Combustion characterization of waste cooking oil and canola oil based biodiesels under simulated engine conditions Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 C. Ming, I.M. Rizwanul Fattah, Qing N. Chan, Phuong X. Pham, Paul R. Medwell, Sanghoon Kook, Guan H. Yeoh, Evatt R. Hawkes, Assaad R. Masri
Alternative fuels will come from a variety of feed stocks and refinement processes. Understanding the fundamentals of combustion and pollutants formation processes of these fuels will be useful for their implementation in different combustion systems. In this work, optical diagnostics were performed to waste cooking oil (WCO) and canola oil (CAO) based biodiesel sprays to assess their combustion and soot formation processes. Conventional diesel was used as a reference fuel for comparison with the biodiesels. The experiments were conducted in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion chamber (CVCC) with simulated compression-ignition engine conditions, with different degree of exhaust gas recirculation. The liquid length and lift-off length results indicate that there was no significant interaction between the liquid phases of the fuels and their combustion regions. The flame lift-off lengths were found to be affected by both the chemical and physical properties of the fuels. It was observed that a larger difference between the lift-off length and the first-luminosity distance was correlated with lesser downstream soot formation, although the molecular structure of the fuel was found to affect the process too. Assessing the sooting and combustion characteristics of the biodiesel and diesel flames across the varied ambient O2 atmospheres revealed that the estimated soot contents of the biodiesel and diesel flames peaked at 15 and 21 vol.% O2 concentration, respectively. The peak soot contents of the WCO and CAO biodiesel flames were found be comparable, but lower than that of diesel, across the various O2 environment. The results also demonstrated that the biodiesels have higher normalized peak pressure values than diesel at all O2 conditions. Two-color pyrometry data demonstrated that the measured soot temperature and soot KL factors of the flames were similar at 15 and 21 vol.% O2, but varied with further reduction of ambient O2 concentration. Variations in the combustion duration and flame area were found to be fuel dependent.
Effect of adding 2-ethylhexyl nitrate cetane improver on the autoignition properties of ethanol–diesel fuel blend – Investigation at various ambient gas temperatures Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Hubert Kuszewski
One of the alternative fuels considered for powering piston internal combustion engines is ethanol. In some countries, ethanol has been successfully used for many years as a self-contained fuel in positive-ignition engines after relatively minor technical modifications. Due, among other things, to a very low cetane number, this fuel cannot be used in pure form in diesel engines. Consideration is being given to fuels that are blends of diesel fuel with some ethanol fraction. Diesel fuel containing up to 15% (v/v) of ethanol is sometimes referred to as e-diesel or oxygenated diesel. However, it is necessary to improve the autoignition properties of such a blend. Improvement of the autoignition properties of an ethanol–diesel fuel blend (EDB) can be accomplished by introducing an additive that improves the propensity for autoignition. One such additive may be 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN), which is commonly used to improve the autoignition properties of diesel fuels. This study determined the effect of the addition of 2-EHN (up to 10,000 ppm [m/m]) on the autoignition properties of an EDB with an ethanol fraction of 15% (v/v). The study was carried out by using a device with a constant volume combustion chamber, which additionally enabled determination of the effect of the ambient gas temperature (in the range 550–650 °C) on the period of ignition delay and the period of combustion delay, as well as the derived cetane number. The average and maximum pressure rise rates in the combustion chamber were also analysed. Studies have shown that, with an increase of the 2-EHN fraction in an EDB, the periods of ignition and combustion delay decrease, and the increase in the temperature of ambient gas into which the fuel is injected shortens these periods to a varying extent.
Expanded fluid-based thermal conductivity model for hydrocarbons and crude oils Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 F. Ramos-Pallares, F.F. Schoeggl, S.D. Taylor, H.W. Yarranton
Thermal conductivity data for crude (mainly heavy) oils and mixtures of crude oils and pure hydrocarbons were collected at temperatures from 20 to 125 °C and pressures up to 10 MPa using a hot wire apparatus. A criterion was established to screen out data that were affected by convection. The screened data and data from the literature were used to develop an Expanded Fluid (EF) based thermal conductivity model for pure hydrocarbons, crude oils and their mixtures. The proposed model is applicable across the entire phase diagram including the critical region; however, it does not predict the critical enhancement of thermal conductivity observed in the vicinity of the critical point. The model inputs are the density of the fluid, the pressure, the dilute gas thermal conductivity, the compressed state density, and three other fluid specific parameters. The gas thermal conductivity is calculated from a well-established correlation. The compressed state density is obtained from the literature or from fitting the EF viscosity model to viscosity data. The three fluid specific parameters are determined by fitting the model to thermal conductivity data. The model fits the data of 63 pure hydrocarbons at temperatures from −150 to 330 °C and pressures up to 200 MPa with average deviation of 4%, except in the vicinity of the critical point (0.97 < reduced temperature < 1.1). The model also fits the data of 7 different crude oils at temperatures and pressures up to 150 °C and 10 MPa to within 0.3% of the experimental data. Mass based mixing rules were proposed for the model parameters of mixtures. The data for 19 pure hydrocarbon binaries at atmospheric pressure were predicted with average deviation of 0.5% and that of 8 bitumen/solvent pseudobinaries, at pressures up to 10 MPa, was predicted with average deviation of 1.6%. The introduction of binary interaction parameters into the mixing rules halved the magnitude of the deviations.
Bed material as a catalyst for char gasification: The case of ash-coated olivine activated by K and S addition Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Teresa Berdugo Vilches, Jelena Maric, Pavleta Knutsson, Daniel C. Rosenfeld, Henrik Thunman, Martin Seemann
Vitrinite reflectance as a measure of the range of influence of the temperature of a georeactor on rock mass during underground coal gasification Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Leokadia Róg
Tests of coal samples collected from a borehole drilled in the surrounding of an underground coal gasification georeactor were conducted. This experiment was conducted for the first time in an active coal mine in Poland. The aim of the tests was to determine the extent of heat penetration around the UCG cavity during a nearly two month gasification process. The method of measuring the mean reflectance of the vitrinite index (Ro), which is more generally used to measure the degree of the coalification of organic substances in coal (macerals) under the influence of temperature, was applied. The method is still used to evaluate the usefulness of coal for producing coke. The mean reflectance of the vitrinite index determined for the collected samples and reflectograms, allowed the inference that when the georeactor was operating, the temperature in the UCG cavity reached approximately 1300 °C. Based on Ro, the point in a coal seam surrounding the georeactor corresponding to the temperature of approximately 700 °C was also identified, where there were signs of the initial stage of coal transformation. The point was located 1.94 m from the boundary of the UCG cavity. Then, at the distance of 1.73 m from the boundary of the UCG cavity the point with a temperature of approximately 1000 °C was identified. The tests confirmed that it is possible to use the method of determining the mean reflectance of vitrinite index to measure the distance of influence of georeactor temperature on the rock mass. This is particularly important for underground coal gasification conducted in active mines. In the future the results will be used to predict the time of heating needed for coal deposits to become gasified, based on laboratory tests and coal type.
Numerical investigation of twin swirl application in diesel engine combustion Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Alper Tolga Calik, Ozgur Oguz Taskiran, Rafig Mehdiyev
Unlike conventional Diesel engine Combustion Chambers (CC) which have single swirl, MR-Process CC has twin swirl that promotes fuel air mixture formation by enabling ideal vaporization of fuel spray directed towards tangentially to piston walls. For the initial studies 2-valve (one intake manifold) engine CC geometry was modified aiming to create twin swirls from the initial single swirl and this limited version of MR-Process named as Quasi MR-Process. It is concluded in these studies that a 4-valve engine is needed for an ideal twin swirl formation. However, design and application of 4-valve engine head with two intake manifolds that satisfies ideal twin swirl conditions inside the CC is a challenging task. In addition, proposed unique MR-Process CC is not known before and there is no available experimental data for the optimum values of injection characteristics, air flow field and swirl conditions. Optimum intake manifold and MR-Process CC shape design and optimum spray injection angle determination will be an expensive and time-consuming task if only utilized from experimental studies. In this study numerical analysis of MR-Process CC were performed to investigate the feasibility of twin swirl initiation and the results are presented. This study aims to reveal effectiveness/potential of twin swirl application on Diesel engines utilizing closed cycle simulations. For this purpose, the existing swirl model in open source KIVA3V-R2 code was modified to create perfect initial twin swirls at the start of the compression stroke. Then different angular velocities of the initial swirls and injection directions of fuel sprays were applied to obtain optimum fuel air mixture that ensues to increase efficiency and decrease harmful exhaust emissions. The analyzed results showed that MR-Process has potential to obtain better fuel air mixture, hence reduce emission levels while increasing efficiency of Diesel engines. This study also presents a basis for further full-cycle investigations of MR-Process CC.
Valorization of citrus wastes by fast pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jon Alvarez, Bahar Hooshdaran, Maria Cortazar, Maider Amutio, Gartzen Lopez, Fabio B. Freire, Masoud Haghshenasfard, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini, Martin Olazar
The fast pyrolysis of the juice squeezing derived orange waste has been carried out in a continuous pyrolysis bench-scale plant consisting of a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR). A prior study performed in thermobalance and a kinetic model consisting of a multi-component mechanism allowed determining the contents of pectin (35 wt%), hemicellulose (16.6 wt%) and cellulose (17.1 wt%), but that of lignin could not be satisfactorily determined as its degradation curve overlapped with other compounds such as sugars, proteins and fats. In the bench scale experiments, the bio-oil yields were very high in the 425–500 °C range (close to 55 wt%) due to the suitable features of the CSBR (high heat and mass transfer rates and short residence time of the volatiles), but they are lower for higher temperatures due to the promotion of secondary cracking reactions. Compared to lignocellulosic biomasses, the orange waste produced a bio-oil with more methanol and furfural and less phenolic species, which is an encouraging fact for its stability and valorization by catalytic cracking or steam reforming. The high concentration of CO2 in the gas is a drawback for use for energy production. The char yield (33–27 wt%) was high in the whole range of temperatures studied and its high carbon content (71–73 wt%) and HHV (≈27 MJ kg−1) are suitable for use as fuel.
Predicting Wobbe Index and methane number of a renewable natural gas by the measurement of simple physical properties Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Partho Sarothi Roy, Christopher Ryu, Chan Seung Park
General hydro-geological impact of cleats on underground coal gasification Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Liangliang Jiang, Zhangxin Chen, S.M. Farouq Ali
Potential aquifer contamination has been a huge environmental concern for the implementation of underground coal gasification (UCG) as coal seams are frequently overlaid by an aquifer. To explore the general impact of cleats on the mass transfer problems in UCG, particularly in the vertical direction, a dual-permeability (DP) cleat model was integrated into a 3-D numerical model which is dimensionally extensive to account for the hydrostatic effect of an aquifer. It was found that cleats favour UCG production, and the prime operational parameter, i.e., the injection pressure, plays a dominant role in governing vertical mass transport in UCG. Syngas production retains some constancy with variable geological settings unless a surge in the injection pressure occurs. Higher pressure injection generates higher peak rates but delayed production. At near-hydrostatic injection, gas species attain a weak presence in the overburden contrary to expectations based on key geological parameters. However, gas saturation in the cap rock increases appreciably under above-hydrostatic injection. The role of higher injection pressure becomes so overwhelming that variations or heterogeneity in geological parameters produce little difference in the transfer problems.
Enhance SO2 adsorption performance of biochar modified by CO2 activation and amine impregnation Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Jingai Shao, Junjie Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Ye Feng, Han Zhang, Shihong Zhang, Hanping Chen
The effect of Aluminum oxide nanoparticles addition with Jojoba methyl ester-diesel fuel blend on a diesel engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Ahmed I. El-Seesy, Ali M.A. Attia, Hesham M. El-Batsh
In the current work, an experimental investigation was conducted to recommend the optimal concentration of alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3) into Jojoba biodiesel-diesel (JB20D) fuel blend at which the best diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions were attained. The Al2O3 nanoparticles with concentrations varied from 10 to 50 mg/l by step of 10 mg/l were mixed into JB20D fuel blend with the help of ultrasonic stabilization. The results of the present study revealed that JB20D slightly reduced the engine performance and increased its emission characteristics at all engine tested operating conditions as compared to pure diesel oil. Utilizing of Al2O3 additives was found to improve all engine performance characteristics. However, the best emission characteristics were obtained at the dose level of 20 mg/l, where remarkable emissions reduction were observed; NOx by 70%, CO by 80%, UHC by 60%, and Smoke opacity by 35%. While the best of both mechanical performance and engine combustion characteristics were achieved at a concentration of 40 mg/l, where the reduction in the brake specific fuel consumption – bsfc was by 12% and increase in the cylinder peak pressure – pmax, the maximum rate of pressure rise – dp/dθmax, and maximum rate of gross heat release – dQg/dθmax were 4.5%, 4%, and 4%, respectively. According to the comparisons of engine performance and emissions, the recommended concentration of Al2O3 in JB20D blends was concluded to be 30 mg/l, which gave remarkable enhancement in all engine performance parameters.
Enhanced oil recovery by hydrophobins from Lecanicillium lecanii Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Zaizy Rocha-Pino, Jesús I. Ramos-López, Miquel Gimeno, Fernando Barragán-Aroche, Cecilia Durán-Valencia, Simón López-Ramírez, Keiko Shirai
The hydrophobins (HFB)s are a class of proteins with high surface tension and thermostability which potential application in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii produced HFBs in an 8.8L-scale solid-state fermentation using polyurethane foams as inert support in three configurations. Additionally, crude enzyme with lipase activity was also produced and tested for EOR individually or in combination with HFBs. The polyurethane foam support in cubes attained the highest yield of class I HFB (17.3 ± 1%) and the highest lipase activity (3.6 ± 0.2 U/mg protein). These HFBs formed stable oil–water emulsions displaying an interfacial tension up to 7.6 ± 0.3 mN/m. The proteins were used in limestone cores under tertiary recovery oil well conditions to achieve up to 14% recovery.
Evaluation of lipid extractability after flash hydrolysis of algae Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Ali Teymouri, Kameron J. Adams, Tao Dong, Sandeep Kumar
Microalgae is identified as a promising feedstock for producing renewable liquid transportation fuels; however, lipids extraction from microalgae for downstream processing to biofuels is one of the important challenges for algal based biorefineries. This work aims at evaluating the potential of applying flash hydrolysis (FH) as a chemical-free technique to increase the lipids extractability of algal biomass as well as its integration with the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae to enhance the biocrude yields and characteristics for fuel production. To this aim, the FH process was performed on three different algal species (Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Chlorella vulgaris) at 280 °C and 10 s of residence time. Following FH, in addition to the nutrients rich hydrolysate, approximately, 40 wt% of solids containing almost all (>90 wt%) the lipids termed as biofuels intermediates (BI), were recovered. Kinetics study on lipids extractability from the BI and their lipid profile analyses were conducted for each algal species. The results showed that the FH process had significantly enhanced the lipids extractability. For all three algae species, lipid yields from BI were higher than that of the raw algae. Lipid yields of Chlorella vulgaris in the first 15 min were more than five times higher (52.3 ± 0.8 vs. 10.7 ± 0.9 wt%) than that of raw algae during n-hexane based solvent extraction. The kinetics of lipids extractability followed a zero-order reaction rate for all wet raw microalgae and the BI of Scenedesmus sp., while the BI recovered from the other two algal species were determined as a second-order reaction. Comparison of fatty acids profiles indicated the contribution of the FH process in saturating fatty acids. Subsequent to lipids extraction, a conventional hydrothermal liquefaction was performed at 350 °C and 1 h to compare the biocrude yields from raw versus BI of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The results showed that the biocrude yields from the BI and its quality was significantly enhanced post FH than that of raw algae. The FH process was proven to be a viable option for lipid extraction by increasing the extent of recovery and decreasing the extraction time. Its integration with HTL notably impact the biocrude yields and characteristics for fuel production.
Determination of γ-valerolactone content in its synthesis and biorefinery processes by headspace analysis technique Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Hui-Chao Hu, Shaokai Zhang, Tong Zeng, Yiying Lin, Liulian Huang, Lihui Chen, Yonghao Ni
In this paper, a robust method based on solvent-volume controlled full evaporation headspace gas chromatography technique (FE HS-GC) was developed to high throughput quantify γ-valerolactone (GVL) concentration in sample solution. The results showed that the full evaporation of GVL can be achieved by the equilibration process in headspace sampler at 150 °C for 5 min. For eliminating the matrix effect and pressure effect on GVL quantification, the sample volume added in headspace vial should be controlled within 15 μL. The present method was proved that has a very high precision (error < 1.11%), high precision (recoveries from 95.6% to 102.1%), and an excellent limit of quantification (153 mg/L). The present method was applied in valuation of GVL yield in a heterogeneous catalytic system and its recovery in a GVL-based biomass pretreatment process, and has given some valuable information. The present method is simple, rapid, efficient, and can be an excellent tool for screening reaction medium and catalysts in GVL synthesis and its related biorefinery processes.
Laminar flame properties of C1-C3 alkanes/hydrogen blends at gas engine conditions Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Kalyan Kuppa, Andreas Goldmann, Tobias Schöffler, Friedrich Dinkelacker
The use of fuel blending is encouraged in order to achieve more flexibility in gas engines. In order to design such engines effectively, relevant information about the laminar flame speeds and laminar flame thickness are necessary. Hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive instabilities at gas engine conditions prevent the acquisition of reliable data experimentally. One-dimensional numerical simulations with detailed chemistry can be a solution. A huge database of laminar flame speeds is generated covering a broad range of gas engine applications, pressure (p) 0.1–20 MPa, fresh gas temperature (Tu) 300–1100 K, air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ)(λ) 0.9–2.5, methane 100–60 vol%, ethane 0–40 vol%, propane 0–40 vol%, hydrogen 0–30 vol% and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) 0–30 m%. The detailed reaction mechanisms GRI 3.0 and AramcoMech 1.3 are used for the generation of flame speed data for the mentioned conditions. A laminar flame speed correlation for 100% hydrogen extending up to elevated pressure and temperature conditions is developed. A blending law based on Le Chatelier’s rule is investigated. It is observed that the HC-ratio has a very determining effect for the laminar flame properties of different C1-C3 alkane blends. Based on this observation, it was possible to derive a very efficient correlation for both laminar flame speed and laminar flame thickness for the group of natural gas blends with methane, ethane, propane and hydrogen, and as well as including relevant EGR, which corresponds within 7% accuracy to the calculated database of about 73,000 points. The developed laminar flame speed correlation is incorporated in an engine process simulation code. It is validated with the measured in-cylinder pressure traces from the single cylinder research engine experiments for different gas blends and EGR ratios.
Comparison of adsorption capacity of mono-ethanolamine and di-ethanolamine impregnated activated carbon in a multi-staged fluidized bed reactor for carbon-dioxide capture Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Dipa Das, B.C. Meikap
Effect of limestone on the emission of NO during petroleum coke combustion Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Xiaorui Liu, Zhongyang Luo, Chunjiang Yu
In order to investigate the effect of limestone on NO emission during petroleum coke combustion, experiments were conducted in a horizontal fixed-bed reactor connected with an on-line FTIR gas analyzer. Calcium based materials (limestone, CaO and CaSO4) were employed as solid additives, while CO2 and SO2 were mixed with the carrier gas to research their effects on NO emission. The results showed that char-N was the most important source of NO. Char-NO, which was produced by the combustion of char-N was significantly promoted with the addition of limestone. This was mostly caused by the catalytic effect of CaO, which was produced by the decomposition of limestone. To clarify the mechanism, pyrolysis experiments were carried out, and the transformation of fuel-N to gaseous-N and char-N was investigated. The conversion ratio of fuel-N to gaseous-N was promoted to a higher value by the additives, whereas the proportion of char-N slightly decreased. However, most of fuel-N still remained in char regardless of additives. Therefore, it could be concluded that the conversion ratio of char-N to NO obviously increased due to the addition of additives and then resulted in an increase in the overall emission of NO during combustion. The nitrogen species in raw material and chars were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the conversion route of fuel-N to char-N during pyrolysis was not obviously affected by limestone, however, it was greatly affected by CaO. More nitrogen was restrained in the form of N-X in chars produced by the co-pyrolysis of petroleum coke and CaO, due to which, the positive effect of CaO on NO emission was weaker than that of the limestone.
Optimization of hydrocarbon water alternating gas in the Norne field: Application of evolutionary algorithms Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Erfan Mohagheghian, Lesley A. James, Ronald D. Haynes
Water alternating gas (WAG) is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method integrating the improved macroscopic sweep of water flooding with the increased microscopic displacement of gas injection. The optimal design of the WAG operating parameters is usually based on numerical reservoir simulation via trial and error. In this study, robust evolutionary algorithms are utilized to automatically optimize hydrocarbon WAG performance in the E-segment of the Norne field. Net present value (NPV) and two global semi-random search strategies, a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), are used to optimize over an increasing number of operating parameters. The operating parameters include water and gas injection rates, bottom-hole pressures of the oil production wells, cycle ratio, cycle time, the composition of the injected hydrocarbon gas and the total WAG period. In progressive case studies, the number of decision-making variables is increased, increasing the problem complexity while potentially improving the efficacy of the WAG process. We also optimize the incremental recovery factor (IRF) within a fixed total WAG simulation time. The distinctions between the WAG parameters found by optimizing NPV and oil recovery are highlighted. This is the first known work to optimize over such a wide set of WAG variables and the first use of PSO to optimize a WAG project at the field scale. Compared to the reference cases, the best overall values of the objective functions found by GA and PSO were 13.8% and 14.2% higher, respectively, if NPV is optimized over all the above WAG operating variables, and 14.2% and 16.2% higher, respectively, if the IRF is optimized.
Superior CO2 capture performance on biomass-derived carbon/metal oxides nanocomposites from Persian ironwood by H3PO4 activation Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Mohsen Nowrouzi, Habibollah Younesi, Nader Bahramifar
CH4/air homogeneous autoignition: A comparison of two chemical kinetics mechanisms Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Efstathios Al. Tingas, Dimitris M. Manias, S. Mani Sarathy, Dimitris A. Goussis
Reactions contributing to the generation of the explosive time scale that characterise autoignition of homogeneous stoichiometric CH4/air mixture are identified using two different chemical kinetics models; the well known GRI-3.0 mechanism (53/325 species/reactions with N-chemistry) and the AramcoMech mechanism from NUI Galway (113/710 species/reactions without N-chemistry; Combustion and Flame 162:315-330, 2015). Although the two mechanisms provide qualitatively similar results (regarding ignition delay and profiles of temperature, of mass fractions and of explosive time scale), the 113/710 mechanism was shown to reproduce the experimental data with higher accuracy than the 53/325 mechanism. The present analysis explores the origin of the improved accuracy provided by the more complex kinetics mechanism. It is shown that the reactions responsible for the generation of the explosive time scale differ significantly. This is reflected to differences in the length of the chemical and thermal runaways and in the set of the most influential species.
Investigation into particle emission characteristics of partially premixed combustion fueled with high n-butanol-diesel ratio blends Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Bei Liu, Xiaobei Cheng, Jialu Liu, Han Pu
Based on a 4-cylinder turbocharged intercooler diesel engine fueled with n-butanol/diesel blends, this paper investigated the effect of various parameters on emissions under the early-injection partially premixed combustion (PPC) strategy and pre-injection PPC strategy. The potential for realizing PPC with different fuel reactivity and oxygen content was evaluated. The experimental results indicated that the peak value of heat release rate (HRR) increased and the heat release duration shortened after mixing the n-butanol under the same injection timing. The start of combustion (SOC) was advanced and the proportion of premixed combustion decreased as the growth of pre-injection ratio. The heat release process was delayed when the n-butanol ratio was increased. As the growth of n-butanol ratio, the peak value of the accumulation mode particles reduced and that of the nucleation mode particles increased sharply. The geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the particles was significantly reduced when the pre-injection timing was changed from −25 to −35° CA ATDC. As the growth of the pre-injection ratio, the GMD of the particulates had a tendency to decrease. Under the same pre-injection conditions, the total number and mass concentration of the particulates both reduced obviously with the increase of n-butanol ratio.
Quality of bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Nur Hidayah Zainan, Srikanth Chakravartula Srivatsa, Fanghua Li, Sankar Bhattacharya
This study investigates the yield and quality of bio-oil produced from catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using Ni supported zeolite (Si/Al = 30) prepared by two different methods, ion exchange (IE) and wet impregnation (WI) to examine the effect of catalyst preparation methods on the bio-oil quality. The experiments were also conducted to investigate the effect of different temperatures (300–600 °C) and catalyst to algae ratio (1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1) on the yield and quality of bio-oil. The results showed that catalytic pyrolysis using Ni supported zeolites produced high hydrocarbon, less oxygenated and acid compounds compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis. The catalyst preparation method did not affect the yield but had an effect on the bio-oil composition. The results obtained from this study are useful in developing the catalytic pyrolysis process to refine bio-oils for commercial use.
Computational optimization of a combustion system for a stoichiometric DME fueled compression ignition engine Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-09 Jesús Benajes, Ricardo Novella, Jose Manuel Pastor, Alberto Hernández-López, Sage Kokjohn
An optimization methodology based on a genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is applied to the design of a combustion system of a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) and working with stoichiometric combustion in order to equip the system with a three way catalyst (TWC) to control the NOx emissions. The target of the optimization is to improve net indicated efficiency (NIE) while keeping NOx emissions, peak pressure and pressure rise rate under the reference engine levels. The results of the study provide an optimum configuration that offers a 0.6% NIE improvement while satisfying the restrictions and offering NOx values lower than 1% of the original emissions. Due to the methodology, not only the optimum combustion system configuration is presented, but also the cause-effect relation of the most relevant inputs with the optimization outputs are identified and analyzed. The new geometry shape reduced heat transfer losses by minimizing the surface area. Injection pressure and swirl proved to be key parameters necessary to overcome the increased mixing requirements of stoichiometric operation. EGR was found to simultaneously increase NIE while controlling NOx emissions. The results show the potential of stoichiometric compression ignition operation using DME as a promising pathway to maintain diesel-like efficiency, while achieving near zero NOx and soot emissions.
A fully-coupled semi-analytical model for effective gas/water phase permeability during coal-bed methane production Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Zheng Sun, Juntai Shi, Tao Zhang, Keliu Wu, Dong Feng, Fengrui Sun, Liang Huang, Chenhong Hou, Xiangfang Li
Although many breakthrough efforts have been made in recent years, it is still challenging to gain a clear knowledge of the variation regularities of effective gas/water phase permeability with the pressure depletion. The reasons behind this phenomenon can be attributed to the coexistence of multiple effects and the transition of the flow behavior at different production stages. To date, the fully-coupled model for effective gas/water phase permeability in coal-bed methane (CBM) reservoirs is still lacking and is significantly necessary to be developed. Firstly, the Palmer-Mansoori (PM) model is employed to represent the variation relationship between absolute permeability and pressure. Secondly, after rigorous derivation of the gas–water two phase partial differential equations in coal seams, the relationship between pressure and saturation in infinitesimal coal is obtained, which can be solved through an iterative algorithm. Subsequently, combined with the Corey relative permeability model, the relative gas/water phase permeability can be described as a function of pressure. Finally, coupling the absolute permeability model and relative permeability model, the effective gas/water phase permeability can also be quantified as a function of pressure or saturation. And the reliability and the accuracy of the proposed model is successfully verified through comparisons with experimental data and previous model collected from published literature. Furthermore, on the basis of the proposed semi-analytical model, the effects of critical desorption pressure, gas desorption capacity, stress dependence, and matrix shrinkage on effective permeability are identified. And many implications and direct insights are achieved through the sensitive analysis process. The semi-analytical model, for the first time, incorporates nearly all known mechanisms and can achieve more accurate characterization of effective permeability during the production process. Moreover, due to the concise form and precise feature, the proposed model will serve as a simple, practical and robust tool for the development of CBM reservoirs.
A random forest approach for predicting coal spontaneous combustion Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Changkui Lei, Jun Deng, Kai Cao, Li Ma, Yang Xiao, Lifeng Ren
Effects of high bioethanol proportion in the biodiesel-diesel blends in a CRDI engine Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Ali Turkcan
In this experimental study, the usage of high bioethanol proportion in the different types of biodiesel-diesel blends were carried out to discover the effects of the high bioethanol proportion on the injection, combustion, performance and emission parameters of a common rail diesel injection (CRDI) engine with two stage injection (TSI) strategy under different engine loads. The TSI strategy consisted of two stage direct injection into the cylinder as a pilot and main injection. The bioethanol (BE) was produced used wastes originated from sugar production process, animal-based (AB) biodiesel was originated from waste fleshing oil and the vegetable based (VB) biodiesel was obtained from safflower-canola oil mixture. Pure diesel fuel (DF), three AB ternary blends (bioethanol-diesel-animal based biodiesel), and three VB ternary blends (bioethanol-diesel-vegetable based biodiesel) were determined as test fuels. Bioethanol ratios were 25% and 35% by mass in the AB and VB ternary blends, while biodiesel concentration was fixed to be 20% by mass. It was found that the maximum cylinder gas pressure (Pmax) of the VB ternary blends observed higher than that of AB ternary blends and DF at high loads, while the Pmax decreased by usage of AB and VB ternary blends at low and medium load conditions. Longer ignition delay (ID), higher thermal efficiency, lower maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) values were observed by usage of the higher percentage of bioethanol (35 by mass%) in the AB and VB ternary blends at medium and high load conditions. AB ternary blends were more effective than the VB ternary blends on the reduction in total hydrocarbon (THC) emission, while carbon monoxide (CO) emissions increased with the increase in bioethanol content in the AB and VB ternary blends at low and high load conditions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions can be decreased by usage of high bioethanol proportion in the blends at high load conditions, simultaneously. The combustion and emission results showed that the usage of ternary blends with TSI strategy contributed to the elimination of the negative effects of the high bioethanol content.
Development of a Diesel Surrogate Fuel Library Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Patrick G. Szymkowicz, Jesús Benajes
Diesel fuel is composed of a complex mixture of hundreds of hydrocarbons that vary globally depending on crude oil sources, refining processes, legislative requirements and other factors. In order to simplify the study of this fuel, researchers create surrogate fuels to mimic the physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuels. This work employed the commercial software Reaction Workbench – Surrogate Blend Optimizer (SBO) to develop a Surrogate Fuel Library containing 18 fuels. Within the fuel library, the cetane number ranges from 35 to 60 (in increments of 5) at threshold soot index (TSI) levels representative of low, baseline and high sooting tendency fuels (TSI = 17, 31 and 48, respectively). The Surrogate Fuel Library provides the component blend ratios and predicted properties for cetane number, threshold soot index, lower heating value, density, kinematic viscosity, molar hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and distillation curve temperatures from T10 to T90. A market petroleum Diesel fuel with a cetane number of 50 and a threshold soot index of 31 was selected as the Baseline Diesel Fuel. The combustion, physical and chemical properties of the Baseline Diesel Fuel were precisely matched by the Baseline Surrogate Fuel. To validate the SBO predicted fuel properties, a set of five surrogate fuels, deviating in cetane number and threshold soot index, were blended and examined with ASTM tests. Good agreement was obtained between the SBO predicted and ASTM measured fuel properties. To further validate the Surrogate Fuel Library, key properties that were effected by altering the component blend ratios to control cetane number and TSI were compared to a set of five market Diesel fuels with good results. These properties included density, viscosity, energy density and the T10 and T90 distillation temperatures. The Surrogate Fuel Library provided by this work supplies Diesel engine researchers and designers the ability to analytically and experimentally vary fuel cetane number and threshold soot index with fully-representative surrogate fuels. This new capability to independently vary cetane number and threshold soot index provides a means to further enhance the understanding of Diesel combustion and design future combustion systems that improve efficiency and emissions.
Contact angle and induction time of air bubble on flat coal surface of different roughness Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Yuran Chen, Wencheng Xia, Guangyuan Xie
The wettability of coal is an important parameter for representing the surface hydrophobicity and floatability of coal particle, and hence determines coal flotation behavior. The wettability of coal is primarily governed by the surface functional groups. However, the role of surface topography in the wettability of coal has not attracted enough attentions. This paper was to investigate the effect of roughness on the wettability of coal by measuring the contact angle between air bubble and flat coal surface. Besides, a new method to measure the contact angle is introduced. The shape of the bubble is fitted by both the circle and the ellipse. The lump coal particles were used as coal sample and polished by sand papers of different meshes to gain the specific flat coal surfaces of different roughness. The attachment time measurements and Wenzel theory were used to further explain why the surface roughness has significant effects on the contact angle of air bubble on coal surface. Throughout this paper, it was found that the wettability of coal was decreased with the increase of surface roughness. The water may be entrapped in the pores/cracks of rough coal surface which prevents the attachment between coal surface and bubble as well as the spreading of three-phrase contact line. Therefore, both the attachment time and contact angle were decreased with the increase of roughness.
On the characteristics and reactivity of soot particles from ethanol-gasoline and 2,5-dimethylfuran-gasoline blends Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Gerardo D.J. Guerrero Peña, Yousef A. Hammid, Abhijeet Raj, Samuel Stephen, Tharalekshmy Anjana, Vaithilingam Balasubramanian
With strict environmental legislations and to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, biofuels and their blends with hydrocarbon fuels are being seen as cleaner alternatives to meet the world’s energy demand. This paper explores the effect of adding ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) to gasoline on its sooting tendency as well as on the characteristics and oxidative reactivity of soot. The fuel sooting tendency is determined through its smoke point using a diffusion flame setup. Several characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy are employed to reveal the changes in the physicochemical properties of soot collected at a flame height of 25 mm. With 20% ethanol or DMF addition to gasoline, the rate of soot production, the sizes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and primary particles in soot, and its aromatic character decreased, while its amorphous character and the concentrations of oxygenated and aliphatic functional groups on it increased. These led to the increased oxidative reactivity of soot from the blended fuels. The differences in the characteristics of soot from ethanol/gasoline and DMF/gasoline blends are reported.
Microwave irradiation’s effect on promoting coalbed methane desorption and analysis of desorption kinetics Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Zhijun Wang, Xiaotong Ma, Jianping Wei, Ning Li
To enhance desorption of coalbed methane and increase extraction efficiency, a technique using microwave irradiation is proposed. Methane desorption experiments without and with microwave irradiation were carried out in the laboratory using an experimental system developed to study methane desorption. The experimental results show that microwave irradiation causes the total quantity of methane desorbed to increase from 1.91 to 3.92 times larger than the quantity desorbed without MI. Two hour trials were performed, applying microwaves for 4, 8 or 16 min, equivalent to output energies of 192, 384 and 768 kJ. These results show that 1 kJ of microwave energy can cause methane desorption to increase by 0.0088 ml per gram of coal. Under successive microwave irradiations of 40 s, the desorption rate increases by a factor of 10.2. Kinetic analysis also found that microwave irradiation enhances the methane diffusion coefficient and decreases the attenuation coefficient. Regardless of which diffusion model is used to determine the diffusion coefficient, the quantity of gas desorbed increases as the microwave irradiation time increases. The pore and surface features of coal samples exposed to microwaves were determined by using mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Methane desorption evidently results from both the microwave thermal effect and structural damage to the coal. The results reported herein reveal the mechanisms that promote methane desorption by microwave irradiation and suggest a new field technique for extracting coalbed methane.
The influence of petrol injection parameters on the structure of geometry of fuel spray injected from outward-opening injectors Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Ireneusz Pielecha
The paper deals with the issue of determining the geometry of fuel spray generated by the outward-opening type of injectors. The design of the outward-opening type injector is the reason for the initial fuel flow taking a circular shape (an empty cone). With increasing pressure of the injected fuel this geometry changes into a square one. The aim of the research was to determine the conditions of these changes and to propose how to define the geometry in the form of an indicator z (accepting positive values – for circular geometry, and negative values – for square geometry) as well as to generalize the equation zeq making it possible to determine the indicator of the fuel spray geometric structure changes. The defined indicator z shows that fuel injection pressure exceeding 15 MPa plays an important role in changing the geometric structure of the fuel spray. The back pressure of the medium into which the fuel is injected does not affect the determined value of the indicator. Additionally, an indicator of variation of radial penetration of the fuel spray CoV(Sr) and the indicator of linear to radial fuel spray penetration Sl/Sr-av were determined, which only under certain conditions can replace the z indicator.
Gas generation and its isotope composition during coal pyrolysis: The catalytic effect of nickel and magnetite Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Jinliang Gao, Jiaqi Liu, Yunyan Ni
Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 370–550 °C for 72 h in closed gold capsules to investigate the effect of nickel and magnetite on gas generation from coal in the absence and presence of water. Nickel had a great catalytic effect on the yield, molecular and carbon and hydrogen isotope composition of generated gases. The methane yields increased significantly while heavy hydrocarbon gas yields decreased substantially due to the catalysis of nickel both in the absence and presence of water. The nickel catalysis caused an increase of δ13CCH4 value in the absence of water and a decrease of δ13CCH4 value in the presence of water. Results of molecular and carbon isotopic composition of hydrocarbons indicate that nickel could catalyze the decomposition of high-molecular-weight organic matter and Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions both of which were responsible for the increased methane yield. FTT reactions catalyzed by transition metals are an important pathway for methane generation, especially in the presence of water. The catalytic decomposition of organic matter and FTT reactions also caused an increase of δ2HCH4 value both in the presence and absence of water. CO2 yield and 13CCO2 value increased obviously in the presence of nickel due to the catalytic decomposition of organic matter. In experiments without added water, addition of magnetite enhanced CO2 yield at all temperatures but only enhanced methane yield slightly at high temperature (430–550 °C). The increased CO2 and methane yields can be attributed to the oxidative decomposition of long-chain hydrocarbons via redox reactions between magnetite and hydrocarbons. In experiments with added water, addition of magnetite only caused a slight increase of methane and CO2 yields at 500 °C and 550 °C but did not influence their yields at 370–450 °C, indicating that water inhibited the effect of magnetite on methane and CO2 generation at low temperature. The addition of magnetite did not have systematic influence on carbon and hydrogen isotopes of hydrocarbon gases and carbon isotopes of CO2. Generally, the influence of magnetite on gas generation was very small.
Laboratory study of proppant on shale fracture permeability and compressibility Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Yuling Tan, Zhejun Pan, Jishan Liu, Xia-Ting Feng, Luke D. Connell
Hydraulic fracturing is key for shale gas production and fracture permeability or conductivity is one of the most important parameters for gas production rate. Investigating the proppant distribution and fracture permeability in the field is difficult, therefore, laboratory study is a good alternative. In this work, the effect of the layer number and type of proppant on fracture permeability and compressibility were investigated. A cubic shale sample from the Cambrian Niutitang Formation at Sangzhi, Hunan Province, China, was used in this work. Sands and glass beads of different number of layers were added into an artificial fracture and seven cases, including original sample, non-propped fracture, and four kinds of propped fractures were considered. Permeability at three gas pressure steps and five confining pressure steps were measured in each case at two flow directions. Microscopic X-ray computed tomography was used to detect the distributions of proppant, and the relationship with permeability and its anisotropy was studied. A permeability model combining the stress and Klinkenberg effects was used to match experimental data and a new fracture compressibility model was proposed to predict the change of fracture compressibility with the layer number of proppant. It was found that permeability and compressibility of proppant supported fracture are closely related to proppant packing pattern and layer number, as well as the permeability anisotropy. These results improve our understanding on permeability behaviour for the proppant supported fracture and can assist in the model of fracture permeability and simulation of shale gas production.
Solid acid catalyst supported synthesis and fuel properties of ethyl decanoate Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Ruchi Lamba, Sudipta Sarkar, Surendra Kumar
Promoting asphaltene conversion by tetralin for hydrocracking of petroleum pitch Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Han-Beyol Park, Ki-Duk Kim, Yong-Kul Lee
Hydrogen production as a green fuel in silica membrane reactor: Experimental analysis and artificial neural network modeling Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Kamran Ghasemzadeh, Abbas Aghaeinejad-Meybodi, Angelo Basile
Modelling thermal effects in cavitating high-pressure diesel sprays using an improved compressible multiphase approach Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 H. Yu, L. Goldsworthy, P.A. Brandner, J. Li, V. Garaniya
In this study, the influence of in-nozzle phenomena including flow separation, cavitation, turbulence and hydraulic flip on the morphology of the spray emerging from a convergent-divergent-convergent diesel injector is investigated numerically. Non-linear equations of state for the liquid diesel, diesel vapour and chamber gas are employed for the simulation of high pressure diesel injection and atomisation processes. A modified multiphase mixture energy equation which takes into account enthalpy of phase change due to cavitation is integrated into a previously developed compressible, multiphase Volume of Fluid Large Eddy Simulation. The mass transfer source terms are modelled using a modified Schnerr and Sauer cavitation model. The numerical method is validated by comparing simulated mass flow rates, momentum fluxes, effective injection velocities and discharge coefficients at different injection conditions against published experimental data obtained using the same injector. Favourable comparison between simulations and experimental measurements is achieved with minor discrepancies attributable to unknown experimental uncertainties and assumptions made in numerical modelling. Calculation of in-nozzle flow and primary spray breakup reveals that interfacial instabilities generated due to in-nozzle flow separation, cavitation and liquid-wall shear contribute greatly to the jet fragmentation. The increase in sensible enthalpy due to wall shear induced viscous heating together with enthalpy of condensation increase the surface temperature of the exiting jet. Comparison of the flow physics before and after the onset of hydraulic flip indicates that wall shear is one of the main mechanisms inducing most of the energy for jet breakup. This modelling shows that vapour production at nozzle entrance remains after the onset of hydraulic flip, limiting the extent of ambient air influx. In addition, the onset of hydraulic flip causes production of near nozzle shockwaves as a result of significantly increased injection velocity attributable to minimised wall shear. This aspect needs more experimental evidence and simulations to confirm and validate.
Biomass higher heating value (HHV) modeling on the basis of proximate analysis using iterative network-based fuzzy partial least squares coupled with principle component analysis (PCA-INFPLS) Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Soleiman Hosseinpour, Mortaza Aghbashlo, Meisam Tabatabaei
In this study, a novel iterative network-based fuzzy partial least squares coupled with principle component analysis (PCA-INFPLS) was proposed to predict the HHV of biomass fuels as a function of fixed carbon (FC), volatile matter (VM), and ash content. In this methodology, the PCA analysis was used to eliminate the co-linearity of experimental data for providing the required background to the INFPLS model. In the INFPLS structure, adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied to correlate the inputs and the outputs of iterative PLS score vectors. Furthermore, the capability of the PCA-INFPLS approach in estimating the biomass fuels HHV was compared with those of the PLS, ANFIS, NFPLS, and INFPLS models. Generally, the PCA-INFPLS approach was much more efficient than the other applied methods in modeling the biomass fuels HHV. More specifically, the developed model predicted the HHV of biomass fuels with an R2 > 0.96, an MSE < 0.51, and an MAPE < 2.5%. Therefore, this approach could be utilized for reliable and accurate approximation of the HHV of biomass feedstocks based on the proximate analysis instead of lengthy laboratorial measurements. The PCA-INFPLS approach was then embedded into a simple and user-friendly software for estimating the biomass fuels HHV based on the proximate analysis.
Pyrolytic behavior of waste extruded polystyrene and rigid polyurethane by multi kinetics methods and Py-GC/MS Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Lin Jiang, Dan Zhang, Mi Li, Jia-Jia He, Zi-He Gao, Yang Zhou, Jin-Hua Sun
The utilization of polymer wastes for volatile fuel production has been considered as a sustainable and environmental-friendly approach for achieving better waste management, pollution protection, and renewable energy security. Polymer pyrolysis, as an ideal method for polymer waste converted into storable fuel, was explored thoroughly in this study from pyrolysis kinetics to evolved gas analysis. Two typical building-used polymer wastes, extruded polystyrene (XPS) and rigid polyurethane (RPU), were selected to conduct a series of thermogravimetry (TG) experiments. Then commonly-used isoconversional methods were employed to calculate the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis during the whole conversion. Kinetic models of XPS and RPU thermal degradations were identified from nineteen reaction models by Coats-Redfern and masterplots methods. Then accommodation function was employed to adjust the theoretical model for reconstruction. Considering the complexities of RPU component and degradation process, Py-GC/MS was used to identify the volatile product component at 250, 340, and 460 °C, respectively. Results showed that there are large parts of volatile alcohols and ethers escaped during RPU pyrolysis process. The results of this study have implications concerning kinetic triplet determination method and escaped gas analysis during polymer waste pyrolysis process.
A Preliminary investigation of CO effects on lignite liquefaction process Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Huan Li, Shiyong Wu, Youqing Wu, Sheng Huang, Jinsheng Gao
This paper made a preliminary investigation of CO effects on lignite liquefaction process. The Schütze method coupled with an elemental analyzer was adopted for directly determining the O contents of liquid and solid materials, and the O balance, variation amounts of water, and CO consumptions were calculated quantitatively for liquefaction processes. It was found that the two reactions which were the water-gas shift reaction and the reaction between CO and organic structures of coals, occurred distinctly in the liquefaction process with CO atmospheres, and were simultaneously strengthened by the catalysts. The simultaneous occurrence of the two reactions played the roles of reducing the water production, elevating the coal conversion, and promoting the asphaltene (AS) and preasphaltene (PA) production.
Numerical investigations on feasibility of Quasi “MR-Process” for 2-valve diesel engines Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-25 Alper Tolga Calik, Ozgur Oguz Taskiran, Rafig Mehdiyev
MR-Process consists two stage combustion mechanism in twin swirl flow conditions which is created by special design of 2 intake manifolds and combustion chamber (CC) geometry of a 4-valve engine. It is a question if it is possible to apply a Quasi MR-Process by modifying CC of a 2-valve engine which has only one intake manifold. Previously engine tests were successfully conducted on a 2-valve and modified CC (MR-2 CC) single cylinder test engine with one intake manifold using LPG and diesel fuels. Nevertheless because of there is no optical access inside the engine, it is not clear whether required twin swirl flow (to create Quasi MR-Process) occurs inside CCs of proposed 2-valve engines. In this study, our aim is to improve the clarification of the swirl motion and air-fuel mixture formation for said Quasi MR-Process CC application in 2-valve diesel engines. Two different CC geometries were investigated in terms of Quasi MR-Process generation potential by using KIVA3V-R2 code. CFD predictions of air flow motion, air-fuel mixture formation and diesel spray combustion were analyzed and compared with each other in a methodical manner. The results showed that 2 valve engine CC is not capable of creating optimal twin swirl. However, it is presented that generation of twin swirl can be improved by application of modified (MR-2 CC) piston head design.
BTX from anisole by hydrodeoxygenation and transalkylation at ambient pressure with zeolite catalysts Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-25 Xiwei Xu, Enchen Jiang, Zhiyu Li, Yan Sun
BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) was gained from anisole by gas-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) at ambient pressure with zeolite catalysts. The role of supports such as HBeta, ZSM-5, HY, and γ-Al2O3 was investigated. The effect of temperature and 1/WHSV on the product distribution was also evaluated. The results show that the content of BTX with Fe/Ni/HBeta catalysts, peaked at 24.87%. Fe/Ni/ZSM-5 promoted transalkylation and Fe/Ni/γ-Al2O3 exhibited the lowest anisole conversion of 30%. N2-adsorption, XRD and NH3-TPD analysis of Fe/Ni/supports suggested that BET surface, pore size, amount and intensity of acid sites significantly influenced products distribution. BTX and phenol were mainly products, indicating that hydrogenolysis focused on Caromatic-OCH3 and O-CH3 skeletons, not on π-bone in the anisole ring at ambient pressure. The products such as toluene, xylene, and other multi-methylated aromatics were from transalkylation of benzene and phenol. Fe/Ni supported catalysts were not only beneficial for HDO to remove oxygen but also for transalkylation, mining carbon loss.
Oxidant stimulation for enhancing coal seam permeability: Swelling and solubilisation behaviour of unconfined coal particles in oxidants Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Zhenhua Jing, Reydick D. Balucan, Jim R. Underschultz, Karen M. Steel
Low permeability renders a significant fraction of coal seam gas (CSG) resources sub-economic. An effective permeability enhancement strategy is thereby crucial in monetising a large proportion of low permeability CSG resources. This paper introduces the concept of using oxidants for permeability enhancement, describes a practical screening method to evaluate potential oxidants and provides knowledge about the coal behaviour in oxidants. A test based on time-lapse photography and image analysis of coal particles immersed in liquid oxidants was used to assess the extent and rate of change of coal particle size. Complementary leaching tests determined the extent of coal solubilisation by quantifying the change in coal mass and leachate organic content. The swelling profiles of coal particles hand-picked from a low permeability CSG coal core (Bowen Basin, Australia) were first examined in solutions of potassium chloride, and then pyridine for the purpose of method development and validation. Finally, the swelling ratio, SR, and rate of swelling Sr (% area change per 6 h), of coal particles immersed in oxidising solutions of sodium hypochlorite (0.1%, 1% and 10% NaClO), potassium permanganate (0.015%, 0.03%, 0.1%, 1%, 3% and 5% KMnO4), hydrogen peroxide (1%, 3%, 10% and 30% H2O2) and potassium persulfate (1% and 3% K2S2O8) were examined. Results provide evidence for coal solubilisation (maximum mass loss = 15%) and the propensity to swell (maximum particle size increase = 15%) in all the candidate oxidant stimulants as well as coal breakage in specific oxidants and at specific concentrations (1% NaClO and 3%, 5% KMnO4). The swelling and solubilisation of the coals used in this study tends to increase with higher oxidant concentrations. Anisotropic swelling was also clearly observed in 1% NaClO. Coal reacted vigorously with NaClO and KMnO4, but only slightly with K2S2O8 and H2O2. Massive coal solubilisation occurs in NaClO and KMnO4, but negligible in K2S2O8 and H2O2. In terms of coal oxidation to enhance permeability, NaClO and KMnO4 seem to be more promising than K2S2O8 and H2O2. For the situation of in situ application, it remains unclear if the net effect of coal swelling and coal solubilisation will increase or decrease permeability. In addition, coal breakage may lead to void space or new cracks in the coal matrix, which could have the potential to increase the coal permeability. Confined core-flooding tests that simulate in situ conditions are required to elucidate this behaviour.
Study on co-combustion of diesel fuel with oxygenated alcohols in a compression ignition dual-fuel engine Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Arkadiusz Jamrozik, Wojciech Tutak, Michał Pyrc, Michał Gruca, Marek Kočiško
Alcohol fuels offer opportunities to reduce the use of fossil fuels in CI engines and to increase percentage of biofuels in the transport and energy sectors, where combustion engines are often used. This study presents experimental examinations of a stationary single-cylinder compression ignition dual-fuel engine based on co-combustion of diesel fuel with alcohols. The study evaluated the effect of addition of methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol to diesel fuel on the combustion process, performance and emissions from a research engine. Percentage of the energy supplied in the alcohol fuel was 15, 30, 45, 55 and 70% of total energy supplied with fuel to the engine. The results of the examinations were compared to the examinations for the engine fuelled with pure diesel fuel as a reference. Addition of alcohol to diesel fuel had a positive effect on the level of mean indicated pressure, thermal efficiency and stability of the research engine. The increase in energy percentage of each alcohol to 55% during co-combustion with diesel fuel led to the mean increase in indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) by 22%, mean increase of indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) by almost 13% and reduction in coefficient of variation COVIMEP by 52%. Of the alcohols analysed in the study, methanol was the most beneficial in terms of high indicated pressure and high efficiency, with maximal values of IMEP = 0.86 MPa and ITE = 35.3% at DM55. Addition and increase in percentage of each alcohol to 55% led to the increase in emissions of nitrogen oxides (by 139% on average), decline of carbon oxide emissions (by 45% on average) and increase in carbon dioxide emissions (by 17% on average). However, it did not lead to significant changes in emissions of hydrocarbons. The highest content of NOx, CO and CO2 in engine exhaust were found for co-combustion of diesel fuel with addition of methanol.
Pyrolysis gases produced from individual and mixed PE, PP, PS, PVC, and PET—Part I: Production and physical properties Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Stanislav Honus, Shogo Kumagai, Gabriel Fedorko, Vieroslav Molnár, Toshiaki Yoshioka
This article describes the production and properties of gases produced by the pyrolyses of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and polystyrene (PS), and three of their mixtures at process temperatures of 500, 700, and 900 °C. The overall aim was to characterize all 24 gases in terms of their production and physical properties, and compare the data obtained to those of traditional fuels, namely natural gas (NG) and propane. In addition to experimental and analytical approaches for determining quantities and compositions of the pyrolysis products, various mathematical methods and their combinations were also used to determine product properties. The highest conversion of material into gas occurred during the pyrolysis of PP at 900 °C (66.88 wt% conversion into gaseous products). The pyrolyses of PE and PP at 500 °C were found to generate pyrolysis gases with the highest energy, with gross calorific values of 86.58 and 81.09 MJ m−3N, respectively. The highest chemical energy yield was obtained by the pyrolysis of PP at 900 °C. Gases produced from PVC had a high thermal conductivity of about 104.83 mW m−1 K−1. The gas generated from PP at 500 °C exhibited a high specific heat of 2.94 kJ m−3N K−1, and that obtained from PS at 500 °C had a very low kinematic viscosity (5.28 10−6 m2 s−1) and thermal diffusivity (7.90 10−6 m2 s−1). Even though numerous reports have dealt with pyrolysis gases, there is still not sufficient information about the specific physical properties of these gases. This article attempts to fill this gap and induce scientific interest in this field.
Pyrolysis gases produced from individual and mixed PE, PP, PS, PVC, and PET—Part II: Fuel characteristics Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Stanislav Honus, Shogo Kumagai, Vieroslav Molnár, Gabriel Fedorko, Toshiaki Yoshioka
The current energy industry relies heavily on fossil fuels. As reserves of fossil fuels are diminishing, the demands for alternative forms of energy are growing. Therefore, the search for alternative fuels is crucial. This article discusses pyrolysis gases generated from major plastics as possible future successors to fossil fuels. The novelty of this study lies in the comprehensive discussion of the fuel characteristics of different pyrolysis gases that are so far unpublished. The article builds on Part I, which predominantly focused on the production and physical properties of pyrolysis gases from plastics. Various properties are determined by combining experimental and mathematical methods. An interesting aspect of the gases produced from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is their high upper flammability limits, which are 61.46% on average. Gases from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are characterized by very high laminar burning velocities, with an average value of 178.62 cm s−1, which is about five times higher than that of natural gas (NG). Gases produced from PVC at 500 and 700 °C have autoignition temperatures almost identical to that of NG. Furthermore, the results presented in this article show that, according to standards proposed by the California Air Resources Board and the Gas Research Institute, none of the pyrolysis gases are suitable fuels for gas engines, because the methane number of no gas meets the minimum value of 65 required in the EU and USA. This article discusses results valuable for determining the potential suitability of pyrolysis gases for use in power-engineering facilities, including combustion engines, and includes information on further research prospects.
Highlighting the effect of the support during H2S adsorption at low temperature over composite Zn-Cu sorbents Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 S. Cimino, L. Lisi, G. de Falco, F. Montagnaro, M. Balsamo, A. Erto
Reactive adsorption of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from gaseous streams at room temperature with mixed Zn and Cu active phase supported onto γ-alumina is dealt in this manuscript. Sorbents with a fixed total metal content and variable Cu:Zn ratios were prepared by impregnation of commercial γ-alumina spheres in order to investigate the role of the support and the possible synergic effect between the two metals on the adsorption mechanism and performance. H2S (500–3000 ppmv in N2) removal tests were run under dynamic conditions at 30 °C. Experimental techniques such as BET and pore size distribution by N2-adsorption, SEM-EDX, XRD and DRIFT analysis were coupled for the characterization of fresh and spent sorbents. TPD/TPO experiments on saturated sorbents were performed to assess their regenerability and allowed the speciation of adsorbed sulphur species, testifying the complexity of the surface reactions and the effect of the support.
Areal sweep efficiency improvement by integrating preformed particle gel and low salinity water flooding in fractured reservoirs Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Ali K. Alhuraishawy, Xindi Sun, Baojun Bai, Mingzhen Wei, Abdulmohsin Imqam
The oil recovery from fractured reservoirs is usually low, which is usually caused by the existence of areal formation heterogeneity. Two existing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies, low salinity water flooding (LSWF) and preformed particle gel treatment (PPG), have recently drawn great interest from the oil industry. We integrated both of these technologies into one process to improve both oil displacement and areal sweep efficiency. The objective of this study was to test how the integrated method could be used effectively to increase oil recovery and control water production. The semi-transparent five-spot models, which were made of sandstone cores and acrylic plates, were built. We investigated the effect of four parameters on the improvement of oil recovery and areal sweep efficiency of oil, including gel strength, water salinity, injection rate, and number of fractures. Two approaches were followed during core flooding, sequential mode and mixed mode. The result shows that PPG and LSW injected together as one mixture improved oil recovery factor more than the first approach. PPGs plugged the fractures and successfully improved areal sweep efficiency; however, they have little effect on displacement efficiency. LWSF increased displacement efficiency but had little or no effect on sweep efficiency. The integrated methods bypassed the limitations of each method when used individually and improved both displacement and sweep efficiency.
TiO2 as a catalyst for hydrogen production from hydrogen-iodide in thermo-chemical water-splitting sulfur-iodine cycle Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Amit Singhania, Ashok N. Bhaskarwar
Isomerization of endo- to exo-tetrahydrotricyclopentadiene over alumino-silicate catalysts Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Young-Hoon Cho, Chan Hun Kim, Seong Ho Lee, Jeongsik Han, Tae Soo Kwon, Kwan-Young Lee
Dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by a core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H magnetic nanoparticle catalyst ☆ Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Islam Elsayed, Mohammad Mashaly, Fathy Eltaweel, Michael A. Jackson, El Barbary Hassan
Evaluation of aging behaviors of asphalt binders through different rheological indices Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Henglong Zhang, Zihao Chen, Guoqing Xu, Caijun Shi
Multicomponent fuel droplet combustion investigation using magnified high speed backlighting and shadowgraph imaging Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Ahmad Muneerel-Deen Faik, Yang Zhang
The liquid-phase processes occurring during fuel droplet combustion are important in deciding the behaviour of the overall combustion process, especially, for the multicomponent fuel droplets. Hence, understanding these processes is essential for explaining the combustion of the multicomponent fuel droplet. However, the very fast combustion of the too small fuel droplet makes experimental investigation of these processes uneasily affordable. In the present work, a high speed backlighting and shadowgraph imaging of the multicomponent fuel droplet combustion including liquid-phase dynamics are performed. Two categories of multicomponent fuels – in which diesel is the base fuel – are prepared and utilized. The first category is biodiesel/diesel and bioethanol/diesel blends, while the second category is the water-in-diesel and diesel-in-water emulsions. Specific optical setups are developed and used for tracking droplet combustion. The first setup is associated with the backlighting imaging with the resulting magnification of the droplet images being 30 times the real size. The second optical setup is used for shadowgraph imaging, with the resulting magnification being 10 times the real size. Using these setups, spatial and temporal tracking of nucleation, bubble generation, internal circulation, puffing, microexplosion, and secondary atomization during the combustion of isolated multicomponent fuel droplets are performed. Spatial and temporal tracking of the sub-droplets generated by secondary atomization, and their subsequent combustion, in addition to their overall lifetimes have also been performed. Accordingly, a comparison of the burning rate constant between the parent droplet and the resulting sub-droplets is carried out. The rate of droplet secondary atomization is higher than those obtained by relatively low imaging rate. Additionally, it is shown that during a large portion of its entire lifetime, the droplet geometry has been affected by combustion significantly.
Enhanced treatment of a biodiesel effluent using ferrioxalate in a photo-Fenton process based on the use of solar radiation Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Nayara M. Costa, Gizele D. Silva, Eduardo O. Marson, Eduardo M. Richter, Antonio E.H. Machado, Alam G. Trovó
Pilot injection strategy management of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion in a multi-cylinder diesel engine Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Haifeng Liu, Bin Mao, Jialin Liu, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao
The present study focuses on the experimental investigation on the optimal pilot injection strategy under GCI combustion mode in a multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Three experiments were conducted at a high-speed high-load operating point with different operating parameters and emission targets, namely engine-out NOx target, fuel injection pressure, and main injection timing. The engine-out NOx targets were set to 5.0 g/kWh and 1.5 g/kWh, and the gasoline injection pressures were set to 100 MPa and 140 MPa. These high and low values represent different requirements of SCR efficiency and practical capability of fuel supply system when addressing the hypothetical future tailpipe NOx limit of 0.02 g/hp-hr (0.027 g/kWh). The results show that the use of optimized pilot injection always achieves lower pressure rise rate and soot emissions than the single injection baseline. The pilot gasoline fuel with low injection pressure is more ignitable than that with high injection pressures, hence a distinct heat release spike usually occurs for a pilot injection. The optimal pilot mass should be increased for a higher fuel injection pressure because the pilot fuel stratification level decreases. A relatively late pilot timing is preferable for the early main injection timing. For the late main injection timing, however, a relatively early pilot timing with large pilot mass is preferable and brings about a distinct two stage high temperature heat release, which can reduce the fuel consumption and soot emissions simultaneously. The two stage split combustion process obtained by double injection with retard combustion phasing can be considered to be an important way to alleviate the requirement of GCI fuel system.
Emulsification characteristics of nano-emulsions of solketal in diesel prepared using microwave irradiation Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Cherng-Yuan Lin, Shih-Ming Tsai
Glycerol acetonide, also termed solketal, which is chemically derived from bio-glycerol, was used as a combustion improver in the dispersed emulsion phase in this study. Nano-emulsions of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) containing nano-sized droplets of solketal were produced using microwave irradiation and compared with those produced by mechanical homogenizing. A non-ionic surfactant mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80, with a combined hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) adjusted to 10 by the weight proportion of the two surfactants was added to assist the emulsion formation. The characteristics of the emulsions produced using the two methods were analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that nano-emulsions can only form when up to 15 wt% of surfactant and no more than 5 wt% of solketal are added. The nano-emulsions from microwave irradiation had a larger mean droplet size, more concentrated one-peak distribution of droplet size, and lower kinematic viscosity and emulsification stability (ES) than those from the mechanical homogenizer. Higher solketal content in the emulsion increased the mean droplet size and kinematic viscosity of the nano-emulsions prepared using either method, and decreased the emulsification stability. The nano-emulsions with 3 wt% solketal in the dispersed phase also had superior characteristics including the lowest mean droplet size and highest ES. This is thus suggested to be the optimum composition.
Mercury emissions monitoring in a coal-fired power plant by using the EPA method 30B based on a calcium-based sorbent trap Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Chunfeng Li, Yufeng Duan, Hongjian Tang, Chun Zhu, Yiwu Zheng, Tianfang Huang
A novel calcium-based sorbent was synthesized from calcium acetate and mesoporous silica through chemical impregnation method. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that the sorbent possessed a good surface structure as the calcium salt decomposed to calcium oxide (CaO) through multiple calcination steps. The mercury adsorption performance of the sorbent was investigated in a fixed bed system, the results showed that the sorbent has an obvious penetration behavior for gaseous element mercury (Hg0(g)) while completely adsorbed reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+(g)) under the pure nitrogen and simulated flue gas atmosphere. On-site sampling test of the calcium-based sorbent traps was ultimately conducted on a 600 MW coal-fired power plant. The Ontario Hydra Method (OHM) was chosen as the reference method to evaluate the accuracy of the sorbent traps sampling results. The measured data obtained by sorbent traps was well consistent with OHM under the selected operational load and all the sorbent traps passed the QA/QC criteria, show that the sorbent traps performed with almost the same accuracy as OHM. The mercury emission and removal characteristics across the existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) were reported based on the sorbent traps sampling results. With the help of SCR for the Hg0 oxidation, ESP for the removal of Hg2+ and Hgp, and the good water solubility of Hg2+ in WFGD, the combination of SCR + ESP + WFGD achieved an excellent mercury removal efficiency with the value of 88.54%. The final mercury emissions from the exhaust were 3.75 μg/m3 and meet the emission requirements of China.
Use of light hydrocarbons for the oil-oil correlation in Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Zhenyang Chang, Wanfeng Zhang, Xiang Ge, Shukui Zhu
Detection and analysis of formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions from a direct-injection spark-ignition methanol engine Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Changming Gong, Wei Huang, Jiajun Liu, Fuxing Wei, Jiawei Yu, Xiankai Si, Fenghua Liu, Yufeng Li
A sampling system to collect exhaust emissions of a methanol engine by means of a sampling bag and an absorber was designed to absorb formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions with deionized pure water. Three novel measurement methods that combine gas chromatography and liquid chromatography (GCLC), gas chromatography and the light spectrum (GCLS), and liquid chromatography and light spectrum (LCLS) were used to separate and measure formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions. The three measurement methods of GCLC, GCLS and LCLS proved suitable and reliable to separate and measure the formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions from a direct-injection spark-ignition methanol engine. The effects of methanol injection timing, spark timing, and excess air ratio on formaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions were analyzed experimentally by measurement method of GCLS. The formaldehyde and methanol detection limits are 0.16 μg/mL and 0.18 μg/mL for gas chromatography (GC), respectively, the detection limit for methanol is 0.15 μg/mL for liquid chromatography (LC), and the detection limit for formaldehyde is 0.21 μg/mL for light spectrum (LS). Retarding the spark timing increases the formaldehyde emission and decreases the unburned methanol emissions. The formaldehyde emission decreases rapidly and the unburned methanol emission increases significantly with an increasing excess air ratio.
Oil content evaluation of lacustrine organic-rich shale with strong heterogeneity: A case study of the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in Jimusaer Sag, Junggar Basin, NW China Fuel (IF 4.601) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Tao Hu, Xiongqi Pang, Shu Jiang, Qifeng Wang, Xiaowei Zheng, Xuguang Ding, Yi Zhao, Chenxi Zhu, Hui Li
Large shale oil resources were recently been found in lacustrine organic-rich shale with strong heterogeneity, however, few studies have been conducted to examine their oil contents, resulting in considerable risks in lacustrine shale oil exploration. The Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation (P2l) shale in Jimusaer Sag is a typical lacustrine deposit with strong heterogeneity, and its shale oil resource shows great potential. Integrated geochemical characterization of 265 core samples were conducted and results show that the P2l shale developed in an anoxic lacustrine with stratified salty water and the organic matter in the upper sub-member shale of the P2l is more oil-prone than that in the lower sub-member shale of the P2l. The hydrocarbon generation potential of the P2l shale decreases with the kerogen types changing from Type I to Type III, however, the residual hydrocarbon contents of the P2l shale increases from Type I to II1 kerogen, and then decreases from Type II1 to III kerogen, this is mainly due to differentiated hydrocarbon expulsion efficiencies among different kerogen types. Based on S1 and TOC values and the S1/TOC ratios, considering the oil enrichment degree, this study classified the shale oil resources in the P2l shale into four categories: enriched, moderately enriched, less efficient, and invalid resources. The enriched and moderately enriched resources are mainly shales with Type II1 kerogen, followed by Type II2 kerogen, and the middle interval of the Lower P2l shale is the most favourable target for further shale oil exploration. The improved evaluation criteria are applicable for evaluating shale oil plays with strong heterogeneity qualitatively and quantitatively in terrestrial lacustrine basins in other parts of the world.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Acc. Chem. Res.
- ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
- ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.
- ACS Catal.
- ACS Cent. Sci.
- ACS Chem. Biol.
- ACS Chem. Neurosci.
- ACS Comb. Sci.
- ACS Earth Space Chem.
- ACS Energy Lett.
- ACS Infect. Dis.
- ACS Macro Lett.
- ACS Med. Chem. Lett.
- ACS Nano
- ACS Omega
- ACS Photonics
- ACS Sens.
- ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng.
- ACS Synth. Biol.
- Acta Biomater.
- Acta Crystallogr. A Found. Adv.
- Acta Mater.
- Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Adv. Electron. Mater.
- Adv. Energy Mater.
- Adv. Funct. Mater.
- Adv. Healthcare Mater.
- Adv. Mater.
- Adv. Mater. Interfaces
- Adv. Opt. Mater.
- Adv. Sci.
- Adv. Synth. Catal.
- AlChE J.
- Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
- Anal. Chem.
- Anal. Chim. Acta
- Anal. Methods
- Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
- Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem.
- Annu. Rev. Biochem.
- Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour.
- Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol.
- Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.
- Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
- Appl. Catal. A Gen.
- Appl. Catal. B Environ.
- Appl. Clay. Sci.
- Appl. Energy
- Aquat. Toxicol.
- Arab. J. Chem.
- Asian J. Org. Chem.
- Atmos. Environ.
- Carbohydr. Polym.
- Catal. Commun.
- Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng.
- Catal. Sci. Technol.
- Catal. Today
- Cell Chem. Bio.
- Cem. Concr. Res.
- Ceram. Int.
- Chem. Asian J.
- Chem. Bio. Drug Des.
- Chem. Biol. Interact.
- Chem. Commun.
- Chem. Educ. Res. Pract.
- Chem. Eng. J.
- Chem. Eng. Sci.
- Chem. Eur. J.
- Chem. Mater.
- Chem. Phys.
- Chem. Phys. Lett.
- Chem. Phys. Lipids
- Chem. Rev.
- Chem. Sci.
- Chem. Soc. Rev.
- Chin. J. Chem.
- Combust. Flame
- Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf.
- Compos. Sci. Technol.
- Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf.
- Comput. Chem. Eng.
- Constr. Build. Mater.
- Coordin. Chem. Rev.
- Corros. Sci.
- Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.
- Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Cryst. Growth Des.
- Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng.
- Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.
- Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain
- Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
- Ecotox. Environ. Safe.
- Electrochem. Commun.
- Electrochim. Acta
- Energy Environ. Sci.
- Energy Fuels
- Energy Storage Mater.
- Environ. Impact Assess. Rev.
- Environ. Int.
- Environ. Model. Softw.
- Environ. Pollut.
- Environ. Res.
- Environ. Sci. Policy
- Environ. Sci. Technol.
- Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett.
- Environ. Sci.: Nano
- Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts
- Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol.
- Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.
- Eur. J. Med. Chem.
- Eur. J. Org. Chem.
- Eur. Polym. J.
- J. Acad. Nutr. Diet.
- J. Agric. Food Chem.
- J. Alloys Compd.
- J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Am. Chem. Soc.
- J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
- J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol.
- J. Anal. At. Spectrom.
- J. Antibiot.
- J. Catal.
- J. Chem. Educ.
- J. Chem. Eng. Data
- J. Chem. Inf. Model.
- J. Chem. Phys.
- J. Chem. Theory Comput.
- J. Chromatogr. A
- J. Chromatogr. B
- J. Clean. Prod.
- J. CO2 UTIL.
- J. Colloid Interface Sci.
- J. Comput. Chem.
- J. Cryst. Growth
- J. Dairy Sci.
- J. Electroanal. Chem.
- J. Electrochem. Soc.
- J. Environ. Manage.
- J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
- J. Fluorine Chem.
- J. Food Drug Anal.
- J. Food Eng.
- J. Food Sci.
- J. Funct. Foods
- J. Hazard. Mater.
- J. Heterocycl. Chem.
- J. Hydrol.
- J. Ind. Eng. Chem.
- J. Inorg. Biochem.
- J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
- J. Mater. Chem. A
- J. Mater. Chem. B
- J. Mater. Chem. C
- J. Mater. Process. Tech.
- J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
- J. Med. Chem.
- J. Membr. Sci.
- J. Mol. Catal. A Chem.
- J. Mol. Liq.
- J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
- J. Nat. Prod.
- J. Nucl. Mater.
- J. Org. Chem.
- J. Photochem. Photobiol. C Photochem. Rev.
- J. Phys. Chem. A
- J. Phys. Chem. B
- J. Phys. Chem. C
- J. Phys. Chem. Lett.
- J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.
- J. Porphyr. Phthalocyanines
- J. Power Sources
- J. Solid State Chem.
- J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E.
- Macromol. Rapid Commun.
- Mass Spectrom. Rev.
- Mater. Chem. Front.
- Mater. Des.
- Mater. Horiz.
- Mater. Lett.
- Mater. Sci. Eng. A
- Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep.
- Mater. Today
- Meat Sci.
- Med. Chem. Commun.
- Microchem. J.
- Microchim. Acta
- Micropor. Mesopor. Mater.
- Mol. Biosyst.
- Mol. Cancer Ther.
- Mol. Catal.
- Mol. Nutr. Food Res.
- Mol. Pharmaceutics
- Mol. Syst. Des. Eng.
- Nano Energy
- Nano Lett.
- Nano Res.
- Nano Today
- Nano-Micro Lett.
- Nanomed. Nanotech. Biol. Med.
- Nanoscale Horiz.
- Nat. Catal.
- Nat. Chem.
- Nat. Chem. Biol.
- Nat. Commun.
- Nat. Energy
- Nat. Mater.
- Nat. Med.
- Nat. Methods
- Nat. Nanotech.
- Nat. Photon.
- Nat. Prod. Rep.
- Nat. Protoc.
- Nat. Rev. Chem.
- Nat. Rev. Drug. Disc.
- Nat. Rev. Mater.
- Natl. Sci. Rev.
- Neurochem. Int.
- New J. Chem.
- NPG Asia Mater.
- npj 2D Mater. Appl.
- npj Comput. Mater.
- npj Flex. Electron.
- npj Mater. Degrad.
- npj Sci. Food
- Pharmacol. Rev.
- Pharmacol. Therapeut.
- Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
- Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
- Phys. Life Rev.
- PLOS ONE
- Polym. Chem.
- Polym. Degrad. Stabil.
- Polym. J.
- Polym. Rev.
- Powder Technol.
- Proc. Combust. Inst.
- Prog. Cryst. Growth Ch. Mater.
- Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
- Prog. Mater. Sci.
- Prog. Photovoltaics
- Prog. Polym. Sci.
- Prog. Solid State Chem.
- Sci. Adv.
- Sci. Bull.
- Sci. Rep.
- Sci. Total Environ.
- Sci. Transl. Med.
- Scr. Mater.
- Sens Actuators B Chem.
- Sep. Purif. Technol.
- Small Methods
- Soft Matter
- Sol. Energy
- Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
- Solar PRL
- Spectrochim. Acta. A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.
- Surf. Sci. Rep.
- Sustainable Energy Fuels