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  • A Systematic Review of Cognitive Outcomes in Angiographically Negative Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-10-23
    Tom Burke, Stephanie Hughes, Alan Carr, Mohsen Javadpour, Niall Pender

    Clinical outcomes, including performance on cognitive assessment, in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (anSAH) are often interpreted as benign with a good prognostic trajectory. However, diffuse cognitive deficits have been reported within this patient cohort resulting from anSAH, albeit to a lesser extent when compared to other neurovascular events. We consider cognitive outcomes in relation to anSAH to systematically review reported deficits, with a view to quantify and categorise cognitive impairment in this cohort. Anxiety and depression were also included within this review, provided they were assessed alongside cognitive function. Performance deficits in attention and executive function are commonly reported, with set-shifting and interference tasks most commonly impaired in patients. Non-executive cognitive functions are negatively implicated also. Clinical implications and hypotheses relating to the source of these deficits are discussed. This review was formally registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017075294).

    更新日期:2018-10-23
  • Cognitive Deficits in Psychotic Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-10-20
    Julia M. Sheffield, Nicole R. Karcher, Deanna M. Barch

    Individuals with disorders that include psychotic symptoms (i.e. psychotic disorders) experience broad cognitive impairments in the chronic state, indicating a dimension of abnormality associated with the experience of psychosis. These impairments negatively impact functional outcome, contributing to the disabling nature of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. The robust and reliable nature of cognitive deficits has led researchers to explore the timing and profile of impairments, as this may elucidate different neurodevelopmental patterns in individuals who experience psychosis. Here, we review the literature on cognitive deficits across the life span of individuals with psychotic disorder and psychotic-like experiences, highlighting the dimensional nature of both psychosis and cognitive ability. We identify premorbid generalized cognitive impairment in schizophrenia that worsens throughout development, and stabilizes by the first-episode of psychosis, suggesting a neurodevelopmental course. Research in affective psychosis is less clear, with mixed evidence regarding premorbid deficits, but a fairly reliable generalized deficit at first-episode, which appears to worsen into the chronic state. In general, cognitive impairments are most severe in schizophrenia, intermediate in bipolar disorder, and the least severe in psychotic depression. In all groups, cognitive deficits are associated with poorer functional outcome. Finally, while the generalized deficit is the clearest and most reliable signal, data suggests specific deficits in verbal memory across all groups, specific processing speed impairments in schizophrenia and executive functioning impairments in bipolar disorder. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychotic disorders that provide a window into understanding developmental course and risk for psychosis.

    更新日期:2018-10-22
  • Let’s Open the Decision-Making Umbrella: A Framework for Conceptualizing and Assessing Features of Impaired Decision Making in Addiction
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-10-06
    Lucien Rochat, Pierre Maurage, Alexandre Heeren, Joël Billieux

    Decision-making impairments play a pivotal role in the emergence and maintenance of addictive disorders. However, a sound conceptualization of decision making as an umbrella construct, encompassing its cognitive, affective, motivational, and physiological subcomponents, is still lacking. This prevents an efficient evaluation of the heterogeneity of decision-making impairments and the development of tailored treatment. This paper thus unfolds the various processes involved in decision making by adopting a critical approach of prominent dual- or triadic-process models, which postulate that decision making is influenced by the interplay of impulsive-automatic, reflective-controlled, and interoceptive processes. Our approach also focuses on social cognition processes, which play a crucial role in decision making and addictive disorders but were largely ignored in previous dual- or triadic-process models. We propose here a theoretical framework in which a range of coordinated processes are first identified on the basis of their theoretical and clinical relevance. Each selected process is then defined before reviewing available results underlining its role in addictive disorders (i.e., substance use, gambling, and gaming disorders). Laboratory tasks for measuring each process are also proposed, initiating a preliminary process-based decision-making assessment battery. This original approach may offer an especially informative view of the constitutive features of decision-making impairments in addiction. As prior research has implicated these features as risk factors for the development and maintenance of addictive disorders, our processual approach sets the scene for novel and transdiagnostic experimental and applied research avenues.

    更新日期:2018-10-06
  • Neuropsychological Interventions for Decision-Making in Addiction: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-26
    Antonio Verdejo-García, Miguel A. Alcázar-Córcoles, Natalia Albein-Urios

    Decision-making deficits are strong predictors of poor clinical outcomes in addiction treatment. However, research on interventions that address decision-making deficits among people with addiction is scarce and has not been analyzed. We aimed to systematically review evidence on neuropsychological interventions for decision-making deficits in addiction to identify promising therapies. Eligibility criteria were (1) participants with a diagnosis of substance use or behavioral addictive disorders, (2) interventions consisting of (neuro) psychological treatments that address decision-making, (3) comparators comprising control (sham) interventions, treatment as usual or no-treatment, (4) outcomes including a decision-making task, and (5) studies including RCTs and non-randomized trials. Search terms included addiction (or alcohol/drug/substance use/gambling) AND treatment (or specific interventions) AND decision-making (or specific tasks). The search yielded 728 hits, and two independent assessors agreed on the final selection of 12 articles. Interventions included Contingency Management (3 studies), Working Memory Training (2 studies) Goal Management Training (2 studies), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (2 studies), Reality Therapy, Motivational Interview and Monetary Management. The main outcome measures were tasks of delay discounting, risk-taking and reward-based decision-making. Results showed that Goal Management Training improves reward-based decision-making, while Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has beneficial effects on delay discounting. The evidence on Working Memory Training and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as stand-alone treatments was mixed. Motivational Interview and Monetary Management had no significant effects on decision-making. Bias control across studies was moderate. We conclude that Goal Management Training and Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy have potential to modify decision-making in people with addiction. RCTs are needed to establish the efficacy of these interventions.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • The Neural Substrate of Reward Anticipation in Health: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Findings in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Robin Paul Wilson, Marco Colizzi, Matthijs Geert Bossong, Paul Allen, Matthew Kempton, MTAC, N. Abe, A. R. Barros-Loscertales, J. Bayer, A. Beck, J. Bjork, R. Boecker, J. C. Bustamante, J. S. Choi, S. Delmonte, D. Dillon, M. Figee, H. Garavan, C. Hagele, E. J. Hermans, ICCAM Consortium, Y. Ikeda, V. Kappel, C. Kaufmann, C. Lamm, S. E. Lammertz, Y. Li, A. Murphy, L. Nestor, M. Pecina, D. Pfabigan, D. Pizzagalli, L. Rademacher, A. Roee, T. Sommer, R. Stark, H. Suzuki, T. Van Amselvoort, E. Van Hell, M. Vink, M. Votinov, D. Wotruba, Sagnik Bhattacharyya

    The monetary incentive delay task breaks down reward processing into discrete stages for fMRI analysis. Here we look at anticipation of monetary gain and loss contrasted with neutral anticipation. We meta-analysed data from 15 original whole-brain group maps (n = 346) and report extensive areas of relative activation and deactivation throughout the whole brain. For both anticipation of gain and loss we report robust activation of the striatum, activation of key nodes of the putative salience network, including anterior cingulate and anterior insula, and more complex patterns of activation and deactivation in the central executive and default networks. On between-group comparison, we found significantly greater relative deactivation in the left inferior frontal gyrus associated with incentive valence. This meta-analysis provides a robust whole-brain map of a reward anticipation network in the healthy human brain.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Distinct Activity Patterns of the Human Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Amygdala during Fear Learning
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Kelly Luyck, Travis D. Goode, Haemy Lee Masson, Laura Luyten

    The amygdala and, more recently, also the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have been widely implicated in fear and anxiety. Much of our current knowledge is derived from animal studies and suggests an intricate convergence and divergence in functions related to defensive responding. In a recent paper, Klumpers and colleagues set out to examine these functions in a human fear learning procedure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Their main findings were a role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat anticipation, and for the amygdala in threat confrontation. Here, we provide a critical summary of this interesting study and point out some important issues that were not addressed by its authors. In particular, we first take a closer look at the striking differences between both samples that were combined for the study, and, secondly, we provide an in-depth discussion of their findings in relation to existing neurobehavioral models.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Delusions in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Published Cases
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-08-02
    Nicola Warren, Cullen O’Gorman, Zena Hume, Steve Kisely, Dan Siskind

    Delusions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are thought to be associated with disease progression and cognitive impairment. However, this symptom description is not consistent in the literature and there is a suggestion that different subgroups of psychotic patients occur in PD, which we aimed to clarify. Case reports were identified through a systematic search of databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, PsychInfo). Cases with isolated delusions were compared to those with both delusions and hallucinations. We identified 184 cases of delusions in PD. Delusions were primarily paranoid in nature (83%) and isolated in 50%. Those with isolated delusions had an earlier onset of PD (46 years vs 55 years), higher rates of impulse control disorders (40.2 vs 10.3%), dopamine dysregulation (29.9 vs 11.3%) and lower rates of cognitive impairment (8.0 vs 26.8%). There is unexpected heterogeneity amongst cases of delusional psychosis, that cannot adequately be explained by existing models of PD psychosis.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Non-Gaussian Distributional Analyses of Reaction Times (RT): Improvements that Increase Efficacy of RT Tasks for Describing Cognitive Processes
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    David C. Osmon, Dmitriy Kazakov, Octavio Santos, Michelle T. Kassel

    This didactic aims of this review are to demonstrate the advantages of examining the entire reaction time (RT) distribution to better realize the efficacy of mental speed assessment in clinical neuropsychology. RT distributions are typically non-normal, requiring consideration of a host of statistical issues. Specifically, the appropriate model of the mental speed task’s distribution (e.g., ex-Gaussian, Weibull, Normal-Gaussian, etc.) must be determined to know what parameters can be used to characterize test performance. While RT mean and standard deviation are typically used to characterize clinical performance, these parameters are usually inappropriate because RT performance rarely conforms to a normal-Gaussian distribution. For illustrative purposes, a tutorial for examining the entire RT distribution is provided that demonstrates differences between an Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity and a neurotypical group of college students. While such analyses are descriptive, it is important to characterize test performance in the context of a theoretical model of RT performance. Therefore, the tutorial includes interpretation that uses the Diffusion model (Ratcliff Psychological Review, 85, 59-108, 1978), which assumes an ex-Gaussian distribution. It is concluded that current results conform to a large literature demonstrating a more nuanced understanding of cognition afforded by non-Gaussian analysis of RT. This literature is compelling neuropsychology to enlarge assessment technology beyond the limitations of paper-and-pencil instruments.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • General and Domain-Specific Effectiveness of Cognitive Remediation after Stroke: Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-07-13
    Jeffrey M. Rogers, Rachael Foord, Renerus J. Stolwyk, Dana Wong, Peter H. Wilson

    Cognitive remediation (CR) has been shown to improve cognitive abilities following a stroke. However, an updated quantitative literature review is needed to synthesize recent research and build understanding of factors that may optimize training parameters and treatment effects. Randomized controlled trials of CR were retrieved from seven electronic databases. Studies specific to adult stroke populations were included. Treatment effects were estimated using a random effects model, with immediate and longer-term follow-up outcomes, and moderator effects, examined for both overall and domain-specific functioning. Twenty-two studies were identified yielding 1098 patients (583 in CR groups). CR produced a small overall effect (g = 0.48, 95% CI 0.35–0.60, p < 0.01) compared with control conditions. This effect was moderated by recovery stage (p < 0.01), study quality (p = 0.04), and dose (p = 0.04), but not CR approach (p = 0.63). Significant small to medium (g = 0.25–0.75) post-intervention gains were evident within each individual outcome domain examined. A small overall effect (g = 0.27, 95% CI 0.04–0.51, p = 0.02) of CR persisted at follow-up (range 2–52 weeks). CR is effective and efficient at improving cognitive performance after stroke. The degree of efficacy varies across cognitive domains, and further high-quality research is required to enhance and sustain the immediate effects. Increased emphasis on early intervention approaches, brain-behavior relationships, and evaluation of activity and participation outcomes is also recommended.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • The Effects of rTMS on Impulsivity in Normal Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-05-05
    Cheng-Chang Yang, Birgit Völlm, Najat Khalifa

    Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is regarded as a symptom of many psychiatric disorders. Harm resulting from impulsive behaviour can be substantial for the individuals concerned, for their social network, and for wider society. Therefore, the importance of developing therapeutic interventions to target impulsivity is paramount. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature from AMED, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO databases on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in healthy adults to modulate different subdomains (motor, temporal and reflection) of impulsivity. The results indicated that rTMS has distinct effects on different impulsivity subdomains. It has a significant, albeit small, effect on modulating motor impulsivity (g = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43, p < .001) and a moderate effect on temporal impulsivity (g = 0.59, 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.86, p < .001). Subgroup analyses (e.g., excitatory vs. inhibitory rTMS, conventional rTMS vs. theta burst stimulation, analyses by stimulation sites, and type of outcome measure used) identified key parameters associated with the effects of rTMS on motor and temporal impulsivity. Age, sex, stimulation intensity and the number of pulses were not significant moderators for effects of rTMS on motor impulsivity. Due to lack of sufficient data to inform a meta-analysis, it has not been possible to assess the effects of rTMS on reflection impulsivity. The present findings provide preliminary evidence that rTMS can be used to modulate motor and temporal impulsivity in healthy individuals. Further studies are required to extend the use of rTMS to modulate impulsivity in those at most risk of engaging in harmful behaviour as a result of impulsivity, such as patients with offending histories and those with a history of self-harming behaviour.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Executive Function and Theory of Mind in Children with ADHD: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Wilmar Pineda-Alhucema, Edith Aristizabal, Johana Escudero-Cabarcas, Johan E. Acosta-López, Jorge I. Vélez

    In developmental research, the relationship between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed, and EF has been considered a condition for ToM. However, few researchers have studied the relationship between EF and ToM in clinical populations, especially that of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and motor hyperactivity/impulsivity, in which EF is largely impaired. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model, 201 English and Spanish articles evaluating EF and ToM in ADHD were chosen. Fifteen papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for further analysis. The first study dates from 2001. Most of the studies’ designs are cross-sectional, include mostly male children, have a small sample size, and were conducted in European countries. Unlike tasks assessing EF, tasks assessing ToM were heterogeneous across studies. The EFs most correlated with ToM were inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and attention. Interest in studying the relationship between EF and ToM in ADHD is recent,but increasing based on new findings and tuning of ToM instruments. However, while an association between EF and ToM is indicated in ADHD, the degree of prediction and predictability of one over the other cannot yet be established because of the studies’ heterogeneity.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Social Function and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-08-11
    Anita K. Chisholm, Vicki A. Anderson, Natalie A. Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N. North, Jonathan M. Payne

    In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1. A systematic literature search conducted in MedLine (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and PubMed electronic databases yielded 35 papers that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Out of these papers, 22 papers provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Findings from this review and meta-analysis provide evidence that children and adults with NF1 exhibit significantly higher prevalence and severity of social dysfunction and ASD symptomatology. To date, very few studies have examined social cognition in NF1 but results indicate the presence of both perceptual and higher-level impairments in this population. The results of this review also provide support for age, gender, and comorbid ADHD as moderating factors for social outcomes in NF1. Suggestions for future research are offered to further our understanding of the social phenotype in NF1 and to facilitate the development of targeted interventions.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • RBANS Validity Indices: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Robert D. Shura, Timothy W. Brearly, Jared A. Rowland, Sarah L. Martindale, Holly M. Miskey, Kevin Duff

    Neuropsychology practice organizations have highlighted the need for thorough evaluation of performance validity as part of the neuropsychological assessment process. Embedded validity indices are derived from existing measures and expand the scope of validity assessment. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a brief instrument that quickly allows a clinician to assess a variety of cognitive domains. The RBANS also contains multiple embedded validity indicators. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the utility of those indicators to assess performance validity. A systematic search was completed, resulting in 11 studies for synthesis and 10 for meta-analysis. Data were synthesized on four indices and three subtests across samples of civilians, service members, and veterans. Sufficient data for meta-analysis were only available for the Effort Index, and related analyses indicated optimal cutoff scores of ≥1 (AUC = .86) and ≥ 3 (AUC = .85). However, outliers and heterogeneity were present indicating the importance of age and evaluation context. Overall, embedded validity indicators have shown adequate diagnostic accuracy across a variety of populations. Recommendations for interpreting these measures and future studies are provided.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • A Systematic Review of Cognition in Chiari I Malformation
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Jeffrey M. Rogers, Greg Savage, Marcus A. Stoodley

    Displacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases. Articles meeting the following criteria were included in this review (i) examined children or adults with a clinically defined diagnosis of CMI, (ii) assessed cognitive function with a prospective examination, (iii) included at least one standardized instrument designed to measure general or specific domains of cognitive function, and (iv) were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Twelve articles were identified, including 783 cases aged 3 months to 64 years. General cognition, processing speed, and learning and memory appeared less affected, while language deficits appeared to diminish with age. Executive dysfunction was the most commonly reported cognitive impairment, while attention and working memory, and visuospatial and perceptual skills also appeared vulnerable. Numerous methodological limitations were identified that should be considered in interpreting the impact of CMI and planning future investigations. Overall, there is currently insufficient evidence to describe a valid and reliable profile of cognitive impairment in CMI. Further research is required to confirm these preliminary psychometric results and integrate them with pathophysiological models

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • The Study of Language in the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - Frontotemporal Spectrum Disorder: a Systematic Review of Findings and New Perspectives
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-04-28
    Marta Pinto-Grau, Orla Hardiman, Niall Pender

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor network disruption. Extra-motor manifestations including executive functions, social cognition, and behavioral changes are now well recognized as important features of ALS, and are associated with frontotemporal and frontostriatal network disruption. However, the presence and characterization of language changes has received less attention. This systematic review characterizes the profile of reported language dysfunction in ALS. PRISMA guidelines were implemented to carry out and report the review. Current evidence suggests that areas of neuroanatomical disruption in ALS spread to language centers such as posterior, inferior frontal and superior temporal areas leading to deficits in word retrieval, syntactic and grammatical processing, and spelling. However, the majority of studies of language in ALS have been limited by the recruitment of small clinic-based prevalent samples and important questions remain regarding the incidence and progression of language impairment in ALS. Further studies from population-based incident cohorts will help to determine the range of language deficits in ALS, and how these relate to previously defined executive and behavioral sub-phenotypes.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Neurocognitive Functioning in Depressed Young People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-04-22
    Joanne Goodall, Caroline Fisher, Sarah Hetrick, Lisa Phillips, Emma M. Parrish, Kelly Allott

    Background: Depression is among the most common mental health problems for young people. In adults, depression is associated with neurocognitive deficits that reduce the effectiveness of treatment and impair educational and vocational functioning. Compared to adults, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of young people with depression, and existing research has reported inconsistent findings. Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the literature on neurocognitive functioning in currently depressed youth aged 12–25 years in comparison to healthy controls. Results: Following a systematic review of the literature, 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Poorer performance in the domains of attention (SMD: .50, 95% CI: .18–.83, p = .002), verbal memory (SMD: .78, 95% CI: .50–1.0, p < .001), visual memory (SMD: .65, 95% CI: .30–.99, p < .001), verbal reasoning/knowledge (SMD: .46; 95% CI: .14–.79; p < 0.001) and IQ (SMD: .32; 95% CI: .08–.56; p = 0.01) were identified in depressed youth. Relative weaknesses in processing speed/reaction time and verbal learning were also evident, however, these findings disappeared when the quality of studies was controlled for. Moderator analysis showed a tendency for poorer set-shifting ability in younger depressed participants relative to controls (although non-significant; p = .05). Moderator analysis of medication status showed taking medication was associated with poorer attentional functioning compared to those not taking medication. Conclusion: The findings suggest that currently depressed young people display a range of neurocognitive weaknesses which may impact treatment engagement and outcome. The findings support the need to consider neurocognitive functioning when treating youth with depression.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Executive Functions in Children and Adolescents with Turner Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Claire Mauger, Céline Lancelot, Arnaud Roy, Régis Coutant, Nicole Cantisano, Didier Le Gall

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder, affecting 1/2500 to 1/3000 live female births, induced by partial or total deletion of one X chromosome. The neurocognitive profile of girls with TS is characterized by a normal Verbal IQ and weaknesses in visual-spatial, mathematics, and social cognitive domains. Executive functions (EFs) impairments have also been reported in these young patients. However, methodological differences across studies do not allow determination of which EFs are impaired and what is the magnitude of these impairments. The aim of this review was to clarify the EF profile of children and adolescents with TS. Sixteen samples, from thirteen studies, were included in the current meta-analysis. EFs measures used in these studies were classified into working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, or higher-order EFs tasks in accordance with Diamond’s model, Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168 (2013). Results confirmed that girls with TS had significant executive impairments with effect sizes varying from small (inhibitory control) to medium (cognitive flexibility) and large (working memory, higher-order EFs). Analyses by task revealed that cognitive inhibition may be more impaired than the other inhibitory control abilities. Heterogeneity across cognitive flexibility measures was also highlighted. Between-sample heterogeneity was observed for three tasks and the impact of participants’ characteristics on EFs was discussed. This meta-analysis confirms the necessity to assess, in patients living with TS, each EF by combining both visual and verbal tasks. Results also underline that, when studying girls with TS’ executive profile, it is important to explore the impact of moderator variables, such as IQ, parental socio-economic status, TS karyotype, psychiatric comorbidities, and hormonal treatment status.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Neurodevelopmental consequences of pediatric cancer and its treatment: applying an early adversity framework to understanding cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Hilary A. Marusak, Allesandra S. Iadipaolo, Felicity W. Harper, Farrah Elrahal, Jeffrey W. Taub, Elimelech Goldberg, Christine A. Rabinak

    Today, children are surviving pediatric cancer at unprecedented rates, making it one of modern medicine’s true success stories. However, we are increasingly becoming aware of several deleterious effects of cancer and the subsequent “cure” that extend beyond physical sequelae. Indeed, survivors of childhood cancer commonly report cognitive, emotional, and psychological difficulties, including attentional difficulties, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Cognitive late- and long-term effects have been largely attributed to neurotoxic effects of cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, surgery) on brain development. The role of childhood adversity in pediatric cancer – namely, the presence of a life-threatening disease and endurance of invasive medical procedures – has been largely ignored in the existing neuroscientific literature, despite compelling research by our group and others showing that exposure to more commonly studied adverse childhood experiences (i.e., domestic and community violence, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) strongly imprints on neural development. While these adverse childhood experiences are different in many ways from the experience of childhood cancer (e.g., context, nature, source), they do share a common element of exposure to threat (i.e., threat to life or physical integrity). Therefore, we argue that the double hit of early threat and cancer treatments likely alters neural development, and ultimately, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. In this paper, we (1) review the existing neuroimaging research on child, adolescent, and adult survivors of childhood cancer, (2) summarize gaps in our current understanding, (3) propose a novel neurobiological framework that characterizes childhood cancer as a type of childhood adversity, particularly a form of early threat, focusing on development of the hippocampus and the salience and emotion network (SEN), and (4) outline future directions for research.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Computerized Cognitive Training on Executive Functions: a Cross-Disciplinary Taxonomy for Classifying Outcome Cognitive Factors
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Shannon L. Webb, Vanessa Loh, Amit Lampit, Joel E. Bateman, Damian P. Birney

    The growing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging and cognitive decline has generated increasing cross-disciplinary interest in non-pharmacological interventions, such as computerized cognitive training (CCT), which may prevent or slow cognitive decline. However, inconsistent findings across meta-analytic reviews in the field suggest a lack of cross-disciplinary consensus and on-going debate regarding the benefits of CCT. We posit that a contributing factor is the lack of a theoretically-based taxonomy of constructs and representative tasks typically used. An integration of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy of broad and narrow cognitive factors and the Miyake unity-diversity theory of executive functions (EF) is proposed (CHC-M) as an attempt to clarify this issue through representing and integrating the disciplines contributing to CCT research. The present study assessed the utility of this taxonomy by reanalyzing the Lampit et al. (2014) meta-analysis of CCT in healthy older adults using the CHC-M framework. Results suggest that: 1) substantively different statistical effects are observed when CHC-M is applied to the Lampit et al. meta-analytic review, leading to importantly different interpretations of the data; 2) typically-used classification practices conflate Executive Function (EF) tasks with fluid reasoning (Gf) and retrieval fluency (Gr), and Attention with sensory perception; and 3) there is theoretical and practical advantage in differentiating attention and working-memory tasks into the narrow shifting, inhibition, and updating EF domains. Implications for clinical practice, particularly for our understanding of EF are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • The Effect of Non-Stroke Cardiovascular Disease States on Risk for Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Systematic and Meta-Analytic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Kayla B. Stefanidis, Christopher D. Askew, Kim Greaves, Mathew J. Summers

    Cardiovascular disease is associated with increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but it is unclear whether this risk varies across disease states or occurs in the absence of symptomatic stroke. To examine the evidence of increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia following non-stroke cardiovascular disease we conducted two independent meta-analyses in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The first review examined cardiovascular diagnoses (atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, periphery artery disease and myocardial infarction) while the second review assessed the impact of atherosclerotic burden (as indicated by degree of stenosis, calcification score, plaque morphology or number of plaques). Studies eligible for review longitudinally assessed risk for clinically significant cognitive decline and/or dementia and excluded stroke and cognitive impairment at baseline. Summary statistics were computed via the inverse variance weighted method, utilising Cox Proportional Hazards data (Hazard Ratios, HR). Both atrial fibrillation (n = 5, HR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.12, 1.43]) and severe atherosclerosis (n = 4, HR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.12, 2.26]) emerged as significant risk factors for cognitive decline and/or dementia. A small set of studies reviewed, insufficient for meta-analysis, examining congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction suggested that these conditions may also be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline/dementia. In the absence of stroke, patients with atrial fibrillation or generalised atherosclerosis are at heightened risk for cognitive deterioration. Nonetheless, this paper highlights the need for methodologically rigorous and prospective investigation of the relationship between CVD and dementia.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Prosaccade and Antisaccade Paradigms in Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analytic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Naomi Kahana Levy, Michal Lavidor, Eli Vakil

    Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are at high Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) risk but the development of sensitive measures to assess subtle cognitive decline in this population poses a major challenge for clinicians and researchers. Eye movement monitoring is a non-invasive, sensitive way to assess subtle cognitive processes in clinical populations. We conducted a critical review and a meta-analysis of the literature on pro and antisaccade paradigm in AD/MCI. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, all of which used the prosaccade paradigm and 13 of which studied the antisaccade paradigm as well. Our meta-analysis showed that AD but not MCI patients showed longer prosaccade latencies when compared to controls. While antisaccade latencies did not differentiate between patients from controls, antisaccade error rate were significantly increased among patients in comparison to controls in over 87% of the studies. These findings highlight antisaccade error rate as a reliable tool to distinguish inhibition abilities between AD/MCI and healthy older persons.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
  • Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 4.894) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Amitai Abramovitch, Gideon Anholt, Sagi Raveh-Gottfried, Naama Hamo, Jonathan S. Abramowitz

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize the literature on IQ in OCD systematically. We identified 98 studies containing IQ data among individuals with OCD and non-psychiatric comparison groups, and computed 108 effect sizes for Verbal IQ (VIQ, n = 55), Performance IQ (PIQ, n = 13), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, n = 40). Across studies, small effect sizes were found for FSIQ and VIQ, and a moderate effect size for PIQ, exemplifying reduced IQ in OCD. However, mean IQ scores across OCD samples were in the normative range. Moderator analyses revealed no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.

    更新日期:2018-10-04
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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华中师范大学化学生物学中心招聘化学类博士后
哈尔滨工业大学刘绍琴教授课题组诚招博士后、科研助理
南方科技大学讲座教授郑智平团队——行政秘书招聘启事
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