Development and performance evaluation of an active solar distillation system integrated with a vacuum-type heat exchanger Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Ali Hosseini, Ahmad Banakar, Shiva Gorjian
Hybrid desalination processes for beneficial use of reverse osmosis brine: Current status and future prospects Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 Sangho Lee, Juneseok Choi, Yong-Gyun Park, Hokyong Shon, Chang Hoon Ahn, Seung-Hyun Kim
As water shortage has increasingly become a serious global problem, desalination using seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is considered as a sustainable source of potable water sources. However, a major issue on the SWRO desalination plant is the generation of brine that has potential adverse impact due to its high salt concentration. Accordingly, it is necessary to develop technologies that allow environmentally friendly and economically viable management of SWRO brines.This paper gives an overview of recent research works and technologies to treat SWRO brines for its beneficial use. The treatment processes have been classified into two different groups according to their final purpose: 1) technologies for producing fresh water and 2) technologies for recovering energy. Topics in this paper includes membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED) as emerging tools for beneficial use of SWRO brine. In addition, a new approach to simultaneously recover water and energy from SWRO brine is introduced as a case study to provide insight into improving the sustainability of seawater desalination.
Exergy analysis of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Pina A. Fritz, F.K. Zisopoulos, S. Verheggen, K. Schroën, R.M. Boom
Capacitive deionization (CDI) and membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) are widely considered as promising, highly energy efficient processes for water desalination, of which commonly used performance indicators are the average salt adsorption rate, the salt removal efficiency, and the charge efficiency. Quantification of the sustainability performance of CDI and MCDI is still scarce, and in this paper, we use exergy analysis to evaluate the resource use efficiency of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI). The electric as well as chemical exergies of the salt solution, and the stored ions, are used to calculate the exergy efficiency (ηex) and cumulative exergy losses (CEL) ranging between 2 to 13% and 0.5 to 8 J/mol water, respectively. From an exergetic point of view, passive adsorption in combination with active desorption (−0.9 V) is favorable, yielding the highest ηex and lowest CEL values. The combination of active salt adsorption using an electric field, with either passive or active desorption gives higher productivities, but at the cost of a disproportionate amount of exergy (and energy) input.
Effect of a porous spacer on the limiting current density in an electro-dialysis desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 Yoshihiko Sano, Xiaohui Bai, Shuzen Amagai, Akira Nakayama
A series of experiments have been carried out to examine the performance of porous spacers proposed for increasing the limiting current density, since it is of fundamental importance to find an optimal operate condition in an electro-dialysis. The fluid mixing in the porous material can play an important role to suppress the concentration polarization and achieve a high limiting current density. The effect of porous spacers filled in both dilute and concentrate channels on the stack voltage and the limiting current density has been investigated by comparing the cases with and without porous spacers. It has been found that the limiting current density with porous spacers is 1.8 to 3.3 times higher than that without a porous spacer as a result of mechanical dispersion caused by fluid mixing in porous materials. Furthermore, the increase ratio of limiting current density with the present spacers to that without spacer is higher than that of conventional mesh spacers. Moreover, it was found that the electrical resistance does not increase even when inserting the present porous spacers by comparing that of conventional mesh spacers, since the present porous spacer can suppress the concentration polarization concerned with electrical resistance. On the other hand, the increase in the pumping power turns to be negligible small by comparing the electrical power for an electro-dialysis since permeability of the present spacers is sufficiently high. In this study, it has been proven that the insertion of porous spacers is quite useful in terms of limiting current density, electrical resistance and pumping power.
Membrane selective recovery of HCl, zinc and iron from simulated mining effluents Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 M. Fresnedo San Román, Isabel Ortiz-Gándara, Eugenio Bringas, Raquel Ibañez, Inmaculada Ortiz
This work proposes a flowsheet based on the combination of membrane processes for the effective recovery of value-added components contained in mining effluents with high concentration of hydrochloric acid and metal anionic and cationic chloro-complexes. A representative case of study has been selected consisting of a solution of zinc and iron that under the studied conditions were solubilized forming anionic and cationic chloro-complexes. The high complexity of the system requires of a selective membrane-based solvent extraction step to successfully achieve the separation of cationic iron from a solution containing the acid together with anionic species of zinc followed by a diffusion process through ion conductive membranes for acid recovery; in this step electrodialysis was selected searching for the optimum trade-off between process kinetics and separation selectivity. Although the quantitative results are case-dependent, the methodology can be well extended to any mining leaching effluent coming from the use of HCl as leaching agent and containing metal chloro-complexes.
Low energy consumption dual-ion electrochemical deionization system using NaTi2(PO4)3-AgNPs electrodes Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-13 Yinxi Huang, Fuming Chen, Lu Guo, Jun Zhang, Tupei Chen, Hui Ying Yang
Novel desalination technologies with high ion removal capacity and low energy consumption are urgently needed to solve the water scarcity problem. Here we report a novel energy efficient dual-ions electrochemical deionization (DEDI) system with Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene-oxide (AgNPs/rGO) as chloride ion Faradaic electrode and NaTi2(PO4)3/reduced graphene-oxide (NTP/rGO) as sodium ion Faradaic electrode. During the intercalation process, the sodium ions and chloride ions in the feed solution will be chemically intercalated into NTP/rGO electrode and AgNPs/rGO electrode, respectively. The DEDI system shows a stable and reversible salt removal capacity of 105 mg g−1 for 50 cycles with applied voltage range of −1.2–1.4 V. More importantly, when applying from 0 V to 1.4 V, although the removal capacity is relatively low (35.8 mg g−1), the energy recovery of this system is higher than 30% and the energy consumption is as low as 0.127 Wh g−1. Considering the brackish water used here is 2500 ppm, the energy consumption can be estimated to be 0.254 Wh L−1 for desalination of brackish water to drinkable water (500 ppm). The excellent performance of this DEDI system has made it a promising commercial technology for desalination of brackish water even seawater in the future.
Electrodialysis for water desalination: A critical assessment of recent developments on process fundamentals, models and applications Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 A. Campione, L. Gurreri, M. Ciofalo, G. Micale, A. Tamburini, A. Cipollina
The need for unconventional sources of fresh water is pushing a fast development of desalination technologies, which proved to be able to face and solve the problem of water scarcity in many dry areas of the planet. Membrane desalination technologies are nowadays leading the market and, among these, electrodialysis (ED) plays an important role, especially for brackish water desalination, thanks to its robustness, extreme flexibility and broad range of applications. In fact, many ED-related processes have been presented, based on the use of Ion Exchange Membranes (IEMs), which are significantly boosting the development of ED-related technologies. This paper presents the fundamentals of the ED process and its main developments. An important outlook is given to operational aspects, hydrodynamics and mass transport phenomena, with an extensive review of literature studies focusing on theoretical or experimental characterization of the complex phenomena occurring in electromembrane processes and of proposed strategies for process performance enhancement. An overview of process modelling tools is provided, pointing out capabilities and limitations of the different approaches and their possible application to optimisation analysis and perspective developments of ED technology. Finally, the most recent applications of ED-related processes are presented, highlighting limitations and potentialities in the water and energy industry.
Quantitative sustainability analysis of water desalination – A didactic example for reverse osmosis Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Noam Lior, David Kim
Water desalination continues to evolve to a currently mature stage that, similarly to all large human endeavors, must be planned, designed, and operated according to the quantitative holistic sustainability paradigm and criteria that are defined by the interrelated aspects of the environmental, economic, and social pillars of the endeavor. A methodology for such evaluation was described in , including equations for formulating a composite sustainability index as a function of relevant parameters, which thus allows mathematical analysis in general and sensitivity analysis and optimization in particular. This is the first paper that demonstrates this methodology and its use for desalination by presenting an example of a comprehensive and detailed original sustainability analysis of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants and of their comparison. It includes the selection and calculation of metrics (for simplicity, a small number and partially synthetic) and weights, as well as their aggregation to a composite sustainability indicator, using typical data values. The aggregation is performed by an original concept of impact quantification and monetization. An analysis of sensitivity to choice of weights and to the combined environmental and social impact factors was conducted. The presented sustainability analysis example should be helpful for both didactic and practical purposes, and the methodology is flexible, modular, adaptable, and enhancable to meet other and evolving needs.
State of the art review on membrane surface characterisation: Visualisation, verification and quantification of membrane properties Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-03-20 Daniel J. Johnson, Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe, Nidal Hilal
Many of the properties exhibited by separation membranes are due to interactions at the interface with their environment, including flux, rejection of solutes and surface fouling. As such when trying to understand how such interactions affect their function and when developing novel membranes with improved properties, a thorough understanding of their surface properties is essential. In this review paper we describe and discuss a number of instrumental techniques commonly used to characterize membrane surface, along with illustrative examples from the literature on membrane development and characterisation. The techniques described include spectroscopic techniques, microscopic techniques and methods to measure the surface wettability and electrokinetic behaviour.
Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-04-26 Jung-Gil Lee, Woo-Seung Kim, June-Seok Choi, Noreddine Ghaffour, Young-Deuk Kim
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37 m3/day to 0.4 m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350 m2 to 550 m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16 m3 to 28.8 m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50 °C to 80 °C have been investigated in October and December.
A direct contact type ice generator for seawater freezing desalination using LNG cold energy Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-04-27 Chungang Xie, Lingpin Zhang, Yanhui Liu, Qingchun Lv, Guoling Ruan, Seyed Saeid Hosseini
Analysis of specific energy consumption in reverse osmosis desalination processes Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-05-03 A.J. Karabelas, C.P. Koutsou, M. Kostoglou, D.C. Sioutopoulos
This paper aims to quantify the contribution of the various factors to energy consumption in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination processes and to identify those with the greatest potential for reduction. Specific energy consumption (SEC), in kWh per m3 of permeate production, is due to the retentate osmotic pressure, the resistance to fluid permeation through the membrane, the friction losses in the retentate and permeate channels of the spiral wound membrane (SWM) modules and the non-ideal operation of high pressure pumps and energy recovery devices (ERD). Taking advantage of a recently developed SWM-module performance simulator, the aforementioned individual contributions to SEC are determined for two case studies, typical of seawater and brackish water desalination processes, for steady state operation. Detailed results are obtained with SEC itemized per SWM element in a typical 7-element pressure vessel. Comparative assessment of the results is enlightening, showing that the greatest margin for the desirable SEC reduction is related to improvements of membrane permeability and efficiency of pumps and ERD. The indirect, yet significant, effect of other key design and operating process parameters is also discussed.
Integrated PV/T solar still- A mini-review Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-05-03 A. Muthu Manokar, D. Prince Winston, A.E. Kabeel, S.A. El-Agouz, Ravishankar Sathyamurthy, T. Arunkumar, B. Madhu, Amimul Ahsan
Water is a critical component for living existence on earth. Clean water is the need of hour, but the amount of clean water available in earth is drastically reduced due to water pollution caused by industrialization and rapid urbanization. Overall global climatic and seasonal changes also have a significant impact on the reduction of amount of fresh water. The need for clean water is continuously growing due to rise in human residents for the last few decades. Use of contaminated water leads to several water borne diseases and based on the intensity of contamination sometimes it leads to death. There are various processes for obtaining fresh water from contaminated water, but the most economical and preferable method is solar distillation since the process involved in it is similar to natural hydrological cycle which requires only solar energy for its operation. Solar stills are potable and do not require any additional skills for its operation and maintenance which makes it user friendly. Integrated PV/T solar still is used for isolated communities facing electrical energy troubles and a scarcity of good quality water. The daily fresh water produced from passive solar still was found to be 2–5 kg/m2 whereas from an active solar still integrated with PV/T collector can produced daily yield of about 6–12 kg/m2. In this paper, a comprehensive review of integration of solar still and PV module has been presented.
A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-05-05 Muhammad Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad Burhan, Noreddine Ghaffour, Kim Choon Ng
All existing commercial seawater desalination processes, i.e. thermally-driven and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), are operated with universal performance ratios (UPR) varying up to 105, whilst the UPR for an ideal or thermodynamic limit (TL) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More innovative desalination methods must be sought to meet the needs of future sustainable desalination and these methods should attain an upper UPR bound of about 25 to 30% of the TL. In this paper, we examined the efficacy of a multi-effect distillation (MED) system operated with thermocline energy from the sea; a proven desalination technology that can exploit the narrow temperature gradient of 20 °C all year round created between the warm surface seawater and the cold-seawater at depths of about 300–600 m. Such a seawater thermocline (ST)-driven MED system, simply called the ST-MED process, has the potential to achieve up to 2 folds improvement in desalination efficiency over the existing methods, attaining about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the ST-MED is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential, best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths of 300 m or more.
Desalination using low biofouling nanocomposite membranes: From batch-scale to continuous-scale membrane fabrication Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-05-17 Sneha Chede, Nelson M. Anaya, Vinka Oyanedel-Craver, Sanam Gorgannejad, Tequila A.L. Harris, Jumana Al-Mallahi, Muna Abu-Dalo, Hani Abu Qdais, Isabel C. Escobar
This study shows the results of low-biofouling nanocomposite membranes, when using batch-scale fabrication and testing techniques, and when using continuous-scale fabrication and testing techniques. This holistic study begins with nanoparticle manufacturing and selection, then focuses on nanocomposite membrane synthesis and fabrication, and ends with testing and characterization. Nanocomposite membranes loaded with casein-coated silver nanoparticles (Casein-AgNPs) were cast using two approaches, doctor-blade extrusion (batch-scale) and slot-die casting (continuous-scale), to determine their biofouling control properties. In short-term dead-end filtration, cellulose acetate (CA) membranes showed a flux decline of approximately 26% as compared to 20% for nanocomposite (Casein-AgNPs CA) membranes, while the flux recovered after backwashing was higher for the nanocomposite membranes (93%) than for the CA membranes (84%). Cross-flow filtration experiments were conducted for 26 days. No flux decline was observed for nanocomposite membranes and SEM imaging indicated that bacterial cell damage might have occurred. Overall, filtration experiments and membrane testing following biofouling tests showed that laboratory-scale composite membranes operated for 24 h were effective in mitigating biofouling formation. Conversely, continuous-scale nanocomposite membranes operated for 26 days did not show clear improvement in biofouling control, however there was visible damage to cells accumulated on the membrane.
Hydrotalcite/graphene oxide hybrid nanosheets functionalized nanofiltration membrane for desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-05-18 Xue Wang, Huixian Wang, Yuanming Wang, Jian Gao, Jindun Liu, Yatao Zhang
Study on parameters effective on the performance of a humidification-dehumidification seawater greenhouse using support vector regression Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-06-02 Taleb Zarei, Reza Behyad, Ehsan Abedini
A Seawater greenhouse is a desalination plant that, using solar energy and seawater, humidifies the interior of the greenhouse and produces water from the humid air. The produced water can be used both for irrigation and human consumption. Many factors affect the performance of a seawater greenhouse. In this study, using artificial neural networks, the effects of greenhouse width and length, first evaporator height, and roof transparency on the water production and energy consumption of a seawater greenhouse were examined with the help of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method. A suitable structure was obtained for this method, and %AARE, RMSE and R2 statistic measures were used for evaluating the performance of the network. This method shows the favorable correspondence with experimental data. Using the prepared optimized network, the effect of each parameter on water production and energy consumption was examined for a wide range of variations in the parameter values. Finally, a 125 m wide, 200 m long greenhouse with a 4 m high evaporator and permeability of 0.6 was found to be the optimum configuration, offering a daily water production of 161.6 m3 for 1.558 kWh of energy consumed per cubic meter of water produced.
Integrated approach in eco-design strategy for small RO desalination plants powered by photovoltaic energy Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-06-09 Mathias Monnot, Germán Darío Martínez Carvajal, Stéphanie Laborie, Corinne Cabassud, Rémi Lebrun
Water vapor selective thin film nanocomposite membranes prepared by functionalized Silicon nanoparticles Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-06-16 Muhammad Irshad Baig, Pravin G. Ingole, Jae-deok Jeon, Seong Uk Hong, Won Kil Choi, Boyun Jang, Hyung Keun Lee
Graphene oxide–nanobentonite composite sieves for enhanced desalination and dye removal Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-06-16 Priya Banerjee, Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay, Papita Das
Mesoporous carbon derived from ZIF-8 for high efficient electrosorption Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-07-04 Tie Gao, Haibo Li, Feng Zhou, Mangmang Gao, Sen Liang, Min Luo
In this work, the capacitive deionization (CDI) behavior of mesoporous carbons (MCs) through direct carbonization of ZIF-8 at 1000 °C under Ar + 4%H2 atmosphere has been explored. The obtained MCs exhibit a well-defined mesoporous structure, with a high specific surface area of 723.41 m2·g− 1 and average pore diameter of 3.2 nm. The specific electrochemical capacitance of MCs was evaluated in a three-electrode configuration with 1 M NaCl electrolyte, showing that the capacitance reached as high as 215.72 F·g− 1 at the scan rate of 5 mV·s− 1 and 186 F·g− 1 with current density of 100 mA·g− 1, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the electrosorption capacity of MCs was 4.8 mg·g− 1 in NaCl solutions with an initial concentration of 250 mg·L− 1 and cell voltage of 1.2 V. Remarkably, the theoretical maximum electrosorption capacity was estimated at 17 mg·g− 1 from Langmuir isotherm when the cell voltage was fixed at 1.2 V. Finally, the well regeneration of MCs electrode was demonstrated, indicating the great potential application of MCs in desalination.
Integration of hybrid power (wind-photovoltaic-diesel-battery) and seawater reverse osmosis systems for small-scale desalination applications Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-07-18 Murat Gökçek
Desalination is a method used to produce water for human consumption and/or industrial use. Seawater treatment systems powered by renewable sources are regarded as sustainable methods for providing drinking water for coastal zones and islands where there is no electrical grid. This study evaluated the operations of seven different (off-grid) power systems (wind-photovoltaic-diesel-battery) used to satisfy the electrical energy demand of a small-scale reverse osmosis system with a capacity of 1 m3/h used on Bozcaada Island, Turkey. The hybrid optimisation model for electric renewable (HOMER) software was selected to perform techno-economic analyses of the systems. On the other hand, the reverse osmosis system analysis model (ROSA) was used to determine the energy requirement of the reverse osmosis system examined in this study. The results of this study showed that the electricity cost was $0.308/kWh for the optimal system consisting of wind turbines with a rated power of 10 kW, a 20 kW PV panel, and a diesel generator with a rated power of 8.90 kW, while the water cost was $2.20/m3. Additionally, the results showed that combining the hybrid power system and reverse osmosis system could be a cost-effective method for remote areas with good wind and solar power potential.
Filtration characteristics of threaded microfiber water filters Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-07-20 Hilla Shemer, Abraham Sagiv, Marina Holenberg, Adva Zach Maor
Textile fibers are widely used for fine filtration in the disposable cartridge filter market. In this work the filtration mechanism of threaded microfiber water filters was characterized by testing the effect of filtration velocity, slurry concentration, particles size distribution (PSD) and filter pore size and porosity, on the filter performance. Constant flow rate experiments were conducted with micronized CaCO3 slurry as a model substance. It was found that the predominant filtration mechanism of the studied filters is cake filtration. Very efficient filtration followed by effective automatic cleaning of the filter was obtained as indicated by complete removal of the CaCO3 particles in all the conditions studied and similar clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles. Shorter filtration cycles were obtained at higher velocities, low porosity filter and narrow PSD. Correspondingly, the filter capacity declined as the filtration cycles were shorter. Yet, the filter capacity was found to be independent of the CaCO3 slurry concentration. A criterion of specific consumed energy per unit filtrate volume (Es) was developed. Analyses of the effect of the various studied parameters on Es revealed its dependence on the slurry concentration, velocity and filtration time.
Environmental issues in seawater reverse osmosis desalination: Intakes and outfalls Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-07-25 Thomas M. Missimer, Robert G. Maliva
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination has some environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of intake systems and the disposal of concentrate. The primary impact of conventional open-ocean intake systems is the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. These impacts can be minimized by locating the intake in a geographic position where oceanic productivity is low. Velocity-cap intakes tend to reduce impacts by minimizing the number of fish entrained and some new traveling screens can allow the survival of some marine organisms. Mitigation, such as environmental restoration of habitat or restocking, can provide an acceptable solution to impacts where they are significant. Subsurface intake systems avoid impingement and entrainment impacts, but can cause other, less important impacts (e.g., visual, beach access). Concentrate disposal can locally impact benthic communities, if poorly diluted discharge is allowed to flow across the marine bottom. Impacts to benthic communities from concentrate discharges can be minimized by using properly-designed diffuser systems, designed and located based current and flow modeling. The experiences of SWRO desalination to date indicate that environmental impacts can be satisfactorily minimized with proper design based on a reasonably complete environmental impact analysis prior to facility siting and design.
Polyamide/nitrogen-doped graphene oxide quantum dots (N-GOQD) thin film nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes for high flux desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-07-31 Mahdi Fathizadeh, Huynh Ngoc Tien, Konstantin Khivantsev, Zhuonan Song, Fanglei Zhou, Miao Yu
Performance of basin type stepped solar still enhanced with superior design concepts Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-08-08 Ali.F. Muftah, K. Sopian, M.A. Alghoul
It is difficult maintaining a minimum water depth in a conventional basin type solar still, as the required area is quite large. To overcome this difficulty, the R&D community proposed a stepped solar still in an attempt to increase the production per unit area by decreasing the thermal inertia of the water mass, where the area of the basin is minimized via the utilization of small trays. However, stepped solar still is still potential for further enhancement. It is leaned from the literature, that adding internal and external reflectors, absorber materials (fins) and external condensers are considered superior in enhancing the absorption, evaporation and condensation processes of the basin type solar still. Combining these design concepts concurrently with stepped solar still to enhance its performance is still a missing link in the literature. In this study, a previous work of stepped solar still is selected to apply these modifications on it and propose it as a new design. Energy balance model is developed to compare the performance of the stepped solar still before and after modification. The energy balance results are obtained by solving the energy balance equations for various elements: absorber plate, saline water and glass cover of the solar still. Hourly solar radiation and hourly ambient temperature of clear sky day conditions are used as input data in the energy balance model. The hourly performance of the stepped solar still is compared before and after modification under the following evaluation parameters: temperature difference between saline water and glass cover, evaporation/convective/radiative heat transfer coefficients, solar still productivity and solar still efficiency. The results showed that the hourly values of evaluation parameters after modification are always higher of that before modification. This increment is tested statistically to confirm its significance. So, the differences in the mean values of each evaluation parameter before and after modification are tested by statistical paired t-test. The test results confirmed that there is a significant difference in the mean values of each evaluation parameter before and after modification. Moreover, the daily productivity of the stepped solar still after modification increased from 6.9 to 8.9 kg/m2; this represents 29% enhancement compared to before modification. Finally, based on the results of the evaluation parameters and the statistical test, the thermal performance of the proposed stepped solar still is considerably improved through the new modification.
A review on inorganic membranes for desalination and wastewater treatment Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-08-12 P.S. Goh, A.F. Ismail
The sustainability of global clean and safe water supply is one of the grand challenges facing the world. Membrane technology based on polymeric membranes is one of the most important and widely recognized technologies for desalination and wastewater treatment. While polymeric membranes are known to be plagued with some bottlenecks, the technical progress and the accompanying knowledge in inorganic membrane development have grown inexorably to solve some of the underlying issues. Aside from the conventionally used ceramic membranes which based on metal oxides, nanostructures such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks and carbon based materials have sparked enormous interest in the preparation of inorganic membranes owing to their tunable nanoscaled structural properties that can render excellent rejection and/or ultrafast water transport. This review provides insights into the physico-chemical properties and fabrication approaches of different classes of inorganic membranes. The transport mechanisms that are associated to their unique structural features are also discussed. Furthermore, the performance evaluation of these inorganic membranes in a wide spectrum of desalination and wastewater treatment applications are also elaborated. Finally, the challenges in the development of inorganic membrane for practical commercial application are identified and the future perspectives are presented.
Three-dimensional graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol composites as structured activated carbons for capacitive desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-08-18 Zhi Yi Leong, Guo Lu, Hui Ying Yang
Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a technique that is derived from conventional capacitive deionization (CDI). Additional ion-exchange membranes are included in the MCDI cell to prevent ion-expulsion and improve cyclability. As it stands, MCDI represents the most feasible option for large scale desalination to take place. In this work, we investigate the desalination performance of a novel structured activated carbon material synthesized from the assembly of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on graphene oxide (GO). A hydrothermal treatment causes self-assembly of the PVA covered GO sheets and the product is a polymeric framework supported by reduced GO sheets. A further activation process by KOH produces the structured activated carbon (AC). These new structured ACs possess unique morphologies and exhibit high adsorption capacities (> 30 mg g− 1) which far surpass traditional ACs.
Design and optimization of autonomous solar-wind-reverse osmosis desalination systems coupling battery and hydrogen energy storage by an improved bee algorithm Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-08-25 Akbar Maleki
Most of the global population are not connected to the electrical grid and one third of these people have no access to potable water sources at the same time. Grid independent hybrid renewable energy systems (GIHRES), specifically wind and solar power, have attracted more attention to supply potable water and electricity requirements. Due to the complexity of this system, optimal balance between wind and solar resources and a convenient storage needs special attention to find a good engineering solution. In this paper for increasing the fresh water availability and to meet the load demand six GIHRES namely solar/battery or/hydrogen/reverse osmosis desalination (ROD), wind/battery or/hydrogen/ROD, and solar/wind/battery or/hydrogen/ROD are designed and modeled. For optimal design of these six systems improved bees algorithm is proposed. The results are compared with the results obtained by harmony search algorithm. From the results it is seen that the GIHRES-based battery energy storage more cost-effective than the GIHRES-based hydrogen energy storage. Also, hybridization of solar power, battery, and ROD at various maximum loss of power supply probability is the most cost-effective energy system. Moreover, the results obtained by proposed method are quite promising.
Flow conditions affecting the induction period of CaSO4 scaling on RO membranes Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-08-26 Xianhui Li, David Hasson, Hilla Shemer
The extent of the induction period preceding the inception of scale formation is of major interest in the design and operation of RO desalination plants. The objective of present work was to investigate induction time phenomena related to CaSO4 scale precipitation from supersaturated solutions without or with the presence of a polycarboxylic acid based anti-scalant (AS). Membrane tests were carried out at different CaSO4 supersaturation levels (0.75–4.20) and crossflow velocities (0.1–2.5 m/s) using both tubular and spiral wound membranes. Stirred beakers tests were also conducted. Membrane induction times in the flow systems increased linearly with the increase of flow Reynolds (Re) number from 80 to 6800 both without and with AS. The induction period in the presence of the AS was higher than that observed in AS free solutions. However, the extension of the induction period induced by the AS increased markedly with the Re number. Comparison of induction times measured in membranes and stirred beaker systems revealed a critical Re number below which induction time was shorter in the membrane system and above which the induction time was longer in the membrane system compared to the beaker test.
Preparation of high-performance graphene nanoplate incorporated polyether block amide membrane and application for seawater desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-05 Filiz Ugur Nigiz
In this study, a novel graphene nanoplates (GNPs) incorporated polyether block amide (PEBA) membrane was successfully prepared to be used for seawater desalination. Pervaporative desalination performances were performed in a temperature range of 35–65 °C. Effects of GNPs content in PEBA, membrane thickness, and temperature were evaluated in terms of the flux and total salt rejection. The long-term stabilities of the membranes were experimented. Incorporating graphene nanoplate into PEBA matrix enhanced flux and ion rejections simultaneously. Experimental stability of the membrane was improved by GNPs incorporation. Graphene incorporated membranes showed excellent seawater desalination performance with the salt rejection of > 99.89% and flux of > 2.58 kg/m2·h. Based on the flux and rejection results, optimum GNPs contents in PEBA matrix were observed as 2 wt% GNPs and 3 wt% GNPs. Increasing temperatures improved the water flux and did not significantly affect the salt rejection. The highest salt rejection was obtained as 99.94% with a flux of 2.58 kg/m2·h at 35 °C when the 3 wt% GNPs incorporated membrane was used. The nanohybrid membrane preserved 99.8% of its performance during 60 h, while the rejection performance of the pristine membrane decreased to 96.8%.
Comparative performance evaluations of nanomaterials mixed polysulfone: A scale-up approach through vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation for water desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-06 Mohamed S. Fahmey, Abdel-Hameed Mostafa El-Aassar, Mustafa M.Abo-Elfadel, Adel Sayed Orabi, Rasel Das
Doping of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) into polysulfone (PSf) flat sheet membranes was prepared by phase inversion process. The characterizations of the PSf and PSf-MWCNT, PSf-SiO2, PSf-TiO2 and PSf-ZnO membranes were achieved using Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, contact angle measurement, dynamic mechanical analyzer, thermo-gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. Vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation unit was used for evaluating the efficacy of prepared membranes in water desalination. Optimizing the operational procedures and water characteristics ensured a high slat rejection of 99.99% using the prepared membranes. The highest permeate flux obtained in the order of MWCNT (41.58) > SiO2 (38.84) > TiO2(35.6) > ZnO (34.42 L/m2·h) with optimized concentration of 1.0, 0.5, 0.75, 0.5 wt% relative to PSf weight, i.e. 15%. The optimum operational conditions included feed and permeate temperatures 60 °C and 20 °C, respectively, synthetic NaCl feed water with salinity was 10,000 ppm.
Analysis of the influence of module construction upon forward osmosis performance Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Robert W. Field, Farrukh Arsalan Siddiqui, Pancy Ang, Jun Jie Wu
The potential of a commercial forward osmosis (FO) module to recover water from NEWater brine, an RO retentate, was assessed by taking an innovative approach to obtaining the mass transfer coefficients. The performance comparison of the spiral wound (S-W) FO module with that of the flat sheet laboratory unit suggests that the winding involved in S-W construction can adversely affect performance; the values for the S-W mass transfer coefficients were half of those expected. This first-of-its-kind performance comparison utilised coupons of the membrane and spacers taken from the module. The module was used both in the conventional manner for FO and in the reverse manner with the active layer facing the draw solution. Estimates of membrane parameters and mass transfer coefficients experiments for the two orientations were obtained using pure water, 10 mM and 25 mM NaCl solution on the feed side and 1 M NaCl as draw solution. The fouling potential of NEWater brine per se was found to be low. These are the first results with a S-W module that suggest potential for this niche application; nevertheless the level of the water flux through the S-W module clearly indicates that industrial applications of S-W FO will be constrained to special cases.
Experimental quantification of the effect of intermittent operation on membrane performance of solar powered reverse osmosis desalination systems Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-21 M. Freire-Gormaly, A.M. Bilton
Osmotic's potential: An overview of draw solutes for forward osmosis Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-27 Daniel James Johnson, Wafa Ali Suwaileh, Abdul Wahab Mohammed, Nidal Hilal
Two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous membranes with sub-nanopores in reverse osmosis desalination: Latest developments and future directions Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Guo-Rong Xu, Jian-Mei Xu, Hui-Chao Su, Xiao-Yu Liu, Lu-Li, He-Li Zhao, Hou-Jun Feng, Rasel Das
Desalination provides an effective method to meet the worldwide freshwater crisis. Reverse osmosis (RO) based on polyamide (PA) thin-film composite (TFC) membranes have dominated desalination area with the enhancing desalting properties and decreasing energy consumption. However, it is still an urgent affair for the researchers all over the world to explore more advanced RO desalination materials and procedures to further enhance the popularization of desalination, among which development of superior membranes with as far as possible high water flux and satisfied salt rejections are particularly important. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous membranes with sub-nanopores, typically represented by graphene and its derivatives accompanied with some analogues such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have displayed great potential and attracted vast interest in designing such kinds of desalination membranes. Actually, 2D nanoporous membranes might have opened a new era in desalination membranes fabrication and demonstrated brilliant future. Given this, in this review paper we reviewed and discussed the development of 2D nanoporous membranes with sub-nanopores on desalination with emphasis in simulations coupled with experimental studies. Besides, the feasibility and future directions of 2D nanoporous membranes are prospected. We sincerely hope that this paper could provide clues and insights for the future exploration of novel desalination membranes, and further contribute to the advance of desalination membranes synthesis and large-scale production.
Application of recoverable carbon nanotube nanofluids in solar desalination system: An experimental investigation Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-28 Wenjing Chen, Changjun Zou, Xiaoke Li, Hao Liang
In this study, a recoverable nanofluid was prepared with brine water in an attempt to enhance the performance of solar stills. Herein, the recoverable multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanofluids which were prepared by dispersing Fe3O4 modified MWCNTs nanoparticles in saline water with high stability and recyclability. The optical properties of magnetic MWCNTs nanofluids were thoroughly investigated and showed that prepared nanofluids could successfully ameliorate the utilization rate of solar energy to provide more heat energy for saline water evaporation. Especially, for 0.04 wt% magnetic MWCNTs nanofluids, almost 100% solar energy was absorbed when the thickness of fluid exceeded 1 cm. Furthermore, the evaporation efficiencies of nanofluids were measured under the natural solar irradiation. The evaporation efficiency was obviously enhanced with the increase of magnetic MWCNTs nanofluids concentration from 24.91% (0 wt%) to 76.65% (0.04 wt%). To better understand the enhancement mechanism of nanofluids for fresh water yield, the optical-to-heat conversion in bulk liquid was synthetically investigated and a potential enhancement mechanism for evaporation process was proposed. In summary, the advantageous performance ensured the potential of recoverable-nanofluids to broaden the application prospect of solar stills.
Progress in transport theory and characterization method of Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane in past fifty years Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-09-30 Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Takeshi Matsuura
In this paper an attempt is made to review the progress in membrane characterization and transport theory in historical perspective. Its central theme is the membrane “pore” around which progress has been revolving, irrespective of whether the researcher is “for” or “against” the existence of pores at the top dense layer of the RO membrane. The article starts from nineteen-fifties when the development of cellulose acetate membrane was launched on the basis of the Preferential Sorption-Capillary Flow (PS-CF) mechanism. The Sorption-Diffusion (S-D) model, which was presented at almost the same time, regards the top surface layer dense and homogeneous. No heterogeneity is allowed and the presence of pores makes the RO membrane imperfect, causing the leakage of salt. Thus, the PS-CF model came to direct confrontation with the S-D model. It is shown in this brief historic review how the advanced characterization instrument has revealed the heterogeneous structure of the top surface of the RO membrane and measured its “pore size” and “pore size distribution”. The advanced transport theory based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation also resulted in the presence of the multi-modal pore size distribution.
Molecular dynamics modeling of nano-porous centrifuge for reverse osmosis desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-10-09 Tiange Li, Qingsong Tu, Shaofan Li
A concept of the porous graphene membrane centrifuge is proposed aiming at fabrication of large scale, fouling-free desalination machine with nanomaterial-based reverse osmosis modules. The concept as well as strategy of such porous rotating graphene membrane device is approved through molecular dynamics (MD) modeling and simulation of a nano-fluidic device that in order to make a quantitative evaluation. First, an analytical formulation is derived for the critical angular velocity above which the centrifugal force is able to counter-balance osmosis pressure, so that the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process can proceed. The critical angular velocity derived from this formulation is compared with MD simulated critical angular velocity. Based on MD simulation results, it is shown that the rotating porous membrane device may significantly improve desalination efficiency by combining the centrifugal separation and and the selectivity of porous graphene membrane to achieve reverse-osmosis desalination. Furthermore, we have shown that the proposed desalination device has an intrinsic anti-fouling mechanism, and then we have studied the effect of pore size on the flux rate by conducting simulations with the applied rotating speed. Moreover, we have conducted energy and efficiency analysis for the proposed desalination device model, and we obtained the relationship between fresh water flux rate and the angular velocity, at the same time, with the pore size. By choosing the most efficient angular velocity and the pore size that ensures salt rejection, an optimal nano-fluidic device design is achieved.
Factors influencing the performance and productivity of solar stills - A review Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-10-10 Karthikeyan Selvaraj, Alagumurthi Natarajan
Water scarcity is a major threat for future as the fresh water resources are being exploited and polluted rapidly by mankind. Hence, converting the brackish, saline water in to pure water is one of the viable solutions to overcome the demand for water. Desalination using solar still is simple among various techniques available for removal of salinity. The limitation being its productivity, researchers have consistently attempted to improve the performance of solar stills. This article reviews various factors that influence the performance of the solar still like solar radiation intensity, temperature difference, collector area, basin water depth, insulation, angle of inclination, thickness of glass cover plate, wind velocity and a few methods for improving the quantity of distillate produced. Such a review would benefit the knowledge society for further research and development of a solar still to make it an economically viable option.
In situ modification of membrane elements for improved boron rejection in RO desalination Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-10-12 Shiran Shultz, Viatcheslav Freger
The study presents in situ modification of a spiral-wound seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane elements using sorption of hydrophobic long-chain aliphatic amine molecules as a generic approach to increasing selectivity, in particular, boron removal. Spiral-wound seawater SW30 elements modified using decylamine and dodecylamine showed 2–4 times lower boron passage for the modified elements at the expense of a moderate drop in permeability. Autopsy indicated no change in surface morphology and chemistry, suggesting immobilization of the modifying molecules within the active layer. Overall, the reported in situ modification of the SWRO element resulted in a superior trade-off between permeability and boron passage and no change in salt rejection, as compared to regular polyamide membranes. The enhanced selectivity toward boron5 removal could potentially help eliminate or reduce the costs related to the second pass in sea water desalination.
Diffusion behaviour of multivalent ions at low pH through a MFI-type zeolite membrane Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-10-21 Bo Zhu, Gayle Morris, Il-Shik Moon, Stephen Gray, Mikel Duke
Energy use for membrane seawater desalination – current status and trends Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Nikolay Voutchkov
Technological advances of membrane seawater desalination have propelled its worldwide use. Despite the two-fold reduction of its power demand over the past 20 years, seawater desalination remains the most energy intensive alternative for production of fresh drinking water at present. This article provides an overview of the current status of energy use for seawater desalination, discusses the minimum energy demand for production of fresh water and presents key factors that influence the desalination plant energy demand for the site specific conditions of a given desalination project. The article describes key benefits and challenges associated with the implementation of energy-saving technologies and equipment such as: collocation of desalination and power plants; alternative RO system configurations proven to yield significant energy savings such as; low-recovery plant design; use of split permeate two-pass RO system configuration; three-center RO system design; and use of high productivity/low energy membrane elements, hybrid RO membrane vessel configurations, large-size high efficiency pumps and pressure-exchanger based energy recovery systems. The article also discusses emerging desalination technologies with high-energy reduction potential and provides a forecast of the potential impact of future technologies on energy use for membrane desalination.
Grid-tied and stand-alone hybrid solar power system for desalination plant Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-10-31 Chaouki Ghenai, Adel Merabet, Tareq Salameh, Erola Colon Pigem
This paper presents results on simulation, optimization and control of hybrid solar based energy system to power a desalination plant. The principal objective is to design a clean energy system to meet the desired electric load of the desalination plant with high renewable fraction, low cost of energy, and low carbon dioxide gas emissions. Hourly simulations and optimization were performed to determine the performance and life cycle cost of the different hybrid power configurations. The results of the baseline or the actual power system from the grid are compared with two new renewable power systems: (1) grid tied solar system: solar PV/grid/inverter power system, and (2) Off grid solar power system: PV/diesel generator/battery/inverter power system. The results show that the solar PV/grid/inverter power system offers the best performance compared to PV/diesel generator/battery/inverter. The total energy from the hybrid grid tied solar system is used to meet the AC load of the desalination plant with almost no excess electricity and power shortage. The proposed hybrid power system for the desalination plant is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: high renewable fraction (47.3%), low excess power (0.15%), low levelized cost of energy (90 $/MWh), and low CO2 gas emissions (264.25 kg CO2/MWh).
Membranes and processes for forward osmosis-based desalination: Recent advances and future prospects Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Yi-Ning Wang, Kunli Goh, Xuesong Li, Laurentia Setiawan, Rong Wang
Forward osmosis (FO) is an increasingly important technology that has been deemed promising for addressing the global issue of water scarcity. Rapid progress over the past decade has been marked by significant innovations in the membrane development and process design. The key idea is to develop next-generation membranes through advanced membrane fabrication methods as well as hybrid systems where the FO process can really value-add. As such, this article provides an overview of the various FO membrane designs, in particular, the thin-film composite, surface-modified, and mixed matrix and biomimetic membranes. The pros and cons of each type of membranes are discussed together with the strategies used to optimize membrane properties such as structural parameter (S), water permeability (A) and salt permeability (B) to achieve enhanced FO performances. Furthermore, we also discuss the roles of FO in the various hybrid systems and evaluate the potential of these hybrid systems for desalination. Lastly, we provide our perspectives, especially in the area of membrane fabrications and FO hybrid systems, to shed light on the future research directions for harnessing the true potential of FO for desalination.
Effect of operational conditions on post-treatment of RO permeate of geothermal water by using electrodeionization (EDI) method Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-02 Samuel Bunani, Müşerref Arda, Nalan Kabay
With the growing of electronics, semiconductors, food and pharmaceutical manufactures, the need of water quantity with high purity is increasing. The water quality needed should be with high electrical resistance and free of weakly ionized dissolved species. Integration of separation processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodeionization (EDI) was proven to be successful to produce water with high quality. This paper is about the applicability of EDI method for post-treatment of RO permeate of geothermal water. For this purpose, the effects of process parameters such as feed flow rate, electrical potential applied, type of ion exchange membranes, and cell number on reduction of electrical conductivity and the contents of boron, silicon and arsenic in EDI product water were investigated. In addition, pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetics models, infinitive solution volume (ISV) and unreacted core (UCM) models were applied to determine the rate controlling steps of the removal of electrical conductivity and boron by EDI process. Obtained results revealed that a EDI product water containing ˂0.20 mg B/L, ˂0.05 mg Si/L and ˂0.10 μg As/L was produced using a multi-cell EDI in which ion exchange resins in mixed bed configuration is placed between Neosepta CMX-AMX ion exchange membrane pair. These results were obtained when the optimum flow rate of 1.08 L/h and electrical potential of 20 V were applied to multi-cell EDI. At the optimal operational conditions, boron removal was found to be governed by second order kinetic model and the determining steps were film diffusion and liquid film according to ISV and UCM models, respectively. It was observed that thick ion exchange membranes were better than thin ion exchange membranes for polishing RO permeate of geothermal water by using EDI process.
Effect of oxidation with coagulation and ceramic microfiltration pre-treatment on reverse osmosis for desalination of recycled wastewater Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 D.T. Myat, F. Roddick, P. Puspita, L. Skillman, J. Charrois, I. Kristiana, W. Uhl, E. Vasyukova, G. Roeszler, A. Chan, B. Zhu, S. Muthukumaran, S. Gray, M. Duke
Can a hybrid RO-Freeze process lead to sustainable water supplies? Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 Mansour Ahmad, Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe, Paul M. Williams
In this paper we investigate the potential for using suspension crystallisation for the production of clean drinking water from a seawater source. The experimental results show that the produced water from the suspension crystallisation plant not only meets water quality standards but is comparable in ionic composition to premier bottled water from around the globe. The experimental results obtained from a pilot scale suspension crystallisation unit showed that the achievable water recovery was around 41% and the salt rejection ratio reached over 99%, which is comparable with most desalination technologies. Moreover, a hybrid RO-Freeze plant has been proposed that is capable of significantly increasing the potable product water that could be achieved by RO alone (~ 400% increase), while simultaneously concentrating the RO brine (used as feed water) producing a super brine of ~ 13 wt%. While there is a cost to this additional process in terms of capital and energy that must be quantified, the obvious increase in water harvest and reduction in residual brine quantity lead to a very attractive desalination process. If the energy demands are acceptable, then this technology could lead to a more sustainable water future.
Selecting an economically suitable and sustainable solution for a renewable energy-powered water desalination system: A rural Australian case study Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 Roberta Fornarelli, Farhad Shahnia, Martin Anda, Parisa A. Bahri, Goen Ho
Renewable energy (RE) powered reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is rapidly evolving as an attractive energy-water nexus solution that combines the sustainability of RE and the maturity of RO. The intermittent and fluctuating power of RE, the variable operation of RO systems and the social acceptance of RO, commonly perceived as an energy intensive process, are some of the challenges currently faced by scientists and decision makers. The objective of this study is to identify an energy-water system that is cost-effective, sustainable and socially accepted in a rural community of Australia. The numerical analysis is based on one year (2016) data of energy demand of the community. The size and energy demand of the RO plant is assumed based on the 2016 water demand. A modelling approach that can be readily available and simple to use by the regional energy and water utilities is developed. Out of the seven assessed energy configurations, the most cost-effective system includes a hybrid RE-RO system characterized by grid electricity, a 2.4 MW wind and a 2.8 MW distributed rooftop solar photovoltaic (RTPV) system to supply the 14 GWh and 1.2 GWh annual energy demand of the community and RO plant, respectively. A system of RTPVs distributed across the community is suggested as an option to improve the social acceptance of the RO by directly engaging the consumers in the supply of their own energy and water needs. The RO is simulated to operate as a deferrable electrical load, whose feed flow rate and operating pressure vary (within admissible limits) as a function of the renewable energy excess and the end-user's energy consumption. The proposed energy-water system aims to provide a sustainable and economical solution whilst targeting the cultural gap between community members and decision makers that has been hindering desalination projects in Australia's rural communities.
Experimental investigation on hybrid PV/T active solar still with effective heating and cover cooling method Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 B. Praveen kumar, D. Prince Winston, P. Pounraj, A. Muthu Manokar, Ravishankar Sathyamurthy, A.E. Kabeel
A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still and a conventional passive solar still with single slope were designed, fabricated and experimented at three different water depths (0.05 m, 0.10 m, and 0.15 m). For the higher production of distillate water, a nickel-chromium (NiCr) heater powered by solar photovoltaic (PV) was incorporated in the proposed hybrid active still. Solar PV module was cooled by the saline water which increases the efficiency of the solar PV as well as the distillate water production. The daily yield from the proposed hybrid active (PV/T) solar still is 6 times more than the conventional passive still. This new system of renewable energy based power and distillate water production is highly self-sustainable in the remote areas. From the experimental study it is clear that, the proposed hybrid active (PV/T) solar still gives an enhanced overall thermal and electrical efficiency, that is nearly 25% higher than the conventional passive one.
Freshwater production from the motion of ocean waves – A review Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Jennifer Leijon, Cecilia Boström
Freshwater scarcity and insufficient sanitation are global urgent problems, affecting billions of people. In this review paper, the process of desalination powered by wave power has been investigated as a potential sustainable solution to water shortage. The different desalination techniques suitable for this type of combined system, i.e. reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and mechanical vapor compression, have been outlined, as well as the different wave energy converters possible to power the desalination process, i.e. oscillating water columns, oscillating bodies (wave activated bodies) and overtopping systems. Some necessary considerations for this type of project are identified. The different wave power/desalination projects and how they have proceeded are presented. The most common design of a wave energy and desalination system includes a wave activated body to pressurize seawater; the seawater flows through a reverse osmosis membrane, resulting in freshwater. Some successful (freshwater producing) wave energy/desalination projects were identified: Delbuoy, the oscillating water column in Vizhinjam, CETO Freshwater, SAROS and Odyssée. It is concluded that wave power and desalination can be combined in a sustainable and autonomous system, generating freshwater from the ocean waves. However, questions regarding cost of produced water, variations in power production due to intermittency and environmental effects still remain.
Effects of volatile organic compounds on water recovery from produced water via vacuum membrane distillation Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-13 Minwei Yao, Yun Chul Woo, Leonard D. Tijing, June-Seok Choi, Ho Kyong Shon
Preparation of a highly permeable nanofiltration membrane using a novel acyl chloride monomer with -PO(Cl)2 group Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Yali Zhao, Zhiguang Zhang, Lei Dai, Suobo Zhang
Novel thermosiphon-powered reverse osmosis: Techno-economic model for renewable energy and fresh water recovery Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-15 Adewale Giwa, Shadi Wajih Hasan
Quantifying the efficiency of a mono-port diffuser in the dispersion of brine discharges Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Ángel Loya-Fernández, Luis Miguel Ferrero-Vicente, Candela Marco-Méndez, Elena Martínez-García, José Jacobo Zubcoff Vallejo, José Luis Sánchez-Lizaso
Reverse-osmosis seawater desalination processes produce a hypersaline effluent waste (brine) which is usually discharged back into the sea via an underwater outfall. Brine discharges can cause environmental problems due to their high salt concentration, but the effects can be minimised by installing a diffuser structure at the end of the pipeline. In May 2010, a mono-port diffuser was installed at the Nuevo Canal de Cartagena desalination plant pipeline (located in Murcia, Spain) in order to increase effluent dispersion. The aim of this paper was to characterise the brine-plume dispersion throughout a series of oceanographic surveys that were carried out before and after the diffuser installation (2006–2011), and to quantify the effects of the diffuser on the behaviour and dilution rate of the effluent. The results of six years of operational monitoring were also compared with simulations predicted by a numerical mixing model simulation (CORMIX 1), obtaining high concordance with field data. After the diffuser installation, both field data results and model simulations showed a strong increase in the dilution rate of the brine plume, and a significant reduction in the size of the affected area.
Upgrading groundwater for irrigation using monovalent selective electrodialysis Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 B. Cohen, N. Lazarovitch, J. Gilron
Desalinated water reduces salt load and water needs in irrigation but lack hardness and sulfate ions required for optimal plant growth. Mixing with groundwater adds hardness but raises chloride and sodium levels limiting the amount of groundwater that can be used in the blend. Monovalent selective electrodialysis (SED) allows reducing chloride and sodium while preserving most of the hardness ions. This study examined under what conditions monovalent selective membranes are effective in treating groundwater for irrigation. All monovalent selective anion exchange membranes tested showed excellent selectivity for sulfate over chloride. Monovalent selective cation exchange membranes worked less well at the lower conductivities typical of brackish water, with only CSO membrane showing significant monovalent permselectivity (Pdm < 1) at conductivities < 4.5 dS/m. Keeping current densities for treating groundwater below limiting current found for solutions of pure sodium chloride at sodium levels found in the groundwater was key to preserving monovalent selectivity. Poisoning of CSO membranes monovalent cation selectivity could be reversed by acid wash and electrically driven re-deposition of polyethyleneimine on the membrane. When compared to irrigation with mix of groundwater and RO water, mix of SED and RO water used in irrigation gave better results in growing bell peppers.
Recent progress in the use of renewable energy sources to power water desalination plants Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-22 Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem, M. El Haj Assad, Enas Taha Sayed, Bassel Soudan
Rapid population growth and industrial development have propelled water resources to the forefront of challenges facing modern societies. While water covers about two thirds of the surface of earth, < 1% is suitable for domestic and industrial use. Conventional fossil-fuel powered desalination techniques consume extensive amounts of energy and have highly damaging impact on the environment. Abundant cheap and clean renewable energy sources are a promising alternative for powering modern desalination processes. In this work we review latest developments in the renewable energy systems to power desalination plants. The review focuses on desalination processes powered by solar, geothermal, wind, and ocean energy. Towards the end, the work also outlines existing challenges and makes recommendations about future directions.
Membrane crystallization for phosphorus recovery and ammonia stripping from reject water from sludge dewatering process Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-27 C.A. Quist-Jensen, J.M. Sørensen, A. Svenstrup, L. Scarpa, T.S. Carlsen, H.C. Jensen, L. Wybrandt, M.L. Christensen
Membrane crystallization (MCr) have been applied on real wastewater to study the potential of recovering phosphorus as struvite (MgNH4PO4·H2O). The performance of MCr shows a stable flux at recovery factor of 70%. To facilitate struvite precipitation, magnesium has been added in the molar ratio of 1:1.3 of P:Mg. A recovery of 60% phosphorus have been obtained at pH of 8.3 and at recovery factor of 70%. Furthermore, the MCr process allows to produce an ammonia-rich stream on the permeate side, due to the hydrophobic nature of the membrane and the transport of volatile compounds through the membrane. This liquid stream can be considered to be used directly as a fertilizer product.
Design strategies of conventional and modified closed-air open-water humidification dehumidification systems Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2017-11-28 Samih M. Elmutasim, M.A. Ahmed, Mohamed A. Antar, P. Gandhidasan, Syed M. Zubair
Review on strategies for biofouling mitigation in spiral wound membrane systems Desalination (IF 5.527) Pub Date : 2018-02-01 Szilárd S. Bucs, Nadia Farhat, Joop C. Kruithof, Cristian Picioreanu, Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht, Johannes S. Vrouwenvelder
Because of the uneven distribution of fresh water in time and space, a large number of regions are experiencing water scarcity and stress. Membrane based desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis in coastal areas. However, in many cases membrane performance is restricted by biofouling. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on the state of the art strategies to control biofouling in spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane systems and point to possible future research directions. A critical review on biofouling control strategies such as feed water pre-treatment, membrane surface modification, feed spacer geometry optimization and hydrodynamics in spiral wound membrane systems is presented. In conclusion, biofouling cannot be avoided in the long run, and thus biofouling control strategies should focus on delaying the biofilm formation, reducing its impact on membrane performance and enhancing biofilm removal by advanced cleaning strategies. Therefore, future studies should aim on: (i) biofilm structural characterization; (ii) understanding to what extent biofilm properties affect membrane filtration performance, and (iii) developing methods to engineer biofilm properties such that biofouling would have only a low or delayed impact on the filtration process and accumulated biomass can be easily removed.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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