intensification via coupling reforming or water–gas-shift catalytic processes with in situ H2 removal. The primary challenges to realizing microreactor technology for these applications remains firstly, efficient and effective thermal integration of multiple processes, secondly, realizing manufacturable designs with minimal heat-losses and/or thermal non-uniformities, and thirdly, addressing materials compatibility and durability concerns for micromembrane reactors. This brief perspectives article presents a discussion of these challenges in the context of reviewing our recent research efforts in unconventional microreactor design approaches for process intensification aimed at combining the advantages of microreactors and microfabrication with more conventional materials and fabrication techniques.

  • Micro and micro membrane reactors for advanced applications in chemical energy conversion
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    R Dittmeyer, T Boeltken, P Piermartini, M Selinsek, M Loewert, F Dallmann, H Kreuder, M Cholewa, A Wunsch, M Belimov, S Farsi, P Pfeifer

    In the past few years several compact modular micro channel reactors were developed at the Institute for Micro Process Engineering of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Target applications are small to medium-scale hydrogen production, chemical heat storage, and the provision of synthetic natural gas and synthetic fuels based on carbon dioxide and hydrogen from renewable electrical energy. More specifically, a micro-membrane reactor for methane steam reforming was demonstrated at a scale of 0.5 standard litres per minute of pure hydrogen. It integrates a thin palladium foil supported by a planar metal substrate via laser welding into an ultra-compact module. Modules can be stacked easily for capacity increase. A similar system is under development for dehydrogenation of methyl cyclohexane to toluene for storing heat at a temperature level of 350–400°C. An evaporation-cooled micro packed bed reactor for methanation of carbon oxide mixtures originating from a solid oxide electrolyser was demonstrated at a scale of 5 standard litres of methane per minute. The system is currently scaled-up to 100 kWth methane output. Finally, a similar reactor system was developed for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis and demonstrated in a scale of 0.2 kg of liquids per hour. The technology is now being commercialized by the KIT spin-off INERATEC GmbH.

  • A new paradigm of materials processing—heterogeneity control
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-04-23
    Jooyoung Lee, Sanghoon Sung, Youngseok Kim, Jun Dong Park, Kyung Hyun Ahn
  • Shear rheology of graphene oxide dispersions
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-04-24
    Francesco Del Giudice, Amy Q Shen
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Dynamics of nanocomposites
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-05-14
    Gerald J Schneider

    The results on the dynamics of the polymer chains in classical nanocomposites of hard nanoparticles in a soft matrix are summarized. The molecular motion depends on the interactions of the chains with the nanoparticle surfaces and concentration. Addition of nanoparticles reduces the diffusion of chains and changes the entanglement density. Even strongly adsorbed chain segments seem to be highly mobile. The mode spectrum of the large-scale segmental chain relaxation is strongly affected by adsorption, while the relaxation time is lesser or not affected. Substantial progress has been achieved in understanding and producing materials with unparalleled properties. Especially grafting chains that are chemically dissimilar to the matrix chains can use the dynamic asymmetry and have the capability to manipulate and produce materials for future applications.

  • Molecular simulations of nanocolloids
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-05-18
    Rajesh Khare, Dinesh Sundaravadivelu Devarajan
  • Self-suspended polymer grafted nanoparticles
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-04
    Samanvaya Srivastava, Snehashis Choudhury, Akanksha Agrawal, Lynden A Archer
  • Water vapor transport in carbon nanotube membranes and application in breathable and protective fabrics
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Francesco Fornasiero

    Membranes that selectively block or permeate water vapor find application in dehydration of gaseous streams, pervaporation, humidity control in buildings, protection of moisture sensitive electronics, and in breathable fabrics for environmental protective clothing. Many of these application areas could benefit from the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into membrane materials. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to enable ultrafast water vapor diffusion through their inner volume, as well as to promote dehumidification of gas streams flowing through their interstitial spaces. Membranes with porosity solely made of the inner channels of carbon nanotubes are especially promising for the development of next generation protective garments because enable a long-sought-after combination of outstanding breathability with protection.

  • Graphene oxide membranes for nanofiltration
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Yu Zhang, Tai-Shung Chung

    Graphene oxide (GO) has recently emerged as a new membrane material for high performance separation processes. The separation mechanisms, together with the manipulations of microstructures and surface properties of GO membranes have been well studied for the nanofiltration (NF) process. In this review, current achievements of GO membranes for NF applications are highlighted. Furthermore, the challenges and future research directions toward the stability enhancement and scale-up production of GO membranes are discussed.

  • Permselective membranes in lithium–sulfur batteries
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-04-27
    Mahdokht Shaibani, Anthony F Hollenkamp, Matthew R Hill, Mainak Majumder
  • Graphene and graphene oxide membranes for gas separation applications
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-04-27
    Byung Min Yoo, Jae Eun Shin, Hee Dae Lee, Ho Bum Park

    Graphene and its derivatives possess outstanding properties as membrane materials for gas separation. A number of graphene-based membrane types have been extensively studied. Most experimental studies have focused on porous graphene, multilayer graphene or graphene oxide (GO), and polymer membranes embedded with graphene or GO nanosheets. Porous graphene membranes are created on porous supports by top–down methods, for example, focused ion or electron beam irradiation, ultraviolet-induced oxidative etching, and oxygen plasma etching. Multilayer graphene membranes are prepared using direct transfer or stacking of graphene or GO sheets, and gas separation in these materials occurs mainly through their two-dimensional nanochannels. Finally, graphene or GO nanosheets are incorporated into polymer matrices to form mixed matrix membranes. These membranes exhibit unique gas separation properties for various gas pairs, overcoming the typical tradeoffs between permeability and selectivity of polymeric membranes. However, graphene-based membranes are still at an early stage, and much more study should be undertaken to understand their fundamental transport mechanisms and to make graphene membranes viable materials for practical gas separation applications.

  • Vapor transport in graphene oxide laminates and their application in pervaporation
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-05-04
    Kang Huang, Gongping Liu, Wanqin Jin

    As a well-known one-atom thick nanosheets with preeminent physicochemical properties, graphene and its derivatives (e.g., graphene oxide, GO) have shown great potential on the membrane separation filed. This paper presents an update of GO laminates developments, including the membrane preparation methods, physicochemical properties and water vapor transport of GO laminates, and their application in pervaporation process. The possible strategies for the GO laminates into the practical application are also discussed. Finally, possible future researches about GO laminates for PV are also discussed.

  • The advent of graphene and other two-dimensional materials in membrane science and technology
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-05-14
    Annarosa Gugliuzza, Antonio Politano, Enrico Drioli
  • Analytical sample preparation, preconcentration and chromatographic separation on carbon nanotubes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.403) Pub Date : 2017-06-04
    Worawit Intrchom, Somenath Mitra

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent sorbents with unique properties that have allowed them to be used for sample preparations in chemical analysis as well as chromatographic separations. They show high specific sorption capacity even for low molecular weight compounds such as CO2 and methane, and at the same time, their nonporous structures provide faster mass transfer which allows efficient desorption of large molecules from their surface. Therefore, CNTs have been used as sorbents for small as well as macromolecules. This review highlights the applications of CNTs and CNT-based materials in some important analytical scale separations, namely stationary phase in gas, liquid and electro chromatography, sorbents for gas phase preconcentration, solid phase extraction, solid phase micro extraction and membrane separations.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-08
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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