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  • Novel graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-incorporated thin film composite (TFC) membranes for forward osmosis (FO) desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.603) Pub Date : 2018-05-05
    Shengjie Xu, Feng Li, Baowei Su, Michael Z. Hu, Xueli Gao, Congjie Gao

    This paper reports a novel class of thin film composite (TFC) membranes for forward osmosis (FO) desalination. The TFC membranes were fabricated via interfacial polymerization (IP) of aqueous mixture of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with organic solution of trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration substrates. The chemical structures and morphologies of the synthesized GQDs and the GQDs-incorporated membranes were studied by various characterization techniques. The synthesized GQDs exhibited a narrow size distribution of 1.0–4.0 nm with an average size of 2.19 nm, and the thickness were one to three graphene layers. The results showed that GQDs nanoparticles were covalently bonded to the polyamide chains. The optimized TFC membrane with 0.050 wt% GQDs loading exhibited quite hydrophilic and neutrally charged membrane surface, along with an enhanced water flux of 12.9 L m−2 h−1 and a comparable reverse salt flux of 1.41 g m−2 h−1 when DI water and 0.5 M MgCl2 were used as the feed solution and the draw solution, respectively. Also, the optimized GQDs-incorporated TFC membrane presented an especially good anti-fouling performance. Thus, incorporating the novel graphene nanomaterial into polymer membranes may present its great potential application in desalination, purification and wastewater treatment.

    更新日期:2018-05-05
  • Evaluation of NF membranes as treatment technology of acid mine drainage: metals and sulfate removal
    Desalination (IF 6.603) Pub Date : 2018-04-13
    J. Lopez, M. Reig, O. Gibert, C. Valderrama, J.L. Cortina

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are acidic streams rich in dissolved ferrous and non-ferrous metal sulfates and minor amounts of non-metals. Nanofiltration (NF) has been postulated as a potential technology in the metallurgical and mining industry to recover strong acids as H2SO4 and concentrate metallic ions from acidic mine waters. The performance of semi-aromatic polyamide (NF270) and sulfonated polyethersulfone (HydraCoRe 70pHT) NF membranes were evaluated at different trans-membrane pressures. Different synthetic solutions were filtered under spiral wound configuration at two pHs (2.0 and 2.8): i) a solution of Na2SO4 and ii) a solution mimicking AMD from dams, containing Na2SO4 and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. NF270 showed metal rejections higher than 90%, while for HydraCoRe 70pHT they were in between 60 and 70%. Metal rejection values decreased when solution acidity was increased. Chemical composition of the membrane active layer and the aqueous metal-sulfate speciation were found to have a large impact on membrane separation process. Solution-Electromigration-Diffusion-Film model was used to estimate the membrane permeances to ions from the measured ion rejections. Furthermore, a full scale unit vessel containing six spiral wound membrane modules was simulated. NF270 showed a higher capacity for concentrating metal and sulfate ions (100%) than Hydracore 70pHT (50%).

    更新日期:2018-04-25
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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