Anxious brain networks: a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity studies in anxiety Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-17 Jie Xu, Nicholas T. Van Dam, Chunliang Feng, Yuejia Luo, Hui Ai, Ruolei Gu, Pengfei Xu
Anxiety and anxiety disorders are associated with specific alterations to functional brain networks, including intra-networks and inter-networks. Given the heterogeneity within anxiety disorders and inconsistencies in functional network differences across studies, identifying common patterns of altered brain networks in anxiety is imperative. Here, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity studies in anxiety and anxiety disorders (including 835 individuals with different levels of anxiety or anxiety disorders and 508 controls). Results show that anxiety can be characterized by hypo-connectivity of the affective network with executive control network (ECN) and default mode network (DMN), as well as decoupling of the ECN with the DMN. The connectivity within the salience network and its connectivity with sensorimotor network are also attenuated. These results reveal consistent dysregulations of affective and cognitive control related networks over networks related to emotion processing in anxiety and anxiety disorders. The current findings provide an empirical foundation for an integrated model of brain network alterations that are common across anxiety and anxiety disorders.
Neuroimaging of chronic MDMA (“ecstasy”) effects: A meta-analysis of the literature Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-12 Felix Müller, Raphael Brändle, Matthias E. Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the evidence from neuroimaging studies for chronic alterations in the brains of MDMA users. The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published from inception to August 24, 2018, without any language restriction. Sixteen independent studies comprising 356 MDMA users and 311 controls were included. Of these, five studies investigated frontal and occipital N-acetylaspartate/creatine and myo-inositol/creatine ratios, three studies assessed basal ganglia blood flow and ten studies investigated serotonin transporter (SERT) density in various regions. We found significantly decreased SERT density in eight of 13 investigated regions. Meta-regression indicated a positive association with abstinence, but none with lifetime episodes of use. Therefore, other variables (such as doses taken per occasion) might be more important determinants. Positive associations between time of abstinence and SERT density might indicate that these alterations are reversible to some extent. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between user and control groups in terms of neurochemical ratios in the frontal and occipital lobes and blood flow in the basal ganglia. Overall, MDMA user groups showed heavy use patterns and study quality was poor.
Attachment style: the neurobiological substrate, interaction with genetics and role in neurodevelopmental disorders risk pathways Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-06 Linda A. Antonucci, Paolo Taurisano, Gabrielle Coppola, Rosalinda Cassibba
Literature has suggested that attachment insecurity has been previously associated with subsequent onset of several psychiatric conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Nevertheless, only few studies have investigated the neurobiological basis of attachment style and whether attachment insecurity may share a common neurobiological substrate with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this narrative contribution, we aimed to review existing literature on functional neurobiological correlates of attachment style to further understand (1) specific neurobiological patterns associated with attachment security variation, and (2) whether it is possible to identify a neurobiological overlap between attachment insecurity-related and neurodevelopmental disorders-related anomalies. Given the complex etiology of these diseases, we will also review gene by environment studies to investigate how attachment insecurity interacts with genetic factors in determining this common neurobiological substrate. We believe that a better understanding of how early attachment experiences may play a role in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is critical to plan effective clinical interventions to reduce both the likelihood for poor parenting and the risk for the onset of psychiatric conditions.
Emotional control, reappraised Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-06 Saskia B.J. Koch, Rogier B. Mars, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
We are frequently challenged with situations requiring the control of our emotions, often under substantial time-pressure and rapidly changing contextual demands. Coping with those demands requires the ability to flexibly and rapidly switch between different emotional control strategies. However, this ability has been largely neglected by current neurocognitive models on emotional control. Drawing on the decision-making literature, we propose that rapid switching between alternative emotional control strategies requires the concurrent evaluation of unchosen (counterfactual) options. This model explains how an individual can adaptively change emotional control behavior to meet contextual demands and shifting goals. We propose that the neural implementation of this emotional control mechanism relies on the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC/lateral frontal pole), given its known role in monitoring alternative options during cognitive decision-making tasks. We reappraise meta-analytic evidence showing consistent aPFC involvement during emotional control when monitoring of alternative emotional control strategies is required, and when alternative emotional actions have high value. We conclude with emphasizing the clinical and evolutionary implications of this new framework on emotional control.
Oral Anticoagulants and Risk of Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Pajaree Mongkhon, Abdallah Y. Naser, Laura Fanning, Gary Tse, Wallis C.Y. Lau, Ian C.K. Wong, Chuenjid Kongkaew
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a documented risk factor for dementia. However, it is unclear whether oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment can reduce the development of dementia or cognitive impairment. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between OAC use and subsequent dementia development in AF patients by searching databases from their inception to February 2018 without language restriction. Six studies (one randomized controlled trial and five observational studies) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled adjusted risk ratios (RRs) suggested a protective effect of OAC use in reducing dementia risk (RR 0.79 [95% CI: 0.67 – 0.93], I2 = 59.7%; P = 0.005). Further, high percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR) was associated with a decreased risk of dementia (RR 0.38 [95% CI 0.22-0.64], I2 = 81.8%; P < 0.001). Our results support the hypothesis that AF-related dementia may be due to silent brain infarcts and micro-embolism that could be prevented by OAC use. Future studies with prospective follow-up with direct comparison of vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants are needed.
Motor output, neural states and auditory perception Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Daniel Reznik, Roy Mukamel
Behavior is a complex product of interactions between sensory influx arising from the environment and the neural state of the organism. Therefore, identical sensory input can elicit different behavioral responses in different contexts. Research in recent years has demonstrated that perception is modulated when an organism is engaged in active behavior – suggesting that neural activity in motor pathways is one factor governing the neural state of networks engaged in sensory processing. In the current manuscript, we focus on the auditory modality and propose a mechanism by which activity in motor cortex changes the neural state in auditory cortex through global inhibition. In turn, such global inhibition reduces auditory net population activity, sharpens auditory frequency tuning curves, shifts the auditory oscillatory state and increases the signal-to-noise ratio of auditory evoked neural activity. These changes can result in either attenuated or enhanced behavioral responses depending on the environmental context. We base our model on animal and human literature and suggest that these motor-induced shifts in sensory states, may explain reported phenomena and apparent discrepancies in the literature of motor-sensory interactions, such as sensory attenuation or sensory enhancement.
Review of interventions for the management of anxiety symptoms in children with ASD Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 Christine K. Syriopoulou Delli, Stavroula A. Polychronopoulou, Gerasimos A. Kolaitis, Alexandros -Stamatios G. Antoniou
Background Anxiety isa common accompanying symptom in people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Objectives To investigate interventions available for the management of anxietyin children with ASD internationally. Methods Review was made of relevant studies found through PubMed, the National Institute of Health (NIH) publications and resources in the libraries of the University of Macedoniaand the Greek NationalResearch Foundation. Results Of the372 studiesretrieveddealing withinterventionsfor children with ASD who have anxiety disorders published from the 1980s to 2017, 137 were included in this review.Interventions includepharmacological intervention, cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT),socialrecreational (SR)programs,other psychosocial therapies, teaching social skillsand combinations of educational, psychological and medical treatment. Conclusions Various methods for coping with anxiety in children with ASD have been applied,including pharmacotherapy, psychosocial andCBT interventions, parent education and school-based programs. A combination of approachesshould be selected,based onassessment of each child's particular characteristics.
Fatigue and its management in the workplace Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-02 John A. Caldwell, J. Lynn Caldwell, Lauren A. Thompson, Harris R. Lieberman
Fatigue, or workplace sleepiness, is a consequence of modern industrial society. It is a complex biological phenomenon that occurs as a function of time awake, time-of-day, workload, health, and off-duty lifestyle. Fatigue is a function of two major biological factors – the homeostatic drive for sleep and circadian rhythm of sleepiness. The greatest cause of fatigue is insufficient or disrupted sleep. Excessive sleepiness in the workplace and on highways is a serious safety hazard, and insufficient or disrupted sleep results in numerous accidents and adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Evidence-based strategies that promote better sleep and optimize work/rest schedules can mitigate the impact of fatigue and sleep loss. Proper nap and sleep scheduling, work breaks, modeling and monitoring tools, fatigue detection technologies, and pharmacological countermeasures can be implemented at home and/or in the workplace to reduce performance and safety hazards. Education about obtaining adequate sleep, the dangers of fatigue in terms of both health and cognitive consequences, and the availability of scientifically-proven sleep-enhancement and alertness-management strategies is essential.
Regular cannabis use is associated with altered activation of central executive and default mode networks even after prolonged abstinence in adolescent users: results from a complementary meta-analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-03 Grace Blest-Hopley, Vincent Giampietro, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Whether the effects of cannabis use on brain function persist or recover following abstinence remains unclear. Therefore, using meta-analytic techniques, we examined whether functional alterations measured using fMRI persist in cannabis users abstinent for over 25 days (or 600 hours) as evidence suggests that the effects on cognitive performance no longer persist beyond this period. Systematic literature search identified 20 studies, of which, 12 examined current cannabis users (CCU) (361 CCU versus 394 non-cannabis using controls (NU)) and 3 examined abstinent cannabis users (ACU) in 5 separate comparisons (98 ACU versus 106 NU). Studies in ACU were carried out in adolescents and suggest significantly greater activation in components of the central executive and default mode networks in adolescent ACU compared to NU. While this evidence is to be interpreted with caution because studies were carried out in overlapping samples, they indicate a pressing need for independent confirmation whether certain neurofunctional alterations in adolescent cannabis users may persist even after cannabis and its metabolites are likely to have left their bodies.
Nutritional Interventions and Cognitive-related Outcomes in Patients with Late-life Cognitive Disorders: A Systematic Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-03 Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Pasquale Agosti, Madia Lozupone, Carlo Custodero, Andrea Schilardi, Vincenzo Valiani, Andrea Santamato, Rodolfo Sardone, Vittorio Dibello, Luca Di Lena, Roberta Stallone, Maurizio Ranieri, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Antonio Daniele, Davide Seripa, Carlo Sabbà, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
There have been a large number of observational studies on the impact of nutrition on neuroprotection, however, there was a lack of evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). In the present systematic review, from the 32 included RCTs published in the last four years (2014–2017) in patients aged 60 years and older with different late-life cognitive disorders, nutritional intervention through medical food/nutraceutical supplementation and multidomain approach improved magnetic resonance imaging findings and other cognitive-related biomarkers, but without clear effect on cognition in mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Antioxidant-rich foods (nuts, grapes, cherries) and fatty acid supplementation, mainly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), improved specific cognitive domains and cognitive-related outcomes in MCI, mild-to-moderate dementia, and AD. Antioxidant vitamin and trace element supplementations improved only cognitive-related outcomes and biomarkers, high-dose B vitamin supplementation in AD and MCI patients improved cognitive outcomes in the subjects with a high baseline plasma n-3 PUFA, while folic acid supplementation had positive impact on specific cognitive domains in those with high homocysteine.
Relating constructs of attention and working memory to social withdrawal in Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia: issues regarding paradigm selection Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-03 Gary Gilmour, Stefano Porcelli, Valérie Bertaina-Anglade, Estibaliz Arce, Juergen Dukart, Anja Hayen, Antonio Lobo, Raul Lopez Anton, Emilio Merlo Pich, Darrel J. Pemberton, Martha N. Havenith, Jeffrey Glennon, Brian Harel, Gerard Dawson, Hugh Marston, Rouba Kozak, Alessandro Serretti
Central nervous system diseases are not currently diagnosed based on knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying their symptoms. Greater understanding may be offered through an agnostic approach to traditional disease categories, where learning more about shared biological mechanisms across conditions could potentially reclassify sub-groups of patients to allow realisation of more effective treatments. This review represents the output of the collaborative group “PRISM”, tasked with considering assay choices for assessment of attention and working memory in a transdiagnostic cohort of Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia patients exhibiting symptomatic spectra of social withdrawal. A multidimensional analysis of this nature has not been previously attempted. Nominated assays (continuous performance test III, attention network test, digit symbol substitution, N-back, complex span, spatial navigation in a virtual environment) reflected a necessary compromise between the need for broad assessment of the neuropsychological constructs in question with several pragmatic criteria: patient burden, compatibility with neurophysiologic measures, availability of preclinical homologues.
Empathy is not in our genes Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-03 Cecilia Heyes
In academic and public life empathy is seen as a fundamental force of morality – a psychological phenomenon, rooted in biology, with profound effects in law, policy, and international relations. But the roots of empathy are not as firm as we like to think. The matching mechanism that distinguishes empathy from compassion, envy, schadenfreude, and sadism is a product of learning. Here I present a dual system model that distinguishes Empathy1, an automatic process that catches the feelings of others, from Empathy2, controlled processes that interpret those feelings. Research with animals, infants, adults and robots suggests that the mechanism of Empathy1, emotional contagion, is constructed in the course of development through social interaction. Learned Matching implies that empathy is both agile and fragile. It can be enhanced and redirected by novel experience, and broken by social change.
Aetiology of Eating Behaviours: a possible mechanism to understand obesity development in early childhood Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-11-01 Nikki Boswell, Rebecca Byrne, Peter S.W. Davies
Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern that is understood to emerge due to disequilibrium in energy homeostasis. This commentary explores literature regarding neuro-biological mechanisms of energy homeostasis and the relationship between subjective measures of children’s eating behaviours and objective measures of appetite, in order to better understand the aetiology of childhood obesity. Early life influences, such as in utero exposure, breastfeeding, and general disadvantage, appear to have an important influence on neuro-biological mechanisms of appetite and may contribute to inequitable distributions of obesity within the population. Subject measures of eating behaviours appear to capture various aspects of neuro-biologically driven (objective) appetite systems, however, these systems are complex, interdependent and not yet fully understood. Future research focusing attention on early life influences on appetite and eating behaviours is warranted to increase understanding of differences in rates of obesity within the population, to determine opportunities for targeted obesity prevention initiatives, and to explore the potential to measure change in eating behaviours as a marker of appetite and obesity risk.
Fear as a Translational Mechanism in the Psychopathology of Anorexia Nervosa Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-28 Stuart B. Murray, Michael Strober, Michelle G. Craske, Scott Griffiths, Cheri A. Levinson, Irina A. Strigo
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an often chronic and potentially lethal psychiatric disorder, for which the precise etiology remains elusive. While current treatment outcomes are modest at best, it is thought that the identification of translational mechanisms driving the psychopathology of AN will assist in the development and optimization of novel treatments. AN is a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance, hypervigilant scrutiny of one’s body, and an unnatural fear of weight gain. Moreover, a suite of anxious traits and regimentation of behavior are atypically common well in advance of the onset of restrictive eating in those with AN. Here we consider the promise of shedding light on causal mechanisms of AN by interrogating the role of fear-related learning, deficits in discriminating safety cues, and extinction of acquired fear. We offer a translational rationale for this line of inquiry, and discuss the clinical implications of considering fear as a translational mechanism in the psychopathology of AN.
Biological preparedness and resistance to extinction of skin conductance responses conditioned to fear relevant animal pictures: A systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-28 Fredrik Åhs, Jörgen Rosén, Granit Kastrati, Mats Fredrikson, Thomas Agren, Johan N. Lundström
Preparedness theory is one of the most influential ideas in explaining the origin of specific phobias. The theory proposes that fear conditioning is selective to animals that have posed a threat to survival throughout human evolution, and that acquired fear memories to such threats are resistant to extinction. We reviewed fear conditioning studies testing whether autonomic responses conditioned to pictures of snakes and spiders show greater resistance to extinction than neutral cues. We identified 32 fear conditioning experiments published in 23 studies including 1887 participants. Increased resistance to extinction of conditioned responses to snake and spider pictures was found in 10 (31%) of the experiments, whereas 22 (69%) experiments did not support the hypothesis. Thus, the body of evidence suggests that preparedness theory does not explain the origin of specific phobias.
A REVIEW OF psychiatric conceptions of mental and behavioural disorders in PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-28 Joyce Whittington, Anthony Holland
We present a review of psychiatric associations with comorbid mental and behavioural disorders affecting people with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). This literature review suggests that some assumptions about psychiatric associations of PWS behaviours are unjustified (eg skin picking as OCD) and that genetic aetiology should be considered when making associations between PWS mental and behavioural disorders and psychiatric disorders in the general populationThe literature review also demonstrates the limitations of the studies in terms of small numbers, non-representativeness, and lack of replication.
Carbachol-Induced Theta-Like Oscillations in the Rodent Brain Limbic System: Underlying Mechanisms and Significance Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-28 Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli
Theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) represent one of the most prominent physiological oscillatory activity in the mammalian EEG. They are observed in several areas of the hippocampus and in parahippocampal structures. Theta oscillations play important roles in modulating synaptic plasticity during memory and learning; moreover, they are dependent on septal cholinergic inputs. Theta oscillations can be reproduced in vitro in several regions of the temporal lobe in the absence of the septum by employing the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh). Here, we review the mechanisms underlying CCh-induced theta oscillations. We address: (i) the ability of temporal lobe neuronal networks to oscillate independently at theta frequency during CCh treatment; (ii) the contribution of intrinsic ionic currents; (iii) the participation of principal cells and interneurons; and (iv) their pharmacological profiles. We also discuss the similarities between CCh-induced theta oscillations and physiological type II theta activity, as well as their roles in synaptic plasticity. Finally, we consider experimental evidence pointing to the contribution of spontaneous and CCh-induced theta activity to epileptiform synchronization.
Neural mechanisms of emotion regulation and their role in endocrine and immune functioning: A review with implications for treatment of affective disorders Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-29 Richard B. Lopez, Bryan T. Denny, Christopher P. Fagundes
In the past century, medical progress has helped increase life expectancy and improve health outcomes more generally. Despite this progress, psychiatric disorders—especially affective disorders including depressive and anxiety disorders—are quite common and have been linked to dysfunction in endocrine and immune systems. In this review, we discuss neurobiological correlates of emotion regulation strategies and their effects on mental and physical health. Some of these correlates, namely sub-regions of prefrontal cortex, also play a key regulatory role in autonomic, endocrine, and immunological processes. Given this functional overlap, we propose a novel neuro-immuno-affective framework that targets improving emotion regulation, in order to: (1) reduce negative affect associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders; and (2) alter endocrine and immune system functioning (e.g., reduce inflammation)—via changes in activity within (and connectivity between) brain systems that support (successful) emotion regulation. We conclude by arguing that such a framework can be adapted for psychiatric treatment protocols that holistically incorporate neural and immunological biomarkers to promote mental and physical health.
Estrogenic Regulation of Social Behavior and Sexually Dimorphic Brain Formation Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-27 Sonoko Ogawa, Shinji Tsukahara, Elena Choleris, Nandini Vasudevan
It has long been known that the estrogen, 17β-estradiol (17β-E), plays a central role for female reproductive physiology and behavior. Numerous studies have established the neurochemical and molecular basis of estrogenic induction of female sexual behavior, i.e., lordosis, in animal models. In addition, 17β-E also regulates male-type sexual and aggressive behavior. In males, testosterone secreted from the testes is irreversibly aromatized to 17β-E in the brain. We discuss the contribution of two nuclear receptor isoforms, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ to the estrogenic regulation of sexually dimorphic brain formation and sex-typical expression of these social behaviors. Furthermore, 17β-E is a key player for social behaviors such as social investigation, preference, recognition and memory as well as anxiety-related behaviors in social contexts. Recent studies also demonstrated that not only nuclear receptor-mediated genomic signaling but also membrane receptor-mediated non-genomic actions of 17β-E may underlie the regulation of these behaviors. Finally, we will discuss how rapidly developing research tools and ideas allow us to investigate estrogenic action by emphasizing behavioral neural networks.
Neuroergonomics of car driving: A critical meta-analysis of neuroimaging data on the human brain behind the wheel Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-25 Jordan Navarro, François Osiurak, Emanuelle Reynaud
Car driving, an everyday life activity, has been under the scope of investigation for long. Neurosciences and psychology have contributed to better understand the human processes engaged while driving, to such an extent that a meta-analysis of all available fMRI data is now possible to extract the most relevant information. Using the Activation Likelihood Estimation method, we therefore conducted such a meta-analysis on 9 studies, representing 27 neuroimaging contrasts and 131 participants. We identified a network composed of brain areas underlying the cognitive abilities required for driving: sensorimotor coordination, sensory and attentional processing, high-level cognitive control and allocation of attentional resources. We complemented this meta-analysis with a neuroergonomics approach combining driving control knowledge, distinguishing the strategical, tactical and operational levels, with neuroscientific knowledge and models on cognitive control operated by the prefrontal cortex. The results exposed the distinct neural circuits engaged behind the wheel depending on the task performed. Based on the combination of neuroscientific and ergonomic knowledge, a hybrid car driving framework is also proposed.
Overlaps and distinctions between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in young adulthood: Systematic review and guiding framework for EEG research Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-24 Alex Lau-Zhu, Anne Fritz, Gráinne McLoughlin
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently co-occur. However, we know little about the neural basis of the overlaps and distinctions between these disorders, particularly in young adulthood – a critical time window for brain plasticity across executive and socioemotional domains. Here, we systematically review 75 articles investigating ADHD and ASD in young adult samples (mean ages 16 to 26) using cognitive tasks, with neural activity concurrently measured via electroencephalography (EEG) – the most accessible neuroimaging technology. The majority of studies focused on event-related potentials (ERPs), with some beginning to capitalise on oscillatory approaches. Overlapping and specific profiles for ASD and ADHD were found mainly for four neurocognitive domains: attention processing, performance monitoring, face processing and sensory processing. No studies in this age group directly compared both disorders or considered dual diagnosis with both disorders. Moving forward, understanding of ADHD, ASD and their overlap in young adulthood would benefit from an increased focus on cross-disorder comparisons, using similar paradigms and in well-powered samples and longitudinal cohorts.
Cognitive training: a new avenue in gambling disorder management? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-22 Luquiens Amandine, Miranda Ruben, Benyamina Amine, Carré Arnaud, Aubin Henri-Jean
Introduction Cognitive deficits are being robustly documented in gambling disorder. Cognitive training has been increasingly investigated as a treatment of substance use disorders. Four training components have been listed to date: cognitive bias, response inhibition, working memory, and goal-directed. This review aimed at the identification of use and efficacy findings in cognitive training in gambling disorder. Methods We conducted a systematic search to identify use and efficacy data of cognitive training in gambling disorder. No use or efficacy data was available. Discussion and perspectives Studies assessing cognitive training in gambling disorder are being conducted and first results should be upcoming. Methodological challenges have been identified. Several candidate target cognitive functions of training programs are being investigated, relying on the most documented impairments in gambling disorder, inhibition, reward sensitivity and decision making. Gambling-specific or neutral environments are to be distinguished clearly and do not rely on similar assumptions, i.e. general vulnerability or vulnerability expressed only in the specific context of gambling. Proper control groups with placebo conditions should be implemented. Assessment of efficacy should include clinical and neuropsychological assessments to give information of underlying mechanisms of action.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system reactivity in children prenatally exposed to maternal depression: A systematic review of prospective studies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-23 Laura S. Bleker, Lotte van Dammen, Mariska M.G. Leeflang, Jacqueline Limpens, Tessa J. Roseboom, Susanne R. de Rooij
Depression is a common condition affecting up to 20% of all pregnant women, and is associated with subsequent developmental and behavioral problems in children, such as conduct disorder and ADHD. One proposed mechanism underlying these associations is modification of the fetal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), resulting in altered responses to stress. This review examined the evidence regarding altered HPA-axis and ANS reactivity in children prenatally exposed to high maternal depressive symptoms. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, for studies published till 25 July 2017. A total of 13 studies comprising 2271 mother-infant dyads were included. None of the studies were suitable for meta-analysis. Risk of bias assessment showed low risk for four studies. Only three studies described an independent association between exposure to high maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and altered stress reactivity in children. There is limited evidence of an independent association between prenatal exposure to maternal depression and altered HPA or ANS reactivity in children.
The hidden side of Parkinson’s disease: studying pain, anxiety and depression in animal models Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-23 Fanny Faivre, Anil Joshi, Erwan Bezard, Michel Barrot
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease leading to the loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. It is well known and characterized by motor symptoms that are secondary to the loss of dopamine innervation, but it is also accompanied by a range of various non-motor symptoms, including pain and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. These non-motor symptoms usually appear at early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the first motor symptoms, and have a dramatic impact on the quality of life of the patients. We review here the present state-of-the-art concerning pain, anxiety and depression-like parameters in animal models of Parkinson’s disease.
Motion adaptation and attention: A critical review and meta-analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-22 Laura Bartlett, Erich W. Graf, Nicholas Hedger, Wendy J. Adams
The motion aftereffect (MAE) provides a behavioural probe into the mechanisms underlying motion perception, and has been used to study the effects of attention on motion processing. Visual attention can enhance detection and discrimination of selected visual signals. However, the relationship between attention and motion processing remains contentious: not all studies find that attention increases MAEs. Our meta-analysis reveals several factors that explain superficially discrepant findings. Across studies (37 independent samples, 76 effects) motion adaptation was significantly and substantially enhanced by attention (Cohen’s d = 1.12, p < .0001). The effect more than doubled when adapting to translating (vs. expanding or rotating) motion. Other factors affecting the attention-MAE relationship included stimulus size, eccentricity and speed. By considering these behavioural analyses alongside neurophysiological work, we conclude that feature-based (rather than spatial, or object-based) attention is the biggest driver of sensory adaptation. Comparisons between naïve and non-naïve observers, different response paradigms, and assessment of ‘file-drawer effects’ indicate that neither response bias nor publication bias are likely to have significantly inflated the estimated effect of attention.
Facets of impulsivity and alcohol use: What role do emotions play? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-19 Aleksandra M. Herman, Theodora Duka
Using rodents to model abnormal sensitivity to feedback in depression Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-19 Rafal Rygula, Karolina Noworyta-Sokolowska, Robert Drozd, Anna Kozub
Depressive disorder accounts for a substantial proportion of psychiatric problems across the globe and has a devastating impact on quality of life and occupational function. Psychological models of depression emphasize the causal role of cognitive distortions in this disease, and cognitive problems have been included in the diagnostic criteria for depressive episodes. Here, we focus on recent progress in preclinical modelling of aberrations in one of the most important neurocognitive mechanisms involved in the manifestation of depression – abnormal sensitivity to positive and negative feedback. First, we summarize the recent advances in understanding neurocognitive mechanisms of aberrant feedback sensitivity in depression and underlying neurobiological substrates. Second, by combining behavioural, neurochemical, neuroanatomical and pharmacological approaches, we evaluate the translational value of the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) task, a behavioural paradigm that enables investigation of correlates of feedback sensitivity in humans and animals. Finally, we identify and discuss directions for future investigation, including cognitive biomarkers of depression and resilience to stress based on feedback sensitivity and personalized treatment targets.
Role of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in neuroadaptations induced by drugs of abuse, with a focus on opioids and psychostimulants Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Nicolas Marie, Corinne Canestrelli, Florence Noble
The purpose of this review is to illustrate the importance of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors in the complexity of the behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur following chronic treatments with drugs of abuse, with a focus on opioids and psychostimulants. As these neuroadaptations are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and persistence of addiction, it is important to well understand how they can be modulated. The experimental results clearly show that changes observed are depending on the binding properties of the ligands, drug administration patterns, brain structures considered, and withdrawal periods. Thus, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors play a key role, and may highly contribute to the great heterogeneity of the results reported in the literature regarding neuroadaptations observed following repeated treatments with drugs of abuse, each investigator using different protocols and/or different ligands, even if their targets/receptors are the same.
A large-scale integrative analysis of GWAS and common meQTLs across whole life course identifies genes, pathways and tissue/cell types for three major psychiatric disorders Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Yan Zhao, Xiao Liang, Feng Zhu, Yan Wen, Jiawen Xu, Jian Yang, Miao Ding, Bolun Cheng, Mei Ma, Lu Zhang, Shiqiang Cheng, Cuiyan Wu, Sen Wang, Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo, Feng Zhang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are complex psychiatric disorders. We conducted a large-scale integrative analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and life course consistent methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) datasets. The GWAS data of ADHD (including 20,183 cases and 35,191 controls), BP (including 7,481 cases and 9,250 controls) and SCZ (including 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls) were derived from published GWAS. Life course consistent meQTLs dataset was obtained from a longitudinal meQTLs analysis of 1,018 mother–child pairs. Gene prioritization, pathway and tissue/cell type enrichment analysis were conducted by DEPICT. We identified multiple genes and pathways with common or disease specific effects, such as NISCH (P = 9.87 × 10-3 for BP and 2.49 × 10-6 for SCZ), ST3GAL3 (P = 1.19 × 10-2 for ADHD), and KEGG_MAPK_SIGNALING_PATHWAY (P = 1.56 × 10-3 for ADHD, P = 4.71 × 10-2 for BP, P = 4.60 × 10-4 for SCZ). Our study provides novel clues for understanding the genetic mechanism of ADHD, BP and SCZ.
Hugs and kisses – the role of motor preferences and emotional lateralization for hemispheric asymmetries in human social touch Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-16 Sebastian Ocklenburg, Julian Packheiser, Judith Schmitz, Noemi Rook, Onur Güntürkün, Jutta Peterburs, Gina M Grimshaw
Social touch is an important aspect of human social interaction - across all cultures, humans engage in kissing, cradling and embracing. These behaviors are necessarily asymmetric, but the factors that determine their lateralization are not well-understood. Because the hands are often involved in social touch, motor preferences may give rise to asymmetric behavior. However, social touch often occurs in emotional contexts, suggesting that biases might be modulated by asymmetries in emotional processing. Social touch may therefore provide unique insights into lateralized brain networks that link emotion and action. Here, we review the literature on lateralization of cradling, kissing and embracing with respect to motor and emotive bias theories. Lateral biases in all three forms of social touch are influenced, but not fully determined by handedness. Thus, motor bias theory partly explains side biases in social touch. However, emotional context also affects side biases, most strongly for embracing. Taken together, literature analysis reveals that side biases in social touch are most likely determined by a combination of motor and emotive biases.
Cortisol and alpha-amylase assessment in psychotherapeutic intervention studies: A systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Sebastian Laufer, Sinha Engel, Christine Knaevelsrud, Sarah Schumacher
Dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) as parts of the stress response system have been associated with development and maintenance of various mental disorders. It has been suggested that these alterations might normalize in the course of psychotherapy. We conducted a comprehensive review of psychotherapeutic intervention effects on HPA axis and ANS regulation in adult samples with mental disorders. We searched four databases for psychotherapeutic intervention studies with mentally ill patient samples, assessing cortisol and/or α-amylase before and after treatment. Study quality and confounder consideration within biomarker assessment were examined. Twenty-five studies were included. Psychotherapeutic interventions and biomarker assessment methodology varied substantially between studies. Accordingly, meta-analytical computations were deemed unfeasible. Study characteristics especially regarding cortisol and α-amylase assessment and analysis procedures were comprehensively reviewed. Study quality and biomarker confounder consideration ratings were mostly moderate to strong. Based on the results, we provide recommendations regarding intervention design and biomarker assessment methodology to increase comparability of psychotherapeutic treatment effects in future studies.
Neural substrates of Internally-Based and Externally-Cued Timing: an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of fMRI studies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-11 Alice Teghil, Maddalena Boccia, Fabrizia D’Antonio, Antonella Di Vita, Carlo de Lena, Cecilia Guariglia
A dynamic interplay exists between Internally-Based (IBT) and Externally-Cued (ECT) time processing. While IBT processes support the self-generation of context-independent temporal representations, ECT mechanisms allow constructing temporal representations primarily derived from the structure of the sensory environment. We performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on 177 fMRI experiments, from 79 articles, to identify brain areas involved in timing; two individual ALEs tested the hypothesis of a neural segregation between IBT and ECT. The general ALE highlighted a network involving supplementary motor area (SMA), intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), insula (INS) and basal ganglia. We found evidence of a partial dissociation between IBT and ECT. IBT relies on a subset of areas also involved in ECT, however ECT tasks activate SMA, right IFG, left precentral gyrus and INS in a significantly stronger way. Present results suggest that ECT involves the detection of environmental temporal regularities and their integration with the output of the IBT processing, to generate a representation of time which reflects the temporal metric of the environment.
Disturbances of sleep quality, timing and structure and their relationship with other neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia: insights from studies in patient populations and animal models Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-09 Raphaelle Winsky-Sommerer, Paula de Oliveira, Sally Loomis, Keith Wafford, Derk-Jan Dijk, Gary Gilmour
The high prevalence of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions is often interpreted as evidence for both sleep’s sensitivity to and causal involvement in brain pathology. Nevertheless, how and which aspects of sleep contribute to brain function remains largely unknown. This review provides a critical evaluation of clinical and animal literature describing sleep and circadian disturbances in two distinct conditions and animal models thereof: Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. Its goal is to identify commonalities and distinctiveness of specific aspects of sleep disturbance and their relationship to symptoms across conditions. Despite limited standardisation, data imply that reductions in sleep continuity and alterations in sleep timing are common to AD and schizophrenia, whereas reductions in REM sleep and sleep spindle activity appear more specific to AD and schizophrenia, respectively. Putative mechanisms underlying these alterations are discussed. A standardised neuroscience based quantification of sleep and disease-independent assessment of symptoms in patients and animal models holds promise for furthering the understanding of mechanistic links between sleep and brain function (in health and disease).
Animal models in addiction research: A dimensional approach Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-08 Steven J. Lamontagne, Mary C. Olmstead
Drug addiction affects approximately 10% of the population and these numbers are rising. Treatment and prevention of addiction are impeded by current diagnostic systems, such as DSM-5, which are based on outcomes rather than processes. Here, we review the importance of adopting a dimensional framework, specifically the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), to identify protective and vulnerability mechanisms in addiction. We discuss how preclinical researchers should work within this framework to develop animal models based on domains of function. We highlight RDoC paradigms related to addiction and discuss how these can be used to investigate the biological underpinnings of an addiction cycle (i.e., binge/intoxication, negative affect, and craving). Using this information, we then outline the critical role of animal research in ongoing revisions to the RDoC matrix (specifically the functional significance of domains, constructs and subconstructs) and its contribution to the development and refinement of addiction theories. We conclude with an overview of the contribution that animal research has made to the development of pharmacological and behavioural treatments for addiction.
The aversive brain system of teleosts: Implications for neuroscience and biological psychiatry Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-06 Rhayra Xavier do Carmo Silva, Monica Gomes Lima-Maximino, Caio Maximino
Defensive behavior is a function of specific survival circuits, the “aversive brain system”, that are thought to be conserved across vertebrates, and involve threat detection and the organization of defensive responses to reduce or eliminate threat. In mammals, these circuits involve amygdalar and hypothalamic subnuclei and midbrain circuits. The increased interest in teleost fishes as model organisms in neuroscience created a demand to understand which brain circuits are involved in defensive behavior. Telencephalic and habenular circuits represent a “forebrain circuit” for threat processing and organization of responses, being important to mounting appropriate coping responses. Specific hypothalamic circuits organize neuroendocrine and neurovegetative outputs, but are the less well-studied in fish. A “midbrain circuit” is represented by projections to interneurons in the optic tectum which mediate fast escape responses via projections to the central gray and/or the brainstem escape network. Threatening stimuli (especially visual stimuli) can bypass the “high road” and directly activate this system, initiating escape responses. Increased attention to these circuits in an evolutionary framework is still needed.
The Effects of Exercise on Cognition and Gait in Parkinson’s disease: A Scoping Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-03 Brittany Intzandt, Eric N. Beck, Carolina R.A. Silveira
Cognitive and gait deficits are two debilitating symptoms that occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Importantly, a relationship between cognitive and gait deficits exists in PD, suggesting reliance on cognition is increased to compensate for gait deficits and/or deterioration of cognition and gait may share common mechanisms. Rehabilitation strategies targeting one factor could lead to the improvement of the other, presenting a unique opportunity to treat both simultaneously. Gold-standard pharmaceuticals partially alleviate these deficits with significant side effects, highlighting the importance of investigating adjunct therapies like exercise. We critically reviewed the influence of three exercise modalities (aerobic, resistance, and goal-based) on cognition and/or gait in PD. Most studies showed improvements in cognition or gait, yet, a limited number investigated them concurrently. This is the first review examining exercise for cognition and gait in PD. Key gaps in the literature are identified; potential exercise-driven mechanisms for enhancements in cognition and gait proposed, and suggestions for the design of future studies investigating the effects of exercise on cognition and gait in PD.
Audiovisual Multisensory Integration in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-10-01 Jacob I. Feldman, Kacie Dunham, Margaret Cassidy, Mark T. Wallace, Yupeng Liu, Tiffany G. Woynaroski
An ever-growing literature has aimed to determine how individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ from their typically developing (TD) peers on measures of multisensory integration (MSI) and to ascertain the degree to which differences in MSI are associated with the broad range of symptoms associated with ASD. Findings, however, have been highly variable across the studies carried out to date. The present work systematically reviews and quantitatively synthesizes the large literature on audiovisual MSI in individuals with ASD to evaluate the cumulative evidence for (a) group differences between individuals with ASD and TD peers, (b) correlations between MSI and autism symptoms in individuals with ASD and (c) study level factors that may moderate findings (i.e., explain differential effects) observed across studies. To identify eligible studies, a comprehensive search strategy was employed using the ProQuest search engine, PubMed database, forwards and backwards citation searches, direct author contact, and hand-searching of select conference proceedings. A significant between-group difference in MSI was evident in the literature, with individuals with ASD demonstrating worse audiovisual integration on average across studies compared to TD controls. This effect was moderated by mean participant age, such that between-group differences were more pronounced in younger samples. The mean correlation between MSI and autism and related symptomatology was also significant, indicating that increased audiovisual integration in individuals with ASD is associated with better language/communication abilities and/or reduced autism symptom severity in the extant literature. This effect was moderated by whether the stimuli were linguistic versus non-linguistic in nature, such that correlation magnitudes tended to be significantly greater when linguistic stimuli were utilized in the measure of MSI. Limitations and future directions for primary and meta-analytic research are discussed.
G protein-coupled receptor heteromers are key players in substance use disorder Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 Lyes Derouiche, Dominique Massotte
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCR) represent the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Physical association between two different GPCRs is linked to functional interactions which generates a novel entity, called heteromer, with specific ligand binding and signaling properties. Heteromerization is increasingly recognized to take place in the mesocorticolimbic pathway and to contribute to various aspects related to substance use disorder. This review focuses on heteromers identified in brain areas relevant to drug addiction. We report changes at the molecular and cellular levels that establish specific functional impact and highlight behavioral outcome in preclinical models. Finally, we briefly discuss selective targeting of native heteromers as an innovative therapeutic option.
Systematic review of co-occurring OCD and TD: evidence for a tic-related OCD subtype? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 Kloft Lisa, Steinel Theresa, Kathmann Norbert
Objective The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of associated features of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders (TD) and to critically evaluate hypotheses regarding the nature of their comorbidity. Method We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. To this aim, the PubMed, PsychInfo and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched up to August 30, 2018. For gender and age-of-onset we additionally conducted meta-analyses. Results One hundred eighty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. We substantiate some acknowledged features and report evidence for differential biological mechanisms and treatment response. In general, studies were of limited methodological quality. Conclusions Several specific features are reliable associated with co-occurring OCD + TD. The field lacks methodological sound studies. The review found evidence against and in favor for different hypotheses regarding the nature of comorbidity of OCD and TD. This could indicate the existence of a stepwise model of co-morbidity, or could be an artefact of the low methodological quality of studies.
Social Touch During Development: Long-Term Effects on Brain and Behavior Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 K.L. Bales, L.R. Witczak, T.C. Simmons, L.E. Savidge, E.S. Rothwell, F.D. Rogers, R.A. Manning, M.J. Heise, M. Englund, R. Arias del Razo
In this paper, our goal is to explore what is known about the role of social touch during development. We first address the neural substrates of social touch and the role of tactile experience in neural development. We discuss natural variation in early exposure to social touch, followed by a discussion on experimental manipulations of social touch during development and “natural experiments”, such as early institutionalization. We then consider the role of other developmental and experiential variables that predict social touch in adults. Throughout, we propose and consider new theoretical models of the role of social touch during development on later behavior and neurobiology.
Healthy play, better coping: The importance of play for the development of children in health and disease Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 Sanne L. Nijhof, Christiaan H. Vinkers, Stefan M. van Geelen, Sasja N. Duijff, E.J. Marijke Achterberg, Janjaap van der Net, Remco C. Veltkamp, Martha A. Grootenhuis, Elise M. van de Putte, Manon H.J. Hillegers, Anneke W. van der Brug, Corette J. Wierenga, Manon J.N.L. Benders, Rutger C.M.E. Engels, C. Kors van der Ent, Louk J.M.J. Vanderschuren, Heidi M.B. Lesscher
Meta-analyses of the neural mechanisms and predictors of response to psychotherapy in depression and anxiety Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-29 Lindsey Marwood, Toby Wise, Adam M. Perkins, Anthony J. Cleare
Neuromodulation for Substance Addiction in Human Subjects: A Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Ausaf Bari, Jasmine DeCisare, Diana Babayan, Mariama Runcie, Hiro Sparks, Bayard Wilson
Substance abuse is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems in the world today. Standard medical therapy is often not curative, and relapse is common. Research over the past several decades on the neural underpinnings of addiction has implicated a network of structures within the brain shown to be altered in patients with substance abuse. The field of neuromodulation aims to utilize this knowledge to treat dysfunctional circuits by targeting and modulating specific brain circuits. While invasive neuromodulation such as DBS and VNS have proven to be effective in treating movement disorders, OCD and epilepsy, there is increasing interest and data with regards to its potential application for the treatment of severe, intractable addiction. Several neuromodulatory techniques and brain targets are currently under investigation in patients with various substance abuse disorders. This review aims to summarize the current state of evidence for neurosurgical neuromodulation as a therapy for substance abuse and addiction, and to provide additional expert opinions as to the obstacles and future directions of this endeavor.
Insights from perceptual, sensory, and motor functioning in autism and cerebellar primary disturbances: Are there reliable markers for these disorders? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-27 Luca Casartelli, Marco Riva, Laura Villa, Renato Borgatti
The contribution of cerebellar circuitry alterations in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been widely investigated in the last decades. Yet, experimental studies on neurocognitive markers of ASD have not been attentively compared with similar studies in patients with cerebellar primary disturbances (e.g., malformations, agenesis, degeneration, etc). Addressing this neglected issue could be useful to underline unexpected areas of overlap and/or underestimated differences between these sets of conditions. In fact, ASD and cerebellar primary disturbances (notably, Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome, CCAS) can share atypical manifestations in perceptual, sensory, and motor functions, but neural subcircuits involved in these anomalies/difficulties could be distinct. Here, we specifically deal with this issue focusing on four paradigmatic neurocognitive functions: visual and biological motion perception, multisensory integration, and high stages of the motor hierarchy. From a research perspective, this represents an essential challenge to more deeply understand neurocognitive markers of ASD and of cerebellar primary disturbances/CCAS. Although we cannot assume definitive conclusions, and beyond phenotypical similarities between ASD and CCAS, clinical and experimental evidence described in this work argues that ASD and CCAS are distinct phenomena. ASD and CCAS seem to be characterized by different pathophysiological mechanisms and mediated by distinct neural nodes. In parallel, from a clinical perspective, this characterization may furnish insights to tackle the distinction between autistic functioning/autistic phenotype (in ASD) and dysmetria of thought/autistic-like phenotype (in CCAS).
Metabolism and adult neurogenesis: towards an understanding of the role of lipocalin-2 and iron-related oxidative stress Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-26 Ana Catarina Ferreira, Nuno Sousa, João M. Bessa, João Carlos Sousa, Fernanda Marques
The process of generating new functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain occurs from the local neural stem and progenitor cells and requires tight control of the progenitor cell’s activity. Several signaling pathways and intrinsic/extrinsic factors have been well studied over the last years, but recent attention has been given to the critical role of cellular metabolism in determining the functional properties of progenitor cells. Here, we review recent advances in the current understanding of when and how metabolism affects neural stem cell (NSC) behavior and subsequent neuronal differentiation and highlight the role of lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a protein involved in the control of oxidative stress, as a recently emerged regulator of NSC activity and neuronal differentiation.
The role of the hippocampal theta rhythm in non-spatial discrimination and associative learning task Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-25 Yuya Sakimoto, Shogo Sakata
The configural association theory and the conflict resolution model propose that hippocampal function is involved in learning negative patterning tasks (A+, B+, AB− ). The first theory suggests a critical role of the hippocampus in the formation of configural representations of compound stimuli, in which stimuli A and B are presented simultaneously. The second theory hypothesizes that the hippocampus is important for inhibiting the response to a stimulus that is in conflict with response tendencies. Although these theories propose different interpretations of the link between hippocampal function and non-spatial discrimination tasks, they both predict that the hippocampus is involved in the information processing of compound stimuli in negative patterning tasks. Recently, our electrophysiological approach has shown that the hippocampal theta power correlate with response inhibition in a negative patterning task, positive patterning, simultaneous/serial feature negative task. These findings provide strong support for the assumption of the conflict resolution model that the role of the hippocampus in learning is to inhibit responses to conflicting stimuli during non-spatial stimulus discrimination tasks.
Social brain, social dysfunction and social withdrawal Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-20 Stefano Porcelli, Nic Van Der Wee, Steven van der Werff, Moji Aghajani, Jeffrey C. Glennon, Sabrina van Heukelum, Floriana Mogavero, Antonio Lobo, Francisco Javier Olivera, Elena Lobo, Mar Posadas, Juergen Dukart, Rouba Kozak, Estibaliz Arce, Arfan Ikram, Jacob Vorstman, Amy Bilderbeck, Ilja Saris, Alessandro Serretti
Dopamine and opioid systems adaptation in alcoholism revisited: Convergent evidence from positron emission tomography and postmortem studies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Anita C. Hansson, Gerhard Gründer, Natalie Hirth, Hamid R. Noori, Rainer Spanagel, Wolfgang H. Sommer
A major hypothesis in the addiction field suggests deficits in dopamine signaling during abstinence as a driving mechanism for the relapsing course of the disorder. Paradoxically, blockade of mu-opioid receptors (MORs) intended to suppress dopamine release and alcohol reward is a widely used treatment for preventing relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). To elucidate this apparent discrepancy, we systematically survey the literature on experimental studies in AUD subjects and animal models, which assessed striatal dopamine levels and D1, D2-like receptor, dopamine transporter and MOR via positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo receptor binding assays. The reported evidence indicates a changing dopaminergic signaling over time, which is associated with concomitant alterations in MOR, thus suggesting a highly dynamic regulation of the reward system during abstinence. Such a view can reconcile the various evidences from in vivo and postmortem studies, but makes developing an effective pharmacological intervention that specifically targets either dopamine receptors or the transporter system a daunting task.
Intranasal Oxytocin and OXTR Genotype Effects on Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Systematic Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-19 Saren H. Seeley, Ying-hui Chou, Mary-Frances O’Connor
Objective Evaluate effects of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) and OXTR genotype on resting state functional connectivity in the human brain. Methods We searched research databases for peer-reviewed empirical studies. Of 71 unique citations, 18 articles (13 IN-OT, five OXTR) met full inclusion criteria. Results Two studies examined effects on large-scale networks; most examined acute effects on amygdala connectivity with other social and affective regions. OXTR studies identified three polymorphisms (rs2254298, rs2268498, rs53576) having allele- and sex-dependent effects on prefrontal functional connectivity, and additive effects of OXTR risk alleles on reward circuitry. Age, sex, early life stress, and psychopathology emerged as potential moderators of both IN-OT and OXTR effects. Discussion IN-OT appears to modulate resting state functional connectivity in a manner similar to its effects on task fMRI, consistent with hypothesized models of IN-OT. However, conclusions are limited by the narrow range of neuroanatomical seed regions, and methodological and experimental design heterogeneity. Future studies should take into account individual differences. Findings may provide insight into mechanisms through which IN-OT impacts human behavior.
Motor dysfunction as research domain across bipolar, obsessive-compulsive and neurodevelopmental disorders Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-17 Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Stefan Fritze, Fabio Sambataro, Katharina M. Kubera, Robert C. Wolf
Although genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) are frequently found in schizophrenia, they are also considered as an intrinsic feature of bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset such as autism, ADHD, and Tourette syndrome. Such transnosological observations strongly suggest a common neural pathophysiology. This systematic review highlights the evidence on GMA and their neuroanatomical substrates in bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The data lends support for a common pattern contributing to GMA expression in these diseases that seems to be related to cerebello-thalamo-cortical, fronto-parietal, and cortico-subcortical motor circuit dysfunction. The identified studies provide first evidence for a motor network dysfunction as a correlate of early neurodevelopmental deviance prior to clinical symptom expression. There are also first hints for a developmental risk factor model of these mental disorders. An in-depth analysis of motor networks and related patho-(physiological) mechanisms will not only help promoting RDoC Motor System construct, but also facilitate the development of novel psychopharmacological models, as well as the identification of neurobiologically plausible target sites for non-invasive brain stimulation.
Addiction and Stress: An Allostatic View Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-15 George F. Koob, Jay Schulkin
Allostasis, or stability through change, has most often been linked with challenges to homeostasis, in which repeated challenges or stressors produce sufficient allostatic load to generate an allostatic state that can ultimately lead to a disease state. The present review argues that the impact of stress on drug addiction fits with an allostatic model and represents a challenge to brain circuit regulatory mechanisms that underlie the emotional state of the animal. The central thesis is that stress leads to changes in corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain that impact addiction. Stress is further argued to impact all three stages of the addiction cycle—binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation—exposing the animal to an emotional allostatic load and allostatic state that forms the growing motivational pathology of addiction. Viewing addiction as an allostatic mechanism provides key insights into the ways in which dysregulated neurocircuitry that is involved in basic motivational systems can transition to pathophysiology.
New synthetic opioids: Part of a new addiction landscape Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-12 Laurent Karila, Maude Marillier, Boris Chaumette, Joel Billieux, Franchitto Nicolas, Benyamina Amine
Synthetic opioids (SO) are a major risk for public health across the world. These drugs can be divided into 2 categories, pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls. A new generation of SO has emerged on the drug market since 2010. North America is currently facing an opioid epidemic of morbi-mortality, caused by over-prescription of opioids, illegally diverted prescribed medicines, the increasing use of heroin, is and the emergence of SO. Furthermore, this opioid crisis is also seen in Europe. SO are new psychoactive substances characterized by different feature such as easy availability on the Internet, low price, purity, legality, and lack of detection in laboratory tests. They have not been approved or are not recommended for human use. Opioid misuse is associated with somatic and psychiatric complications. For many substances, limited pharmacological information is available, increasing the risk of harmful adverse events. Health actors and the general population need to be clearly informed of the potential risks and consequences of the diffusion and use of SO.
Biomarker correlates of psychotherapy outcomes in borderline personality disorder: A systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-09 Ely M. Marceau, Denise Meuldijk, Michelle L. Townsend, Nadia Solowij, Brin F.S. Grenyer
Studies of neurobiological mechanisms in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of its development and course. Less is known about how psychotherapy may influence these neurobiological factors, and also whether biomarkers may predict psychotherapy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Fourteen studies providing data from 467 participants diagnosed with BPD met inclusion criteria to: (a) investigate biomarkers predicting response to psychotherapy for BPD; or (b) examine neurobiological factors altered by psychotherapy. Neuroimaging studies (n = 11) used mostly functional magnetic resonance imaging methods to scope brain regions related to emotion regulation and cognitive control. Three studies examined genetic or neuroendocrine markers. The evidence suggests that psychotherapy alters neural activation and connectivity of regions subserving executive control and emotion regulation. Additionally, hypoactivation in prefrontal and cingulate regions predicted treatment response. Further work in this area may inform personalised treatment approaches in clinical practice for BPD through elucidating neural mechanisms of evidence-based psychotherapy.
Effects of early life stress on biochemical indicators of the dopaminergic system: a 3 level meta-analysis of rodent studies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 V. Bonapersona, M. Joëls, R.A. Sarabdjitsingh
Adverse early life events are a well-established risk factor for the precipitation of behavioral disorders characterized by anomalies in the dopaminergic system, such as schizophrenia and addiction. The correlation between early life conditions and the dopaminergic system has been causally investigated in more than 90 rodent publications. Here, we tested the validity of the hypothesis that early life stress (ELS) alters dopamine signaling by performing an extensive 3-level mixed effect meta-analysis. We included several ELS models and biochemical indicators of the dopaminergic system in a variety of brain areas, for a total of 1009 comparisons. Contrary to our expectations, only a few comparisons displayed a significant effect. Specifically, the striatal area was the most vulnerable, displaying decreased dopamine precursor and increased metabolites after ELS. To make all data openly accessible, we created MaDEapp, a tool to explore data of the meta-analysis with the intent to guide future (pre)clinical research and allow power calculations. All in all, ELS induces a few yet robust changes on biochemical indicators of the dopaminergic system.
The role of inflammation in core features of depression: Insights from paradigms using exogenously-induced inflammation Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Larissa N. Dooley, Kate R. Kuhlman, Theodore F. Robles, Naomi I. Eisenberger, Michelle G. Craske, Julienne E. Bower
A wealth of evidence has implicated inflammation in the development of depression. Yet, the heterogeneous nature of depression has impeded efforts to understand, prevent, and treat the disease. The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize the connections between inflammation and established core features of depression that exhibit more homogeneity than the syndrome itself: exaggerated reactivity to negative information, altered reward processing, decreased cognitive control, and somatic syndrome. For each core feature, we first provide a brief overview of its relevance to depression and neurobiological underpinnings, and then review evidence investigating a potential role of inflammation. We focus primarily on findings from experimental paradigms of exogenously-induced inflammation. We conclude that inflammation likely plays a role in exaggerated reactivity to negative information, altered reward reactivity, and somatic symptoms. There is less evidence supporting an effect of inflammation on cognitive control as assessed by standard neuropsychological measures. Finally, we discuss implications for future research and recommendations for how to test the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of heterogeneous psychiatric disorders.
Adolescence as a neurobiological critical period for the development of higher-order cognition Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-07 Bart Larsen, Beatriz Luna
The transition from adolescence to adulthood is characterized by improvements in higher-order cognitive abilities and corresponding refinements of the structure and function of the brain regions that support them. Whereas the neurobiological mechanisms that govern early development of sensory systems are well-understood, the mechanisms that drive developmental plasticity of association cortices, such as prefrontal cortex (PFC), during adolescence remain to be explained. In this review, we synthesize neurodevelopmental findings at the cellular, circuit, and systems levels in PFC and evaluate them through the lens of established critical period (CP) mechanisms that guide early sensory development. We find remarkable correspondence between these neurodevelopmental processes and the mechanisms driving CP plasticity, supporting the hypothesis that adolescent development is driven by CP mechanisms that guide the rapid development of neurobiology and cognitive ability during adolescence and their subsequent stability in adulthood. Critically, understanding adolescence as a CP not only provides a mechanism for normative adolescent development, it provides a framework for understanding the role of experience and neurobiology in the emergence of psychopathology that occurs during this developmental period.
Neuroepigenetics and addictive behaviors: where do we stand? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-08 David de Sa Nogueira, Karine Merienne, Katia Befort
Substance use disorders involve long-term changes in the brain that lead to compulsive drug seeking, craving, and a high probability of relapse. Recent findings have highlighted the role of epigenetic regulations in controlling chromatin access and regulation of gene expression following exposure to drugs of abuse. In the present review, we focus on data investigating genome-wide epigenetic modifications in the brain of addicted patients or in rodent models exposed to drugs of abuse, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modifications associated with transcriptional studies. We highlight critical factors for epigenomic studies in addiction. We discuss new findings related to psychostimulants, alcohol, opiate, nicotine and cannabinoids. We examine the possible transmission of these changes across generations. We highlight developing tools, specifically those that allow investigation of structural reorganization of the chromatin. These have the potential to increase our understanding of alteration of chromatin architecture at gene regulatory regions. Neuroepigenetic mechanisms involved in addictive behaviors could explain persistent phenotypic effects of drugs and, in particular, vulnerability to relapse.
Targeting the gut microbiota to influence brain development and function in early life Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 Shugui Wang, Louise Harvey, Rocio Martin, Eline M. van der Beek, Jan Knol, John Cryan, Ingrid B. Renes
In the first 2 – 3 years of life, the gut microbiota of infants quickly becomes diverse and rich. Disruptions in the evolving gut microbiota during this critical developmental period can impact brain development. Communication between the microbiota, gut and brain is driven by hormonal and neural regulation, as well as immune and metabolic pathways, however, our understanding of how the parallel developments that may underlie this communication are limited. In this paper, we review the known associations between the gut microbiota and brain development and brain function in early life, speculate on the potential mechanisms involved in this complex relationship and describe how nutritional intervention can further modulate the microbiota and, ultimately, brain development and function.
Electrophysiological Assessment Methodology of Sensory Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia and Dementia of the Alzheimer Type Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.037) Pub Date : 2018-09-06 P. Danjou, G. Viardot, D. Maurice, P. Garcés, E.J. Wams, K.G. Phillips, V. Bertaina-Anglade, A.P. McCarthy, D.J. Pemberton
Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease impacts on various sensory processings are extensively reviewed in the present publication. This article describes aspects of a research project whose aim is to delineate the neurobiology that may underlie Social Withdrawal in Alzheimer’s disease, Schizophrenia and Major Depression. This is a European-funded IMI 2 project, identified as PRISM (Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers). This paper focuses specifically on the selected electrophysiological paradigms chosen based on a comprehensive review of all relevant literature and practical constraints. The choice of the electrophysiological biomarkers were fundamentality based their metrics and capacity to discriminate between populations. The selected electrophysiological paradigms are resting state EEG, auditory mismatch negativity, auditory and visual based oddball paradigms, facial emotion processing ERP’s and auditory steady-state response. The primary objective is to study the effect of social withdrawal on various biomarkers and endophenotypes found altered in the target populations. This has never been studied in relationship to social withdrawal, an important component of CNS diseases.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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