The lithium and sodium storage performances of phosphorus and its hierarchical structure Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 Dan Zhao, Lihui Zhang, Chengcheng Fu, Jinying Zhang, Chunming Niu
Recent preparation of black phosphorene and subsequent discovery of its excellent optical and electronic properties have attracted great attention, and renewed interest to phosphorus. Recent researches have indicated that phosphorus structures are promising anodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. A high theoretical capacity of 2,596 mAh·g−1 was predicted for phosphorus according to the reaction of 3Li/Na + P → Li3P/Na3P. However, fast capacity degradation is accompanying with most phosphorus structures due to the low electronic conductivity and structural pulverization induced by large volume change in charging and discharging proceses. The electrochemical performances are significantly affected by the hierarchical structural design of phosphorus. A few reviews of phosphorus structures have been reported recently. However, no review about the electrochemical performances of phosphorus structures according to their hierarchical structures has been reported. First of all, phosphrus allotropes along with their structure and fundamental properties are briefly reviewed in this work. Secondly, the studies on lithiation/sodiation mechanism of red/black phosphorus are presented. Thirdly, a summary about the electrochemical performances of red/black phosphorus composites with different hierarchical structures is presented. Furthermore, the development challenges and future perspectives of phosphorus structures as anodes for LIBs and SIBs are discussed.
Graphene-based nanomaterials in biosystems Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 Na Lu, Liqian Wang, Min Lv, Zisheng Tang, Chunhai Fan
Graphene-based nanomaterials have emerged as a novel type of materials with exceptional physicochemical properties and numerous applications in various areas. In this review, we summarize recent advances in studying interactions between graphene and biosystems. We first provide a brief introduction on graphene and its derivatives, and then discuss on the toxicology and biocompatibility of graphene, including the extracellular interactions between graphene and biomacromolecules, cellular studies of graphene, and in vivo toxicological effects. Next, we focus on various graphene-based practical applications in antibacterial materials, wound addressing, drug delivery, and water purification. We finally present perspectives on challenges and future developments in these exciting fields.
1-Naphthol induced Pt 3 Ag nanocorals as bifunctional cathode and anode catalysts of direct formic acid fuel cells Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-17 Xian Jiang, Yang Liu, Jiaxin Wang, Yufei Wang, Yuexin Xiong, Qun Liu, Naixu Li, Jiancheng Zhou, Gengtao Fu, Dongmei Sun, Yawen Tang
All VN-graphene architecture derived self-powered wearable sensors for ultrasensitive health monitoring Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-17 Lianghao Yu, Yuyang Yi, Ting Yao, Yingze Song, Yiran Chen, Qiucheng Li, Zhou Xia, Nan Wei, Zhengnan Tian, Baoqing Nie, Li Zhang, Zhongfan Liu, Jingyu Sun
Few-layer formamidinium lead bromide nanoplatelets for ultrapure-green and high-efficiency light-emitting diodes Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 Huan Fang, Wei Deng, Xiujuan Zhang, Xiuzhen Xu, Meng Zhang, Jiansheng Jie, Xiaohong Zhang
Formamidinium lead bromide perovskite (FAPbBr3) nanocrystals have attracted increasing attention due to their greener photoluminescence (PL) and higher thermal stability in comparison to more popular methylammonium lead bromide perovskite (MAPbBr3). Here we proposed a facile and highly reproducible room-temperature method for the preparation of few-layer (1–4) two-dimensional (2D) FAPbBr3 nanoplatelets (NPs) with ultrapure green PL at 532 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 88%. High-efficiency ultrapure green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the few-layer 2D FAPbBr3 NPs were further demonstrated. The LEDs showed a maximum current efficiency (CE) of 15.31 cd/A and an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3.53%, which are significantly better than the FAPbBr3 polycrystalline film-based LEDs reported so far. Significantly, the 2D FAPbBr3 NPs-based LEDs exhibited an ultrapure-green color emission that could cover 97% of the Recommendation 2020 (Rec. 2020) color standard and 114% of the national television system committee (NTSC) standard in the CIE 1931 color space. Moreover, the devices possessed a much better stability than the MAPbBr3 nanocrystals-based LEDs in air; the half lifetime T50 of our devices was about 5 times longer than that of MAPbBr3 nanocrystals-based LEDs. This work demonstrates the great potential of FAPbBr3 NPs in light-emitting devices for future ultrahigh-resolution displays.
Janus electrode with simultaneous management on gas and liquid transport for boosting oxygen reduction reaction Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-15 Yingjie Li, Haichuan Zhang, Nana Han, Yun Kuang, Junfeng Liu, Wen Liu, Haohong Duan, Xiaoming Sun
Oxygen reduction efficiency holds the key for renewable energy technologies including fuel cells and metal-air batteries, which involves coupling diffusion-reaction-conduction processes at the interface of catalyst/electrolyte, and thus rational electrode design facilitating mass transportation stands as a key issue for fast oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we report a Janus electrode with asymmetric wettability prepared by partly modifying aerophobic nitrogen doped carbon nanotube arrays with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a high performance catalytic electrode for ORR. The Janus electrode with opposite wettability on adjacent sides maintains stable gas reservoir in the aerophilic side while shortening O2 pathway to catalysts in the aerophobic side, resulting in superior ORR performance (22.5 mA/cm2 @ 0.5 V) than merely aerophilic or aerophilic electrodes. The Janus electrode endows catalytic performance even comparable to commercial Pt/C in the alkaline electrolyte, exploiting a previously unrecognized opportunity that guides electrode design for the gas-consumption electrocatalysis.
High performance octahedral PtNi/C catalysts investigated from rotating disk electrode to membrane electrode assembly Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-13 Bing Li, Jue Wang, Xin Gao, Congwei Qin, Daijun Yang, Hong Lv, Qiangfeng Xiao, Cunman Zhang
Octahedral PtNi/C catalysts have demonstrated superior catalytic performance in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over commercial Pt/C with rotating disk electrode (RDE). However, it is not trivial to translate such promising results to real-world membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). In this work, we have synthesized octahedral PtNi/C catalysts using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as a capping agent and investigated their performance from RDE to MEA. In RDE, mass activity and specific activity of the optimized octahedral PtNi/C catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are nearly 19 and 28 times high of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C, respectively. At MEA level, the octahedral PtNi/C catalyst exhibits excellent power generation performance and durability paired with commercial Pt/C anode. Its cell voltage at 1,000 mA·cm−2 reaches 0.712 V, and maximum power density is 881.6 mW·cm−2 and its performance attenuation is also less, around 11.8% and 7% under galvanostatic condition of 1,000 mA·cm−2 for 100 h. Such results are investiaged by thermodynamic analysis and fundametal performance modeling, which indicate the single cell performance can be further improved by reducing the size of PtNi/C catalyst agglomerates. Such encouraging results have demonstrated the feasibility to convey the superior performance of octahedral PtNi/C from RDE to MEA.
Synthesis of MoX 2 (X = Se or S) monolayers with high-concentration 1T′ phase on 4H/fcc-Au nanorods for hydrogen evolution Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Zhengqing Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yue Gong, Qipeng Lu, Zhicheng Zhang, Hongfei Cheng, Qinglang Ma, Junze Chen, Meiting Zhao, Bo Chen, Ye Chen, Xue-Jun Wu, Pengfei Yin, Lin Gu, Yaping Du, Hua Zhang
Ordered two-dimensional porous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets as electrocatalysts for rechargeable Li-O 2 batteries Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-10 Yu Zhang, Mingzhen Hu, Mengwei Yuan, Genban Sun, Yufeng Li, Kebin Zhou, Chen Chen, Caiyun Nan, Yadong Li
LiF@SiO 2 nanocapsules for controlled lithium release and osteoarthritis treatment Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-14 Trever Todd, Zhenhui Lu, Jinmin Zhao, Benjamin Cline, Weizhong Zhang, Hongmin Chen, Anil Kumar, Wen Jiang, Franklin West, Samuel Franklin, Li Zheng, Jin Xie
Electrolytes can be taken orally or intravenously as supplements or therapeutics. However, their therapeutic window may exceed the serum toxicity threshold, making systemic delivery a poor option. Local injection is also not adequate due to rapid diffusion of electrolytes. Here, we solved this issue with a nanocapsule technology, comprising an electrolyte nanocrystal as the drug filling and a silica sheath to regulate drug release rates. In particular, we prepared LiF@SiO2 nanocapsules and investigated their potential as a delivery system for lithium, which was shown in recent studies to be an effective therapeutic agent for osteoarthritis (OA). We demonstrated that LiF@SiO2 can extend lithium release time from minutes to more than 60 h. After intraarticular (i.a.) injection into a rat OA model, the nanocapsules reduced the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score by 71% in 8 weeks while inducing no systemic toxicity. Our study opens new doors for improved delivery of electrolyte therapeutics, which have rarely been studied in the past.
Acidity-triggered TAT-presenting nanocarriers augment tumor retention and nuclear translocation of drugs Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Wei Jiang, Jilong Wang, Jinbin Yang, Zhiwei He, Zhenhui Hou, Yingli Luo, Li Wang, Jing Liu, Houbing Zhang, Yangyang Zhao, Guoqing Zhang, Fang Huang, Xuechang Zhou, Lifeng Yan, Xianzhu Yang, Yucai Wang, Jun Wang
Hierarchical targeting strategy can combat the sequential drug delivery barriers by changing their properties with response to tumor stimuli. Among these strategies, much less attention has been paid to address the issues of rapid tumor clearance and insufficient cellular translocation. In this work, we demonstrate that a transactivator of transcription (TAT)-presenting nanomedicine (DATAT-NP/Pt), apart from improving tumor accumulation and cellular uptake, can simultaneously enhance tumor retention and promote nuclear translocation of encapsulated platinum prodrugs, and thus improve therapeutic efficacy. Specifically, a protecting 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DA) corona on the nanomedicine prevented the TAT peptide from serum. DATAT-NP/Pt efficiently accumulated at the tumor site through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, followed by acid-triggered TAT presenting within the tumor acidic microenvironment (pH ~ 6.8). The exposed TAT peptide augmented tumor retention and nuclear translocation of DATAT-NP/Pt. We used a tumor-on-a-chip microfluidic system to real-time mimic and analyze tumor accumulation and retention at physiological flow conditions and revealed that surface absorption of nanomedicines on tumors was critical in determining their tumor retention and clearance. Furthermore, the TAT peptide rapidly translocated the DATAT-NP/Pt into the perinuclear region, allowing for higher nuclear platinum concentrations and increased Pt-DNA adduct formation in nuclei, which consequently reversed cisplatin resistance. Our work presents a new strategy to overcome pathophysiological barriers of tumor clearance and insufficient cellular translocation and provides new insights for the design of cancer nanomedicines.
Scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with nanomaterials Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Carolina A. Ferreira, Dalong Ni, Zachary T. Rosenkrans, Weibo Cai
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are essential for normal physiological processes and play important roles in cell signaling, immunity, and tissue homeostasis. However, excess radical species are implicated in the development and augmented pathogenesis of various diseases. Several antioxidants may restore the chemical balance, but their use is limited by disappointing results of clinical trials. Nanoparticles are an attractive therapeutic alternative because they can change the biodistribution profile of antioxidants, and possess intrinsic ability to scavenge RONS. Herein, we review the types of RONS, how they are implicated in several diseases, and the types of nanoparticles with inherent antioxidant capability, their mechanisms of action, and their biological applications.
Self-assembly of Human Galectin-1 via dual supramolecular interactions and its inhibition of T-cell agglutination and apoptosis Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-08-28 Wenjing Qi, Yufei Zhang, Zdravko Kochovski, Jue Wang, Yan Lu, Guosong Chen, Ming Jiang
Polymersomes scalably fabricated via flash nanoprecipitation are non-toxic in non-human primates and associate with leukocytes in the spleen and kidney following intravenous administration Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Sean D. Allen, Yu-Gang Liu, Sharan Bobbala, Lei Cai, Peter I. Hecker, Ryan Temel, Evan A. Scott
Vesicular nanocarrier formulations confer the ability to deliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic cargos simultaneously to cells of interest in vivo. While liposomal formulations reached the clinic long ago, younger technologies such as polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) have yet to make the transition to clinical approval and use, in part due to difficulties in ensuring their safe and scalable production. In this work, we demonstrate the scalable production of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-bl-PPS) polymersomes via flash nanoprecipitation, and further show the safe administration of these nanocarriers to mice and non-human primates. In mice, PEG-bl-PPS polymersomes were found to be well tolerated at up to 200 mg/(kg·week). Following the administration of a more relevant 20 mg/(kg·week) dosage in non-human primates, polymersomes were found to associate with numerous phagocytic immune cell populations, including a remarkable 68% of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and > 95% of macrophages in the spleen, while showing no toxicity or abnormalities in the liver, kidney, spleen, or blood. Despite the presence of a dense PEG corona, neither anti-PEG antibodies nor complement activation were detected. This work provides evidence of the translatability of PEG-bl-PPS polymersomes into the clinic for therapeutic applications in humans.
Reversible hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties for optically controlling cell migration Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Xin Wu, Wenmao Huang, Wen-Hao Wu, Bin Xue, Dongfang Xiang, Ying Li, Meng Qin, Fei Sun, Wei Wang, Wen-Bin Zhang, Yi Cao
Synthetic hydrogels are widely used as biomimetic in vitro model systems to understand how cells respond to complex microenvironments. The mechanical properties of hydrogels are deterministic for many cellular behaviors, including cell migration, spreading, and differentiation. However, it remains a major challenge to engineer hydrogels that recapture the dynamic mechanical properties of native extracellular matrices. Here, we provide a new hydrogel platform with spatiotemporally tunable mechanical properties to assay and define cellular behaviors under light. The change in the mechanical properties of the hydrogel is effected by a photo-induced switch of the cross-linker fluorescent protein, Dronpa145N, between the tetrameric and monomeric states, which causes minimal changes to the chemical properties of the hydrogel. The mechanical properties can be rapidly and reversibly tuned for multiple cycles using visible light, as confirmed by rheological measurements and atomic force microscopybased nano-indentation. We further demonstrated real-time and reversible modulation of cell migration behaviors on the hydrogels through photo-induced stiffness switching, with minimal invasion to the cultured cells. Hydrogels with a programmable mechanical history and a spatially defined mechanical hierarchy might serve as an ideal model system to better understand complex cellular functions.
Ultrathin wavy Rh nanowires as highly effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction with ultrahigh ECSA Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-10-01 Xiaoyang Fu, Zipeng Zhao, Chengzhang Wan, Yiliu Wang, Zheng Fan, Frank Song, Bocheng Cao, Mufan Li, Wang Xue, Yu Huang, Xiangfeng Duan
A theranostic agent for cancer therapy and imaging in the second near-infrared window Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 Zhuoran Ma, Hao Wan, Weizhi Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Takaaki Uno, Qianglai Yang, Jingying Yue, Hongpeng Gao, Yeteng Zhong, Ye Tian, Qinchao Sun, Yongye Liang, Hongjie Dai
Nanomaterials for sensing of formaldehyde in air: Principles, applications, and performance evaluation Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 Deepak Kukkar, Kowsalya Vellingiri, Rajnish Kaur, Sanjeev Kumar Bhardwaj, Akash Deep, Ki-Hyun Kim
Despite the improvement in sensing technologies, detection of small and highly reactive molecules like formaldehyde remains a highly challenging area of research. Applications of nanomaterials/nanostructures and their composites have increased as effective sensing platforms (e.g., reaction time, sensitivity, and selectivity) for the detection of aqueous or gaseous formaldehyde based on diverse sensing principles. In this review, the basic aspects of important nanomaterial-based sensing systems (e.g., electrochemical, electrical, biological, and mass variation sensors) were evaluated in relation to performance, cost, and practicality of sensing gas phase formaldehyde. Accordingly, existing knowledge gaps in such applications were assessed in various respects along with suitable recommendations for building a new roadmap for the expansion of chemical sensing technology of gas phase formaldehyde.
Porous nitrogen-doped carbon/MnO coaxial nanotubes as an efficient sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-28 Chao Lin, Longbing Qu, Jiantao Li, Zhengyang Cai, Haoyun Liu, Pan He, Xu Xu, Liqiang Mai
Space-confined growth of monolayer ReSe 2 under a graphene layer on Au foils Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-28 Chunyu Xie, Shaolong Jiang, Xiaolong Zou, Yuanwei Sun, Liyun Zhao, Min Hong, Shulin Chen, Yahuan Huan, Jianping Shi, Xiebo Zhou, Zhepeng Zhang, Pengfei Yang, Yuping Shi, Porun Liu, Qing Zhang, Peng Gao, Yanfeng Zhang
Nanoscale chemical imaging of individual chemotherapeutic cytarabine-loaded liposomal nanocarriers Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Karin Wieland, Georg Ramer, Victor U. Weiss, Guenter Allmaier, Bernhard Lendl, Andrea Centrone
Dosage of chemotherapeutic drugs is a tradeoff between efficacy and side-effects. Liposomes are nanocarriers that increase therapy efficacy and minimize side-effects by delivering otherwise difficult to administer therapeutics with improved efficiency and selectivity. Still, variabilities in liposome preparation require assessing drug encapsulation efficiency at the single liposome level, an information that, for non-fluorescent therapeutic cargos, is inaccessible due to the minute drug load per liposome. Photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) provides nanoscale compositional specificity, up to now, by leveraging an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip contacting the sample to transduce the sample’s photothermal expansion. However, on soft samples (e.g., liposomes) PTIR effectiveness is reduced due to the likelihood of tip-induced sample damage and inefficient AFM transduction. Here, individual liposomes loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug cytarabine are deposited intact from suspension via nano-electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (nES-GEMMA) collection and characterized at the nanoscale with the chemically-sensitive PTIR method. A new tapping-mode PTIR imaging paradigm based on heterodyne detection is shown to be better adapted to measure soft samples, yielding cytarabine distribution in individual liposomes and enabling classification of empty and drug-loaded liposomes. The measurements highlight PTIR capability to detect ∼ 103 cytarabine molecules (∼ 1.7 zmol) label-free and non-destructively.
Dendrite-free all-solid-state lithium batteries with lithium phosphorous oxynitride-modified lithium metal anode and composite solid electrolytes Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Chunhua Wang, Guoliang Bai, Yifu Yang, Xingjiang Liu, Huixia Shao
Facile preparation of unique three-dimensional (3D) α-MnO 2 /MWCNTs macroporous hybrid as the high-performance cathode of rechargeable Li-O 2 batteries Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Shuiyun Shen, Aiming Wu, Guofeng Xia, Guanghua Wei, Xiaohui Yan, Yao Zhang, Fengjuan Zhu, Jiewei Yin, Junliang Zhang
Quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga 2 O 3 field effect transistors with large drain current density and low contact resistance via controlled formation of interfacial oxygen vacancies Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-22 Zhen Li, Yihang Liu, Anyi Zhang, Qingzhou Liu, Chenfei Shen, Fanqi Wu, Chi Xu, Mingrui Chen, Hongyu Fu, Chongwu Zhou
In-situ fabrication of PtSe 2 /GaN heterojunction for self-powered deep ultraviolet photodetector with ultrahigh current on/off ratio and detectivity Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Ranran Zhuo, Longhui Zeng, Huiyu Yuan, Di Wu, Yuange Wang, Zhifeng Shi, Tingting Xu, Yongtao Tian, Xinjian Li, Yuen Hong Tsang
The research of ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have been attracting extensive attention, due to their important applications in many areas. In this study, PtSe2/GaN heterojunction is in-situ fabricated by synthesis of large-area vertically standing two-dimensional (2D) PtSe2 film on n-GaN substrate. The PtSe2/GaN heterojunction device demonstrates excellent photoresponse properties under illumination by deep UV light of 265 nm at zero bias voltage. Further analysis reveals that a high responsivity of 193 mA·W–1, an ultrahigh specific detectivity of 3.8 × 1014 Jones, linear dynamic range of 155 dB and current on/off ratio of ~ 108, as well as fast response speeds of 45/102 μs were obtained at zero bias voltage. Moreover, this device response quickly to the pulse laser of 266 nm with a rise time of 172 ns. Such high-performance PtSe2/GaN heterojunction UV PD demonstrated in this work is far superior to previously reported results, suggesting that it has great potential for deep UV detection.
Enhancement of the hydrogen evolution performance by finely tuning the morphology of Co-based catalyst without changing chemical composition Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-18 Wenling Gu, Liuyong Hu, Changshuai Shang, Jing Li, Erkang Wang
Transition-metal phosphides, as the promising alternatives to noble metal catalysts, have been widely used as efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, three kinds of cobalt-8-hydroxyquinoline (Coqx) with different size and nanostructures are synthesized by varying the hydrothermal conditions, which was named as Coqx-L, Coqx-M and Coqx-S according to the decreased size. Accordingly, the CoxP/NC with three different size nanostructures (CoxP/NC-L, CoxP/NC-M and CoxP/NC-S) are obtained by the sequential carbonization and phosphidation of Coqx. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results imply the identical chemical composition in these catalysts with different morphologies. Thus, systematic study is carried out to reveal the relationship between catalytic performance and morphologies of materials with the same chemical composition. The experimental result indicates that the morphology of CoxP/NC plays a crucial role on the surface area and electron transfer. Finally, the catalyst of CoxP/NC-S with the smallest size nanostructrue exhibits the best HER performance with a low overpotential at current density of 10 mA/cm2 (η = 56.9 and 115.6 mV) and a small Tafel slope (52.3 and 69.3 mV/dec) in both 0.1 M HClO4 and 1.0 M KOH as well as long-term stability.
Porous N-doped-carbon coated CoSe 2 anchored on carbon cloth as 3D photocathode for dye-sensitized solar cell with efficiency and stability outperforming Pt Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Wenli Lu, Rui Jiang, Xiong Yin, Leyu Wang
Photocathode with superior catalytic activity, long-term stability, and fast mass/electron transfer is highly desirable but challenging for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). Herein, the ZIF-67 grown on carbon cloth is successfully transformed into CoSe2 embedded in N-doped carbon nanocage (CoSe2/N-C) via a growth-carbonization-selenization process. The carbon cloth supported CoSe2/N-C, as photocathode of DSC, demonstrates a good long-term stability and high photovoltaic efficiency (8.40%), outperforming Pt. The good efficiency can be attributed to the high catalytic activity of CoSe2, fast mass transfer of porous 3D structure, and good electron transport derived from the intimate contact between CoSe2 and highly conductive carbon cloth. The high stability would be ascribed to N-doped carbon coating that perfectly prevents CoSe2 from decomposition. This work will pave the way to develop highly efficient and stable Pt-free photocathode for DSC.
The influence of physiological environment on the targeting effect of aptamer-guided gold nanoparticles Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Ding Ding, Yinling Zhang, Edward A. Sykes, Long Chen, Zhuo Chen, Weihong Tan
Aptamer guided nanomedicine shows great promise in targeted cancer therapies. However the loss of targeting capacity during in vivo or clinical trials has largely hindered its popularity and there are no systematic studies to elucidate the causes. Herein, we investigated such loss of targeting capacity by examining how the physiological milieu affected targeting effect. Aptamer functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was chosen as the model and exposed to human blood serum that is used to mimic physiological milieu. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), flow cytometry and label-free liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were employed to determine variations of NPs’ surface chemistry and biological identities changes after serum exposure. Results showed that the targeting ability loss was caused by protein corona blocking, replacement and enzymatic cleavage of surface aptamer targeting ligands. Noteworthy, the aggregation issue is critical for the smaller NPs. Analysis of the protein corona profile indicated the accumulation of immune-related proteins on the surface of aptamer-conjugated NPs, which could induce immune response, resulting in rapid clearance of NPs.
Growth mechanism of CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals by a co-precipitation method in a CSTR system Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Jibin Zhang, Lianwei Fan, Junli Li, Xiangfu Liu, Rongwen Wang, Lei Wang, Guoli Tu
A co-precipitation method based on supersaturated recrystallization in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was applied to uncover the growth mechanism of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs). The reaction rate can be controlled by changing the reaction conditions in this CSTR system, which helps us to observe important intermediate stages to gain insight into the growth mechanism of these NCs. The effects of the temperature, concentrations of the ligands (oleylamine and oleic acid), and precursor concentrations during the growth process of CsPbBr3 NCs were discussed in detail. Further, the growth mechanism of CsPbBr3 NCs was investigated in terms of the dynamics and thermodynamics on the basis of experimental results. The growth mechanism is a useful guide to large-scale synthesis. The synthesized CsPbBr3 NCs were employed for fabrication of both white light-emitting diodes and quantum-dot light-emitting diodes to test their photoelectric properties; the results show that CsPbBr3 NCs show great promise for optoelectronics applications.
Photo-controlled release of paclitaxel and model drugs from RNA pyramids Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Congcong Xu, Hui Li, Kaiming Zhang, Daniel W. Binzel, Hongran Yin, Wah Chiu, Peixuan Guo
Stimuli-responsive release of drugs from a nanocarrier in spatial-, temporal-, and dosage-controlled fashions is of great interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Paclitaxel is one of the most effective and popular chemotherapeutic drugs against a number of cancers such as metastatic or nonmetastatic breast cancer, non–small cell lung cancer, refractory ovarian cancer, AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma, and head and neck cancers. Here, by taking the advantage of RNA nanotechnology in biomedical and material science, we developed a three-dimensional pyramid-shaped RNA nanocage for a photocontrolled release of cargo, using paclitaxel as a model drug. The light-triggered release of paclitaxel or fluorophore Cy5 was achieved by incorporation of photocleavable spacers into the RNA nanoparticles. Upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, cargos were rapidly released (within 5 min). In vitro treatment of breast cancer cells with the RNA nanoparticles harboring photocleavable paclitaxel showed higher cytotoxicity as compared to RNA nanoparticles without the photocleavable spacer. The methodology provides proof of concept for the application of the light-triggered controlled release of drugs from RNA nanocages.
Precise control of graphene etching by remote hydrogen plasma Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 Bangjun Ma, Shizhao Ren, Peiqi Wang, Chuancheng Jia, Xuefeng Guo
Biomedical applications of magneto-responsive scaffolds Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Adedokun A. Adedoyin, Adam K. Ekenseair
Plenty more room on the glass bottom: Surface functionalization and nanobiotechnology for cell isolation Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Ali Ansari, P. I. Imoukhuede
Pseudogap, Fermi arc, and Peierls-insulating phase induced by 3D–2D crossover in monolayer VSe 2 Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-14 Yuki Umemoto, Katsuaki Sugawara, Yuki Nakata, Takashi Takahashi, Takafumi Sato
Nanobiotechnology: 1D nanomaterial building blocks for cellular interfaces and hybrid tissues Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Haitao Liu, Bilal Haider, Holden R. Fried, Jie Ju, Olurotimi Bolonduro, Vineeth Raghuram, Brian P. Timko
Solid-state nanomaterials exhibit complementary interactions with biological systems because of their biologically-relevant size scales and rationally tunable electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. In this review, we focus specifically on one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as silicon or gold nanowires or carbon nanotubes. We discuss the nature of the nanomaterial–cell interface, and how that interface may be engineered to enhance or modulate cellular function. We then describe how those unique interfaces may be exploited in three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture to recapitulate the extracellular matrix and promote or complement morphogenesis. Finally, we describe how 1D nanomaterials may be elucidated as nanoelectronic devices that monitor the chemical or electrical environment of cells or tissue with exquisite spatial and temporal resolution. We discuss prospects for entirely new classes of engineered, hybrid tissues with rationally-designed biological function and two-way, closed-loop electronic communication.
Polyplex interaction strength as a driver of potency during cancer immunotherapy Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-13 Shannon J. Tsai, James I. Andorko, Xiangbin Zeng, Joshua M. Gammon, Christopher M. Jewell
Many experimental cancer vaccines are exploring toll-like receptor agonists (TLRas) such as CpG, a DNA motif that agonizes toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), to trigger immune responses that are potent and molecularly-specific. The ability to tune the immune response is especially important in the immunosuppressive microenvironments of tumors. Because TLR9 is located intracellularly, CpG must be internalized by immune cells for functionality. Polyplexes can be self-assembled through electrostatics using DNA (anionic) condensed by a positively charged carrier. These structures improve cell delivery and have been widely explored for gene therapy. In contrast, here we use cationic poly (β-amino esters) (PBAEs) to assemble polyplexes from CpG as an adjuvant to target and improve immune stimulation in cells and mouse models. Polyplexes were formed over a range of PBAE:CpG ratios, resulting in a library of complexes with increasingly positive charge and stronger binding as PBAE:CpG ratio increased. Although higher PBAE:CpG ratios exhibited improved CpG uptake, lower ratios of PBAE:CpG—which condensed CpG more weakly, activated DCs and tumor-specific T cells more effectively. In a mouse melanoma model, polyplexes with lower binding affinities improved survival more effectively compared with higher binding affinities. These data demonstrate that altering the polyplex interaction strength impacts accessibility of CpG to TLRs in immune cells. Thus, physiochemical properties, particularly the interplay between charge, uptake, and affinity, play a key role in determining the nature and efficacy of the immune response generated. This insight identifies new design considerations that must be balanced for engineering effective immunotherapies and vaccines.
Large unsaturated room temperature negative magnetoresistance in graphene foam composite for wearable and flexible magnetoelectronics Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-11 Rizwan Ur Rehman Sagar, Massimiliano Galluzzi, Alberto García-Peñas, Masroor Ahmad Bhat, Min Zhang, Florian J. Stadler
Room temperature positive magnetoresistance (PMR) in graphene is a conventional phenomenon but we observed large negative magnetoresistance (NMR) in GF/polydimethylsiloxane (GF/PDMS) at room temperature for the first time. The largest NMR ~ 35% was detected at 250 K, while PMR is observed below 200 K. Furthermore, PMR at all temperatures is observed in regular GF specimens, hence, NMR is the result of the infiltration with the electrically insulating polymer. Forward interference and wavefunction shrinkage model has been employed to understand the transport mechanism in GF/PDMS. A critical temperature ~ 224 K for switching between NMR and PMR is observed at the crystallization temperature of PDMS, suggesting a change in polymer chain conformation may be a major reason leading to NMR in GF/PDMS specimens thus role of mechanical properties of PDMS in NMR cannot be ignored and observed locally via specially resolved atomic force microscopy. In addition, storage modulus and heat flow study shows similar transition temperature (~ 200 K) of NMR to PMR and provide an evidence of mechanical stable specimens. As is known, large, tunable, and unsaturated NMR at room temperature is very useful for future facile practical shapeable magnetoelectronic devices.
Highly bright and low turn-on voltage CsPbBr 3 quantum dot LEDs via conjugation molecular ligand exchange Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-11 Guopeng Li, Jingsheng Huang, Yanqing Li, Jianxin Tang, Yang Jiang
All-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (QDs) hold great promise as candidate materials for next-generation electroluminescent displays owing to their excellent optoelectronic properties. However, the long insulating ligands on the surface of CsPbBr3 QDs originating from the synthesis process hinder the fabrication of high-performance optoelectronic devices. Herein, an efficient ligand-exchange route is proposed with the use of perovskite-precursor-based halide ligands, including a series of phenalkylammonium bromides with a π-conjugation benzene ring and different branch lengths. Based on the ligand-exchange method, the conductivity of the CsPbBr3 QD layer is significantly improved owing to ligand shortening and the insertion of the π-conjugation benzene ring. As a result, high brightness (up to 12,650 cd/m2) and low turn-on voltage (as low as 2.66 V) can be realized in CsPbBr3 QD light-emitting diodes (QLEDs), leading to dramatic improvements in device performance with a current efficiency of 13.43 cd/A, power efficiency of 12.05 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 4.33%.
Strong dual-crosslinked hydrogels for ultrasound-triggered drug delivery Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 Wenxu Sun, Heting Jiang, Xin Wu, Zhengyu Xu, Chen Yao, Juan Wang, Meng Qin, Qing Jiang, Wei Wang, Dongquan Shi, Yi Cao
Hydrogels that can respond to dynamic forces either from endogenous biological activities or from external mechanical stimuli show great promise as novel drug delivery systems (DDS). However, it remains challenging to engineer hydrogels that specifically respond to externally applied mechanical forces with minimal basal drug leakage under normal stressful physiological conditions. Here we present an ultrasound responsive hydrogel-based DDS with special dual-crosslinked nanoscale network architecture. The covalent crosslinks endow the hydrogel high mechanical stability and greatly suppress deformation-triggered drug release. Meanwhile, the dynamic covalent boronate ester linkages between hydrogel backbone and the anti-inflammation compound, tannic acid (TA), allow effective ultrasound-triggered pulsatile release of TA. As such, the hydrogel shows distinct drug release profiles under compression and ultrasound. A proof-of-principle demonstration of the suppression of inflammation activation of macrophage upon ultrasound-triggered release of TA was also illustrated. We anticipate that this novel hydrogel-based drug delivery system can be used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases on load-bearing tissues, such as muscle and cartilage.
Dynamic nanoscale imaging of enriched CO adlayer on Pt(111) confined under h-BN monolayer in ambient pressure atmospheres Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-04 Hao Wu, Pengju Ren, Peng Zhao, Zhongmiao Gong, Xiaodong Wen, Yi Cui, Qiang Fu, Xinhe Bao
Fundamental understanding of chemistry confined to nanospace remains a challenge since molecules encapsulated in confined microenvironments are difficult to be characterized. Here, we show that CO adsorption on Pt(111) confined under monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) can be dynamically imaged using near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope (NAP-STM) and thanks to tunneling transparency of the top h-BN layer. The observed CO superstructures on Pt(111) in different CO atmospheres allow to derive surface coverages of CO adlayers, which are higher in the confined nanospace between h-BN and Pt(111) than those on the open Pt surface under the same conditions. Dynamic NAP-STM imaging data together with theoretical calculations confirm confinement-induced molecule enrichment effect within the 2D nanospace, which reveals new chemistry aroused by the confined nanoreactor.
Orientation-controlled, low-temperature plasma growth and applications of h-BN nanosheets Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 Ivan Sergeevich Merenkov, Mikhail Sergeevich Myshenkov, Yuri Mikhailovich Zhukov, Yohei Sato, Tatyana Sergeevna Frolova, Denis Vasilevich Danilov, Igor Alekseevich Kasatkin, Oleg Sergeevich Medvedev, Roman Vladimirovich Pushkarev, Olga Ivanovna Sinitsyna, Masami Terauchi, Irina Alekseevna Zvereva, Marina Leonidovna Kosinova, Ken Ostrikov
Dimensionality and orientation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets are promising to create and control their unique properties for diverse applications. However, low-temperature deposition of vertically oriented h-BN nanosheets is a significant challenge. Here we report on the low-temperature plasma synthesis of maze-like h-BN nanowalls (BNNWs) from a mixture of triethylamine borane (TEAB) and ammonia at temperatures as low as 400 °C. The maze-like BNNWs contained vertically aligned stacks of h-BN nanosheets. Wavy h-BN nanowalls with randomly oriented nanocrystalline structure are also fabricated. Simple and effective control of morphological type of BNNWs by the deposition temperature is demonstrated. Despite the lower synthesis temperature, thermal stability and oxidation resistivity of the maze-like BNNWs are higher than for the wavy nanowalls. The structure and oxidation of the nanowalls was found to be the critical factor for their thermal stability and controlled luminescence properties. Cytotoxic study demonstrated significant antibacterial effect of both maze-like and wavy h-BN nanowalls against E. coli. The reported results reveal a significant potential of h-BN nanowalls for a broad range of applications from electronics to biomedicine.
In situ observation of synthesized nanoparticles in ultra-dilute aerosols via X-ray scattering Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 Sarah R. McKibbin, Sofie Yngman, Olivier Balmes, Bengt O. Meuller, Simon Tågerud, Maria E. Messing, Giuseppe Portale, Michael Sztucki, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson, Edvin Lundgren, Anders Mikkelsen
In-air epitaxy of nanostructures (Aerotaxy) has recently emerged as a viable route for fast, large-scale production. In this study, we use small-angle X-ray scattering to perform direct in-flight characterizations of the first step of this process, i.e., the engineered formation of Au and Pt aerosol nanoparticles by spark generation in a flow of N2 gas. This represents a particular challenge for characterization because the particle density can be extremely low in controlled production. The particles produced are examined during production at operational pressures close to atmospheric conditions and exhibit a lognormal size distribution ranging from 5–100 nm. The Au and Pt particle production and detection are compared. We observe and characterize the nanoparticles at different stages of synthesis and extract the corresponding dominant physical properties, including the average particle diameter and sphericity, as influenced by particle sintering and the presence of aggregates. We observe highly sorted and sintered spherical Au nanoparticles at ultra-dilute concentrations (< 5 × 105 particles/cm3) corresponding to a volume fraction below 3 × 10–10, which is orders of magnitude below that of previously measured aerosols. We independently confirm an average particle radius of 25 nm via Guinier and Kratky plot analysis. Our study indicates that with high-intensity synchrotron beams and careful consideration of background removal, size and shape information can be obtained for extremely low particle concentrations with industrially relevant narrow size distributions.
Cell-based drug delivery systems for biomedical applications Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-09-03 Teng Li, He Dong, Can Zhang, Ran Mo
Spurred by numerous achievements in nanoscience and nanotechnology, the evolution of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDSs) is in its rapid growth period and attracting considerable attention due to their unique advantages in biomedical applications. Natural particulates ranging from mammalian cells to bacteria possess their own distinctive delivery processes and mechanisms, which inspires more design and development of cell-based DDSs by integrating the innate functions of cells with the nanoscale characteristics of nanoparticles. In this review article, we focus on the recent advances in cell-based DDSs for site-specific delivery of therapeutics and enhanced treatment of diseases. The promise and perils of cell-based DDSs are also discussed.
Ultrahigh energy density battery-type asymmetric supercapacitors: NiMoO 4 nanorod-decorated graphene and graphene/Fe 2 O 3 quantum dots Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-14 Jiao Yang, Wei Liu, Hao Niu, Kui Cheng, Ke Ye, Kai Zhu, Guiling Wang, Dianxue Cao, Jun Yan
NiMoO4 has attracted intensive attention as one of the promising ternary metal oxides because of its high specific capacitance and electrical conductivity compared to traditional transition-metal oxides. In this study, NiMoO4 nanorods uniformly decorated on graphene nanosheets (G-NiMoO4) are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The prepared G-NiMoO4 composite exhibits a high specific capacitance of 714 C·g−1 at 1 A·g−1 and an excellent rate capability, with a retention ratio of 57.7% even at 100 A·g−1. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) fabricated with the G-NiMoO4 composite as the positive electrode and Fe2O3 quantum dot-decorated graphene (G-Fe2O3-QDs) as the negative electrode delivers an ultrahigh energy density of 130 Wh·kg−1, which is comparable to those of previously reported aqueous NiMoO4-based ASCs. Even when the power density reaches 33.6 kW·kg−1, an energy density of 56 Wh·kg−1 can be maintained. The ASC device exhibits outstanding cycling stability, with a capacitance retention of 113% after 40,000 cycles. These results indicate that the G-NiMoO4 composite is a promising candidate for ASCs with ultrahigh energy density and excellent cycling stability. Moreover, the present work provides an exciting guideline for the future design of high-performance supercapacitors for industrial and consumer applications via the simultaneous use of various pseudocapacitive materials with suitable potential windows as the positive and negative electrodes.
Nanostructured Bi 2 S 3 encapsulated within three-dimensional N-doped graphene as active and flexible anodes for sodium-ion batteries Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-03-26 Chen Lu, Zhenzhu Li, Lianghao Yu, Li Zhang, Zhou Xia, Tao Jiang, Wanjian Yin, Shixue Dou, Zhongfan Liu, Jingyu Sun
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been increasingly attracting attention as a sustainable alternative to lithium-ion batteries for scalable energy storage. The key to advanced SIBs relies heavily upon the development of reliable anodes. In this respect, Bi2S3 has been extensively investigated because of its high capacity, tailorable morphology, and low cost. However, the common practices of incorporating carbon species to enhance the electrical conductivity and accommodate the volume change of Bi2S3 anodes so as to boost their durability for Na storage have met with limited success. Herein, we report a simple method to realize the encapsulation of Bi2S3 nanorods within three-dimensional, nitrogen-doped graphene (3DNG) frameworks, targeting flexible and active composite anodes for SIBs. The Bi2S3/3DNG composites displayed outstanding Na storage behavior with a high reversible capacity (649 mAh·g–1 at 62.5 mA·g–1) and favorable durability (307 and 200 mAh·g–1 after 100 cycles at 125 and 312.5 mA·g–1, respectively). In-depth characterization by in situ X-ray diffraction revealed that the intriguing Na storage process of Bi2S3 was based upon a reversible reaction. Furthermore, a full, flexible SIB cell with Na0.4MnO2 cathode and as-prepared composite anode was successfully assembled, and holds a great promise for next-generation, wearable energy storage applications.
MoP nanoparticles with a P-rich outermost atomic layer embedded in N-doped porous carbon nanofibers: Self-supported electrodes for efficient hydrogen generation Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-14 Minqiang Wang, Cui Ye, Maowen Xu, Shujuan Bao
Despite being pursued for a long time, hydrogen production via water splitting is still a huge challenge mainly due to a lack of durable and efficient catalysts. Molybdenum phosphide (MoP) is theoretically capable of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysis, however, there is still room for further improvement in its performance. Herein, we propose a design for MoP with a P-rich outermost atomic layer for enhancing HER via complementary theoretical and experimental validation. The correlation of computational results suggests that the P-terminated surface of MoP plays a crucial role in determining its high-efficiency catalytic properties. We fabricated a P-rich outermost atomic layer of MoP nanoparticles by using N-doped porous carbon (MoP@NPCNFs) to capture more P on the surface of MoP and limit the growth of nanoparticles. Further, the as-prepared material can be directly employed as a self-supported electrocatalyst, and it exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for HER in acidic media; it also reveals excellent long-term durability for up to 5,000 cycles with negligible loss of catalytic activity.
Influence of metal support in-plane symmetry on the corrugation of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene monolayers Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-14 Antonio J. Martínez-Galera, José M. Gómez-Rodríguez
Predicting the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayers after their growth on any given substrate is a major challenge. While the influence of the electron configuration of the atoms of the underlying surface is well-understood, the effect of substrate geometry still remains unclear. The structural properties of h-BN monolayers grown on a rectangularly packed Rh(110) surface were characterized in situ by ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and were compared to those that this material exhibits when grown on substrates showing different crystallographic orientations. Although the h-BN monolayer grown on Rh(110) was dominated by a unique quasiunidimensional moiré pattern, suggesting considerable interface interaction, the moiré corrugation was unexpectedly smaller than those reported for strongly interacting interfaces with hexagonal-terminated substrates, owing to differences in the possible binding landscapes at interfaces with differently oriented substrates. Moreover, a rule was derived for predicting how interface corrugation and the existence and extent of subregions within moiré supercells containing favorable sites for orbital mixing between h-BN monolayers and their supports depend on substrate symmetry. These general symmetry considerations can be applied to numerous 2D materials, including graphene, thereby enabling the prediction of how substrate choice determines the properties of these materials. Furthermore, they could also provide new routes for tuning 2D material properties and for developing nanotemplates showing different geometries for growing adsorbate superlattices.
Flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrates based on nanofibrous membranes Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-23 Ekaterina S. Prikhozhdenko, Daniil N. Bratashov, Dmitry A. Gorin, Alexey M. Yashchenok
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has emerged as an excellent analytical tool for the effective detection and fingerprint identification of various chemicals. Recently, significant progress has been made in the fabrication of SERS-active substrates using simple, inexpensive, and affordable methods. The full potential of universal SERS diagnostics will likely be realized with the development of approaches and devices capable of effectively detecting analytes on various surfaces as well as in multicomponent media. In addition, the combination of implantable or wearable SERS-active substrates and remote portable devices enables real-time diagnostics that ideally fit the concept of personalized medicine. In this paper, we summarize recent achievements in fabricating flexible SERS substrates made of cellulose paper, polymer membranes, and textile fibrous films. Emphasis is placed on the in-situ extraction and detection of various chemicals in real-world surfaces and complex media using flexible nanofibrous SERS platforms. The potential SERS applications and future perspectives in on-site diagnostics are also discussed.
Layered double hydroxides with atomic-scale defects for superior electrocatalysis Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Qixian Xie, Zhao Cai, Pengsong Li, Daojin Zhou, Yongmin Bi, Xuya Xiong, Enyuan Hu, Yaping Li, Yun Kuang, Xiaoming Sun
Atomic composition tuning and defect engineering are effective strategies toenhance the catalytic performance of multicomponent catalysts by improvingthe synergetic effect; however, it remains challenging to dramatically tune the active sites on multicomponent materials through simultaneous defect engineeringat the atomic scale because of the similarities of the local environment. Herein,using the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) as a probe reaction, we deliberatelyintroduced base-soluble Zn(II) or Al(III) sites into NiFe layered double hydroxides(LDHs), which are one of the best OER catalysts. Then, the Zn(II) or Al(III) siteswere selectively etched to create atomic M(II)/M(III) defects, which dramaticallyenhanced the OER activity. At a current density of 20 mA·cm−2, only 200 mV overpotential was required to generate M(II) defect-rich NiFe LDHs, which is the best NiFe-based OER catalyst reported to date. Density functional theory(DFT) calculations revealed that the creation of dangling Ni–Fe sites (i.e., unsaturated coordinated Ni–Fe sites) by defect engineering of a Ni–O–Fe site at the atomic scale efficiently lowers the Gibbs free energy of the oxygen evolutionprocess. This defect engineering strategy provides new insights into catalysts atthe atomic scale and should be beneficial for the design of a variety of catalysts.
A novel tumor-targeting treatment strategy uses energy restriction via co-delivery of albendazole and nanosilver Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Jianming Liang, Ruixiang Li, Yuwei He, Chengli Ling, Qi Wang, Yongzhuo Huang, Jing Qin, Weigen Lu, Jianxin Wang
Although nanotechnology has been rapidly developed and applied in tumor targeting, the outcome of chemotherapy remains greatly restricted by the toxicity of cytotoxic drugs in normal tissues and cells. Therefore, the development of alternative delivery systems, with few side effects in normal cells, has attracted increasing attention. Energy restriction is a novel and promising approach to cancer treatment, which can restrict tumor growth via inhibition of cellular energy metabolism. In this study, a novel tumor targeting system, based on folate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA), was developed to co-deliver albendazole and nanosilver simultaneously, to restrain the energy metabolism of tumor cells. This nanosystem showed stronger anti-tumor efficacy than those using nanoparticles without folic acid modification, nanosilver, or albendazole, both in vitro and in vivo. This nanosystem depleted cellular ATP via direct inhibition of glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial damage, resulting in inhibition of proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis of tumor cells. The enhanced anti-tumor activity contributed to the tumor-targeting ability of this system, resulting in specific energy inhibition in tumor cells. Toxicity evaluation was performed to confirm the safety of this system. This nanosystem provides an efficient and safe strategy for tumor therapy.
In-situ liquid-cell TEM study of radial flow-guided motion of octahedral Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Chang Li, Xin Chen, Haiyang Liu, Jiali Fang, Xiaoqin Zhou
The dynamic behavior of octahedral gold nanoparticles (NPs) and nanoparticle clusters (NPCs) in aqueous solution is studied by in-situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The octahedral Au NPs/NPCs show preferential orientations in the liquid cell, due to the interaction with the SiNx window. The Au NPs show long-range reversible hopping and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motions in the liquid environment. At the same time, the Au NPCs and NPs perform slow stick-slip and stick-roll motions, respectively, with a centripetal trend. The centripetal motions were explained by a liquid evaporation-induced radial flow model, in which the NPCs/NPs trajectories are controlled by Stokes forces and surface friction by the silicon nitride window. The calculated radius-dependent force (Fc) on the NPCs/NPs shows a semi-linear correlation with the distance r between the NPCs/NPs and the center of mass, accompanied with stochastic fluctuations, in agreement with the model predictions. This work thus demonstrates the effectiveness of in situ liquid-cell TEM for the in-depth understanding of complicated liquid flow and force interactions in nanomaterials.
Engineering nanoparticles for targeting rheumatoid arthritis: Past, present, and future trends Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-26 Isabel Matos Oliveira, Cristiana Gonçalves, Rui Luís Reis, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial joint inflammation and cartilage and bone tissue destruction. Although there exist some treatment strategies for RA, they are not completely safe and effective. Therefore, it is important to develop and test new drugs for RA that specifically target inflamed/swollen joints and simultaneously attenuate other possible damages to healthy tissues. Nanotechnology can be a good alternative to consider when envisioning precise medication for treating RA. Through the use of nanoparticles, it is possible to increase bioavailability and bioactivity of therapeutics and enable selective targeting to damaged joints. Herein, recent studies using nanoparticles for the treatment of RA, namely with liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and metallic nanoparticles, have been reviewed. These therapeutic strategies have shown great promise in improving the treatment over that by traditional drugs. The results of these studies confirm that feasibility of the use of nanoparticles is mainly due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, controlled release, and selective drug delivery to inflamed tissues in animal RA models. Therefore, it is possible to claim that nanotechnology will, in the near future, play a crucial role in advanced treatments and patient-specific therapies for human diseases such as RA.
Design and applications of lattice plasmon resonances Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-08-09 Bharath Bangalore Rajeeva, Linhan Lin, Yuebing Zheng
With their unique optical properties associated with the excitation of surface plasmons, metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been used in optical sensors and devices. The organization of these NPs into arrays can induce coupling effects to engineer new optical responses. In particular, lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs), which arise from coherent interactions and coupling among NPs in periodic arrays, have shown great promise for realizing narrow linewidths, angle-dependent dispersions, and high wavelength tunability of optical spectra. By engineering the materials, shapes, sizes, and spatial arrangements of NPs within arrays, one can tune the LPR-based spectral responses and electromagnetic field distributions to deliver a multitude of improvements, including a high figure-of-merit, superior light–matter interaction, and multiband operation. In this review, we discuss recent progress in designing and applying new metal nanostructures for LPR-based applications. We conclude this review with our perspective on the future opportunities and challenges of LPR-based devices.
Synthesis, characterization, theoretical investigation, and properties of monoclinic-phase InWO 4 hollow nanospheres Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-11 Yuping Wang, Di Wang, Ying Xie, Guofeng Wang
As a newly discovered member of the tungstate family, InWO4 hollow nanospheres with a monoclinic wolframite structure were synthesized successfully. The crystal phase of InWO4 was investigated via a combination of CASTEP geometric optimization and experimental simulation. InWO4 has a space group of P2/c with two InWO4 formula units per unit cell. The optimized cell dimensions are a = 5.16 Å, b = 5.97 Å, and c = 5.23 Å, with α = 90°, β = 92.11°, γ = 90°, giving a unit cell volume of 161.10 Å3, which is consistent with the experimental measurements. More importantly, InWO4 was a promising host material for different Ln3+ (Ln = Eu and Yb/Er) ions. For InWO4:Yb3+/Er3+ excited at 980 nm, transitions from the 4G11/2 (384 nm), 2H9/2 (411 nm), and 4F7/2 (487 nm) levels to the ground state (4I15/2) of Er3+ were observed. In addition to the aforementioned properties, the InWO4 hollow nanospheres can be used to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells, which is chiefly attributed to theirlight scattering.
Parallel boron nitride nanoribbons and etch tracks formed through catalytic etching Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Armin Ansary, Mohsen Nasseri, Mathias J. Boland, Douglas R. Strachan
One-dimensional (1D) catalytic etching was investigated in few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films. Etching of hBN was shown to share a number of similarities with that of graphitic films. As in graphitic films, etch tracks in hBN commenced at film edges and occurred predominantly along certain crystal directions of its lattice, though it was shown that the tracks were generally narrower than those of few-layer graphene under similar processing conditions. It was also shown that catalytic hydrogenation can occur completely through a few-layer hBN film, demonstrating that this process can be used in the formation of isolated low-dimensional nanoscale structures from other layered 2D materials beyond graphene. This ability for thin hBN films to be etched completely through allowed for a crystalline substrate to guide the etching process, which was demonstrated with the successful etch track formation of few-layer hBN on single-crystalline sapphire substrates. The substrate-guided etching resulted in parallel few-layer hBN nanoribbons having an average width of 32 nm and spacing of 13 nm.
Dual confinement of polysulfides in boron-doped porous carbon sphere/graphene hybrid for advanced Li-S batteries Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Wei Ai, Jiewei Li, Zhuzhu Du, Chenji Zou, Hongfang Du, Xin Xu, Yu Chen, Hongbo Zhang, Jianfeng Zhao, Changming Li, Wei Huang, Ting Yu
A hybrid structure consisting of boron-doped porous carbon spheres and graphene (BPCS-G) has been designed and synthesized toward solving the polysulfide-shuttle problem, which is the most critical issue of current Li-S batteries. The proposed hybrid structure showing high surface area (870 m2·g−1) and high B-dopant content (6.51 wt.%) simultaneously offers both physical confinement and chemical absorption of polysulfides. On one hand, the abundant-pore structure ensures high sulfur loading, facilitates fast charge transfer, and restrains polysulfide migration during cycling. On the other hand, our density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the B dopant is capable of chemically binding polysulfides. As a consequence of such dual polysulfide confinement, the BPCS-G/S cathode prepared with 70 wt.% sulfur loading presents a high reversible capacity of 1,174 mAh·g−1 at 0.02 C, a high rate capacity of 396 mAh·g−1 at 5 C, and good cyclability over 500 cycles with only 0.05% capacity decay per cycle. The present work provides an efficient and cost-effective platform for the scalable synthesis of high-performance carbon-based materials for advanced Li-S batteries.
Sub-nm ruthenium cluster as an efficient and robust catalyst for decomposition and synthesis of ammonia: Break the “size shackles” Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Jinpeng Li, Weiyang Wang, Wenxing Chen, Qinmei Gong, Jun Luo, Ruoqian Lin, Huolin Xin, Hui Zhang, Dingsheng Wang, Qing Peng, Wei Zhu, Chen Chen, Yadong Li
Downsizing to sub-nm is a general strategy to reduce the cost of catalysts. However, theoretical Wulff-constructed model suggests that sub-nm clusters show little activity for various reactions such as ammonia decomposition and ammonia synthesis because of the lack of active sites. As clusters may deviate from the ideal model construction under reaction conditions, a host–guest strategy to synthesize thermally stable 1.0 nm monodispersed Ru clusters by the pyrolysis of MIL-101 hosts is reported here to verify the hypothesis. For ammonia decomposition, the activity of the Ru clusters is 25 times higher than that of commercial Ru/active carbon (AC) at full-conversion temperature, while for ammonia synthesis, the activity of the Ru clusters is 500 times as high as that of promoted Ru NPs counterpart. The catalyst also maintains its activities for 40 h without any increase in the size. This model can be used to develop a host–guest strategy for designing thermally stable sub-nm clusters to atomic–efficiently catalyze reactions.
Recent advances in controlled modification of the size and morphology of metal-organic frameworks Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-11 Botao Liu, Kowsalya Vellingiri, Sang-Hee Jo, Pawan Kumar, Yong Sik Ok, Ki-Hyun Kim
Advances in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) resulted in significant contributions to diverse applications such as carbon capture, gas storage, heat transformation and separation along with emerging applications toward catalysis, medical imaging, drug delivery, and sensing. The unique in situ and ex situ structural features of MOFs can be tailored by conceptual selection of the organic (e.g., ligand) and inorganic (e.g., metal) components. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the synthesis and characterization of MOFs, particularly with respect to controlling their size and morphology. A better understanding of the specific size and morphological parameters of MOFs will help initiate a new era for their real-world applications. Most importantly, this assessment will help develop novel synthesis methods for MOFs and their hybrid/porous materials counterparts with considerably improved properties in targeted applications.
Abnormal n-type doping effect in nitrogen-doped tungsten diselenide prepared by moderate ammonia plasma treatment Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 Zhepeng Jin, Zhi Cai, Xiaosong Chen, Dacheng Wei
To facilitate potential applications of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) in electronics, controllable doping is of great importance. As an industrially compatible technology, plasma treatment has been used to dope two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, owing to the strong etching effect in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it is difficult to controllably dope 2D WSe2 crystals by plasma. Herein, we develop a moderate ammonia plasma treatment method to prepare nitrogen-doped WSe2 with controlled nitrogen content. Interestingly, Raman, photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical measurements reveal abnormal n-doping behavior of nitrogen-doped WSe2, which is attributed to selenium anion vacancy introduced by hydrogen species in ammonia plasma. Nitrogen-doped WSe2 with abnormal n-doping behavior has potential applications in future TMDCs-based electronics.
Ultrafast one-step synthesis of N and Ti 3+ codoped TiO 2 nanosheets via energetic material deflagration Nano Res. (IF 7.994) Pub Date : 2018-04-17 Yousong Liu, Shuxin Ouyang, Wencan Guo, Hehou Zong, Xudong Cui, Zhong Jin, Guangcheng Yang
An energetic-material (NaN3) deflagration method for preparing N- and Ti3+-codoped TiO2 nanosheets (NT–TiO2) was developed. In this method, N radicals filled the crystal lattice, and Na clusters captured partial O from TiO2. The deflagration process was fast and facile and can be completed within < 1 s after ignition. The obtained NT–TiO2 exhibited rough surfaces with nanopits and nanoholes. The doping concentration can be regulated by controlling the NaN3 addition. The NT–TiO2 samples showed significant enhancements in the visible-light absorption and photoelectric response. The simultaneously produced N radicals and Na clusters from NaN3 deflagration served as N sources and reduction agents, respectively. Additionally, the high deflagration temperature/pressure improved the reactivity of N radicals and Na clusters. Thus, the present NaN3 deflagration method was demonstrated as an ultrafast and effective approach to fabricate NT–TiO2 with a visible-light response. The proposed NaN3 deflagration method allows the ultrafast synthesis of new functional materials via the efficient deflagration of energetic materials.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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