relationship between diffusion tensor imaging findings and cognitive outcomes following adult traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-24 E.J. Wallace, J.L. Mathias, L. Ward
Cognitive impairments are common following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and frequently result from white matter (WM) damage. This damage can be quantified using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the directionality (fractional anisotropy: FA) and amount (mean diffusivity/apparent diffusion coefficient: MD/ADC) of water diffusion in WM, with high FA and low MD/ADC thought to indicate greater WM integrity. However, the relationship between DTI and cognitive outcomes is currently unclear. The data from 20 studies that examined the relationship between WM integrity (measured using DTI) and cognition (categorised into seven domains) following mild-severe adult TBI were meta-analysed. Overall, high FA and low MD/ADC in most brain regions was associated with better cognitive performance, with memory and attention most strongly related to DTI findings. Specifically, memory and/or attention were very strongly related to DTI findings in the corpus callosum, fornix, internal capsule, arcuate and uncinate fasciculi. However, most findings were based on single studies and therefore await replication. Larger-scale, longitudinal studies are now needed to determine the predictive utility of DTI.
The Neural Circuitry of Restricted Repetitive Behavior: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Animal Models Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 B.J. Wilkes, M.H. Lewis
Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are patterns of behavior that exhibit little variation in form and have no obvious function. RRBs although transdiagonstic are a particularly prominent feature of certain neurodevelopmental disorders, yet relatively little is known about the neural circuitry of RRBs. Past work in this area has focused on isolated brain regions and neurotransmitter systems, but implementing a neural circuit approach has the potential to greatly improve understanding of RRBs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well-suited to studying the structural and functional connectivity of the nervous system, and is a highly translational research tool. In this review, we synthesize MRI research from both neurodevelopmental disorders and relevant animal models that informs the neural circuitry of RRB. Together, these studies implicate distributed neural circuits between the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Despite progress in neuroimaging of RRB, there are many opportunities for conceptual and methodological improvement. We conclude by suggesting future directions for MRI research in RRB, and how such studies can benefit from complementary approaches in neuroscience.
Mechanisms of cortisol – substance use development associations: Hypothesis generation through gene enrichment analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Kristine Marceau, Emily Abel
There are many theories about the mechanisms of associations between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function (indexed by cortisol) and substance use. However, the potential for genes that contribute to both HPA function and substance use to confound the association (e.g., genetic confounding) has largely been ignored. We explore the potential role of genetics in cortisol-substance use associations, build a conceptual framework placing theories and mechanisms for how cortisol and substance use are related into a developmental progression, and develop new hypotheses based on our findings. We conclude that the relationship between cortisol function and substance use is complex, occurs at multiple levels of analysis, and is bidirectional at multiple phases of the substance use progression. Additionally, there is potential for genetic confounding in cortisol-substance use associations, and thus a need for genetically informed designs to investigate how and why cortisol function is associated with substance use phenotypes from initiation through disorder. Gene-environment interplay and developmental context are likely to impact the effectiveness of prevention and intervention efforts to reduce substance use problems.
Longitudinal assessment of chemotherapy-induced changes in brain and cognitive functioning: A systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-20 Mingmei Li, Karen Caeyenberghs
In addition to the burden of a life-threatening diagnosis, cancer patients are struggling with adverse side-effects from cancer treatment. Chemotherapy has been linked to an array of cognitive impairments and alterations in brain structure and function (“chemobrain”). In this review, we summarized the existing evidence that evaluate the changes in cognitive functioning and brain with chemotherapy, as assessed using structural and functional MRI-based techniques in a longitudinal design. This review followed the latest PRISMA guidelines using Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with date restrictions from 2012-2017. Fourteen research articles met the key inclusion criteria: (i) the studies involved adult cancer patients (mean age≥18); (ii) the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer; (iii) pre-post assessment of behavioral and brain-based outcomes; and (iv) abstracts written in English. Effect sizes of subjective and objective cognitive impairments from the reviewed studies were estimated using Cohen’s d or z-scores. We calculated percentage of mean change or effect sizes for main neuroimaging findings when data were available. Strength of the correlations between brain alterations and cognitive changes was obtained using squared correlation coefficients. We showed small to medium effect sizes on individual tests of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, and executive control; and medium effect sizes on self-report questionnaires. Neuroimaging data showed reduced grey matter density in cancer patients in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Changes in brain function (brain activation and cerebral blood flow) were observed with cancer across functional networks involving (pre)frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and cerebellar regions. Data from diffusion‐weighted MRI suggested reduced white matter integrity involving the superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum, forceps major, and corona radiate, and altered structural connectivity across the whole brain network. Finally, we observed moderate-to-strong correlations between worsening cognitive function and morphological changes in frontal brain regions. While MRI is a powerful tool for detection of longitudinal brain changes in the ‘chemobrain’, the underlying biological mechanisms are still unclear. Continued work in this field will hopefully detect MRI metrics to be used as biomarkers to help guide cognitive treatment at the individual cancer patient level.
Antenatal ultrasound value in risk calculation for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review to support future research Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Francesca Fulceri, Andrea Guzzetta, Argyro Athanasiadou, Laura Iaconianni, Maria Luisa Scattoni
There is a growing research interest on the antenatal features of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Indeed, it has been proved that the neurodevelopment is, at least partly, affected by processes occurring in fetal life and that the early neurodevelopmental disorders identification is essential to optimize long-term outcomes.This systematic review aims to summarize findings on antenatal ultrasound data, which are or might be considered early risk indexes of postnatal social impairments.We conducted systematic searches in Pubmed and PsychINFO databases to identify studies including fetal ultrasound measurements and postnatal neurodevelopmental outcome assessment. The bibliographic search included 3203 articles but after the assessment of the eligibility conducted by two independent researchers, only 26 studies were selected.Some alterations in ultrasound antenatal measurements (such as biophysical data, nuchal thickness and enlargement of cerebral ventricles) have been associated to autism spectrum disorder. However, data are still limited, controversial and not specific. Reported data are here discussed to strongly support studies on fetuses at high risk for autism spectrum disorder.
The cingulum bundle: Anatomy, function, and dysfunction Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Emma J. Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P. Aggleton
Efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of adult unipolar and bipolar depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised sham-controlled trials Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-12 Julian Mutz, Daniel R. Edgcumbe, Andre R. BrunoniMD, Cynthia H.Y. FuMD
We examined the efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation in adult unipolar and bipolar depression. Randomised sham-controlled trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS), without co-initiation of another treatment, were included. We analysed effects on response, remission, all-cause discontinuation rates and continuous depression severity measures. Fifty-six studies met our criteria for inclusion (N = 3,058, mean age = 44.96 years, 61.73% female). Response rates demonstrated efficacy of high-frequency rTMS over the left DLPFC (OR = 3.75, 95% CI [2.44; 5.75]), right-sided low-frequency rTMS (OR = 7.44, 95%CI [2.06; 26.83]) bilateral rTMS (OR = 3.68,95%CI [1.66; 8.13]), deep TMS (OR = 1.69, 95%CI [1.003; 2.85]), intermittent TBS (OR = 4.70, 95%CI [1.14; 19.38]) and tDCS (OR = 4.17, 95% CI [2.25; 7.74]); but not for continuous TBS, bilateral TBS or synchronised TMS. There were no differences in all-cause discontinuation rates. The strongest evidence was for high-frequency rTMS over the left DLPFC. Intermittent TBS provides an advance in terms of reduced treatment duration. tDCS is a potential treatment for non-treatment resistant depression. To date, there is not sufficient published data available to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy and acceptability of TBS and sTMS.
Early human motor development: From variation to the ability to vary and adapt Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Mijna Hadders-Algra
This review summarizes early human motor development. From early fetal age motor behavior is based on spontaneous neural activity: activity of networks in the brainstem and spinal cord that is modulated by supraspinal activity. The supraspinal activity, first primarily brought about by the cortical subplate, later by the cortical plate, induces movement variation. Initially, movement variation especially serves exploration; its associated afferent information is primarily used to sculpt the developing nervous system, and less to adapt motor behavior. In the next phase, beginning at function-specific ages, movement variation starts to serve adaptation. In sucking and swallowing, this phase emerges shortly before term age. In speech, gross and fine motor development, it emerges from 3-4 months post-term onwards, i.e., when developmental focus in the primary sensory and motor cortices has shifted to the permanent cortical circuitries. With increasing age and increasing trial-and-error exploration, the infant improves its ability to use adaptive and efficicient forms of upright gross motor behavior, manual activities and vocalizations belonging to the native language.
An Update on Contextual Fear Memory Mechanisms: Transition between Amygdala and Hippocampus Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Nicholas Chaaya, Andrew R. Battle, Luke R. Johnson
Context is an ever-present combination of discrete environmental elements capable of influencing many psychological processes. When context is associated with an aversive stimulus, a permanent contextual fear memory is formed. Context is hypothesized to greatly influence the treatability of various fear-based pathologies, in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to understand how contextual fear memories are encoded and impact underlying fear pathology, delineation of the underlying neural circuitry of contextual fear memory consolidation and maintenance is essential. Past understandings of contextual fear suggest that the hippocampus only creates a unitary, or single, representation of context. This representation is sent to the amygdala, which creates the associative contextual fear memory. In contrast, here we review new evidence from the literature showing contextual fear memories to be consolidated and maintained by both amygdala and hippocampus. Based on this evidence, we revise the current model of contextual fear memory consolidation, highlighting a larger role for hippocampus. This new model may better explain the role of the hippocampus in PTSD.
ADRA2B Deletion Variant and Enhanced Cognitive Processing of Emotional Information: A Meta-Analytical Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Ming Meng, Robert Rosenthal, Weiwei Zhang
This meta-analytical review examines whether a deletion variant in ADRA2B, a gene that encodes α2B adrenoceptor in the regulation of norepinephrine availability, influences cognitive processing of emotional information in human observers. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis of 16 published studies with a total of 2,752 participants showed that ADRA2B deletion variant was significantly associated with enhanced perceptual and cognitive task performance for emotional stimuli. In contrast, this genetic effect did not manifest in overall task performance when non-emotional content was used. Furthermore, various study-level factors, such as targeted cognitive processes (memory vs. attention/perception) and task procedures (recall vs. recognition), could moderate the size of this genetic effect. Overall, with increased statistical power and standardized analytical procedures, this meta-analysis has established the contributions of ADRA2B to the interactions between emotion and cognition, adding to the growing literature on individual differences in attention, perception, and memory for emotional information in the general population.
Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Michelle A. Pievsky, Robert E. McGrath
PIEVSKY, M. A., and R. E. McGrath. Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 81(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- This meta-analysis summarized 21 double-blind randomized controlled trials with a mean study duration of 18 days comparing the neurocognitive functioning of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on methylphenidate vs placebo. Effect sizes were weighted using a random-effects model. Scores on neurocognitive measures and tests of driving ability were on average higher on methylphenidate than on placebo, g = .17, p < .01, 95% CI = [.05, .28], with little heterogeneity, Q(20) = 15.05, p = .77, I2 = 0. Performance on methylphenidate was significantly better than on placebo for the following domains: working memory (mean g = .13, 95% CI = [.00, .26]), reaction time variability (.16, [.03, .28]), vigilance (.22, [.11, .33]), driving (.22, [.10, .34]), and response inhibition (.23, [.10, .36]). Quantitative and qualitative assessment revealed evidence of publication bias. Summarizing across studies, methylphenidate improved the performance of adults with ADHD on neurocognitive measures and tests of driving, suggesting that methylphenidate is an effective treatment for adults with ADHD and can improve processes related to attention and concentration.
Deep temporal models and active inference Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Karl J. Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first – and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below. The deep temporal aspect of these models means that evidence is accumulated over nested time scales, enabling inferences about narratives (i.e., temporal scenes). We illustrate this behaviour with Bayesian belief updating – and neuronal process theories – to simulate the epistemic foraging seen in reading. These simulations reproduce perisaccadic delay period activity and local field potentials seen empirically. Finally, we exploit the deep structure of these models to simulate responses to local (e.g., font type) and global (e.g., semantic) violations; reproducing mismatch negativity and P300 responses respectively.
Understanding taurine CNS activity using alternative zebrafish models Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Nathana J. Mezzomo, Barbara D. Fontana, Allan V. Kalueff, Leonardo J.G. Barcellos, Denis B. Rosemberg
Taurine is a highly abundant “amino acid” in the brain. Although the potential neuroactive role of taurine in vertebrates has long been recognized, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to its pleiotropic effects in the brain remain poorly understood. Due to the genetic tractability, rich behavioral repertoire, neurochemical conservation, and small size, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful candidate for neuropsychopharmacology investigation and in vivo drug screening. Here, we summarize the main physiological roles of taurine in mammals, including neuromodulation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and antioxidant action. In this context, we also highlight how zebrafish models of brain disorders may present interesting approaches to assess molecular mechanisms underlying positive effects of taurine in the brain. Finally, we outline recent advances in zebrafish drug screening that significantly improve neuropsychiatric translational research and small molecule screens.
The spatial representation of number, time, and serial order following sensory deprivation: a systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Luca Rinaldi, Lotfi B. Merabet, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
How do hypothalamic nonapeptides shape youth’s sociality? A systematic review on oxytocin, vasopressin and human socio-emotional development Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Nuno Torres, Daniel Martins, António J. Santos, Diana Prata, Maria Veríssimo
The hypothalamic nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are important modulators of socio-affective behaviours in a wide variety of animal species, including humans. Nevertheless, there is little research addressing their possible roles on socio-affective dimensions of human behaviour across development, during which considerable behavioural and physiological change occurs. Questions still remain about the extent to which findings from adults may directly apply to earlier phases of human development. In this article, we systematically summarize and discuss all existing studies investigating the developmental association of endogenous levels of hypothalamic neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin with human social behaviour or on its disruption in paediatric populations. Evidence is sparse insofar as there are still relatively few developmental studies and limited due to correlational research designs and unreliability of methods currently used for neuropeptide measurements in biological fluids. The findings to date generally converge with adult evidence, but also suggest that important differences between age stages may exist. Further studies focusing these differences may prove critical for informing drug development for socio-affective deficits in paediatric populations.
Animal models of binge drinking, current challenges to improve face validity Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-05 Jérôme Jeanblanc, Benjamin Rolland, Fabien Gierski, Margaret P. Martinetti, Mickael Naassila
Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior. The main challenges for future research are discussed regarding the need of good face validity, construct validity and predictive validity of animal models of BD.
Basal Ganglia and Beyond: the interplay between motor and cognitive aspects in Parkinson’s disease Rehabilitation Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Graziella Madeo, Nir Giladi, Giselle M. Petzinger, Giuseppe Frazzitta
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunctions, affecting the motor behaviour. We summarize evidence that the interplay between motor and cognitive approaches is crucial in PD rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is complementary to pharmacological therapy and effective in reducing the PD disturbances, probably acting by inducing neuroplastic effects.The motor behaviour results from a complex integration between cortical and subcortical areas, underlying the motor, cognitive and motivational aspects of movement. The close interplay amongst these areas makes possible to learn, control and express habitual-automatic actions, which are dysfunctional in PD.The physiopathology of PD could be considered the base for the development of effective rehabilitation treatments. As the volitional action control is spared in early-medium stages of disease, rehabilitative approaches engaging cognition permit to achieve motor benefits and appear to be the most effective for PD.We will point out data supporting the relevance of targeting both motor and cognitive aspects in PD rehabilitation. Finally, we will discuss the role of cognitive engagement in motor rehabilitation for PD.
Cognitive benefits of Angiotensin IV and Angiotensin-(1-7): a systematic review of experimental studies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Jean K. Ho, Daniel A. Nation
ObjectivesTo explore effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on cognition.DesignSystematic review of experimental (non-human) studies assessing cognitive effects of RAS peptides angiotensin-(3-8) [Ang IV] and angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and their receptors, the Ang IV receptor (AT4R) and the Mas receptor.ResultsOf 450 articles identified, 32 met inclusion criteria. Seven of 11 studies of normal animals found Ang IV had beneficial effects on tests of passive or conditioned avoidance and object recognition. In models of cognitive deficit, eight of nine studies found Ang IV and its analogs (Nle1-Ang IV, dihexa, LVV-hemorphin-7) improved performance on spatial working memory and passive avoidance tasks. Two of three studies examining Ang-(1-7) found it benefited memory. Mas receptor removal was associated with reduced fear memory in one study.ConclusionStudies of cognitive impairment show salutary effects of acute administration of Ang IV and its analogs, as well as AT4R activation. Brain RAS peptides appear most effective administered intracerebroventricularly, close to the time of learning acquisition or retention testing. Ang-(1-7) shows anti-dementia qualities.
Current Perspectives on the Cerebellum and Reading Development Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 Travis A. Alvarez, Julie A. Fiez
The dominant neural models of typical and atypical reading focus on the cerebral cortex. However, Nicolson et al. (2001) proposed a model, the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, in which the cerebellum plays an important role in reading. To evaluate the evidence in support of this model, we qualitatively review the current literature and employ meta-analytic tools examining patterns of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral reading network. We find evidence for a phonological circuit with connectivity between the cerebellum and a dorsal fronto-parietal pathway, and a semantic circuit with cerebellar connectivity to a ventral fronto-temporal pathway. Furthermore, both cerebral pathways have functional connections with the mid-fusiform gyrus, a region implicated in orthographic processing. Consideration of these circuits within the context of the current literature suggests the cerebellum is positioned to influence both phonological and word-based decoding procedures for recognizing unfamiliar printed words. Overall, multiple lines of research provide support for the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, while also highlighting the need for further research to test mechanistic hypotheses.
Towards a human self-regulation system: Common and distinct neural signatures of emotional and behavioural control Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 Robert Langner, Susanne Leiberg, Felix Hoffstaedter, Simon B. Eickhoff
Self-regulation refers to controlling our emotions and actions in the pursuit of higher-order goals. Although research suggests commonalities in the cognitive control of emotion and action, evidence for a shared neural substrate is scant and largely circumstantial. Here we report on two large-scale meta-analyses of human neuroimaging studies on emotion or action control, yielding two fronto-parieto-insular networks. The networks’ overlap, however, was restricted to four brain regions: posteromedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula, and right temporo-parietal junction. Conversely, meta-analytic contrasts revealed major between-network differences, which were independently corroborated by clustering domain-specific regions based on their intrinsic functional connectivity, as well as by functionally characterizing network sub-clusters using the BrainMap database for quantitative forward and reverse inference. Collectively, our analyses identified a core system for implementing self-control across emotion and action, beyond which, however, either regulation facet appears to rely on broadly similar yet distinct subnetworks. These insights into the neurocircuitry subserving affective and executive facets of self-control suggest both processing commonalities and differences between the two aspects of human self-regulation.
Chloride transporters and GABA polarity in developmental, neurological and psychiatric conditions Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-05-02 Joran T. Schulte, Corette J. Wierenga, Hilgo Bruining
Neuronal chloride regulation is a determinant factor for the dynamic tuning of GABAergic inhibition during and beyond brain development. This regulation is mainly dependent on the two co-transporters K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2 and Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter NKCC1, whose activity can decrease or increase neuronal chloride concentrations respectively. Altered expression and/or activity of either of these co-transporters has been associated with a wide variety of brain disorders including developmental disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia and stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on chloride transporter expression and activity regulation and highlight the intriguing potential for existing and future interventions to support chloride homeostasis across a wide range of mental disorders.
Maturation of vocal emotion recognition: Insights from the developmental and neuroimaging literature Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-27 Michele Morningstar, Eric E. Nelson, Melanie A. Dirks
Emotions are implicitly expressed in both facial expressions and prosodic components of vocal communication. The ability to recognize nonverbal cues of emotion is an important feature of social competence that matures gradually across childhood and adolescence. Compared to the extensive knowledge about the development of emotion recognition (ER) from facial displays of emotion, relatively little is known about the maturation of this ability in the auditory domain. The current review provides an overview of knowledge about the development of vocal emotion recognition from behavioural studies, and neural mechanisms that might contribute to this maturational process. Youth are thought to reach adult-like vocal ER ability in early or late adolescence. At a neural level, several structural and functional changes occur in the adolescent brain that may impact the representation of emotional information. However, there is a paucity of developmental neuroimaging work directly examining neural prosody processing in youth. We speculate that brain areas relevant to vocal perception in adults may undergo age-related changes that map onto increased vocal ER capacity.
The neuroanatomic complexity of the CRF and DA systems and their interface: What we still don’t know Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-25 E.A. Kelly, J.L. Fudge
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide that mediates the stress response. Long known to contribute to regulation of the adrenal stress response initiated in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), a complex pattern of extrahypothalamic CRF expression is also described in rodents and primates. Cross-talk between the CRF and midbrain dopamine (DA) systems links the stress response to DA regulation. Classically CRF+ cells in the extended amygdala and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are considered the main source of this input, principally targeting the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, the anatomic complexity of both the DA and CRF system has been increasingly elaborated in the last decade. The DA neurons are now recognized as having diverse molecular, connectional and physiologic properties, predicted by their anatomic location. At the same time, the broad distribution of CRF cells in the brain has been increasingly delineated using different species and techniques. Here, we review updated information on both CRF localization and newer conceptualizations of the DA system to reconsider the CRF-DA interface.
Brain changes after spinal cord injury, a quantitative meta-analysis and review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-24 Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lino Becerra, David Borsook, Clas Linnman
Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) lead to alterations in brain structure and brain function by direct effects of nerve damage, by secondary mechanisms, and also by longer term injury consequences such as paralysis and neuropathic pain. Here, we review neuroimaging studies of patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries, perform a quantitative meta-analysis of motor and motor imagery studies, summarize structural studies, evidence of cortical reorganization, and provide an overview of diffusion and spectroscopy studies. The meta-analysis showed significantly altered motor cortex, as well as cerebellar and parietal lobe changes, and qualitatively consistent reports of alterations in somatosensory brain structure, cortical reorganization, white matter diffusion and thalamic metabolites. Larger samples in combination with standardized imaging protocols and data sharing will further our understanding of brain changes after SCI and help in defining short and long-term changes in brain systems in SCI patients. Such data would provide a basis for clinical trials, treatment outcomes, and guide novel interventions.
A new perspective on the anterior cingulate cortex and affective pain Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-24 Xiao Xiao, Yu-Qiu Zhang
Pain is a complex experience including sensory-discriminative and emotional-affective components. Base on the intensity and chronification of pain, pain is divided into physiological and pathological pain. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is activated by noxious and contextual stimuli, is involved in pain processing, especially affective pain, the neural mechanisms of the ACC involvement in affective pain have yet to be elaborated. This review summarizes the main progresses and recent findings from our and other laboratories regarding the ACC and affective pain. Most evidence provided new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying affective pain. Excitation of ACC pyramidal neurons is necessary and sufficient for the pain-related negative emotion. We also sketched other brain regions associated with the ACC and discussed the role of these brain regions in affective pain. Actually, it is likely that the neural network between these brain regions is critical for the negative affect of pain. In particular, the important advances within the optogenetic filed provide new opportunities to deepen and expand our understanding of the affective pain.
Impulsive aggression and response inhibition in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Disruptive Behavioral Disorders: findings from a systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-22 Andrei A. Puiu, Olga Wudarczyk, Katharina S. Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Kerstin Konrad, Bruce Turetsky, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Background Although impulsive aggression (IA) and dysfunctional response inhibition (RI) are hallmarks of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disrupted behavioral disorders (DBDs), little is known about their shared and distinct deviant neural mechanisms. Aims and Methods Here, we selectively reviewed s/fMRI ADHD and DBD studies to identify disorder-specific and shared IA and RI aberrant neural mechanisms. Results In ADHD, deviant prefrontal and cingulate functional activity was associated with increased IA. Structural alterations were most pronounced in the cingulate cortex. Subjects with DBDs showed marked cortico-subcortical dysfunctions. ADHD and DBDs share similar cortico-limbic structural and functional alterations. RI deficits in ADHD highlighted hypoactivity in the dorso/ventro-lateral PFC, insula, and striatum, while the paralimbic system was primarily dysfunctional in DBDs. Across disorders, extensively altered cortico-limbic dysfunctions underlie IA, while RI was mostly associated with aberrant prefrontal activity. Conclusion Control network deficits were evidenced across clinical phenotypes in IA and RI. Dysfunctions at any level within these cortico-subcortical projections lead to deficient cognitive-affective control by ascribing emotional salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Interoceptive inference: from computational neuroscience to clinic Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-22 Andrew P. Owens, Micah Allen, Sasha Ondobaka, Karl J. Friston
The central and autonomic nervous systems can be defined by their anatomical, functional and neurochemical characteristics, but neither functions in isolation. For example, fundamental components of autonomically mediated homeostatic processes are afferent interoceptive signals reporting the internal state of the body and efferent signals acting on interoceptive feedback assimilated by the brain. Recent predictive coding (interoceptive inference) models formulate interoception in terms of embodied predictive processes that support emotion and selfhood. We propose interoception may serve as a way to investigate holistic nervous system function and dysfunction in disorders of brain, body and behaviour. We appeal to predictive coding and (active) interoceptive inference, to describe the homeostatic functions of the central and autonomic nervous systems. We do so by (i) reviewing the active inference formulation of interoceptive and autonomic function, (ii) survey clinical applications of this formulation and (iii) describe how it offers an integrative approach to human physiology; particularly, interactions between the central and peripheral nervous systems in health and disease.
On the Genesis of Spatial-Numerical Associations: Evolutionary and Cultural Factors Co-Construct the Mental Number Line Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-21 Elizabeth Y. Toomarian, Edward M. Hubbard
Mapping numbers onto space is a common cognitive representation that has been explored in both behavioral and neuroimaging contexts. Empirical work probing the diverse nature of these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) has led researchers to question 1) how the human brain links numbers with space, and 2) whether this link is biologically vs. culturally determined. We review the existing literature on the development of SNAs and situate that empirical work within cognitive and neuroscientific theoretical frameworks. We propose that an evolutionarily-ancient frontal-parietal circuit broadly tuned to multiple magnitude dimensions provides the phylogenetic substrate for SNAs, while enculturation and sensorimotor experience shape their specific profiles. We then use this perspective to discuss educational implications and highlight promising avenues for future research.
White Matter Pathways and Social Cognition Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-20 Yin Wang, Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H. Alm, Ingrid R. Olson
There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the “social brain”. Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition. We pay particular attention to three key social processes: face processing, embodied cognition, and theory of mind, and their respective underlying neural networks. To fully identify and characterize the anatomical architecture of these networks, we further implement probabilistic tractography on a large sample of diffusion-weighted imaging data. The combination of an in-depth literature review and the empirical investigation gives us an unprecedented, well-defined landscape of white matter pathways underlying major social brain networks. Finally, we discuss current problems in the field, outline suggestions for best practice in diffusion-imaging data collection and analysis, and offer new directions for future research.
A systematic review of neuropsychological studies involving young binge drinkers Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-18 Carina Carbia, Eduardo López-Caneda, Montserrat Corral, Fernando Cadaveira
Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality. BD is associated with deficits in verbal memory and executive functions, principally poor inhibitory control. Tentatively, BD may be related to deficits in cognitive flexibility and monitoring of information in working memory. Further studies are needed to determine potential impairments in prospective memory and decision-making. BDs do not seem to show difficulties in planning, short-term memory, attention, processing speed or visuospatial construction. The evidence does not seem to support greater vulnerability in females. Future longitudinal studies should identify the characteristics of extreme trajectories, explore recovery deficits and design intervention programs.
Cerebral small vessel disease and risk of incident stroke, dementia and depression, and all-cause mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-13 S.P. Rensma, T.T. van Sloten, L.J. Launer, C.D.A. Stehouwer
MRI features of cerebral small vessel disease, i.e. white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy, may be associated with clinical events, but the strength of these associations remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between these features and incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, all-cause dementia and depression, and all-cause mortality. For the association with stroke, 36 studies were identified (number of individuals/events [n] = 37,987/4,087), for dementia 28 (n = 16,458/1,709), for depression nine (n = 9,538/1,746), and for mortality 28 (n = 23,031/2,558). Only two studies evaluated perivascular spaces; these results were not pooled. Pooled analyses showed that all other features were associated with all outcomes (hazard ratios ranged 1.22-2.72). Combinations of two features were more strongly associated with stroke than any individual feature. Individual features and combinations of CSVD features are strongly associated with incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, all-cause dementia and depression, and all-cause mortality. If these associations are causal, the strength of these associations suggests that a substantial burden of disease is attributable to CSVD.
Differences in the Theory of Mind profiles of patients with anorexia nervosa and individuals on the autism spectrum: A meta-analytic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Jenni Leppanen, Felicity Sedgewick, Janet Treasure, Kate Tchanturia
Background This meta-analytic review examines the theory of mind profiles in both patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and autistic individuals. Methodology The studies examining theory of mind were divided into the following categories: emotional theory of mind, understanding simple social situations, understanding complex social interactions, and implicit social attribution. All included studies investigated differences between healthy control (HCs) individuals and people with AN or autistic people. Differences in theory of mind profile between people with AN and autistic people were explored by conducting moderator analyses. Results People with AN and autistic people showed a similar theory of mind profile, but autistic individuals showed greater difficulties, particularly in emotional theory of mind. Conclusions Although both people with AN and autistic people have significant difficulties in all aspects of theory of mind relative to the HCs, some differences in the underlying profile may be present. However, due to relative paucity of theory of mind research among people with AN, further research is still needed before firm conclusion can be drawn.
Post stroke depression: The sequelae of cerebral stroke Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Jyotirekha Das, G.K. Rajanikant
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common mental health issue, afflicting around 33% of stroke survivors. PSD has a negative impact on the rehabilitation, recuperation of motor and cognitive deficits following stroke and significantly increases the chances of relapsing neurovascular events. It has been demonstrated that biological and psychological factors have a significant role in PSD. Numerous endeavors have been made to discover the risk factors and predictors of PSD. Screening and diagnosis also have gained attention; however, a suitable tool is yet to be developed. Medications are chosen based on their viability and reaction profile in the patients. Besides pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy treatment is also highly valued by both psychiatrists and stroke patients. Additional research is needed to examine the pathophysiology of PSD. This review attempts to highlight the existing evidence and gaps in the present knowledge of the predictors of PSD, incidence, prevalence, and etiology. Further, it also discusses the screening and diagnostic approaches, therapeutic modalities and management of PSD and the impact of pre-stroke depression on PSD.
Bioenergetics and synaptic plasticity as potential targets for individualizing treatment for depression Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 J. Blair Price, Carrie Bronars, Sophie Erhardt, Kathyrn R. Cullen, Lilly Schwieler, Michael Berk, Ken Walder, Sean L. McGee, Mark A. Frye, Susannah J. Tye
Disruptions of bioenergetic signaling and neurogenesis are hallmarks of depression physiology and are often the product of dysregulation of the inflammatory, stress-response, and metabolic systems. These systems are extensively interrelated at the physiological level, yet the bulk of the literature to date addresses pathophysiological mechanisms in isolation. A more integrated understanding of the etiology, progression, and treatment response profiles of depression is possible through wider consideration of relevant preclinical and clinical studies that examine the result of disruptions in these systems. Here, we review recent data demonstrating the critical effects of bioenergetic disruption on neuroplasticity and the development and progression of depressive illness. We further highlight the interactive and dynamic nature of the inflammatory and stress response systems and how disruption of these systems influences bioenergetic signaling pathways critical to treatment outcomes. In so doing, we underscore the pressing need to reconsider the implications of treatment resistance and present a framework for developing novel, personalized treatment approaches for depression.
Gamma Band Oscillations in the Early Phase of Psychosis: A Systematic Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-12 Thomas J Reilly, Judith F Nottage, Erich Studerus, Grazia Rutigliano, Andrea I De Micheli, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Philip McGuire
Abnormal gamma oscillations, measured by electroencephalography (EEG), have been associated with chronic psychotic disorders, but their prevalence in the early phase of psychosis is less clear. We sought to address this issues by systematically reviewing the relevant literature. We searched for EEG studies of gamma band oscillations in subjects at high risk for psychosis and in patients with first episode psychosis. The following measures of gamma oscillations were extracted: resting power, evoked power, induced power, connectivity and peak frequency. Forty-five studies with a total of 3099 participants were included. There were potential sources of bias in the study designs and potential artefacts. Although there were few consistent findings, several studies reported decreased evoked or induced power in both high risk subjects and first episode patients. Studies using larger samples with serial EEG measurements, and designs that minimise artefacts that occur at the gamma frequency may advance work in this area.
Beyond good and evil: a putative continuum-sorting hypothesis for the functional role of proBDNF/BDNF-propeptide/mBDNF in antidepressant treatment Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-04-04 Cassiano R.A.F. Diniz, Plinio C Casarotto, Leonardo Resstel, R.L. Joca Sâmia
Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are assumed to be maladaptive responses to stress and antidepressants are thought to counteract such responses by increasing BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) levels. BDNF acts through TrkB (tropomyosin-related receptor kinase B) and plays a central role in neuroplasticity. In contrast, both precursor proBDNF and BDNF propeptide (another metabolic product from proBDNF cleavage) have a high affinity to p75 receptor (p75R) and usually convey apoptosis and neuronal shrinkage. Although BDNF and proBDNF/propeptide apparently act in opposite ways, neuronal turnover and remodeling might be a final common way that both act to promote more effective neuronal networking, avoiding neuronal redundancy and the misleading effects of environmental contingencies. This review aims to provide a brief overview about the BDNF functional role in antidepressant action and about p75R and TrkB signaling to introduce the “continuum-sorting hypothesis.” The resulting hypothesis suggests that both BDNF/proBDNF and BDNF/propeptide act as protagonists to fine-tune antidepressant-dependent neuroplasticity in crucial brain structures to modulate behavioral responses to stress.
Advances, challenges, and promises in pediatric neuroimaging of neurodevelopmental disorders Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-31 Haley M. Bednarz, Rajesh K. Kana
Recent years have witnessed the proliferation of neuroimaging studies of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette’s syndrome (TS). Neuroimaging offers immense potential in understanding the biology of these disorders, and how it relates to clinical symptoms. Neuroimaging techniques, in the long run, may help identify neurobiological markers to assist clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, methodological challenges have affected the progress of clinical neuroimaging. This paper reviews the methodological challenges involved in imaging children with NDDs. Specific topics include correcting for head motion, normalization using pediatric brain templates, accounting for psychotropic medication use, delineating complex developmental trajectories, and overcoming smaller sample sizes. The potential of neuroimaging-based biomarkers and the utility of implementing neuroimaging in a clinical setting are also discussed. Data-sharing approaches, technological advances, and an increase in the number of longitudinal, prospective studies are recommended as future directions. Significant advances have been made already, and future decades will continue to see innovative progress in neuroimaging research endeavors of NDDs.
How orchids concentrate? The relationship between physiological stress reactivity and cognitive performance during infancy and early childhood Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Sam V. Wass
The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is involved both in higher-order cognition such as attention and learning, and in responding to unexpected, threatening events. Increased ANS reactivity may confer both superior short-term cognitive performance, and heightened long-term susceptibility to adverse events. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis within the Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) framework. We hypothesise that individuals with increased reactivity may show heightened biological sensitivity to context, conferring both positive (development-enhancing) effects (superior attention and learning) and negative (risk-promoting) effects (increased sensitivity to unsupportive environments). First, we examine how ANS reactivity relates to early cognitive performance. We hypothesise that increased phasic ANS reactivity, observed at lower tonic (pre-stimulus) ANS activity, is associated with better attention and learning. We conclude that the evidence is largely in support. Second we discuss whether ANS reactivity to ‘positive’, attention-eliciting and to ‘negative’, aversive stimuli is a one-dimensional construct; and evaluate evidence for how the real-world environment influences physiological stress over short and long time-frames. We identify three areas where the evidence is currently inconclusive.
Dynamic coupling between the central and autonomic nervous systems during sleep: a review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Alessandro Silvani, Ian Colrain, Fiona C. Baker
Sleep is characterized by coordinated cortical and cardiac oscillations reflecting communication between the central (CNS) and autonomic (ANS) nervous systems. Here, we review fluctuations in ANS activity in association with CNS-defined sleep stages and cycles, and with phasic cortical events during sleep (e.g., arousals, K-complexes). Recent novel analytic methods reveal a dynamic organization of integrated physiological networks during sleep and indicate how multiple factors (e.g., sleep structure, age, sleep disorders) affect “CNS-ANS coupling”. However, these data are mostly correlational and there is a lack of clarity of the underlying physiology, making it challenging to interpret causality and direction of coupling. Experimental manipulations (e.g., evoking K-complexes or arousals) provide information on the precise temporal sequence of cortical-cardiac activity, and are useful for investigating physiological pathways underlying the CNS-ANS coupling. With the emergence of new analytical approaches and a renewed interest in ANS and CNS communication during sleep, future work may reveal novel insights into sleep and cardiovascular interactions during health and disease, in which coupling could be adversely impacted.
Kynurenine Pathway in Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Kamiyu Ogyu, Kaoruhiko Kubo, Yoshihiro Noda, Yusuke Iwata, Sakiko Tsugawa, Yuki Omura, Masataka Wada, Ryosuke Tarumi, Eric Plitman, Sho Moriguchi, Takahiro Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Uchida, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Shinichiro Nakajima
Abnormalities of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the relationships between depression and each metabolite of the KYN pathway remain uncertain. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis about the levels of the metabolites of KYN pathway between patients with depression and controls. Out of 899 initial records, we identified 22 articles to form the empirical basis. Seventeen, 10, and 18 studies examined levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), quinolinic acid (QUIN), and KYN, respectively. KYNA and KYN levels were lower in patients with depression in comparison to controls, while QUIN levels did not differ between the two groups. Antidepressant-free patients showed decreased KYNA levels and increased QUIN levels compared with controls. Male ratios of the samples were negatively associated with study SMDs for KYNA. In conclusion, this meta-analysis revealed that patients with depression had decreased level of KYNA and KYN, whereas antidepressant-free patients showed increased level of QUIN. Nevertheless, given the heterogeneity among their sample characteristics, further research is clearly needed.
Interaction between blood-brain barrier and glymphatic system in solute clearance Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 I.C.M. Verheggen, M.P.J. Van Boxtel, F.R.J. Verhey, J.F.A. Jansen, W.H. Backes
Neurovascular pathology concurs with protein accumulation, as the brain vasculature is important for waste clearance. Interstitial solutes, such as amyloid-β, were previously thought to be primarily cleared from the brain by blood-brain barrier transport. Recently, the glymphatic system was discovered, in which cerebrospinal fluid is exchanged with interstitial fluid, facilitated by the aquaporin-4 water channels on the astroglial endfeet. Glymphatic flow can clear solutes from the interstitial space. Blood-brain barrier transport and glymphatic clearance likely serve complementary roles with partially overlapping mechanisms providing a well-conditioned neuronal environment. Disruption of these mechanisms can lead to protein accumulation and may initiate neurodegenerative disorders, for instance amyloid-β accumulation and Alzheimer’s disease. Although both mechanisms seem to have a similar purpose, their interaction has not been clearly discussed previously. This review focusses on this interaction in healthy and pathological conditions. Future health initiatives improving waste clearance might delay or even prevent onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Defining glymphatic flow kinetics using imaging may become an alternative way to identify those at risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Central fatigue theory and endurance exercise: toward an interoceptive model Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Jo Corbett
We propose a model of exercise-induced central fatigue based on interoception and motivation. Predictions of the expected sensory feedback are fed forward by the dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the anterior insula cortex (AIC). During exercise, the AIC receives feedback from lamina Ⅰ lateral spinothalamic and nucleus tractus solitarii medullothalamic pathways. The feedback is compared to the predictions in order to generate a current awareness state, which is forwarded to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventromedial (VM)PFC and lateral (L)PFC. The LPFC integrates the information and makes a decision as to whether to continue or stop. The decision is dependent upon interaction with the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA), and locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) systems. Phasic activation of DA and NE neurons appears to be necessary for maintenance of goal-related action but the VMPFC and ACC, which project to the LC, induce tonic NE activity when the rewards are thought to be not worth the cost thus fatigue is perceived.
Face memory and face recognition in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-28 Maria Romani, Miriam Vigliante, Noemi Faedda, Serena Rossetti, Lina Pezzuti, Vincenzo Guidetti, Francesco Cardona
This review focuses on facial recognition abilities in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to May 2017 pertaining to memory, face recognition, affect recognition, facial expression recognition and recall of faces in children and adolescents with ADHD. The qualitative synthesis based on different studies shows a particular focus of the research on facial affect recognition without paying similar attention to the structural encoding of facial recognition. In this review, we further investigate facial recognition abilities in children and adolescents with ADHD, providing synthesis of the results observed in the literature, while detecting face recognition tasks used on face processing abilities in ADHD and identifying aspects not yet explored.
Childhood Aggression: A Synthesis of Reviews and Meta-Analyses to Reveal Patterns and Opportunities for Prevention and Intervention Strategies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 A.M. Hendriks, M. Bartels, O.F. Colins, C. Finkenauer
This study provides a synthesis of meta-analyses and systematic reviews on non-pharmacological treatments for childhood aggression. Treatments referred to universal prevention, selective prevention, indicated prevention, or intervention (Mrazek and Haggerty, 1994). Seventy-two meta-analyses and systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. We describe their characteristics, effect sizes across types of treatments, and the effects of various moderators. For universal and selective prevention, effects were mostly absent or small; for indicated prevention and interventions, effects were mostly small or medium. Only two moderators had a positive effect on treatment effectiveness, namely pre-test levels of aggression and parental involvement. These results identified similarities between indicated prevention and intervention treatments, on the one hand, and universal prevention and selective prevention, on the other. Our findings suggest that research distinguishing between targets of treatments (i.e., factors associated with childhood aggression vs. present aggressive behaviors) would be promising. Moreover, to further increase effectiveness of treatments for childhood aggression, individual differences warrant scientific attention.
Dopamine D1 and D3 receptor polypharmacology as a potential treatment approach for substance use disorder Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Ewa Galaj, Scott Ewing, Robert Ranaldi
In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting dopamine D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in drug-related behaviors. D1-like and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce drug reward, reinstatement of drug seeking and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results to clinical settings has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects. This review highlights the role of D1 and D3 receptors in drug reward and seeking, the discovery of D1-D3 heteromers and their potential as targets in the treatment of addiction.
Working memory training mostly engages general-purpose large-scale networks for learning Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Juha Salmi, Lars Nyberg, Matti Laine
The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training. The distinguishing feature for WM training was the consistent modulation of the dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) activity. The strongest candidate for mediating transfer to similar untrained WM tasks was the frontostriatal system, showing higher striatal and VLPFC activations, and lower DLPFC activations after training. Modulation of transfer-related areas occurred mostly with longer training periods. Overall, our findings place WM training effects to a general perception-action cycle, where some modulations may depend on the specific cognitive demands of a training task.
Joggin’ the Noggin: Towards a Physiological Understanding of Exercise-Induced Cognitive Benefits Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Nikolas J. Stimpson, Glen Davison, Amir-Homayoun Javadi
Interindividual Variability in Neurobehavioral Response to Sleep Loss: A Comprehensive Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-18 Olga Tkachenko, David F. Dinges
Stable trait-like responding is well established for neurobehavioral performance measures across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation and partial chronic sleep restriction. These observed phenotypes are task-dependent, suggesting that there are distinct cognitive profiles of responding with differential vulnerability to sleep loss within the same individual. Numerous factors have been investigated as potential markers of phenotypic vulnerability to the effects of sleep loss but none fully account for this phenomenon. Observed interindividual differences in performance during extended wakefulness may be driven by underlying deficits in the wake-promoting system resulting in greater performance instability due to failure to counteract increased homeostatic pressure. Further work would benefit from a systems approach to the study of interindividual vulnerability in which behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic data are integrated in a larger framework delineating the relationships between genes, proteins, neurobiology, and behavior.
Sensory aspects of Tourette syndrome Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-17 Joanna H. Cox, Stefano Seri, Andrea E. Cavanna
Motor and vocal tics have long been recognised as the core features of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, patients’ first-person accounts have consistently reported that these involuntary motor manifestations have specific sensory correlates. These sensory symptoms are often described as feelings of mounting inner tension (“premonitory urges”) and are transiently relieved by tic expression. Multimodal hypersensitivity to external stimuli, perceived as triggers and/or exacerbating factors for specific tic symptoms, is also commonly reported by patients with TS. This article focuses on the rapidly expanding literature on the clinical and neurobiological aspects of the premonitory urge and multimodal hypersensitivity in patients with TS, with particular attention to pathophysiological mechanisms and possible treatment implications. These findings suggest that TS is a neurobehavioural condition characterised by intrinsic perceptual abnormalities involving the insula and sensorimotor areas, in addition to basal ganglia dysfunction. Further research will clarify the role of sensory symptoms in TS, as well as the effects of external sensory input on underlying motor abnormalities.
Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization: a systematic review of non-psychiatric and psychiatric studies Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Tina D. Kristensen, Rene C.W. Mandl, Jens R.M. Jepsen, Egill Rostrup, Louise B. Glenthøj, Merete Nordentoft, Birte Y. Glenthøj, Bjørn H. Ebdrup
Objective Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. Method A systematic review of non-psychiatric and psychiatric studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We included longitudinal, controlled studies in human participants aged 18-60 years published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2017. Studies required active interventions lasting between one day and one year, targeting cognitive-, motor- or sensory domains. The primary outcome was intervention-related brain changes in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) derived measures. Results We included 25 studies. Twenty studies reported positive findings. Five studies investigated psychiatric patients. Nine randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) reported DWI changes following cognitive interventions. Interventions were too heterogeneous to perform a meta-analysis. Intervention duration of at least eight weeks appeared required to induce consistent WM changes. Conclusions Non-pharmacological interventions can induce changes in WM. DWI is a relevant correlate of e.g. cognitive training in prospective, long-term RCTs of psychiatric patients.
The role of associative fear and avoidance learning in anxiety disorders: Gaps and directions for future research Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Andre Pittig, Michael Treanor, Richard T. LeBeau, Michelle G. Craske
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and are often chronic and disabling. Although exposure-based treatments are effective, a substantial number of individuals fail to fully remit or experience a return of symptoms after treatment. Understanding the critical processes underlying the development and treatment of anxiety disorders will help identify individuals at risk and optimize treatments. Aversive associative learning offers explanatory pathways through which fear and anxiety emerge, spread, persist, and resurge. This narrative review examines the advances made in our understanding of associative fear and avoidance learning in anxiety disorders. Overall, the extant literature supports a key role of aversive associative learning in the development and treatment of anxiety disorders. However, research is needed to target specific mechanisms such as extinction generalization and avoidance, the fragility of extinction, and moderating influences of individual differences pertinent to anxiety disorders (e.g., age, sex, depression). We discuss the need for more ecological valid and complex paradigms to model ambiguity and conflict as well as for clinical translation studies to optimize treatment.
Recent Insights into Antidepressant Therapy: Distinct Pathways and Potential Common Mechanisms in the Treatment of Depressive Syndromes Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Dietrich van Calker, Tsvetan Serchov, Claus Normann, Knut Biber
There is an urgent, unmet clinical need for faster and more efficient antidepressant drugs with higher response rates. In animal models of depression it was shown in the last few years that inhibition of three signaling molecules (BDNF, p11 and Homer1a) prevents efficacy of antidepressant therapy. These data not only show the crucial role of these factors for the treatment of depression, but may also point towards a better understanding of the molecular changes responsible for successful antidepressant therapy. Reviewing the literature concerning BNDF, p11 and Homer1a we here describe a molecular network in which these molecules interact with each other finally leading to facilitation of AMPA receptor signaling and plasticity, corroborating the current idea of AMPA receptors being a promising drug target in depression.
Chronobiological regulation of psychosocial and physiological outcomes in multiple sclerosis Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Elisea De Somma, Rajiv W. Jain, Kelvin W.C. Poon, Kaitlyn A. Tresidder, Julia P. Segal, Nader Ghasemlou
There is mounting scientific evidence showing the importance of innate biological rhythms on disease onset and progression. Perhaps the most important of these is the circadian rhythm, a cycle of oscillations lasting approximately 24 hours. Recent work has shown that circadian rhythms are intrinsically linked to the immune system in a bidirectional fashion, and disruption of these cycles can contribute to changes in pathology and quality of life (including fatigue, mood, and disability). This is particularly true in diseases of the nervous and immune systems. We review here the current preclinical and clinical literature to highlight interactions between circadian rhythms and Multiple sclerosis, as well as its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We highlight potential benefits of chronotherapy (the temporal administration of immunomodulatory drugs), an effort to increase treatment efficacy and reduce the negative side-effects of the drugs that often burden those suffering from the disease.
Neural Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Philippe Vignaud, Clément Donde, Thouraya Sadki, Emmanuel Poulet, Jérôme Brunelin
Growing evidence has suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could have beneficial effects on the acute phase of depression and on the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence. Despite growing clinical interest, the effects of MBIs on brain functioning in patients with MDD remain unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the changes in brain functioning associated with MBIs in patients with MDD. A systematic search was conducted, and of the 56 articles found, 8 were eligible. MBIs have modulatory effects on several brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD, such as the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and the parietal cortex. These regions have been implicated in self-awareness, attention and emotion regulation. Some of these findings were consistent with the effects of MBIs observed in healthy subjects and patients with other psychiatric disorders, especially enhanced activity in the frontal and subcortical regions related to the improved somatosensory awareness. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of MBIs in MDD.
PLEASURE: THE MISSING LINK IN THE REGULATION OF SLEEP Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 R.V. Rial, F. Canellas, A. Gamundí, M. Akaârir, M.C. Nicolau
Although largely unrecognized by sleep scholars, sleeping is a pleasure. This report aims first, to fill the gap: sleep, like food, water and sex, is a primary reinforcer. The levels of extracellular mesolimbic dopamine show circadian oscillations and mark the “wanting” for pro-homeostatic stimuli. Further, the dopamine levels decrease during waking and are replenished during sleep, in opposition to sleep propensity. The wanting of sleep, therefore, may explain the homeostatic and circadian regulation of sleep. Accordingly, sleep onset occurs when the displeasure of excessive waking is maximal, coinciding with the minimal levels of mesolimbic dopamine. Reciprocally, sleep ends after having replenished the limbic dopamine levels. Given the direct relation between waking and mesolimbic dopamine, sleep must serve primarily to gain an efficient waking. Pleasant sleep (i.e. emotional sleep), can only exist in animals capable of feeling emotions. Therefore, although sleep-like states have been described in invertebrates and primitive vertebrates, the association sleep-pleasure clearly marks a difference between the sleep of homeothermic vertebrates and cool blooded animals.
Applications of the Morris water maze in translational traumatic brain injury research Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Laura B. Tucker, Alexander G. Velosky, Joseph T. McCabe
Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by persistent cognitive symptoms, including executive function disruptions and memory deficits. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) is the most widely-employed laboratory behavioral test for assessing cognitive deficits in rodents after experimental TBI. Numerous protocols exist for performing the test, which has shown great robustness in detecting learning and memory deficits in rodents after infliction of TBI. We review applications of the MWM for the study of cognitive deficits following TBI in pre-clinical studies, describing multiple ways in which the test can be employed to examine specific aspects of learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on dependent measures that are available and important controls that must be considered in the context of TBI. Finally, caution is given regarding interpretation of deficits as being indicative of dysfunction of a single brain region (hippocampus), as experimental models of TBI most often result in more diffuse damage that disrupts multiple neural pathways and larger functional networks that participate in complex behaviors required in MWM performance.
Curiosity in old age: A possible key to achieving adaptive aging Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults. We identify the dopaminergic reward system and the noradrenergic system as the key brain systems implicated in curiosity processing and discuss how these brain systems contribute to the relationship between curiosity and adaptive aging.
Rewiring the connectome: evidence and effects Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Sophie H. Bennett, Alastair J. Kirby, Gerald T. Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the “connectome” to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought. To what extent can neural circuitry be rewired in the healthy adult brain? The connectome has been subdivided into multiple levels of scale, from synapses and microcircuits through to long-range tracts. Here, we examine the evidence for rewiring at each level. We then consider the role played by rewiring during learning. We conclude that harnessing rewiring offers new avenues to treat brain diseases.
A Critical Review of Brain and Cognitive Reserve in Huntington’s Disease Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-11 Maria V. Soloveva, Sharna D. Jamadar, Govinda Poudel, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis
The ‘reserve’ hypothesis posits that the brain undergoes structural and functional reorganisation to actively cope with brain damage or disease. Consistent with passive and active components of ‘reserve’, the brain moderates its biological substrates (brain reserve) and differentially changes the level of neural activity in tasks-specific networks and/or by recruiting additional non-task related brain regions (cognitive reserve) to optimise behavioural performance. How the ‘reserve’ hypothesis applies in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease (HD) remains unknown. We postulate that unless the ‘reserve’ hypothesis is tested empirically, it is impossible to draw firm conclusions about how task-related neural activity is providing a neuroplastic change in HD and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. We conclude that there is a pressing need to operationalise cognitive reserve, as well as incorporate different biological substrates into a model of ‘reserve’. We suggest that it is important to identify and embed potential neuroprotective modulating factors of ‘reserve’ in randomised controlled multi-domain non-pharmaceutical interventions to potentially enhance ‘reserve’ and thus preserve cognitive and psychosocial functioning in HD patients.
Do mothers sound good? A systematic review of the effects of maternal voice exposure on preterm infants’ development Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.299) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Livio Provenzi, Sara Broso, Rosario Montirosso
Preterm infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and are precociously separated from their mothers. Although developmental care interventions are meant to facilitate mother-infant bonding, physical contact is not always possible. Maternal voice exposure has been proposed as a way to foster maternal closeness and support postnatal bonding. Here we present a systematic review on maternal voice effects on preterm infants’ development. Literature search occurred on 4 databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines have been adopted and standardized quality appraisal has been carried on. Wide differences emerged in infants’ characteristics and maternal voice exposure methods. Inconsistency emerged for physiological outcomes (e.g., heart rate variability, oxygen saturation, number of critical alarm events), whereas a robust pattern of findings emerged for feeding behaviors, as well as cognitive and neurobehavioral development. Maternal voice appears to be a non-noxious intervention, which is consistent with developmental care and which can be embedded in developmental care strategies.
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