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  • N-rich covalent organic polymer in situ modified TiO2 for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-15
    Zhuohang Zhou, Peng Peng, Zhonghua Xiang

    TiO2 has been everlastingly employed as popular photocatalyst for water splitting. However, the wide band gap (3.0-3.2 eV) and poor absorption to visible light of TiO2 result in a low utilization of solar energy and limit its large-scale application. To decrease its band gap and promote the utilization of full solar energy, we here modified TiO2 by in situ growth of N-rich covalent organic polymer (termed as COPHM). During the in situ growth of COPHM on the surface of TiO2, intimate contacts between TiO2 and COPHM were built and core-shell structures were finally formed. The derived TiO2@COPHM demonstrated a narrower band gap (2.53 eV) compared to raw TiO2 (3.13 eV) and improved absorption to visible light. The optimal TiO2@COPHM hybrid exhibited excellent hydrogen evolution performance of 162.7 μmol h-1 under simulated sunlight which was more than 3 times higher than raw TiO2 (51.3 μmol h-1). Particularly, visible light hydrogen evolution rate of TiO2@COPHM reached 0.65 μmol h-1 while non-hydrogen generation was observed using raw TiO2.

    更新日期:2018-02-15
  • High electrocaloric cooling power of relaxor ferroelectric BaZrxTi1–xO3 ceramics within broad temperature range
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-14
    Jianfeng Qian, Penghao Hu, Chen Liu, Jianyong Jiang, Zhenkang Dan, Jing Ma, Yuanhua Lin, Ce-Wen Nan, Yang Shen

    Electrocaloric effect (ECE) is much promising to realize high efficiency and environment friendly solution in solid cooling devices. Relaxor ferroelectrics are good candidates for the materials with high electrocaloric cooling power. In this paper, relaxor ferroelectric Ba(ZrxTi1–x)O3 (BZT, x = 0.2, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23) ceramics were prepared with their temperature change (ΔT) induced by the ECE and electrocaloric strength (ΔT/E) measured within broad temperature range. It is found that the BZT21 (x = 0.21) exhibits the largest ΔT of ∼ 4.67 K and a high ΔT/E value of ∼ 0.46 Km/MV at 9.9 MV/m and 25 °C. BZT21 also exhibits apparent relaxor ferroelectric response, showing a very broad EC peak in the temperature interval between 15 °C to 50 °C. Moreover, the relationship between EC properties and relaxor features was analyzed by piezoresponse force microscopy test. The results reveal that more dispersed phase structures induce additional configurational entropy, which is in favor for the enhanced EC performance. The interplay and compromise between the kinetic and thermodynamic mechanisms of domain switching determines the optimal composition for the EC performances of the BZT ceramics.

    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • One-pot synthesis of nickel-cobalt hydroxyfluorides nanowires with ultrahigh energy density for an asymmetric supercapacitor
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Jian-Fang Zhang, Yan Wang, Xia Shu, Cui-Ping Yu, Ming-Feng Xiao, Jie-Wu Cui, Yong-Qiang Qin, Hong-Mei Zheng, Yong Zhang, Dong Chen, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Yu-Cheng Wu

    A novel and unique nickel-cobalt hydroxyfluorides (NiCo-HF) nanowires material is fabricated by one-pot solvothermal synthesis method for asymmetric supercapacitor. The synthesis mechanism and factors that influence the formation of the NiCo-HF nanowires have been further discussed. The as-prepared NiCo-HF electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 3,372.6 F g−1, and the capacitance retention of 94.3% can be achieved at a high current density of 20 A g−1 after 10,000 cycles. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the electrode can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the nanowires morphology and complicated redox process of active material. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with NiCo-HF nanowires as positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode shows an ultrahigh energy density of 83.6 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 379.4 W kg−1 and an excellent cycling stability with 86.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles, indicating that this novel material has great promise for potential application in energy storage device.

    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • Cation-mixing stabilized layered oxide cathodes for sodium-ion batteries
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Shaohua Guo, Yang Sun, Pan Liu, Jin Yi, Ping He, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yanbei Zhu, Ryosuke Senga, Kazu Suenaga, Mingwei Chen, Haoshen Zhou
    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • 更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Thermostable single-junction organic solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 14.62%
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Hui Li, Zuo Xiao, Liming Ding, Jizheng Wang
    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • 更新日期:2018-02-08
  • The secret of fertilization in flowering plants unveiled
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Xiangxiu Liang, Jian-Min Zhou

    As recapitulated in the famous Chinese fairy tale Journey to the West, the Buddhist monk Xuanzang of the Tang Dynasty (Tangseng) took a heroic journey in a quest for India Buddhist sacred scriptures. The long and dangerous journey was made possible only with the help of the powerful monkey king, who had been pinned down under a mountain by the Buddha as a punishment for his prior misdemeanor. The Buddha had to secure the mountain with a magic paper seal so that the monkey king would not break loose. The monkey king burst out from the mountain as soon as Tangseng lifted the seal, so that he could escort Tangseng through the journey.

    更新日期:2018-02-08
  • Heterostructure TiO2 polymorphs design and structure adjustment for photocatalysis
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Di He, Heng Su, Xue Qiao Li, Hai Jun Yu, Muhammad Zubair, Lin Wang, Sheng Cheng Mao, Jin Shu Wang

    Atomic composite-structure materials play an important role in energy generation and storage application fields for their advanced performance. Constructing heterostructured semiconductors is a promising strategy to devise photocatalytic systems with high activity. However, most studied hererostructures are those semiconductors with different materials formed by multi-steps, researches on in-situ formed hererostructure originated from the same precursor are few reported, and the effects of different structure ratios on photocatalytic performance are ambiguous. Here, according to in-situ temperature X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope techniques, a nano-sized in-situ formed heterostructure of TiO2 semiconductors with anatase and TiO2-B crystalline structures were designed, their structure ratios were adjusted, the heterostructure interface and photocatalytic reaction mechanism were also detected. Results show that high-quality heterojunction and optimum structure ratios have vital influence on photocatalytic performance, there is an obvious synergetic effect between anatase and TiO2-B structure, degradation reactions on methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet light irradiation prove that the highest activity toward MO removal can be obtained for material with 82.5% anatase structure.

    更新日期:2018-02-08
  • Application of microprobe-based flank method analysis of Fe3+ in garnet of North Qilian eclogite and its geological implication
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Li Xiaoli, Song Shuguang, Zhang Lifei, E. Höfer Heidi

    A newly developed microprobe-based methodology (the Flank Method) for Fe3+/ΣFe quantification has been successfully applied to some natural garnets from the North Qilian eclogites by JEOL JXA-8100 microprobe at Peking University. The results demonstrated an obvious discrepancy in comparison with the outcomes by conventional stoichiometric calculations. This methodology allows to measure the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio and perform elemental analyses simultaneously in the same condition. Accurate in-situ measurement of Fe3+ content in garnet may bring certain impact on the garnet-based P-T estimation. According to the compositional zonation displayed in the studied eclogitic garnets from North Qilian, a prograde metamorphic PT path from 19.5 kbar, 520 °C to 22 kbar, 600 °C was reconstructed. More interestingly, the measured Fe3+/ΣFe ratios in garnets decreasing from core to rim may probably imply that the oxygen fugacity (fO2) declines with the depth of the subduction zone.

    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • Experimental realization of honeycomb borophene
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Wenbin Li, Longjuan Kong, Caiyun Chen, Jian Gou, Shaoxiang Sheng, Weifeng Zhang, Hui Li, Lan Chen, Peng Cheng, Kehui Wu
    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • ZnO-PCBM bilayers as electron transport layers in low-temperature fabricated perovskite solar cells
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Jiaqi Zhang, Ching Hong Tan, Tian Du, Maurizio Morbidoni, Chieh-Ting Lin, Shengda Xu, James R. Durrant, Martyn A. McLachlan
    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • Rapid and high precision measurement of opto-thermal relaxation with pump-probe method
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Tao Wang, Xiaofei Liu, Yunqi Hu, Guoqing Qin, Dong Ruan, Gui-Lu Long
    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • Simulation of molecular spectroscopy with circuit quantum electrodynamics
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Ling Hu, Yue-Chi Ma, Yuan Xu, Wei-Ting Wang, Yu-Wei Ma, Ke Liu, Hai-Yan Wang, Yi-Pu Song, Man-Hong Yung, Lu-Yan Sun

    Spectroscopy is a crucial laboratory technique for understanding quantum systems through their interactions with the electromagnetic radiation. Particularly, spectroscopy is capable of revealing the physical structure of molecules, leading to the development of the maser—the forerunner of the laser. However, real-world applications of molecular spectroscopy are mostly confined to equilibrium states, due to computational and technological constraints; a potential breakthrough can be achieved by utilizing the emerging technology of quantum simulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate through a toy model, a superconducting quantum simulator capable of generating molecular spectra for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, reliably producing the vibronic structure of diatomic molecules. Furthermore, our quantum simulator is applicable not only to molecules with a wide range of electronic-vibronic coupling strength, characterized by the Huang-Rhys parameter, but also to molecular spectra not readily accessible under normal laboratory conditions. These results point to a new direction for predicting and understanding molecular spectroscopy, exploiting the power of quantum simulation.

    更新日期:2018-02-05
  • Much late onset of Quaternary glaciations on the Tibetan Plateau: determining the age of the Shishapangma Glaciation using cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be dating
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-02-03
    Yixin Chen, Yingkui Li, Mei Zhang, Zhijiu Cui, Gengnian Liu

    The onset of Quaternary glaciations is a critical event in the climate and tectonic history of the Tibetan Plateau. The Shishapangma Glaciation, defined based on the till deposit from the northern slopes of Mt. Shishapangma, has been identified as the oldest glaciation on the Tibetan Plateau. However, the timing of this glaciation has not been constrained. We measured 10Be and 26Al concentrations of a set of boulders on top of this till and simulated their complex exposure-burial histories. The simulated results indicate that the formation age of this till is likely around 835.2 ± 241.0 ka, representing the minimum timing of glacial onset on the Tibetan Plateau. The Shishapangma Glaciation is apparently much younger than the glacial onset in many other areas of the world, such as Europe and North America, and was likely driven by the coupled effect between tectonic uplift and climate cooling during the early–middle Pleistocene transition.

    更新日期:2018-02-04
  • A flattened enantiornithine in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber: Morphology and preservation
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Lida Xing, Jingmai K. O'Connor, Ryan C. McKellar, Luis M. Chiappe, Ming Bai, Kuowei Tseng, Jie Zhang, Haidong Yang, Jun Fang, Gang Li

    Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (∼99 Ma Burmese amber) has become a valuable supplement to the traditional skeletal record of small theropod dinosaurs preserved in sedimentary rocks, particularly for coelurosaurs and enantiornithines. The specimens recovered from this deposit preserve skeletal material and soft tissues in unmatched detail. This provides opportunities to study three-dimensional preservation of soft tissues, microstructure, and pigmentation patterns that are seldom available elsewhere in the fossil record. Ultimately, this line of research provides insights into life stages that are difficult to preserve, the ecology and appearance of the groups involved, and the evolutionary-development of structures such as feathers. Here we describe the most recent discovery from Burmese amber, an articulated skeleton of an enantiornithine bird. This individual has been sectioned along the coronal plane, providing a unique view inside multiple body regions. Osteological observations and plumage patterns support placement within the Enantiornithes, and suggest that the animal may have been a juvenile at the time of death. The specimen has a complex taphonomic history that includes exposure at the surface of a resin flow prior to encapsulation, and may include scavenging by some of the insects trapped within the same amber piece. The chemical composition observed along surface exposures and shallowly buried regions of the body indicate that the specimen has not undergone significant exchange with its surroundings. High iron concentrations are present in regions that preserve soft tissues as carbon films, and calcium distribution corresponds to regions where bones breach the surface of the amber.

    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Versatile design and synthesis of mesoporous sulfonic acid catalysts
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Peng Wang, Yupei Zhao, Jian Liu
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Dynamic deformation behavior of a face-centered cubic FeCoNiCrMn high-entropy alloy
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Junyang He, Qi Wang, Husheng Zhang, Lanhong Dai, Toshiji Mukai, Yuan Wu, Xiongjun Liu, Hui Wang, Tai-Gang Nieh, Zhaoping Lu
    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Barium isotope cosmochemistry and geochemistry
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Quentin Charbonnier, Frédéric Moynier, Julien Bouchez

    While the isotopic variations of barium were reported for the first time fourty years ago, the number of studies on barium isotopes significantly increased only after 2010. Barium isotope anomalies in meteorites have been successfully used to provide constraints about the origin of presolar SiC grains. In carbonaceous chondrites Ba isotope anomalies are indicative of the heterogeneity of the early solar system, possibly resulting from of a later injection of material after the cooling of solar system. Barium isotope fractionation in the same carbonaceous chondrites suggests that a strong magnetic field was present in the innermost part of the early solar system. Barium mass-dependent isotope fractionation has also been detected throughout Earth surface materials. While igneous rocks show limited Ba isotopic variations, relatively large isotopic variations are observed amongst and within soils, rivers, and biological materials. Indeed, plants seem to fractionate Ba isotopes during Ba uptake from soil solutions. Therefore, Ba isotope signatures have the potential to provide clues on the biological cycling of Ba at the Earth surface. In seawater, Ba isotopic variations have been mapped out, and are mainly related to barite precipitation, which is in turn related to organic matter remineralization in the water column. This makes Ba isotopes a potentially powerful tool to reconstruct past ocean productivity, although constraints are still lacking regarding the inputs of dissolved Ba to the oceans by rivers or hydrothermalism.

    更新日期:2018-02-02
  • Ordered mesoporous NiFe2O4 with ultrathin framework for low-ppb toluene sensing
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Xiaoyong Lai, Kun Cao, Guoxin Shen, Ping Xue, Dan Wang, Fang Hu, Jianli Zhang, Qingfeng Yang, Xiaozhong Wang
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • How heteroatoms (Ge, N, P) improve the electrocatalytic performance of graphene: theory and experiment
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Guojing Chang, Jun Ren, Xilin She, Kewei Wang, Sridhar Komarneni, Dongjiang Yang
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Porous carbon supported atomic iron as electrocatalysts for acidic oxygen reduction reaction
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Peiwen Yu, Renjie Chen, Qiao Zhang, Sihui Liang, Mei Ni, Wen Yang
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Fabrication and luminescence of KGdF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoplates and their improving performance for polymer solar cells
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Jiqing Jiao, Yao Li, Wenfei Shen, Shasha Gai, Jianguo Tang, Yao Wang, Linjun Huang, Jixian Liu, Wei Wang, Laurence A. Belfiore
    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Few-layer Tellurium: one-dimensional-like layered elementary semiconductor with striking physical properties
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Jingsi Qiao, Yuhao Pan, Feng Yang, Cong Wang, Yang Chai, Wei Ji
    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Observations of the step-like accelerating processes of cold ions in the reconnection layer at the dayside magnetopause
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Qing-He Zhang, Michael Lockwood, John C. Foster, Qiu-Gang Zong, Malcolm W. Dunlop, Shun-Rong Zhang, Jøran Moen, Bei-Chen Zhang

    Cold ions of plasmaspheric origin have been observed to abundantly appear in the magnetospheric side of the Earth’s magnetopause. These cold ions could affect the magnetic reconnection processes at the magnetopause by changing the Alfvén velocity and the reconnection rate, while they could also be heated in the reconnection layer during the ongoing reconnections. We report in situ observations from a partially crossing of a reconnection layer near the subsolar magnetopause. During this crossing, step-like accelerating processes of the cold ions were clearly observed, suggesting that the inflow cold ions may be separately accelerated by the rotation discontinuity and slow shock inside the reconnection layer.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Molecular mechanism of temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation in Chinese alligator revealed by developmental transcriptome profiling
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Jian-Qing Lin, Qi Zhou, Hai-Qiong Yang, Li-Ming Fang, Ke-Yi Tang, Li Sun, Qiu-Hong Wan, Sheng-Guo Fang
    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Generation and application of replication-competent Venus-expressing H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 influenza A viruses
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Guangwen Wang, Jie Zhang, Fandi Kong, Qibing Li, Jinliang Wang, Shujie Ma, Yuhui Zhao, Libin Liang, Junping Li, Nan Sun, Lizheng Guan, Yuan Zhou, Chenchen Zhou, Shanyu Huang, Zhigao Bu, Li Jiang, Hualan Chen, Chengjun Li

    The generation and application of replication-competent influenza A virus (IAV) expressing a reporter gene represent a valuable tool to elucidate the mechanism of viral pathogenesis and establish new countermeasures to combat the threat of influenza. Here, replication-competent IAVs with a neuraminidase (NA) segment harboring a fluorescent reporter protein, Venus, were generated in the background of H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 influenza viruses, the three subtypes of viruses with imminent pandemic potential. All three reporter viruses maintained virion morphology, replicated with similar or slightly reduced titers relative to their parental viruses, and stably expressed the fluorescent signal for at least two passages in embryonated chicken eggs. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that these reporter viruses, used in combination with a high-content imaging system, can serve as a convenient and rapid tool for the screening of antivirals and host factors involved in the virus life cycle. Moreover, the reporter viruses demonstrated similar growth properties and tissue tropism as their parental viruses in mice, among which the H7N9 NA-Venus virus could potentially be used in ex vivo studies to better understand H7N9 pathogenesis or to develop novel therapeutics.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • An all-silicon laser based on silicon nanocrystals with high optical gains
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Dong-Chen Wang, Chi Zhang, Pan Zeng, Wen-Jie Zhou, Lei Ma, Hao-Tian Wang, Zhi-Quan Zhou, Fei Hu, Shu-Yu Zhang, Ming Lu, Xiang Wu
    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped hollow carbon nanofiber anode obtained from polypyrrole with enhanced electrochemical performance for Na-ion batteries
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-30
    Zhigao Luo, Sainan Liu, Yangshen Cai, Shi Li, Anqiang Pan, Shuquan Liang
    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Electrochemical hydrogenation of mixed-phase TiO2 nanotube arrays enables remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-24
    Jiaqin Liu, Mengjia Dai, Jian Wu, Ying Hu, Qi Zhang, Jiewu Cui, Yan Wang, Hark Hoe Tan, Yucheng Wu
    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Symmetry in optics and photonics: a group theory approach
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-23
    B.M. Rodríguez-Lara, Ramy El-Ganainy, Julio Guerrero

    Group theory (GT) provides a rigorous framework for studying symmetries in various disciplines in physics ranging from quantum field theories and the standard model to fluid mechanics and chaos theory. To date, the application of such a powerful tool in optical physics remains limited. Over the past few years however, several quantum-inspired symmetry principles (such as parity-time invariance and supersymmetry) have been introduced in optics and photonics for the first time. Despite the intense activities in these new research directions, only few works utilized the power of group theory. Motivated by this status quo, here we present a brief overview of the application of GT in optics,deliberately choosing examples that illustrate the power of this tool in both continuous and discrete setups. We hope that this review will stimulate further research that exploits the full potential of GT for investigating various symmetry paradigms in optics, eventually leading to new photonic devices.

    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • NMRCloudQ: a quantum cloud experience on a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-23
    Tao Xin, Shilin Huang, Sirui Lu, Keren Li, Zhihuang Luo, Zhangqi Yin, Jun Li, Dawei Lu, Guilu Long, Bei Zeng
    更新日期:2017-12-27
  • Additional risk in extreme precipitation in China from 1.5°C to 2.0°C global warming levels
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-21
    Wei Li, Zhihong Jiang, Xuebin Zhang, Laurent Li, Ying Sun

    To avoid dangerous climate change impact, the Paris Agreement sets out two ambitious goals: to limit the global warming to be well below 2°C and to pursue effort for the global warming to be below 1.5°C above the pre-industrial level. As climate change risks may be region-dependent, changes in magnitude and probability of extreme precipitation over China are investigated under those two global warming levels based on simulations from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Projects Phase 5 (CMIP5). The focus is on the added changes due to the additional half a degree warming from 1.5°C to 2°C. Results show that regional average changes in the magnitude do not depend on the return periods with a relative increase around 7% and 11% at the 1.5°C and 2°C global warming levels, respectively. The additional half a degree global warming adds an additional increase in the magnitude by nearly 4%. The regional average changes in term of occurrence probabilities show dependence on the return periods, with rarer events (longer return periods) having larger increase of risk. For the 100-year historical event, the probability is projected to increase by a factor of 1.6 and 2.4 at the 1.5°C and 2°C global warming levels, respectively. The projected changes in extreme precipitation are independent of the RCP scenarios.

    更新日期:2017-12-22
  • LDHs derived nanoparticle-stacked metal nitride as interlayer for long-life lithium sulfur batteries
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Zhen Li, Zhaoling Ma, Yanyong Wang, Ru Chen, Zhenjun Wu, Shuangyin Wang
    更新日期:2017-12-21
  • Vectorial optical fields: recent advances and future prospects
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Jian Chen, Chenhao Wan, Qiwen Zhan

    Driven by their potential applications, vectorial optical fields with spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization within the cross section have drawn significant attention recently. This work intends to review some of the latest development of this rapidly growing field of optics and offer a general overview of the current status of this field in a few areas. Mathematical descriptions of generalized vectorial optical fields are provided along with several special examples. A time-reversal methodology for the creation of a wide variety of exotic optical focal fields with prescribed characteristics within the focal volume is presented. Recently developed methods for the generation of vectorial optical fields that utilize fiber lasers, digital lasers, vectorial optical field generator, metasurfaces or photoalignment liquid crystals are summarized. The interactions of these vectorial optical fields with various micro- and nano-structures are presented and the prospects of their potential applications are discussed. The connection of vectorial optical fields with higher dimensionality in quantum information is summarized.

    更新日期:2017-12-18
  • Perylenediimide chromophore as an efficient photothermal agent for cancer therapy
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Shaobo Zhang, Jianhao Li, Jie Wei, Meizhen Yin
    更新日期:2017-12-18
  • Intensive photocatalytic activity enhancement of Bi5O7I via coupling with band structure and content adjustable BiOBrxI1–x
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Xin Li, Tiedan Chen, Haili Lin, Jing Cao, Hongwei Huang, Shifu Chen
    更新日期:2017-12-18
  • In situ FT-IR investigation on the reaction mechanism of visible light photocatalytic NO oxidation with defective g-C3N4
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-16
    Hong Wang, Wenjie He, Xing'an Dong, Haiqiang Wang, Fan Dong
    更新日期:2017-12-18
  • Antibacterial applications of graphene oxides: structure-activity relationships, molecular initiating events and biosafety
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-15
    Huizhen Zheng, Ronglin Ma, Meng Gao, Xin Tian, Yong-Qiang Li, Lingwen Zeng, Ruibin Li
    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Novel MOF shell-derived surface modification of Li-rich layered oxide cathode for enhanced lithium storage
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-13
    Zhitong Xiao, Jiashen Meng, Qi Li, Xuanpeng Wang, Meng Huang, Ziang Liu, Chunhua Han, Liqiang Mai
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Protonation induced high-Tc phases in iron-based superconductors evidenced by NMR and magnetization measurements
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-10
    Yi Cui, Gehui Zhang, Haobo Li, Hai Lin, Xiyu Zhu, Hai-hu Wen, Guoqing Wang, Jinzhao Sun, Mingwei Ma, Yuan Li, Dongliang Gong, Tao Xie, Yanhong Gu, Shiliang Li, Huiqian Luo, Pu Yu, Weiqiang Yu
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Interface control for pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from nano-ZnO-based heterojunction devices
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-08
    Daotong You, Chunxiang Xu, Feifei Qin, Zhu Zhu, A. Gowri Manohari, Wei Xu, Jie Zhao, Wei Liu
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Hidden spin polarization in the 1T-phase layered transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Zr, Hf; X = S, Se, Te)
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Cai Cheng, Jia-Tao Sun, Xiang-Rong Chen, Sheng Meng
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • SRWD1, a novel target gene of DELLA and WRKY proteins, participates in the development and immune response of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-06
    Chuanmiao Xie, Ge Zhang, Yuman Zhang, Xiaoguang Song, Hongyan Guo, Xiaoying Chen, Rongxiang Fang

    SRWD1, a member of the WD40 protein subfamily, is induced by salt stress in rice and its homolog in barley can bind to GAMYB, implying that SRWD1 might be involved in plant defense against environmental stress and gibberellic acid (GA) signalings. In this study, we focused on the biological functions and regulation mechanisms of SRWD1 in rice. The results showed that SRWD1 expression was repressed by GA and induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Two WRKY-family transcription factors, OsWRKY45 and OsWRKY72, were found to regulate SRWD1 expression by directly binding to the W-box region in its promoter. Transient co-expression and yeast two-hybrid analyses showed that a DELLA protein strengthened the activation of OsWRKY45 and partly relieved the suppression of OsWRKY72 by binding to them. Interestingly, both SRWD1-overexpressing transgenic plants and SRWD1-knockout mutants showed dwarf phenotypes and resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • A simple and efficient criterion for ready screening of potential topological insulators
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Guohua Cao, Huijun Liu, Xing-Qiu Chen, Yan Sun, Jinghua Liang, Rui Yu, Zhenyu Zhang
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Electrochemical probing into the active sites of graphitic-layer encapsulated iron oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-24
    Lijie Zhong, Jens Oluf Jensen, Lars Nilausen Cleemann, Chao Pan, Qingfeng Li
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Direct site-specific treatment of skin cancer using doxorubicin-loaded nanofibrous membranes
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-24
    Mengyu Guo, Guoqiang Zhou, Zhu Liu, Jing Liu, Jinglong Tang, Yating Xiao, Wenshi Xu, Ying Liu, Chunying Chen
    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • An ubiquitin-like protein SDE2 negatively affects sucrose-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-21
    Ye Xie, Yulei Zhao, Huijuan Tan, Qin Chen, Jirong Huang

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by a conserved transcriptional MBW complex composed of MYB, bHLH and WD40 subunits. However, molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of these MBW subunits remain largely elusive. In this study, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant that displays a constitutive red color in aboveground tissues with retarded growth phenotypes. In the presence of sucrose, the mutant accumulates more than 3-fold anthocyanins of the wild type (WT), but cannot produce anthocyanins as WT in the absence of sucrose. Map-based cloning results demonstrated that the mutation occurs in the locus At4G01000, which encodes a conserved nuclear-localized ubiquitin-like (UBL) superfamily protein, silencing defective 2 (SDE2), in eukaryotes. SDE2 is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. In the sucrose-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, SDE2 expression was not responded to sucrose treatment at the early stage but was enhanced at the late stage. SDE2 mutations result in up-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Yeast-two hybrid analysis indicated that SDE2 has no direct interaction with the MYB transcription factor PAP1 and bHLH factor TT8, indicating that SDE2 is a indirect factor to affect anthocyanin accumulation. Taking together, our data suggest that SDE2 may play a role in finely coordinating anthocyanin biosynthesis with other biological processes.

    更新日期:2017-12-07
  • Anisotropic thermoelectric properties of layered compound SnSe2
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-21
    Peipei Xu, Tiezheng Fu, Jiazhan Xin, Yintu Liu, Pingjun Ying, Xinbing Zhao, Hongge Pan, Tiejun Zhu

    Similar to high performance SnSe thermoelectrics, SnSe2 is also a layered structured semiconductor. However, its anisotropic thermoelectric properties are less experimentally investigated. In this work, Cl-doped SnSe2 bulk materials are successfully prepared, and their thermal stability and anisotropic transport properties are systematically studied. Unexpectedly, different from the theoretical prediction and other typical layered thermoelectric compounds like Bi2Te3, the out-of-plane zTc value is higher than in-plane zTa for the same composition. The zT value is significantly enhanced by Cl doping. A maximum zTc of ∼0.4 at 673 K is achieved in SnSe1.88Cl0.12, twice higher than previously reported Cl-doped SnSe2 synthesized by the solvothermal method.

    更新日期:2017-12-07
  • One-pot synthesis of arginine modified hydroxyapatite carbon microsphere composites for efficient removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Dongxu Yang, Xiangxue Wang, Gang Song, Guixia Zhao, Zhe Chen, Shujun Yu, Pengcheng Gu, Hongqing Wang, Xiangke Wang

    Uranium was not only the main source of nuclear energy but also one of the long-lived radionuclide. Herein, a novel arginine modified hydroxyapatite carbon microsphere composites (defined as C@HAp/Arg) obtained promptly via a one-step mild hydrothermal method, was applied to remove U(VI) from aqueous solutions. Based on the characterization of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the synthesized C@HAp/Arg presented globular morphology and abundant functional groups (e.g., COO−), which were beneficial to its combination with U(VI). The interaction mechanism and removal capability of U(VI) on C@HAp/Arg were studied by batch adsorption technique and spectroscopy analysis. The results implied that U(VI) can form strong surface complexes on C@HAp/Arg. The kinetics adsorption of U(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high removal efficiency (∼95% within 5 h at pH 5.0). The adsorption isotherms were well fitted by Langmuir model, implying that U(VI) uptake on C@HAp/Arg was monolayer coverage. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacities of CSs, C@HAp and C@HAp/Arg toward U(VI) were calculated to be 23.16, 72.09 and 569.66 mg/g, respectively, at 298.15 K and pH 5.0, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption processes of U(VI) were spontaneous and endothermic. In addition, effect of co-existed ions and CO32− concentrations demonstrated that U(VI) adsorption on C@HAp/Arg was weakly interfered by foreign ions and carbonate concentrations. More importantly, the adsorption performance of U(VI) on C@HAp/Arg was still over ∼87% after five cycles. Therefore, it was noted that the versatile C@HAp/Arg could be potentially used as a powerful building block for the enrichment and disposal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions, which could efficiently reduce the potential toxicity of U(VI) in the U(VI)-contaminated water.

    更新日期:2017-12-07
  • Achieving highly uniform two-dimensional PbI2 flakes for photodetectors via space confined physical vapor deposition
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Yaguang Wang, Lin Gan, Junnian Chen, Rui Yang, Tianyou Zhai

    Two-dimensional (2D) PbI2 flakes have been attracting intensive attention as one potential candidate for the modern optoelectronics. However, suffered from the instability of kinetics-driven growth, the fabricated 2D PbI2 flakes have a wide dimensional distribution even under the same conditions. Herein, a novel facile space confined physical vapor deposition (PVD) process is provided to synthesize uniform triangle PbI2 flakes with high quality. The confined space provides a relatively stable growth environment that renders more control on the growth kinetics, leading to highly uniform triangle PbI2 flakes with the average size of 5 µm and thickness of 17 nm. Moreover, as-fabricated PbI2-based photodetectors show promising stable and flexible optoelectronic performances to 470 nm light, including high responsivity (0.72 A W−1), large on/off ratio up to 900, fast photoresponse speed (rise time of 13.5 ms and decay time of 20 ms) and high detectivity (1.04 × 1010 Jones). The well-controllable growth of the uniform triangle PbI2 flakes and the detailed exploration of their optoelectronic properties are particularly valuable for their further practical applications.

    更新日期:2017-12-07
  • A peptide-based near-infrared fluorescence probe for dynamic monitoring senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Chen-Wei Wang, Dou-Dou Nan, Xin-Meng Wang, Zun-Ji Ke, Guo-Jun Chen, Jiang-Ning Zhou

    In vivo monitoring neuropathological changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal model is critical for drug development. Here, by integrating blood-brain barrier penetrable peptide, we have developed a peptide probe which based on angiopep-2. Angiopep-based probe exhibited high binding affinity to Aβ aggregates and labeled senile plaques in vivo. Remarkably, the in vivo near-infrared imaging data revealed that fluorescence signals of this probe were nearly 3-fold higher in the brains of 16-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice compared to C57 mice and exhibited linear correlation with the senile plaques load process in 4-, 8-, 16-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, senile plaques load was detected in vivo as early as 4 months of age that even at the very beginning of plaques developed in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Taken together, this novel peptide-based probe achieved dynamic monitoring senile plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice and have been ready to use in drug development in AD mouse model.

    更新日期:2017-12-07
  • Ablation of Venusian oxygen ions by unshocked solar wind
    Sci. Bull. (IF 4) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Yong Wei, Markus Fraenz, Edward Dubinin, Weixing Wan, Tielong Zhang, Zhaojin Rong, Lihui Chai, Jun Zhong, Rixiang Zhu, Yoshifumi Futaana, Stas Barabash

    As an Earth-like planet Venus probably had a primordial dipole field for several million years after formation of the planet. Since this dipole field eventually vanished the ionosphere of Venus has been exposed to the solar wind. The solar wind is shocked near Venus, and then scavenges the ionospheric particles through the magnetosheath and the magnetotail. The escape rate of oxygen ions (O+) estimated from spacecraft observations over the past several decades has manifested its importance for the evolution of planetary habitability, considering the accumulated effect over the history of Venus. However, all the previous observations were made in the shocked solar wind and/or inside the wake, though some simulations showed that unshocked solar wind can also ablate O+ ions. Here we report Venus Express observations of O+ ions in the unshocked solar wind during the solar minimum. The observations suggest that these O+ ions are accelerated by the unshocked solar wind through pickup processes. The estimated O+ escape rate, 2.1 × 1024 ions/s, is comparable to those measured in the shocked solar wind and the wake. This escape rate could result in about 2 cm global water loss over 4.5 billion years. Our results suggest that the atmospheric loss at unmagnetized planets is significantly underestimated by previous observations, and thus we can emphasize the importance of an Earth-like dipole for planetary habitability.

    更新日期:2017-12-07
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
化学 • 材料 期刊列表
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【问答】超薄二维非层状晶体材料在能量存储与转换中有哪些应用?