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  • Current status and future challenges in continuous biochromatography
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-16
    Sebastian Vogg, Thomas Müller-Späth, Massimo Morbidelli
    更新日期:2018-10-17
  • Continuous manufacturing of viral particles
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Sonia Gutiérrez-Granados, Francesc Gòdia, Laura Cervera

    Cell-based production of viral particles has gain interest in the last years due to promising therapeutic applications. In the field of vaccination, novel vaccines are required to face the new pathogen outbreaks, and rapid and more efficient processes are required to respond as fast as possible to the vaccination demand worldwide. On the other hand, viral vector-driven gene therapies have demonstrated to be efficient and safe in numerous clinical trials, and three of them are already approved for commercialization. However, viral vector production is still a bottleneck in the road to the clinic. Although batch and fed-batch culture modes are preferred in industry, continuous culture strategies have demonstrated to improve viral titers and to reduce the bioprocessing costs. Therefore, there is increasing interest in exploring and optimizing continuous strategies in order to intensify viral vector production bioprocesses. This review is a summary of how continuous cultures have been applied to viral particle production (viral vaccines and viral vectors), the improvements achieved so far and the future perspectives in this field.

    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Progressing from transient to stable packaging cell lines for continuous production of lentiviral and gammaretroviral vectors
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    Jaeyoung Park, Sarah Inwood, Srivalli Kruthiventi, Jackson Jenkins, Joseph Shiloach, Michael Betenbaugh
    更新日期:2018-10-11
  • Challenges to industrial mAb bioprocessing—removal of host cell proteins in CHO cell bioprocesses
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Sarah Gilgunn, Jonathan Bones

    Monoclonal antibodies hold a steadfast lead in the ever-expanding biologics marketplace and have revolutionized the treatment of a wide variety of illnesses. The prominence of mAbs as therapeutic agents brought with it the need for large scale production of these drugs, which in turn highlighted the need for improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titres. Increased product titres shifted bioprocessing concerns downstream as with increased titre brought along the increased expression of unwanted host cell proteins (HCPs). HCPs are a highly diverse range of proteins. While some HCPs can be degradative to the product itself, others could induce an unwanted immune response compromising the safety and efficacy of the biologic. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are currently the gold standard for release testing for HCPs. ELISAs provide quantitative measurement of total HCP levels but have several limitations. Industry has shifted towards the use of orthogonal methods to support process development and validation with a particular focus on analytical tools such as LC–MS/MS.This review discusses the current methods for identification and analysis of problematic HCPs in CHO cell lines used for mAb bioprocessing.

    更新日期:2018-10-10
  • Strategies to enhance productivity and modify product quality in therapeutic proteins
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Devesh Radhakrishnan, Evan A Wells, Anne Skaja Robinson
    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Computational tools for predicting and controlling the glycosylation of biopharmaceuticals
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Cleo Kontoravdi, Ioscani Jimenez del Val

    Glycosylation is a critical quality attribute of biopharmaceuticals because it is a major source of structural variability that influences the in vivo safety and therapeutic efficacy of these products. Manufacturing process conditions are known to influence the monosaccharide composition and relative abundance of the complex carbohydrates bound to therapeutic proteins. Multiple computational tools have been developed to describe these process/product quality relationships in order to control and optimise the glycosylation of biopharmaceuticals. This review will provide a summary highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each modelling strategy in their application towards cellular glycoengineering or bioprocess design and control. To conclude, potential unified glycosylation modelling approaches for biopharmaceutical quality assurance are proposed.

    更新日期:2018-10-09
  • Transformation of biomanufacturing by single-use systems and technology
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Gregory T Frank

    Biomanufacturing has been and continues to be transformed by the rapid innovation and adoption of single use technology (SUT). SUT has changed how bioprocesses are designed, scaled, operated, controlled, and the speed at which new technology can be incorporated into biomanufacturing. We are continually seeing advances in single use bioreactors, mixing vessels, harvest technology, and downstream bioprocess equipment. This transformation has not been limited to bioprocess equipment. In this contribution, a summary of how SUT is rapidly transforming bioprocesses and the facilities they operate in will be discussed, including SUT enabled bioprocess intensification through high cell density perfusion and continuous biomanufacturing processes. Examples of how SUT has opened up new approaches to achieving regulatory and bioprocess requirements resulting in simplified, less costly facilities to build and to operate will be presented.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Mechanistic modeling and applications for CHO cell culture development and production
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Sha Sha, Zhuangrong Huang, Zhao Wang, Seongkyu Yoon

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures are widely used to produce biologics in the biopharmaceutical industry. The biopharmaceutical industry requires to improve the efficiency of process development as a response to the increasing market competition. The traditional approaches to optimize cell culture are typically empirically-based and generally time-consuming. The use of mechanistic models can be beneficial to these industrially relevant exercises and improve the efficiency of process development. This review introduces stoichiometric and kinetic models, the two commonly used mathematical approaches to describe cell system, and discusses the challenges associated such as parameterization and generalizability with respect to model applications. Examples of applying mechanistic models across the stages of process understanding, optimization and control are reviewed.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • 更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Dynamic process intensification
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Michael Baldea, Thomas F Edgar
    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Media formulation optimization: current and future opportunities
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Shaun C. Galbraith, Hemlata Bhatia, Huolong Liu, Seongkyu Yoon
    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • Recent advances in iron-based high-temperature water-gas shift catalysis for hydrogen production
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Devaiah Damma, Panagiotis G Smirniotis

    The high-temperature water-gas shift (HT-WGS) has received tremendous interest for the production of clean hydrogen in large scale. Iron-based oxide catalysts are widely studied for the HT-WGS reaction due to their high activity, durability, and relatively low manufacturing costs. In this review, we discussed the recent findings, especially, the role of different promoters on the HT-WGS performance of the Fe-based oxides catalyst. The review reported the recent attempts to replace the toxic Cr in the Fe/Cr-based catalysts. The article also reviews the structure-activity relations with various characterization techniques. Further, we highlighted the recent progress in understanding the catalyst structure and reaction mechanism during the reaction by in-situ and operando studies.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Advances in process control strategies for mammalian fed-batch cultures
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    Joon Chong Yee, Matthew S Rehmann, Grace Yao, Steven W Sowa, Kathryn L Aron, Jun Tian, Michael C Borys, Zheng Jian Li
    更新日期:2018-10-02
  • Adoptive T cell therapy: engineering and biomanufacturing chimeric antigen receptor-T cell
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Jackson Jenkins, Jaeyoung Park, Kristen Petersen, Kahmil Shajihan, Srivalli Kruthiventi, Michael Betenbaugh
    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • Process integration and control in continuous bioprocessing
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-09-29
    Anurag S Rathore, Nikhil Kateja, Devashish Kumar

    Biopharmaceutical industry is presently facing multiple economic, political and regulatory challenges. The adoption of continuous bioprocessing is expected to partly alleviate these. Over the years, many technology solutions have been developed for various biotech unit operations which were hitherto operated in batch fashion. The next challenge is to integrate all unit operations to create a fully continuous manufacturing system. In this article, we discuss recent developments in process integration and control under a proposed framework consisting of modular, adaptation and merger approaches of integration with a particular emphasis on developments that have occurred in the past five years (2013–2018).

    更新日期:2018-09-29
  • 更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Hydrogen purification with CO2-selective facilitated transport membranes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Witopo Salim, W.S. Winston Ho

    H2 is an important industrial gas, and high purity H2 is required for applications. Recent advances in both H2-selective and CO2-selective membranes for H2 purification are reviewed with an emphasis on the development of CO2-selective facilitated transport membranes for H2 purification. With CO2-selective facilitated transport membranes, examples of high-pressure and low-pressure H2 purification applications are discussed. In high-pressure H2 purification in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) operation, experimental and modeling results demonstrated the potential of amine-containing facilitated transport membranes to achieve an economically attractive cost of electricity. CO2-selective membranes for low-pressure H2 purification for fuel cells have been developed for both PEMFC and SOFC. The membranes have been scaled-up, and they have shown promising gas transport performances for the respective applications.

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Towards next generation CHO cell line development and engineering by systems approaches
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Jong Kwang Hong, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Chetan Goudar, Dong-Yup Lee

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most prevalent mammalian cell factories for producing therapeutic biologics, due to its capacity for complex post-translational modifications, ability to grow well in suspension cultures and low susceptibility to human viral infections. Significant advances in various modules of the CHO cell line development and engineering (CLD&E) have contributed to up to 100-fold increase in the product yields over the last three decades. Although production yield still remains the major focus in CLD&E, product quality and long-term stability have increasingly appeared to be the additional criteria. Towards achieving such goals, various platforms involving high-throughput clonal evaluation in automated manner, efficient vector designs, RNA interference methods and genome editing techniques have been developed to generate highly productive clones much faster with desired quality attributes and cell line traits. Since CHO genome was sequenced, we can now systematically characterize CHO cells using high-throughput omics profiles and in silico computational models, thereby identifying relevant targets for rational cell engineering which can be readily validated by the emerging genome editing techniques in a targeted and precise manner. In this review, we summarize the history of CHO CLD&E, and then describe the major technological advancements along with the application areas. Lastly, our perspectives on the next generation CLD&E are provided within the context of mammalian systems biotechnology.

    更新日期:2018-09-18
  • Sub-2 nm particle measurement in high-temperature aerosol reactors: a review
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-24
    Pratim Biswas, Yang Wang, Michel Attoui
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Model reduction in chemical dynamics: slow invariant manifolds, singular perturbations, thermodynamic estimates, and analysis of reaction graph
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    AN Gorban

    The paper has two goals: (1) It presents basic ideas, notions, and methods for reduction of reaction kinetics models: quasi-steady-state, quasi-equilibrium, slow invariant manifolds, and limiting steps. (2) It describes briefly the current state of the art and some latest achievements in the broad area of model reduction in chemical and biochemical kinetics, including new results in methods of invariant manifolds, computation singular perturbation, bottleneck methods, asymptotology, tropical equilibration, and reaction mechanism skeletonization.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Numerical bifurcation analysis of large-scale detailed kinetics mechanisms
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Istvan Lengyel, David H West

    Despite the benefits of studying dynamical behavior of chemically reacting systems by bifurcation analysis, its utilization for large mechanisms is greatly limited by the lack of available software, and clear and published strategies for improving the technique. This paper reviews recent progress, and reports strategies we identified that greatly improve reliability and speed of computations. These are tested by combining two open-source software packages: AUTO-07p (bifurcation analysis) and Cantera (kinetics mechanism interpreter). Examples are shown for one-parameter and two-parameter bifurcation curves of methane partial oxidation. Cool and hot-flame regions and their dependence on secondary parameters can be identified and used to gain insight to previously unexplored operating regimes and potentially new reactor designs. Invariance in the bifurcation diagram provides evidence of successful mechanism reduction.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Synchronization engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-03
    István Z Kiss
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • New directions for nonlinear process optimization
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Lorenz T .Biegler

    The last three decades have seen tremendous advances in nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithms and software for process optimization. Moreover, powerful optimization modeling environments enable the formulation and solution of large-scale optimization applications. In fact, the combination of modern NLP algorithms and optimization platforms leads to fast solution strategies that now routinely solve problems with 104–106 variables, with major impacts in process design, operations and control. This is illustrated here with two dynamic optimization case studies to emphasize these characteristics. Moreover, these powerful optimization strategies integrate to accessible optimization modeling platforms that can be incorporated within a broad spectrum of engineering tasks.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Advances in mathematical modelling of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dynamics and the neuroendocrine response to stress
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Ana Stanojević, Vladimir M Marković, Željko Čupić, Ljiljana Kolar-Anić, Vladana Vukojević

    Stress is a physiological reaction of an organism to a demand for change that is imposed by external factors or is coming from within by way of physiological strains or self-perceived mental and/or emotional threats (internal factors). It manifests itself through the sudden release of a flood of hormones, including corticosteroids, into the blood, which rouse the body for action. Normally, stress is beneficial, but when lasting or being very strong, it causes major damage to our mind and body. Despite intense research, we still do not understand fully how the stress response axis, whose main function is to respond to challenges while maintaining the normal physiological balance, loses under prolonged exposure to stressors its capacity to maintain homeostasis. Recent applications of mathematical modelling and dynamical systems theory have enabled us to emulate complex neurochemical transformations that underlie the stress response, and help us to acquire deeper understanding of this dynamical regulatory network.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Logical versus kinetic modeling of biological networks: applications in cancer research
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-09
    Laurence Calzone, Emmanuel Barillot, Andrei Zinovyev
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Recent advances in dynamic chemical characterization using Temporal Analysis of Products
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-09
    Rebecca Fushimi, John Gleaves

    The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) technique is a pulse response methodology that reveals the time-dependent evolution of chemical processes between a gas phase molecule and a solid surface. By simplifying both the transport and kinetic processes the complexity of a multistep chemical processes can be distilled to where the underlying fundamental steps can be distinguished. Moreover, the technique is applicable to real materials (e.g. industrial catalysts) and hence the complexity of the solid is studied intact; a ‘top-down’ approach. In this short review we discuss key theoretical advancements in the interpretation of pulse response data; though not yet widely implemented, we will highlight the broader impacts of the Y-Procedure method [1••], momentary equilibrium phenomena [2••] and kinetic coherency discrimination [3••] over more commonly used analysis techniques. The conventional TAP approach for mechanism development is well-laid out in a recent work focused on the upgrading of ethanol to higher hydrocarbons. This includes detailed comparison of the time characteristics of reactant, intermediate and product pulses in both single pulse and pump/probe modes [4••]. This work calls to mind some of the challenges in the conventionally used residual gas analyzer for pulse response detection of homologous products. A new detection method using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (PEPICO) was recently demonstrated for a TAP-like setup [5••]. This method presents the exciting opportunity to better resolve complex product spectra and even isomeric species. This enables the mechanistic detail of the TAP technique to be applied to more complex probe molecules as are needed for the study of biomass conversion processes. Finally, we discuss directions for the future development of instrumentation that can directly connect this rich kinetic data to features of catalyst structural and composition.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Facts and alternative facts in chemical kinetics: remarks about the kinetic use of activities, termolecular processes, and linearization techniques
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-31
    Gábor Lente

    This contribution examines three different controversial questions that arise in the everyday practice of chemical kinetics. First, it is argued that concentrations should be used as independent variables in rate equations rather than activities. The occasional use of activities in this context might be a result of a false analogy with well-established thermodynamic practices. Second, it is argued that termolecular elementary reactions might be more common than generally assumed. Formulas are derived to calculate the frequency of three-body collisions and it is pointed out that this frequency is often larger than the rates of third-order reactions. Finally, two experimental examples (exponential curves and Michaelis–Menten kinetics) are shown in order to demonstrate how misleading it can be to use linearized formulas for quantitative evaluation.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Lattice Boltzmann simulations for multi-scale chemical engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Harry EA Van den Akker

    This review starts with a concise explanation of the basics and advantages of the Lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for simulating both single-phase and multiphase complex flow systems. The focus is on recent developments in the field of LBMs, particularly with respect to the multi-component pseudo-potential LBM, which is excellently suitable for simulating individual drops and bubbles as well as emulsions (including surfactants) and bubbly flows. Very promising findings have also been reported on applying the LBM to heat and mass transport and to chemical reactions. It is therefore safe to claim that the LBM is the smartest choice for computationally simulating processes in all types of equipment.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Present and future of MOF research in the field of adsorption and molecular separation
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Camille Petit

    It is a critical and exciting time for research on adsorption using metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as we witness the commercial release of the MOF-based products TruPick and ION-X, two MOF-based products with application in the food packaging and electronic gas delivery platform sectors, respectively. Such milestones call for reflection on the outputs of MOF research in the field of adsorption so far and the challenges and opportunities lying ahead. To this end, this review provides a snapshot of current trends in this research space (i.e. new adsorption application, manufacturing, role of modeling), highlights the most promising structures for given applications (i.e. in gas adsorption, gas storage, molecular separation, water purification and harvesting), points to technical barriers, and exposes a vision for future research in this area.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Metal-organic framework adsorbents and membranes for separation applications
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-05-12
    Jingui Duan, Yichang Pan, Gongping Liu, Wanqin Jin

    With versatile chemical and engineering design, the more attention of metal-organic framework (MOF) material is shifting from its fundamental studies to industrial applications, such as engineering MOF adsorbents and membranes for selective guest capture and separations. Learned from zeolites, various effective strategies in material design, adsorbents assembly, and membranes fabrication have enabled the MOFs gradually to approach high industrial standards, bearing their unique chemical and physical properties. In this review, we focus on the important factors that may affect the practical applications of MOF adsorbents and MOF membranes.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Flexibility of metal-organic frameworks for separations: utilization, suppression and regulation
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Hua Jin, Yanshuo Li

    Framework flexibility and dynamic behavior are unique characteristics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Gate-opening, as one of flexibility modes of MOFs, is mainly triggered by guest adsorption. The gate-opening feature of MOFs is influenced by the types of guest molecules, pressure, temperature and crystal size of MOFs. Gate-opening of MOFs led to an unexpected selectivity when used as adsorbents, as a result of guest-dependent gate-opening pressure. However, when MOFs were adapted for membrane separations, the framework flexibility sometimes can be disadvantage, resulting in the absence of sharp molecular sieving. This evokes considerable research efforts in recent years to suppress the negative impacts of framework flexibility, for example, hindering the gate-opening effects, on the gas separation performance of MOF membranes. Very recently, accurate regulation of gate-opening of MOF membranes by applying an external electric field was demonstrated, opening new scenario to develop MOFs with excellent performances for molecular separations.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Development of ZIF-8 membranes: opportunities and challenges for commercial applications
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-24
    Zhiping Lai

    Metal organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted significant attentions in recent years because of their potentials in gas and liquid separations and other applications such as catalysis and chemical sensors, etc. More than half of the MOF membrane publications up to date are related to ZIF-8 system, because of its easy synthesis, relatively high stability, and excellent gas separation performance, which allows many novel ideas to be easily implemented. Extensive studies have shown that ZIF-8 membranes hold great potentials in gas separations, but may face great challenges in liquid separations mainly because of their poor stability. This is also a common observation for other MOF membranes. As such, in this article we use ZIF-8 membrane as a prototype and focus on its development in gas separations for the discussions of the most concerned issues related to membrane commercialization including membrane synthesis, separation performance, stability, process reproducibility, and finally on the opportunities and challenges that MOF membranes may face in industrial applications.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Sorption-enhanced membrane materials for gas separation: a road less traveled
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Maryam Omidvar, Hien Nguyen, Junyi Liu, Haiqing Lin
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Two-dimensional materials: an emerging platform for gas separation membranes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-19
    Farhad Moghadam, Ho Bum Park

    Graphene and its derivatives are of particular interest as emerging platforms for molecular separation. However, there are abundant 2D nanomaterials other than graphene that have unique and intriguing structural features that can be exploited for membrane-based separation that have not been extensively studied. Furthermore, from a materials synthesis standpoint, realizing high yield and scalable methods for massive production of 2D nanomaterials is critical. Liquid-based exfoliation to produce 2D nanosheets from layered bulk crystals has recently drawn considerable attention. Such single-layered or few-layered 2D nanosheets can be formed into laminate membranes with exceptional molecular-sieving properties or more preferably utilized as high aspect ratio nanofillers to improve the separation performance of polymer membranes. Most remarkably, 2D nanosheets can mitigate the well-known plasticization phenomenon in polymer membranes by interacting strongly with the polymer chains. There is no doubt that these emerging 2D nanomaterials will facilitate fabrication of next-generation membranes.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Nanoporous materials in polymeric membranes for desalination
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Pinar Cay-Durgun, Mary Laura Lind
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Chemical modification of membrane surface — overview
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-22
    Lakshmeesha Upadhyaya, Xianghong Qian, S Ranil Wickramasinghe

    Membrane surface properties critically affect membrane performance as it is the membrane surface that contacts the feed. Chemical modification of membrane surfaces is an attractive method to impart desirable surface properties while retaining the desired bulk polymer properties such as mechanical and chemical resistance and membrane morphology. Fouling or adsorption of undesirable species onto the membrane surface affects membrane properties and leads to compromised performance. Consequently, a great deal of effort has focused on minimizing the unsought accumulation of molecules on the membrane surface. Hence, this review focuses on membrane surface modification for suppression of fouling. Recent progress in the field of chemical modification is highlighted along with challenges and future direction. In particular the development of controlled polymerization methods that permit better control of the three-dimensional structure of the grafted nanolayer has been a major focus of recent research.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Surface-patterning of polymeric membranes: fabrication and performance
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-16
    Ozge Heinz, Masoud Aghajani, Alan R Greenberg, Yifu Ding

    In recent years, surface patterning of membranes has been explored as a new strategy to modify surface properties of polymeric membranes. A variety of methods including template-based micromolding and direct printing have been developed for effective fabrication of surface-patterned membranes. In this review, we compare the underlying pattern replication mechanisms and the advantages and challenges associated with the range of different fabrication methods. The presence of the surface patterns, when properly created, can enlarge the active surface/interfacial area, create more effective conduction pathways, and enhance the hydrodynamic effects. These effects can be harnessed for improving membrane performance for a wide range of applications.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Emerging opportunities for electrochemical processing to enable sustainable chemical manufacturing
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-05-31
    Michael J Orella, Yuriy Román-Leshkov, Fikile R Brushett
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Understanding the influence of the electrochemical double-layer on heterogeneous electrochemical reactions
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-05-28
    Marco Dunwell, Yushan Yan, Bingjun Xu

    A detailed understanding of the electrical double layer is key to the optimization of heterogeneous electrochemical reactions. In this work, we provide a brief summary of key experimental and computational studies of three key aspects of the double layer: Firstly, potential-dependent structure of the solvent; secondly, reaction-induced concentration gradients; and finally, the potential-dependent behavior of electrolyte cations and their effect on double layer structure, reaction activity, and selectivity. Studies of the double layer in polymer ion exchange membrane devices are also assessed. Finally, we discuss the importance and implications of the previous literature, and provide recommendations for future topics of study and methodological improvements toward a more complete understanding of the effect of various aspects of the electrical double layer on heterogeneous electrochemical reactions.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Chemical looping at the nanoscale — challenges and opportunities
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Amit Mishra, Fanxing Li

    The activity and long-term performance of oxygen carrier particles, which undergo cyclic reduction–oxidation (redox) reactions at elevated temperatures, are of critical importance to chemical looping processes. Although the significant thermal and redox stresses in chemical looping reaction make it challenging to stabilize metal oxide based oxygen carriers at the nanoscale, a number of promising approaches have been proposed and investigated over the past decade. This article summarizes recent advances in nanoscale oxygen carrier development. Mechanistic insights in the redox reactions of the oxygen carriers and their implications for the design and optimization of oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion and partial oxidation reactions are also discussed.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Recent progress in photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide over gallium oxide and its nanocomposites
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Zeai Huang, Kentaro Teramura, Hiroyuki Asakura, Saburo Hosokawa, Tsunehiro Tanaka

    Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 is a promising method to solve problems of both energy crisis and global climate change. The efficient transfer of solar energy into high-value chemical energy is the ultimate goal of this technology. Gallium oxide is a suitable candidate for the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 due to its ideal band positions. Modification of Ga2O3 to achieve enhanced photocatalytic activity and understanding the catalytic mechanism are important for the design of high-efficiency photocatalysts.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Nanostructured faceted ceria as oxidation catalyst
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Sukanya Datta, Laura Torrente-Murciano
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds on pillared interlayered clay (PILC)-based catalysts
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Jingrong Li, Maocong Hu, Shufeng Zuo, Xianqin Wang
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Transformation of CO2 by using nanoscale metal catalysts: cases studies on the formation of formic acid and dimethylether
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Ning Yan, Karine Philippot

    The valorization of CO2 has gained increasing interest in the scientific and industrial communities during the last decades with intensive research devoted to CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. This is because the greenhouse gas emission has become a serious concern to face the global climate change and that efficient solutions are required to reduce the carbon footprint. Up to now the chemical transformation of CO2 into fuels and target molecules has been mainly investigated by using molecular catalysts. However, the ability of heterogeneous catalysts or nanomaterials for this catalysis has been recently explored and promising results achieved in the production of formic acid (FA) and dimethylether (DME) from CO2 with nanoscale metal catalysts. Relevant examples will illustrate the high potential of this class of catalysts that could offer new solutions for the selective transformation of CO2 toward fuels and high added value chemicals in the future.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Progress in hydrogen production over transition metal carbide catalysts: challenges and opportunities
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Xiao Zhang, Chuan Shi, Bingbing Chen, Andrew N Kuhn, Ding Ma, Hong Yang

    Incorporation of carbon into metal lattices yields transition metal carbides (TMCs) with properties quite different from their parent metals and corresponding metal oxides. In this short review, we summarize the recent progress on employing TMCs as active catalysts for hydrogen (H2) production, namely by the water-gas-shift reaction, methanol reforming, and the hydrogen evolution reaction in water electrolysis. Special interest is put on comparing the catalytic properties of TMCs with traditional metal oxide catalysts to understand the superior activities of TMCs in H2-production reactions.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Alloys with Pt-skin or Pt-rich surface for electrocatalysis
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-12
    Jing Li, Li Li, Min Jie Wang, Jianchuan Wang, Zidong Wei
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Emerging applications of nanocatalysts synthesized by flame aerosol processes
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-22
    Yuan Sheng, Markus Kraft, Rong Xu
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • The exciting potential of modular nanoparticles for rapid development of highly effective vaccines
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2017-12-07
    Julie A Fogarty, James R Swartz

    Most current vaccine strategies employ live-attenuated or killed versions of the pathogen. While effective in the developed world, expense and cold-chain dependence make broad access to such vaccines difficult in the developing world. Additionally, current vaccine development processes provide only slow responses to emerging or evolved pathogens. Nanoparticle platform technologies for vaccines can overcome these issues. Polymeric nanoparticles have shown pre-clinical success but suffer from structural heterogeneity, instability, and potential off-target immunogenicity issues. Engineered virus-like particles are emerging as a versatile platform for rapid vaccine development. They can be engineered for high stability, facile antigen conjugation in precise orientations, and high potency. Virus-like particle vaccines are poised to deliver the design features required for worldwide distribution of highly effective vaccines.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Mapping serum antibody repertoires using peptide libraries
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Michael L Paull, Patrick S Daugherty
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Reprogramming immune proteins as therapeutics using molecular engineering
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2017-12-27
    Rakeeb Kureshi, Michelle Bahri, Jamie B Spangler
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • T cell receptor signal transduction: affinity, force and conformational change
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    Duane Moogk, Aswin Natarajan, Michelle Krogsgaard

    T cell recognition of antigen and resulting proximal signaling are key steps in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The T cell receptor interaction with antigen drives signal initiation in an affinity-dependent manner, but many aspects of this process remain incompletely understood, including what regions are responsible for structural changes in the TCR upon antigen binding, the importance of extracellular T cell receptor interactions with CD3, how structural changes are integrated with signaling components, and the role of force in signal transduction. Advances in structural modeling of the TCR–CD3 complex and the ability to quantify the affinity and biophysical nature of these molecular interactions have significantly furthered our understanding of the mechanism of transduction of T cell antigen recognition into intracellular signaling. This knowledge is paramount to understanding how T cell perform their critical role in adaptive immune responses, and for the development and improvement of immunotherapies.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Immunotherapy for neurodegenerative diseases: the Alzheimer's disease paradigm
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra Villegas

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the progressive accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that eventually lead to the loss of selected neuronal populations. Immunotherapy has been shown in the recent years as a promising approach for targeting, clearing, and reducing the accumulation of protein aggregates. Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, has been the focus of numerous immunotherapeutic studies because the extracellular nature of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. The aim of the current work is to dissect the state-of-the-art of anti-Aβ immunotherapy for AD. The rationale behind anti-Aβ antibodies, what has happened in clinical trials, and which strategies have been designed to avoid side-effects and improve the efficacy of those antibodies are presented.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Animal models for evaluation of albumin-based therapeutics
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Jeannette Nilsen, Inger Sandlie, Derry C Roopenian, Jan Terje Andersen
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Engineering a new generation of carbohydrate-based vaccines
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Kevin B Weyant, Dominic C Mills, Matthew P DeLisa
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Emerging trends in bispecific antibody and scaffold protein therapeutics
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Petra Verdino, Shane Atwell, Stephen J Demarest

    Bispecific antibody and protein therapeutics have a long scientific history. In the last few years there has been a renaissance in their design and application. Clinical trial data with both monoclonal antibodies and bispecifics is beginning to provide feedback regarding the most opportunistic areas for bispecifics and the hurdles many of them may face. Bispecific molecules that utilize IgG-fragments or novel scaffolds to bind two antigens or two epitopes on the same antigen are demonstrating their unique strengths as therapeutics and diagnostics, such as in blood–brain-barrier penetration, in the immune synapse and as cancer imaging agents. A push toward bispecifics that have a native IgG architecture has also been widespread over the past few years with the goal of capturing the clinically validated therapeutic properties of standard monoclonal antibodies. Lastly, as the biological mechanisms of diseases become further elucidated, utilizing bispecifics or perhaps tri/tetraspecifics may enable improved therapeutic outcomes.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Engineering therapeutic antibodies to combat infectious diseases
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-07
    Ellen K Wagner, Jennifer A Maynard
    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • 更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Antibody based therapy for childhood solid cancers
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.033) Pub Date : 2018-03-10
    Kathleen Birley, Kerry Chester, John Anderson
    更新日期:2018-06-03
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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