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  • Catalytic cracking of wax esters extracted from Euglena gracilis for hydrocarbon fuel production
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Iori Shimada, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Shin Kato, Ryohei Mori, Haruhisa Ohta, Kengo Suzuki, Toru Takatsuka
  • Fermentable sugars production from peach tree prunings: Response surface model optimization of NaOH alkaline pretreatment
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2018-02-19
    Cinzia Buratti, Daniele Foschini, Marco Barbanera, Francesco Fantozzi

    Among lignocellulosic residues, peach tree prunings are widely abundant in Italy, due to an extensive production and a high yield of prunings per cultivated hectare; thus, it represents an interesting feedstock for no food derived ethanol. In the whole production process, the pretreatment is the most critical step from technical and economic point of view. In this work peach tree residues were submitted to alkaline pretreatment, in order to maximize the fermentable sugar recovery and thus to maximize the theoretical etOH yield evaluating the best operative conditions in terms of NaOH concentration, temperature, and reaction time. The analysis is carried out by means of Response Surface Methodology approach, in order to optimize the pretreatment step. The optimal predicted conditions to perform the process were NaOH concentration = 0.200 mol dm-3, temperature = 125 °C and reaction time = 35 min, that allowed to obtain a theoretical ethanol yield of 223 L t-1 of dry peach tree pruning. This theoretical yield can be judged satisfactory in the context of forest and pruning biomass and it could be further increased by a future scale up from laboratory to pilot scale.

  • Mechanisms and indicators for assessing the impact of biofuel feedstock production on ecosystem services
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Alexandros Gasparatos, Carla Romeu-Dalmau, Graham P. von Maltitz, Francis X. Johnson, Charlie Shackleton, Marcin P. Jarzebski, Charles Jumbe, Caroline Ochieng, Shakespear Mudombi, Anne Nyambane, Katherine J. Willis

    Biofuel feedstock production can be a significant driver of landscape modification, ecosystem change and biodiversity loss. There is growing body of literature that shows how biofuel landscapes provide various ecosystem services (e.g., feedstock for fuel, carbon sequestration) and compromise other ecosystem services (e.g., food, freshwater services). These effects are context-specific and depend largely on prior land use conditions and feedstock production practices. Changes in the flow of ecosystem services due to the conversion of natural and agricultural areas can have ripple effects on human wellbeing. Despite some recent attempts to apply to biofuel settings concepts and methods rooted in the ecosystem services literature, this is the exception rather than the rule within both the biofuel and the ecosystem services research communities. This paper synthesizes the current knowledge about the impact of biofuels on ecosystem services. It focuses especially on the feedstock production phase and outlines the main mechanisms through which landscape conversion affects the provisions of ecosystem services. It proposes conceptually coherent indicators to reflect these mechanisms and offers a critical discussion of key issues at the interface of biofuels and ecosystem services.

  • Influence of chipping system on chipper performance and wood chip particle size obtained from peach prunings
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Luigi Pari, Alessandro Suardi, Angelo Del Giudice, Antonio Scarfone, Enrico Santangelo

    Many obstacles hamper the full exploitation of pruning residues for energy. Among these, harvesting is a crucial point in the development of a sustainable supply, because it greatly affects the quality of the fuel and profitability of production. In normal forestry operations, drum or disk chippers are the tools most frequently used for comminution. A new chipper has been designed which can collect different pruning residues produced under different field conditions and reduce them to a standard chip size (P45) suitable for boilers. Comminution is carried out by a double-auger on which different types of blades can be mounted. This paper compares outcomes in terms of machine performance and particle size distribution as a consequence of the use of a helical (HELK) or hoe-shaped (HSK) blade. The study was conducted on a peach plantation in Spain grown with the “open centre” or "vase" training method. Analysis of the main elements illustrated the difference between the types of blades. The HELK blade performed better in terms of coverage of area (0.52 ha h−1) and material processed (1.06 t h−1). Moreover the main fraction of the particle size (60% of the fraction 3.15 ≤ P ≤ 45 mm) reached 79.2% with the HELK compared with the 67.9% with the HSK. However, from a mechanical standpoint, the HSK blade was found to perform better in terms of ease of maintenance, though the helical blade gave better results for the collection of peach pruning residues.

  • Evaluating social sustainability of bioeconomy value chains through integrated use of local and global methods
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2018-01-17
    Tuomas J. Mattila, Jáchym Judl, Catherine Macombe, Pekka Leskinen

    A bioeconomy is an economic system, which replaces fossil resources with renewable biological resources. As strategies are implemented, new bio-based value chains are created and others expand to replace fossil fuel based supply chains. Understanding the sustainability impacts of this development requires tools for assessing the impacts. The environmental impacts of bioeconomies have been studied through life cycle assessment, but the social impacts are poorly understood. Commonly applied social sustainability methods are local in scope and lack a life cycle perspective. The aim of this paper was to compare the priority setting in global and local approaches to social sustainability assessment and to explore possibilities for integrating them. A multi-region input-output model was used to estimate the social life cycle impacts of Finnish wood products. The main social issues were found in health and safety and gender inequality, with a large part of the impacts occurring outside the forest sector and outside Finnish boundaries. In contrast, local stakeholders views on social sustainability focused mostly on local conditions, employment and co-operation between companies. Ways to combine the contrasting results were explored and a framework for integrating the local and global approaches was outlined.

  • Cynara cardunculus L. as a biomass and multi-purpose crop: A review of 30 years of research
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Jorge Gominho, Maria Dolores Curt, Ana Lourenço, Jesús Fernández, Helena Pereira

    This review covers 30 years on cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.); a perennial plant adapted to the Mediterranean climate conditions of low rainfall and hot dry summers. Its potential as a non-food agricultural crop for set-aside lands and the excellent biomass production created an enthusiastic research interest in this plant and its uses. The review starts with the plant morphology, ecology and development, followed by the agricultural aspects related to crop establishment and harvest, giving the available data on the production yields by biomass component, from small research plots to large-scale plantations. The biomass components are characterized regarding anatomical, chemical and physical properties in view of their use as feedstock for the different applications. The use of Cynara biomass for energy was assessed according to its fuel properties and performance under the various processes e.g. combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. Cynara seeds contain a linoleic acid rich oil that may be processed into a biodiesel with properties similar to commercial diesel. The production of biomethane and of ethanol were also studied with promising results. Cynara was tested as a fibre source for production of pulp and paper using different delignification processes (kraft, soda, ASAM and organosolvs) with good pulp yields and adequate physical and mechanical properties. More recently, the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of different compounds extracted from Cynara biomass are also being investigated. This plant is a good candidate to be grown in the dry lands of the Mediterranean region as a perennial field crop for multi-purposes and non-conventional uses.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-19
  • Extraction of Acutodesmus obliquus lipids using a mixture of ethanol and hexane as solvent
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Alexis M. Escorsim, Grazielli da Rocha, José V.C. Vargas, André B. Mariano, Luiz P. Ramos, Marcos L. Corazza, Claudiney S. Cordeiro

    One of the difficulties of using microalgae for the production of biofuels is the development of an efficient and economically feasible process for oil extraction from these unicellular organisms. Current methodologies involve toxic solvents (such as chloroform, benzene and methanol, among others), high energy requirements and high capital cost. The extraction processes using organic solvents in a Soxhlet apparatus with or without the assistance of ultrasound irradiation have shown promising results. In this context, the main objective of this study was to improve the oil yield of Acutodesmus obliquus using different mixtures of ethanol and hexane. Ethanol to hexane volume ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2 (vol/vol) were used at 60 °C. The best extraction yield in relation to the total lipid content of the microalgae biomass was 92% for Soxhlet and 59% for ultrasonic irradiation using 1:2 (vol/vol) ethanol:hexane for extraction times of 12 and 2 h, respectively. These extraction yields were significantly better than those of the pure solvents, i.e., 24% and 217% higher than ethanol and hexane via Soxhlet and 55% and 68% higher than the ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure. The ethanol to hexane volume ratio of 1:2 (vol/vol) presented a superior performance in both Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction procedures by extracting a large amount of polar, non-polar and neutral lipids. Similar yields to the Soxhlet (12 h) with the ethanol:hexane 1:2 (vol/vol) solvent mixture were obtained with ultrasound (for 40 min) followed by Soxhlet (4 h) extraction leading to a reduction of 164% in energy consumption.

  • Use of ethanol with triolein for fatty acid ethyl ester as biodiesel fuel in a Novozym® 435 fixed-bed reactor
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Yusuke Endo, Takuya Hatanaka, Kouji Maeda, Koji Arafune, Takuji Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Itoh, Hidetoshi Kuramochi, Yasuhiro Kashino, Kentaro Ifuku

    The biodiesel fuel ethyl oleate (fatty acid ethyl ester, FAEE) was produced using Novozym® 435 (immobilized lipase) by transesterification of a mixture of ethanol and triolein in a fixed-bed reactor operated in circulating batch mode. The miscibility of the mixtures during transesterification was predicted thermodynamically and the conversion ratio of triolein was studied as a function of reaction time. The yield of ethyl oleate increased when the feed molar composition of ethanol was increased. The glycerin by-product could be removed from the enzyme particles by the circulating feed mixture. The inactivation of Novozym® 435 by glycerin was also examined in the circulating batch mode experiments, and an effective reaction model was proposed to describe the inactivation of Novozym® 435 and ethanol effect during the transesterification reaction by using the modified Michaelis-Menten equation.

  • Life cycle air quality impacts on human health from potential switchgrass production in the United States
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-23
    Sumil K. Thakrar, Andrew L. Goodkind, Christopher W. Tessum, Julian D. Marshall, Jason D. Hill

    Switchgrass is a promising bioenergy feedstock, but industrial-scale production may lead to negative environmental effects. This study considers one such potential consequence: the life cycle monetized damages to human health from air pollution. We estimate increases in mortality from long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which is emitted directly (“primary PM2.5”) and forms in the atmosphere (“secondary PM2.5”) from precursors of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), ammonia (NH3), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Changes in atmospheric concentrations of PM2.5 (primary + secondary) from on-site production and supporting supply chain activities are considered at 2694 locations (counties in the Central and Eastern US), for two biomass yields (9 and 20 Mg ha−1), three nitrogen fertilizer rates (50, 100, and 150 kg ha−1), and two nitrogen fertilizer types (urea and urea ammonium nitrate). Results indicate that on-site processes dominate life-cycle emissions of NH3, NOx, primary PM2.5, and VOCs, whereas SOx is primarily emitted in upstream supply chain processes. Total air quality impacts of switchgrass production, which are dominated by NH3 emissions from fertilizer application, range widely depending on location, from 2 to 553 $ Mg−1 (mean: 45) of dry switchgrass at a biomass yield of 20 Mg ha−1 and fertilizer application of 100 kg ha−1 N applied as urea. Switching to urea ammonium nitrate solution lowers damages to 2 to 329 $ Mg−1 (mean: 28). This work points to human health damage from air pollution as a potentially large social cost from switchgrass production and suggests means of mitigating that impact via strategic geographical deployment and management. Furthermore, by distinguishing the origin of atmospheric emissions, this paper advances the current emerging literature on ecosystem services and disservices from agricultural and bioenergy systems.

  • Fractionation of bio-oil produced from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae by liquid-liquid extraction
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Hu-Sheng Hu, Yu-Long Wu, Ming-De Yang

    Fractionation of bio-oil is in favor of upgrading bio-oil to transport fuel or chemicals. The microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta was hydrothermally liquefied to form a bio-oil, which was split into two layers during cooling: the lower layer contained organics with relatively high molar mass from 78 to 389 g mol−1, while the super layer with relatively low molar mass from 44 to 121 g mol−1. The lower layer of hydrothermally liquefaction (HTL) bio-oil was further fractionated into ethanol phase (oil 1) and dichloromethane phase (oil 2), and the super layer yielded 1 or 3-4 fractions of extracts (oil 3) via single-stage or multistage liquid-liquid extraction respectively. The compositions of each fraction were analyzed by GC-MS in detail. Dichloromethane, chloroform, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, iso-octanol, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ethyl acetate were compared in terms of their extraction capabilities to organics of bio-oil. The results indicated the chloroform and dichloromethane have the highest comprehensive extraction capabilities. In multistage extraction, when dichloromethane was used as extractant, the extraction distribution ratio (calculated using COD, chemical oxygen demand) was 0.66 in first-stage, then sharply dropped with an increase in stage number, 2nd∼3rd stage extractions achieved the maximum extraction percentage (approximately 53%). That the optimum combination of chloroform, benzene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane fractionated the super layer of HTL bio-oil can obtain very low oxygen content fraction: hydrocarbons (purity of hydrocarbons: relative content 97.9%) from the 2nd stage of multistage extraction.

  • Anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Mitigating process inhibition at high ammonia concentrations by selenium supplementation
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Rahim Molaey, Alper Bayrakdar, Recep Önder Sürmeli, Bariş Çalli

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich chicken manure from egg-laying hens was investigated via long-term continuous experiments with and without the addition of different trace elements. With trace element supplementation, a CH4 yield of 0.26 ± 0.03 m3 kg−1 of volatile solids (VS) added was achieved at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.62 kg m−3 day−1 based on VS and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content greater than 7200 g m−3. Selenium (Se) was identified as the critical trace element for the stable anaerobic digestion of chicken manure. The dominant methanogen in the reactors was the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus bourgensis. Therefore, we concluded that at elevated TAN concentrations, the CH4 production stimulated by Se supplementation likely occurred through syntrophic acetate oxidation. Without trace element supplementation, severe acetic and propionic acid accumulation occurred, causing the CH4 yield to decrease below 0.12 m3 kg−1 of VS added.

  • Biomass briquette as an alternative reductant for low grade iron ore resources
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Swagat S. Rath, Danda Srinivas Rao, Alok Tripathy, Surendra K. Biswal

    The present study explores the application of biomass briquette, produced from the unutilized vegetative remnants, as an alternative reductant for the reduction roasting-magnetic separation of an iron ore slime sample assaying 56.2% Fe. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies indicated tridymite and quartz to be the only crystalline mineral phases present in the biomass briquettes while the Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectra identified several organic functional groups representing the biomass. Iron ore concentrates with ∼65% Fe and ∼64% weight recovery were obtained with reduction conditions such as temperature: 650–750 °C, reductant to feed ratio: 0.15, reduction time: 30–45 min and reductant size: −3+1 mm. The analysis of the statistically designed experiments suggested that temperature is the most crucial factor followed by time, reductant to feed ratio and reductant size. Magnetite and hematite were found to be the only major phases present in the magnetic fractions produced from roasting at the optimum conditions. Many feebly magnetic phases like wustite, fayalite and clinoferrosilite appeared at higher temperature and reductant to feed ratios, which was confirmed by XRD, reflected light microscopy and quantitative mineralogical analysis.

  • Catalytic hydroconversion of pyrolytic bio-oil: Understanding and limiting macromolecules formation
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Mathieu Ozagac, C. Bertino-Ghera, D. Uzio, A. Quignard, D. Laurenti, C. Geantet

    Fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydroconversion is a value chain aimed to transform lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel or chemicals. During hydroconversion, desired catalytic deoxygenation reactions are in competition with thermal side reactions like condensation or oligomerization. These undesired pathways lead to high molecular weight compounds (i.e. macromolecules) that are responsible for catalyst deactivation and severe plugging of the reactor. We investigate here the impact of a phenolic compound on the formation of these macromolecules. Catalytic hydroconversion of a fast pyrolysis bio-oil and a bio-oil/guaiacol (50/50 wt%) mixture were carried out in a batch reactor using a NiMo/alumina catalyst. An extended analytical strategy has been developed involving size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and liquid state 13C NMR dedicated to the in depth characterization of effluents as well as physicochemical analysis of the fresh and used catalyst (XRD, Hg porosimetry, N2 physisorption, STEM). This strategy allowed bringing new insights on aromatic structures larger than 1000 g.mol−1 and their formation mechanism. This formation can be chemically inhibited by the introduction of organic component such as guaiacol. This stabilization was mainly observed and explained at low temperature and short reaction time.

  • Bioethanol and biobutanol production from sugarcorn juice
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Reyna Gomez-Flores, Thirumalai Nambi Thiruvengadathan, Robert Nicol, Brandon Gilroyed, Malcolm Morrison, Lana M. Reid, Argyrios Margaritis

    Corn hybrids with high stalk sugar content or ‘sugarcorn’, are fast-growing energy crops recently developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. For the first time, this study uses juice extracted from sugarcorn plants for bioethanol and biobutanol production via microbial fermentation. Characterization results for sugarcorn juice from two different crop harvest times are presented. Juice characteristics such as, moisture content, total solids, total dissolved solids, pH, density, elemental analysis, protein, reducing sugars and total carbohydrates were determined for the two juice batches. Sugarcorn juice used in the study contained a maximum of 145 g L−1 carbohydrates, with sucrose, glucose and fructose accounting for 80% of the sugars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcorn juice supplemented with 3 g L−1 yeast extract produced 45.6 g L−1 ethanol in 72 h of fermentation (yield = 0.41 g ethanol per g carbohydrates). For biobutanol fermentation, a sporogenic strain of Clostridium beijerinckii was cultivated anaerobically in sugarcorn juice-P2 medium, achieving a butanol concentration of 8.3 g L−1 in 257 h (yield = 0.31 g butanol per g total fermentable sugars). Sugarcorn is a new Canadian energy crop and a source of readily fermentable sugars, that has the potential to save on energy and enzyme costs, when compared to corn grain based biofuel production processes.

  • Effect of bio-char on methane generation from glucose and aqueous phase of algae liquefaction using mixed anaerobic cultures
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Saravanan R. Shanmugam, Sushil Adhikari, Hyungseok Nam, Sourov Kar Sajib

    Activated carbon is known to enhance methane formation in anaerobic reactors via interspecies electron transfer between fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Biochar, a by-product of biomass pyrolysis process, could also perform similar functions due to its conductive properties and the presence of redox active moieties. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of activated carbons and biochars on anaerobic digestion. Biochars obtained from canola meal, switchgrass and Ashe juniper were tested for methane production from both glucose and aqueous phase of bio-oil generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae. The results suggested that absorbents enhanced methane production. Furthermore, biochars synthesized at intermediate temperatures significantly increased methane yield and reduced the lag time required for methane formation. In addition, the results suggested that the redox active moieties such as quinones and phenazines in biochars are responsible for electron transport, which ultimately enhanced methane production.

  • Preliminary growth functions for Eucalyptus gunnii in the UK
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    A.D. Leslie, M. Mencuccini, M.P. Perks

    This study represents the first attempt to develop growth functions for Eucalyptus gunnii grown in the UK. Functions relating height and age, height and DBH, cumulative volume and age and mean annual increment and age were developed using historic data. These indicated that stands in the UK achieved an average growth rate of 16 m3 ha−1 y−1 or approximately 8 Mg ha−1 y−1 of dry stem biomass at an age of twenty years. There is evidence that yields can be considerably higher where intensive silviculture, such as use of plastic mulches and nutrient inputs has been practised, such as at Daneshill in Nottinghamshire, where trees attained a height of 10.6 m in five and a half years. However, potential yields are often compromised by high mortality and a priority should be to identify areas in the UK where E. gunnii can be grown with low risk and also to choose well adapted genetic material.

  • Bridging biofuel sustainability indicators and ecosystem services through stakeholder engagement
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-10-10
    Virginia H. Dale, Keith L. Kline, Tom L. Richard, Douglas L. Karlen, William W. Belden

    Continued development of cellulosic-based biofuels is needed to provide renewable energy and strengthen rural investment and development in the United States (US). To ensure biofuel development is sustainable and does not negatively affect ecosystem services, stakeholder input is necessary to identify sensitive and meaningful indicators. A major challenge is that there are substantial differences in terminology, perspectives, and methods used to quantify sustainability and ecosystem services with regard to processes, biodiversity, and socioeconomic effects. Our objectives were to identify relevant indicator categories for both perspectives using a case study from the US state of Iowa. A scientific literature review and engagement with stakeholders were used to identify 11 indicator categories associated with production, harvest, storage, and transport of cellulosic feedstocks. Five categories focus on environmental concerns (soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, and productivity) and six on socioeconomic concerns (social wellbeing, energy security, external trade, profitability, resource conservation, and social acceptability). Although these indicators reflect sustainability concerns of these stakeholders, additional monitoring and stakeholder engagement are needed to support the continual improvement that is part of adaptive management.

  • Competition between biofuel feedstock and food production: Empirical evidence from sugarcane outgrower settings in Malawi
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Raoul Herrmann, Charles Jumbe, Michael Bruentrup, Evans Osabuohien

    This paper analyses the implications of the expansion of biofuel feedstock production in Malawi on local food crop production. This represents a trade-off between two provisioning ecosystem services: biofuel feedstock (i.e. sugarcane) and food crops. Specifically, we assess household-level linkages between biofuel feedstock and food crop production among farmers involved in outgrower schemes around a large-scale plantation, sugar mill and ethanol distillery complex in Dwangwa, Central Malawi. Our analysis is based on a farm household survey that targeted sugarcane outgrowers (intervention group) and households not growing sugarcane (control group). We apply econometric and matching techniques to assess the impact of household participation in biofuel feedstock production on agricultural input expenditures for food crop production, land under food crops and investment in agricultural assets. In spite of limitations to establish causality, our results suggest that participation in sugarcane outgrower schemes is associated with larger amounts of land under staple food crops and higher purchases of farm inputs compared to the control group. The results further suggest that the expansion of biofuel feedstock production does not necessarily compromise household food production for those households involved in outgrowers schemes due to potentially positive intra-household linkages. We discuss under which circumstances this is possible, and whether and how other ecosystem services may be affected by sugarcane expansion.

  • Resident perceptions of the impacts of large-scale sugarcane production on ecosystem services in two regions of Brazil
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Camila Ortolan Fernandes de Oliveira Cervone, Arnaldo Walter, Marjorie Mendes Guarenghi, Camila Favero

    Sugarcane ethanol is an alternative to fossil fuels that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and offer socioeconomic benefits, but at the same time have a series of negative impacts. Brazil is the second largest producer of fuel ethanol globally, with this production predicted to almost double over the next 15 years. However sugarcane ethanol production in the country has been shown to interact with a range of ecosystem services. It is only when such interactions are understood that we can fully determine the potential trade-offs, synergies and sustainability outcomes of biofuel production in the country. This paper explores the local perceptions about the impacts of sugarcane production on ecosystem services in two municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo with significant sugarcane production: Capivari and Rancharia. Impact perceptions have been elicited through interviews with local residents, with the results showing that perceptions vary between the two study sites and are affected considerably by the different local experiences with sugarcane production. For example, although sugarcane farming has been traditionally performed in Capivari, it has been Rancharia that has experienced more recently a rapid sugarcane expansion that has caused considerable changes in land use and farming patterns. Interview results also suggest that the negative effects of sugarcane farming can be reduced through the adoption of good agricultural practices and the enforcement of existing laws, as many respondents cited considerable improvements in ecosystem health from such actions. Assessing the perception of local communities such as the one reported in this paper can be crucial in designing policies and planning land uses that enhance the sustainability of biofuel production.

  • Can upstream biofuel production increase the flow of downstream ecosystem goods and services?
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-09-09
    Henriette I. Jager, Rebecca A. Efroymson

    Advanced biomass feedstocks tend to provide more non-fuel ecosystem goods and services (ES) than 1st-generation alternatives. We explore the idea that payment for non-fuel ES could facilitate market penetration of advanced biofuels by closing the profitability gap. As a specific example, we discuss the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB), where 1st-generation bioenergy feedstocks (e.g., corn-grain) have been integrated into the agricultural landscape. Downstream, the MARB drains to the Gulf of Mexico, where the most-valuable fishery in the US is impacted by annual formation of a large hypoxic “Dead zone.” We suggest that advanced biomass production systems in the MARB can increase and stabilize the provision of ES derived from the coastal and marine ecosystems of the Gulf-of-Mexico. Upstream, we suggest that choosing feedstocks based on their resistance or resilience to disturbance (e.g., perennials, diverse feedstocks) can increase reliability in ES provision over time. Direct feedbacks to incentivize producers of advanced feedstocks are currently lacking. Perhaps a shift from first-generation biofuels to perennial-based fuels and other advanced bioenergy systems (e.g., algal diesel, biogas from animal wastes) can be encouraged by bringing downstream environmental externalities into the market for upstream producers. In future, we can create such feedbacks through payments for ES, but significant research is needed to pave the way.

  • Soil-related ecosystem services trade-off analysis for sustainable biodiesel production
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    E. Gissi, M. Gaglio, V.G. Aschonitis, E.A. Fano, M. Reho

    There have been strong calls globally to improve the sustainability of biodiesel production from oilseeds. Nevertheless, there is a lack of robust methodologies that are able to depict the local impacts of intensive feedstock production on soil properties and functions. The aim of this study is to quantify and map the potential biodiesel production from oilseed (e.g. soybean, sunflower and rapeseed), and understand possible trade-offs with other soil-related Ecosystem Services (ESs) such as i) habitat for soil organisms (supporting service), ii) soil carbon storage (regulating service), iii) groundwater quality protection (regulating service) and iv) food crops (provisioning service). This method is tested on current intensive agricultural areas of the Veneto region plain of Northern Italy. The results suggest that the study area has a sustainable biodiesel production potential of 20.7 dam3 per year, which is only 52% of the regional target for the year 2020. The areas that are currently under other annual crops (primarily cereals and maize) can also have a significant further contribution that if exploited would greatly exceed the regional target. This finding indicates that achieving the regional target will be impossible without having significant trade-offs with other soil-related ES or causing land use change. The proposed methodology could provide a tool that could be integrated within (and potentially improve the effectiveness of) biofuel certification schemes, strategic environmental assessments of renewable energy pathways, and regional energy plans.

  • Using the ecosystem service approach to determine whether jatropha projects were located in marginal lands in Ghana: Implications for site selection
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Abubakari Ahmed, Marcin Pawel Jarzebski, Alexandros Gasparatos

    The concept of marginal land is often used to justify land availability and inform land allocation for biofuel projects. However, marginal lands can provide other valuable ecosystem services. Using interviews with multiple stakeholders and fieldwork in three collapsed biofuel projects in Ghana, this paper shares perspectives on how the ecosystem service approach (ESA) can offer a better basis for selecting land for biofuel projects. Expert interviews with key stakeholders (e.g. Lands Commission) in biofuel value chains in Ghana highlight the lack of consensus of what constitutes marginal land, with two dominant interpretations coming up; (i) land unsuitable for food production and (ii) land unsuitable for cost-effective agricultural production. Both interpretations however do not reflect the ecosystem services lands provide, as well as the significant cultural values attached to them. Our empirical work shows that many ecosystem services are obtained from the supposedly marginal lands that are neglected from both interpretations, as well as the standard project planning and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processes. We make the case that when compared to the current marginal land narrative, the ESA offers a better lens for understanding local land uses, in managing emerging tradeoffs and providing information for locating biofuel projects. Our findings suggest that expanding the scope of EIAs by integrating elements of the ESA can go a long way towards informing site selection for biofuel investments.

  • Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a model compound for aromatic hydrocarbon production
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-08-12
    Xiaoxiang Jiang, Jiao Zhou, Jing Zhao, Dekui Shen

    Guaiacol, a mono-aromatic compound containing a hydroxyl and a methoxyl group, is one of the main products from lignin pyrolysis. In order to investigate the feasibility of aromatic hydrocarbons production from lignin, guaiacol was employed as the model compound for the catalytic conversion over HZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al ratios in a fixed-bed reactor under the temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C. With the increased temperature, the yield of both aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzene, toluene, styrene, naphthalene and 2-methylnaphtalene) and coke was increased from the mass fraction of 1.83%–24.27% and from 1.17% to 12.81%, respectively. At 600 °C, the yield of benzene was promoted by the HZSM-5 catalyst with high Si/Al ratio (200) by the mass fraction of 2.94% and up to 1.94% for that of toluene. The production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially for benzene and p-xylene) was favored with the loading of Ni on HZSM-5(25), while the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was notably inhabited. The coke deposition was slightly increased with the increased loading of Ni during the catalytic conversion of guaiacol. The demethoxylation and dehydroxylation reactions were considered to be promoted by the increase of Brønsted acid sites, while the methyl substitution reaction was slightly influenced by the total acidity of catalyst. The experimental results provided the conceptual and technical support for the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin to produce aromatic hydrocarbons.

  • Cost calculations for three different approaches of biofuel production using biomass, electricity and CO2
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    Ralph-Uwe Dietrich, Friedemann G. Albrecht, Simon Maier, Daniel H. König, Stefan Estelmann, Sandra Adelung, Zoé Bealu, Antje Seitz

    To achieve the emission mitigation and decarbonization goals, future aviation requires alternative sustainable fuels. Synthetic paraffinic kerosene, generated by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, is certified as a drop-in jet fuel up to 50%. Potential fuel production routes are via conversion of biomass (Biomass-to-Liquid, BtL), the combination of renewable power and biomass (Power-and-Biomass-to-Liquid, PBtL) and the conversion of carbon dioxide with hydrogen from renewable power (Power-to-Liquid, PtL). In order to compare the three different production routes, an Aspen Plus® model is designed for each production path and techno-economically assessed for an assumed capacity of 11 Mg h−1 fuel production (equals 90 Gg·a−1 plant capacity). Even though the BtL route allows the lowest net production costs, it has some drawbacks compared to PBtL and PtL. Especially the low H to C ratio of biomass leads to limited fuel yields in the BtL process. These yields can be increased by a factor of about 3 when conducting the PBtL process with the same biomass input instead of BtL. The highest X-to-Liquid efficiency based on power input and energy in feedstock is found for PBtL (51.4%) followed by PtL (50.6%) and BtL (36.3%). For BtL 73% of the introduced carbon is lost as CO2. The total investment costs are highest for BtL, followed by PBtL and PtL. The net production costs are in the reverse order. The cost analysis reveals total PBtL investment costs of 742 M€ and net production costs of around 3 €·kg−1 with an electricity price of 105 €·MWh−1. The costs for electrolyzer and gasifier represent the largest shares of the total capital costs. As the net production costs are dominated for the electricity costs, low electricity prices and high capacities are advantageous for PBtL, while high electricity and low biomass costs favor BtL concept.

  • Understanding marginal changes in ecosystem services from biodiesel feedstock production: A study of Hassan Bio-Fuel Park, India
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Evelien de Hoop

    Small-scale biodiesel production with a high level of community involvement has been associated with a number of benefits. These include relatively low environmental impacts, lack of competition with food production, strong poverty alleviation effects and enhanced access to energy. This Short Communication provides a qualitative analysis of the effects of the cultivation of biodiesel oilseed tree crops (mostly Millettia pinnata, along with Simarouba glauca, Azadirachta indica, Madhuca lungifolia and Jatropha curcas) in such a small-scale project, the Hassan Bio-Fuel Park in Karnataka, India. This extensive ethnographic research and using the ecosystem services approach to synthesize the findings suggests that the changes in both the flows of ecosystem services and different constituents of human wellbeing are marginal. While the ecosystem services approach can be useful to synthesize various forms of knowledge on biofuels to inform policy, this particular case study highlights the importance of being open about the different, often implicit, priorities and values of research projects and the various kinds of actors involved in biofuel production. Finally, it is crucial to understand not just which impacts are generated but especially how those impacts are generated.

  • Co-digestion of food waste and chemically enhanced primary treated sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-07-04
    Debkumar Chakraborty, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Jonathan W.C. Wong

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) requires external addition of buffer and/or trace metals, while co-digestion with complementary organic substrates such as sewage sludge is an alternative approach to overcome with the operational failures. In this batch study, co-digestion of chemically enhanced primary treated (CEPT) sludge mixed (mass to mass ratio) with FW in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) was investigated. The total solid (TS) contents of the CSTR varied between 60 and 100 kg dm−3 were prepared by mixing FW:CEPT sludge (on wet weight basis) at ratios of 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7. In addition, ∼200 kg dm−3 inoculum was added to make up the total working volume in the CSTRs while contents were continuously mixed at 6.7 Hz and incubated at 35 °C for 20 days. Samples were collected intermittently from the CSTRs for the physiochemical analysis. The total biogas and methane (CH4) productions are reduced in all CSTRs within 7–10 days due to the accumulation of VFAs to inhibitory concentrations. The maximum CH4 production of 0.276 ± 0.02 dm3 kg−1 VS added was recorded for treatment with 1:7 mixing ratio with an acetic acid accumulation of 0.35 g g−1 (∼90% of total VFAs). The results suggested that the addition of FW in a sewage sludge digester will be beneficial to improve the CH4 recovery and provide an alternative mean for treating FW locally. However, the inoculum size and buffering requirements need to be critically analyzed during the continuous operations to avoid any process inhibition.

  • Direct liquefaction of lignin and lignin rich biomasses by heterogenic catalytic hydrogenolysis
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-06-07
    Marcus Breunig, Philipp Gebhart, Ursel Hornung, Andrea Kruse, Eckhard Dinjus

    As part of an ongoing project at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany, this work examines the liquefaction of varying feedstocks under conditions of the Bergius process of direct coal liquefaction by high pressure heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenolysis. Applying this process onto renewable resources like lignin and lignin-rich biomass has the potential to produce aromatic components for chemical industry. The performed experiments investigate the chemical conversion of different lignin types alongside samples of beech bark and beech wood fiber residues from pulp and paper industry using different heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst preparations. Reaction conditions such as catalyst concentration, temperature and concentration of sulfur were varied in order to optimize the conditions of liquefaction for the chosen setup. It will be shown that lignin and lignin-rich biomass can be liquefied under conditions of direct coal liquefaction using molybdic acid and sulfidic iron catalysts. The liquid oil product can be obtained in good yields up to 60% mass fraction of the input feedstock, consisting of alkylated phenols and alkyl benzenes while removing the majority of hetero atomic functional groups. This can be achieved while producing only a minimal amount of solid residue, reaction water and a valuable gas byproduct.

  • Future European biogas: Animal manure, straw and grass potentials for a sustainable European biogas production
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    A.K.P. Meyer, E.A. Ehimen, J.B. Holm-Nielsen

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production. The aim of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y−1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass availability. Alone the biogas energy potential projected in the scenario representing low substrate availability corresponds to a doubling of the European biogas production in 2015. The results shows that sustainable alternatives to the use of maize are present in all the member states of the EU28 to an extent that is sufficient to ensure a continuous progressive development of the European biogas sector.

  • Development of a compact technique to measure benzo(a)pyrene emissions from residential wood combustion, and subsequent testing in six modern wood boilers
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    Franziska Klauser, Manuel Schwabl, Magdalena Kistler, Irene Sedlmayer, Norbert Kienzl, Alexander Weissinger, Christoph Schmidl, Walter Haslinger, Anne Kasper-Giebl

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted during incomplete combustion of organic materials and are particularly harmful to human health. As a representative of PAHs, Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is restricted by the European Union to an annual average value of 1 ng m−3 in ambient air. This threshold is significantly exceeded during the heating season in various regions. Residential wood combustion furnaces are considered to be a major source for BaP pollution. In this research, a compact sampling method for BaP measurements was validated. Afterwards, the method was used to assess emissions from modern automatic wood boilers, in order to obtain a detailed knowledge of BaP emissions from residential wood combustion furnaces. It was demonstrated that, for a wide range of BaP concentrations, sampling from the hot flue gas of residential wood combustors can be carried out effectively over a simple quartz filter, after proper dilution with cold purified air. Highest BaP emissions from the investigated boilers occurred during start, with a mean concentration value of 6.3 μg m-3. All values refer to standard conditions (273.15 °C, 100 kPa) and to an O2 volume fraction of 13% in the dry flue gas. The lowest concentrations occurred during full load operation (mean value 73 ng m-3 at STP). It was found that, amongst all flue gas compounds analysed, elemental carbon is the parameter most closely related to BaP. This work demonstrates, at optimal operating conditions, modern automatic wood boilers have potentially lowest BaP emission concentrations amongst residential wood combustion furnaces.

  • Self-heating properties of softwood samples investigated by using isothermal calorimetry
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Katarina Rupar-Gadd, Jörgen Forss

    The investigation focused on obtaining experimental results from the self-heating properties of different softwood samples during lab-scale storage. The samples investigated were a mixture of dried soft wood sawdust, softwood pellets 8 mm in diameter, and aged softwood sawdust stored outdoors for three months. Isothermal calorimetry was used to measure the heat released from the biomass samples and assess the contribution to self-heating during storage. Softwood samples were stored at 20 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C and 60 °C, and the metals manganese, copper and iron were added as a water solution to investigate if the presence of metals would increase the risk of self-heating. For most sample series, the highest levels of heat release were found after approximately 10 days of storage; sample series stored at 50 °C displayed the highest levels. The addition of copper resulted in levels of heat release 135% higher than samples without metal added.

  • A combination anaerobic digestion scheme for biogas production from dairy effluent—CSTR and ABR, and biogas upgrading
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-05-23
    Lars Jürgensen, Ehiaze Augustine Ehimen, Jens Born, Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen

    Anaerobic digestion of low-strength dairy waste water was used for the production of biogas which is aimed at serving as a concentrated carbon dioxide (CO2) source for further methanation. Using hydrogen (which can be produced via electrolysis using renewably sourced electricity), the CO2 fraction of the produced biogas can be used as a mechanism to store surplus electricity by the Sabatier process, which converts the CO2 fractions to methane (CH4), i. e. synthetic natural gas. This study investigates the use a combined reactor scheme for the anaerobic digestion of dairy waste water, and the further upgrading of the biogas products from the process. A combination pilot scale process was established with a 90 d start-up time using a 1 m3 continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a 0.2 m3 baffled reactor (ABR) in series. The system was fed at constant retention time in the ABR of 1.6 d and with varying substrate organic loading rates between 1.25 and 4.50 kg m−3 d−1. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 82% with a biogas yield of 0.26 m3 kg−1. The use of the derived biogas for the Sabatier process to convert hydrogen into CH4 showed no disadvantages compared to synthetic gas mixtures. The combination of CSTR and ABR overcame the individual disadvantages of both reactor types. The investigated anaerobic digestion system can be further optimized and adopted to replace conventional waste water treatment systems.

  • The role of lignin in the densification of torrefied wood in relation to the final product properties
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-05-23
    P. Nanou, W.J.J. Huijgen, M.C. Carbo, J.H.A. Kiel

    Biomass properties can be improved for heat and power applications through combined torrefaction and pelleting. Good pellet quality in terms of durability, density, moisture absorption, fines production and heating value paired with a low power consumption in the pellet mill render the densification process of torrefied materials challenging. The aim of this study is to identify the lignin components/intermediates and the corresponding mechanisms during torrefaction of wood that play a role in pelleting behaviour and pellet quality. The importance of lignin lies in its ability to act as a natural binder during densification. Structural differences caused by torrefaction of spruce and poplar (270 °C, 32–45 min) were studied by using NMR and TD-GC/MS as well as by pressing single pellets. Spruce chips were torrefied (280 °C, 35–45 min) and conditioned in steam in a pilot plant. The products were ground on a 4-mm sieve and densified in a single-pellet press, where differences in the measured responses were explained on basis of their lignin properties. The lignin was isolated from the spruce samples by organosolv fractionation and characterised in terms of amount, molecular weight distribution (SEC) and glass-transition temperature (DSC). The results of the tests and analyses indicate that torrefied softwood should be densified immediately after production. Furthermore, pellet quality of the torrefied material was found to depend on the binding ability of its lignin in the presence of moisture during densification. Additionally, storage of torrefied spruce prior to densification causes reduced binding ability of its lignin leading to pellets of lower quality.

  • A systematic review of the conceptual differences of environmental assessment and ecosystem service studies of biofuel and bioenergy production
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-05-16
    Markus A. Meyer, Florian S. Leckert

    National or supranational policies such as the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU RED) prescribe both the assessment of the environmental impacts of biofuel and bioenergy production, as well as their impact on ecosystem services (ESS). However, it is not clear what differentiates environmental assessment (EA) and ESS studies. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and compared ESS and EA studies of biofuel and bioenergy production. We focused on topics such as whether both approaches allow for a holistic sustainability assessment of biofuel/bioenergy production, are suitable for practitioners, and which gaps for policymaking they can bridge. The results of the systematic review suggest that ESS studies tend to assess economic and social sustainability more prominently when compared to EA studies. Furthermore, ESS studies often assess ESS bundles and thereby cover multiple environmental impact categories, while EA studies focus more on selected environmental impacts (e.g., GHG emissions, air pollution, water quality and availability), targeting fewer environmental impacts to achieve slightly more feasible and reliable impact assessments (lower uncertainty). EA studies are dominated by life-cycle assessments. Contrastingly, ESS studies rather cover the entire social-ecological dimensions of biofuel and bioenergy production. Due to their systematic approach, they act as an envelope for multiple methodologies that can quantify the sustainability impacts of biofuel and bioenergy production. In this respect, it can be argued that ESS studies could support policymaking bridging some existing gaps such as the underrepresentation of social assessments in the EU RED.

  • Environmental impact assessment of perennial crops cultivation on marginal soils in the Mediterranean Region
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Ana Luisa Fernando, Jorge Costa, Bruno Barbosa, Andrea Monti, Nils Rettenmaier

    Perennial crops, as energy feedstocks, offer ecological advantages over fossil fuels by contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and fossil energy savings. Yet, the intensity of agricultural production may increase the pressure on soil, water resources and on biological and landscape diversity. Moreover, land use competition with food crops is demanding a spatial segregation of energy producing areas to land currently marginal for agricultural production. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the local and site-specific environmental impacts associated with the cultivation of perennial crops in marginal soils. The study, supported by the European Union (project OPTIMA - Optimization of Perennial Grasses for Biomass Production), was developed and applied to the cultivation phase of several perennial crops, in marginal soils of the Mediterranean region, using environmental impact assessment (EIA) protocols. Investigated crops include Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu), giant reed (Arundo donax L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.). Different categories were studied: fertilizers and pesticides related emissions, impact on soil and water resources and biological and landscape diversity. Results suggest that growing perennial crops in marginal Mediterranean soils do not inflict a higher impact to the environment than wheat farming (the current land use). At a scale from 0 (lower impact) to 10 (higher impact), against idle land (the reference system with a score of 5), wheat and giant reed showed the highest scores (6.7–7.3 and 6.7–7.1, respectively). Impact scores of the remaining perennials decreased in the order cardoon (5.7–6.0), Miscanthus (5.4–5.6), and switchgrass (5.2–5.5), the last one showing the lowest difference to the reference system. Overall results suggest that perennial crops provide benefits regarding soil properties and erodibility (with an average score of 2.2 and 5.6, respectively). Cardoon also showed benefits related with the biological and landscape diversity, scoring 5.0, like the reference system. On average, perennial crops showed a score of 6.3 and 6.9 towards the same categories. Impacts associated with water resources and N-fertilizer related emissions were high (with average scores of 8.1 and 8.3, respectively) but impacts associated with pesticide related emissions were low (average score of 5.4).

  • Impacts of acidic gas components on combustion of contaminated biomass fuels
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-04-22
    Christos Galanopoulos, Jinying Yan, Hailong Li, Longcheng Liu

    The formation of high concentrations of acid gases; in combustion with large variations in fuel qualities, represents a major challenge for energy production from contaminated biomass fuels. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of acid gas formation and retention in the combustion of recycled wood fuels. A model has been developed based on the chemical reactions involved and empirical correlations from plant monitoring and testing. The model has been used to study the behaviour of acidic gas components in critical stages of a bubbling fluidised bed boiler process. Results indicate that the variation in type of fuel contamination is the most important issue to deal with in the combustion of recycled wood fuels. Peaks in the flue gas chlorine concentrations cannot be suppressed easily by conventional flue gas cleaning measures. Upon applying ammonium sulphate dosing for the protection of chlorine induced corrosions, it is sometimes difficult to maintain the required S/Cl ratio when large variations of fuel chlorine occur. Moreover, a high level of chlorine in the fuel can also indirectly affect the emission control of sulphur dioxide because it would require an increased level of ammonium sulphate decomposition, which results in a high level of SO2 in flue gas. The study also shows a beneficial effect of the recirculation of quench water from the flue gas condenser to the boiler. It offers opportunities for the optimisation of flue gas cleaning and flue gas condensation, for improving the efficiencies of water and wastewater treatment, as well as for emission reduction with a sustainable way.

  • Drying effects and dry matter losses during seasonal storage of spruce wood chips under practical conditions
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-03-29
    Nicolas Hofmann, Theresa Mendel, Fabian Schulmeyer, Daniel Kuptz, Herbert Borchert, Hans Hartmann

    The storage of wood chips is important for the biomass supply chain as it compensates for temporal differences in production and consumption. Typical storage-related problems are dry matter and energy losses due to microbial activity. In extensive field trials, we investigated the storage of spruce wood chips from forest residues (FRC) and from energy roundwood (ERC) with and without rain protection under Central European conditions. Additionally, we examined the storage of unchipped piles. The results indicate that the investigated factors, i. e. storage duration, season, assortment and rain protection, have a statistically significant influence on moisture content and dry matter loss of wood chips. During five months of storage, the highest decline in moisture content was 22.6 %-points, the highest dry matter loss 11.1 %. In winter, energy losses reached up to 11.3 %. In summer, energy contents did not change or even increased slightly (max. 4.7 %). Pile temperature and dry matter losses were significantly positively correlated in FRC. Formation of different layers within the piles could be detected. Storage performance was better in unchipped than in chipped energy roundwood. Storage of unchipped forest residues was not beneficial concerning energy content, but fuel quality increased due to reduced ash and fine particle content. Clear best practice recommendations could be drawn regarding wood chip storage under Central European conditions. During winter, FRC should be stored with rain protection or as short as possible while during a dry and warm summer, wood chips can be stored with only few restrictions.

  • Use of freshwater macroalgae Spirogyra sp. for the treatment of municipal wastewaters and biomass production for biofuel applications
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-03-23
    Shijian Ge, Max Madill, Pascale Champagne

    Freshwater macroalgae has competitive advantages compared to microalgae and marine macroalgae, such as lower separation and drying cost requirements and an abundance of available freshwater media. Municipal wastewater containing large quantities of nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) is a valuable and underutilized resource. In this study, the cultivation of the naturally isolated filamentous freshwater macroalgae Spirogyra sp. was investigated in three different types of municipal wastewater including primary (PW), secondary (SW) and centrate (CW) wastewaters. Two different types of reactors including closed column photobioreactors and open rectangular aquarium reactors were operated under no and low air flow rates of less than (18 ± 2) cm−3·min−1, respectively. The SW, PW diluted with water to a 20 % volume fraction and CW diluted with water to a 2 % volume fraction appeared to promote ash-free biomass productivities of (2.17-6.68) g·m−2·d−1 and specific growth rates of (16.4–29.7) %·d−1. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies ranged from (50.6–90.6) % and (60.4–99.1) %, respectively. Based on ultimate analysis, the biomass produced a higher heating value of (12.4–17.1) MJ·kg−1, and also showed relatively consistent protein ((16.7–19.5) % of the dry mass fraction), carbohydrate ((41.5–55.0) %) and lipid ((2.8–10.0) %) contents. These results indicate the feasibility of using Spirogyra sp. to recover nutrients from multiple municipal wastewater sources with the simultaneous production of biomass that contains value-added biochemical components for bioenergy and biofuel applications.

  • Application of ABS membranes in dynamic filtration for Chlorella sorokiniana dewatering
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    M. Hapońska, E. Clavero, J. Salvadó, C. Torras

    This work focuses on the use of dynamic membrane filtration with cheap membranes manufactured from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer for dewatering of Chlorella sorokiniana microalgae strain. Dynamic filtration based on vibration was used at pilot scale and compared to conventional cross-flow filtration to demonstrate how fouling can be greatly minimized. Experiments were carried-out with different types of commercial membranes from different pore sizes and materials such as polyethersulfone or polyacrylonitrile. ABS membranes were produced, characterized (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle and porosity measurements) and tested with conventional and dynamic filtration. Composition of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymeric solution as well as conditions of membrane preparation were examined in order to obtain a useable membrane for microalgae filtration. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene membranes offered promising results in terms of permeability when applied to both filtration techniques for Chlorella sorokiniana dewatering. The influence of different concentrations of microalgae culture as a feed for dynamic membrane filtration was examined. To confirm total microalgae rejection the optical density of feed, permeate and retentate was studied in all experiments. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene material is order of magnitudes cheaper than conventional membrane materials. Combined with dynamic filtration, both may turn membrane filtration into a preferred technology for microalgae dewatering.

  • Towards a perennial biomass sorghum crop: A comparative investigation of biomass yields and overwintering of Sorghum bicolor x S. halepense lines relative to long term S. bicolor trials in northern Italy
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Ephrem Habyarimana, Carlo Lorenzoni, Rita Redaelli, Michela Alfieri, Stefano Amaducci, Stan Cox

    The purpose of this work was to assess biomass and grain yields, path modelling of yield components, and perenniality in 97 Sorghum bicolor x S. halepense (SB x SH) lines, and compare their biomass production to a series of 38 historic (1987–2015) biomass SB trials. Perenniality was evaluated as rhizome overwintering, while other traits were scored using standard procedures. Contrary to SB, several SB x SH lines developed rhizomes and overwintered, depending mostly upon increased dosage of SH genome in SB background. A few backcross-derived SB x SH lines overwintered, indicating that perenniality can be introgressed in sorghum using backcrossing approach. SB x SH lines were competitive in terms of grain and aboveground dry biomass yields compared to SB. SB x SH selections outperformed or were comparable to the best commercial biomass SB hybrid checks, and ranked among the best selections from the historic trials. Grain yield in SB x SH lines depended mainly on number of culms, whereas biomass yields depended mainly on plant height, dry mass and fiber mass fractions of dry material, and number of culms. We identified superior dual purpose SB x SH genotypes producing 5–11 and 38–45 t ha−1 of grain and aboveground biomass, respectively, most of which displayed satisfactory overwintering rates (56–100%) and high levels of fiber (61–69%) mass fraction. These lines represent high energy sorghums suitable for biofuel and food production. The best SB x SH crosses for developing perennial biomass and grain sorghums were represented by perennial/perennial, annual/perennial/perennial, and annual/perennial combinations.

  • Steam gasification of wood pellets, sewage sludge and manure: Gasification performance and concentration of impurities
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-02-21
    Daniel Schweitzer, Andreas Gredinger, Max Schmid, Gebhard Waizmann, Marcel Beirow, Reinhold Spörl, Günter Scheffknecht

    In the dual fluidised bed steam gasification process a product gas with a relatively high calorific value is produced. For clean biomass such as wood pellets or wood chips this process has been previously demonstrated in pilot-scale. Within this work, the applicability of waste biomass such as sewage sludge or manure as a fuel for this gasification process was investigated experimentally. A special focus was given to the concentration of impurities in the product gas of the gasifier (such as tar, NH3, H2S and Cl). The gasification experiments have shown, that the steam gasification of both biogenic waste materials is possible. For all fuels a high gas yield, close to the gas yield of wood pellets, was achieved and the product gas composition did not vary much between the fuels. Due to the different structures of the fuels and their different nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine contents, the concentrations of the impurities such as tar, NH3 H2S and Cl can vary significantly: tar concentrations of up to 100 g ⋅  m−3, NH3 concentrations of up to 0.06 m3 m−3 and H2S concentrations of up to 7000 ⋅ 10−6 ⋅ m3 ⋅ m−3 were measured.

  • Comparison measurements of tar content in gasification systems between an online method and the tar protocol
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-02-20
    A. Gredinger, R. Spörl, G. Scheffknecht

    One of the major obstacles for the application of biomass gasification systems is the relatively high tar content of the producer gas that can inhibit its use in engines or turbines or in further processes like methanation or conversion to other secondary fuels or chemicals. Moreover, tars are difficult to define and also because of the different attempts to do so remains the determination of its content challenging. Nowadays conventional wet chemical and other standard methods for the determination of tars are very time consuming and do not allow continuous online monitoring of the gas quality. Furthermore, the execution by different users can affect the results. One approach to avoid these disadvantages is an automatic system that monitors the tar concentration in the producer gas online during the gasification process. Such an automatic system was developed at IFK in the past with the goal of commercialization and moreover better comparability of the results from tar measuring. To show its accuracy and advantages over standard methods, comparative measurements with the standard method DIN CEN/TS 15439 at an electrically heated lab scale gasifier at different settings have been performed at IFK over several hours. Then, the results of both measurement techniques were compared to each other. The results show a stable operation of the gasifier and therefore also the tar production and its fast detection with the online system. Furthermore, the comparison of the results from both measurement techniques shows good agreement. A satisfying validation of the online method could be conducted.

  • Biomass and biofuel crop effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the North Central US
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-02-20
    Douglas A. Landis, Claudio Gratton, Randall D. Jackson, Katherine L. Gross, David S. Duncan, Chao Liang, Timothy D. Meehan, Bruce A. Robertson, Thomas M. Schmidt, Karen A. Stahlheber, James M. Tiedje, Benjamin P. Werling

    Biomass cropping systems have the potential to alter the ecosystem services provided by agricultural landscapes. Depending on crop type and management, strategic incorporation of biomass cropping systems into existing agricultural landscapes could enhance a range of ecosystem services while mitigating some disservices. Here, we review the approaches and findings of eight years of research into the potential effects of a range of biomass cropping systems on ecosystem services in the North Central US. Our research was framed by an initial assessment of the abundance and distribution of multiple taxa (i.e., biodiversity) within candidate biomass cropping systems. The processes underpinning important ecosystem services in each system were then measured or modeled, related to biodiversity metrics, and used to explore the influence of management scenarios on biodiversity and ecosystem processes. We also used these data and models to develop a decision support system that allows stakeholders to consider tradeoffs and synergies under alternative landscape composition, configuration, and agronomic management. Perennial grass cropping systems provided the greatest potential to promote multiple ecosystem services. More diverse perennial grasslands that include forbs have the potential to increase pest suppression and pollination, decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and enhance grassland bird communities, but likely at the expense of biomass yield. Providing stakeholders and policymakers with information about the expected mix of ecosystem services supported by different biomass feedstock cropping systems in advance of their adoption offers the potential for informed choices to guide the implementation and management of future biomass-producing landscapes.

  • 2-Year field operation monitoring of electrostatic precipitators for residential wood heating systems
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-02-17
    Thomas Brunner, Gerald Wuercher, Ingwald Obernberger

    To assess the applicability of electrostatic precipitators (ESP) for particulate matter (PM) emission reduction in old residential wood heating appliances comprehensive field tests with accompanying ESP operation monitoring and dedicated emission measurement campaigns have been performed in the region of Graz (AT). Three OekoTube ESPs were thereby tested during the heating seasons 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 at different sites with rather old respectively high-PM-emission wood burning devices. Before installing the ESPs at the field testing sites they were checked in the lab regarding functionality and precipitation efficiency. The evaluation of the plant monitoring data collected during the field tests revealed high seasonal ESP availabilities between 80.2% and 97.7%. Dedicated test runs with emission measurements at the different testing sites showed high precipitation efficiencies which were well comparable with those gained during preceding lab-tests. Based on these results it can be concluded, that ESP models like the OekoTube are suitable as retrofit units in old appliances and have due to their high availability and particle precipitation efficiency the potential to contribute to a significant reduction of particulate matter emissions from old residential wood burning systems.

  • Improving water quality in the Chesapeake Bay using payments for ecosystem services for perennial biomass for bioenergy and biofuel production
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2017-02-03
    Peter B. Woodbury, Armen R. Kemanian, Michael Jacobson, Matthew Langholtz

    Replacing row crops with perennial bioenergy crops may reduce nitrogen (N) loading to surface waters. We estimated the benefits, costs, and potential for replacing maize with switchgrass to meet required N loading reduction targets for the Chesapeake Bay (CB) of 26.9 Gg y−1. After subtracting the potential reduction in N loading due to improved N fertilizer practices for maize, a further 22.8 Gg y−1 reduction is required. Replacing maize with fertilized switchgrass could reduce N loading to the CB by 18 kg ha−1 y−1, meeting 31% of the N reduction target. The break-even price of fertilized switchgrass to provide the same profit as maize in the CB is 111 $ Mg−1 (oven-dry basis throughout). Growers replacing maize with switchgrass could receive an ecosystem service payment of 148 $ ha−1 based on the price paid in Maryland for planting a rye cover crop. For our estimated average switchgrass yield of 9.9 Mg ha−1, and the greater N loading reduction of switchgrass compared to a cover crop, this equates to 24 $ Mg−1. The annual cost of this ecosystem service payment to induce switchgrass planting is 13.29 $ kg−1 of N. Using the POLYSYS model to account for competition among food, feed, and biomass markets, we found that with the ecosystem service payment for switchgrass of 25 $ Mg−1 added to a farm-gate price of 111 $ Mg−1, 11% of the N loading reduction target could be met while also producing 1.3 Tg of switchgrass, potentially yielding 420 dam3 y−1 of ethanol.

  • Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2016-12-24
    Michael Kraussler, Matthias Binder, Philipp Schindler, Hermann Hofbauer

    Dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification generates a high calorific, practically nitrogen-free product gas with a volumetric H2 content of about 40%. Therefore, this could be a promising route for a polygeneration concept aiming at the production of valuable gases (for example H2), electricity, and heat. In this paper, a lab-scale process chain, based on state of the art unit operations, which processed a tar-rich product gas from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant, is investigated regarding H2 production within a polygeneration concept. The lab-scale process chain employed a water gas shift step, two gas scrubbing steps, and a pressure swing adsorption step. During the investigations, a volumetric H2 concentration of 99.9% with a specific H2 production of 30 g kg−1 biomass was reached. In addition, a valuable off-gas stream with a lower heating value of 7.9 MJ m−3 was produced. Moreover, a techno-economic assessment shows the economic feasibility of such a polygeneration concept, if certain feed in tariffs for renewable electricity and H2 exist. Consequently, these results show, that the dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification technology is a promising route for a polygeneration concept, which aims at the production of H2, electricity, and district heat.

  • Supercritical water gasification of biomass in fluidized bed: First results and experiences obtained from TU Delft/Gensos semi-pilot scale setup
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2016-12-16
    Onursal Yakaboylu, Ivo Albrecht, John Harinck, K.G. Smit, Georgios-Archimidis Tsalidis, Manuela Di Marcello, Konstantinos Anastasakis, Wiebren de Jong

    There are various attempts to industrialize the supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of wet biomass process, however, there are still process challenges to overcome. Such challenges include slurry pumpability, energy efficiency, low conversion, char and tar formation, and clogging problems due to salt precipitation. Fortunately, some of the aforementioned challenges can be eliminated by having long residence times, high heating rates and utilization of fluidized bed reactors. This study presents the first results and experiences obtained from the TU Delft/Gensos semi-pilot scale setup which has a capacity of 50 kg/h and incorporates a fluidized bed reactor. A dry starch concentration of 4.4 wt % was used as feedstock. Reactor temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C and 600 °C, and the mass flow rates of 24.5 kg/h and 35 kg/h were tested. The results indicate that the heating profile in the heat exchanger and the residence time at higher temperatures (>500 °C) play a significant role in the conversion efficiencies. No clogging problem was observed, however small quantities of char (2.3 wt % at highest) and oil production (10.4 wt % at highest) were observed. The highest carbon gasification efficiency was 73.9% and this was obtained at a reactor temperature of 600 °C and at a feed flow rate of 24.5 kg/h.

  • Multi-dimensional poverty effects around operational biofuel projects in Malawi, Mozambique and Swaziland
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2016-09-18
    Shakespear Mudombi, Graham Paul Von Maltitz, Alexandros Gasparatos, Carla Romeu-Dalmau, Francis X. Johnson, Charles Jumbe, Caroline Ochieng, Davies Luhanga, Paulo Lopes, Boubacar Siddighi Balde, Katherine J. Willis

    There is a long-term concern that the cultivation of biofuel feedstocks could have negative impacts on communities involved in, or adjacent to, such projects. In southern Africa, the acquisition and allocation of large blocks of land for biofuel feedstock production has been especially contentious. The present study investigates the local multi-dimensional poverty effects of growing biofuel crops using the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative's Multidimensional Poverty Index. It investigates different modes of production (large-scale vs. smallholder-based) and different feedstocks (sugarcane vs. jatropha) in four study sites in Malawi, Swaziland and Mozambique. In the sugarcane growing areas, those who participated in its value chain as farmers or workers had lower poverty than those who were not involved. However, for jatropha growing areas, there were no clearly defined differences between the controls and the jatropha farmers in Mangochi, while in Mozambique the plantation workers had slightly lower poverty than the control groups. Although it was not possible to make direct comparisons between all projects, sugarcane areas seem to be better off than non-sugarcane areas. In all projects there was generally high incidence of deprivations in indicators related to living standards, particularly, access to electricity and cooking fuel.

  • Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on climate regulation services: Five case studies in Malawi, Mozambique and Swaziland
    Biomass Bioenergy (IF 3.219) Pub Date : 2016-05-24
    Carla Romeu-Dalmau, Alexandros Gasparatos, Graham von Maltitz, Alastair Graham, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Beccy Wilebore, Katherine J. Willis

    Understanding changes in carbon sequestration due to land conversion is key for elucidating the true potential of biofuel landscapes to provide climate regulation ecosystem services. In this study, we focus on the two most promoted biofuel crops in southern Africa, Jatropha and sugarcane, to analyse the land use change effects and associated carbon impacts of growing biofuel crops in five study sites in Mozambique, Malawi and Swaziland. We found that, considering a 20-year cycle, carbon stocks in aboveground biomass are higher for sugarcane than for Jatropha. However, as soil organic carbon (SOC) is generally the main carbon pool, total carbon stocks (considering biomass and soil) will highly depend on SOC. Our results show that, in our study sites, sugarcane replaced land uses with low carbon stocks (low-density forest and agriculture), and as a result carbon gains occurred due to land use change. In the Jatropha projects, carbon gains are observed in the smallholder scheme as agricultural land was converted to Jatropha, but carbon debts occurred in the Jatropha plantation as high-density forest was cleared to grow this feedstock. Finally we show that, if a plantation of sugarcane or Jatropha is envisioned to be located in the studied regions, more forested land could potentially be converted into sugarcane (30–44% of forest) than into Jatropha (24–32%), without creating carbon debts due to land conversion. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study of the carbon impacts of land use change of the main biofuel crops in southern Africa.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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