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  • Penile traction therapy — efficacy in PD
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Conor A. Bradley

    Penile traction therapy — efficacy in PDPenile traction therapy — efficacy in PD, Published online: 14 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0125-7Penile traction therapy — efficacy in PD

    更新日期:2018-11-14
  • TECs support the SSC niche
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Louise Stone

    TECs support the SSC nicheTECs support the SSC niche, Published online: 14 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0123-9TECs support the SSC niche

    更新日期:2018-11-14
  • eCoin device stops patients from spending a penny
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Annette Fenner

    eCoin device stops patients from spending a pennyeCoin device stops patients from spending a penny, Published online: 13 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0124-8eCoin device stops patients from spending a penny

    更新日期:2018-11-13
  • Nonsurgical management of Peyronie’s disease
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-11-05
    Peter Tsambarlis, Laurence A. Levine

    Peyronie’s disease is not a rare disorder, and it can be devastating to the affected man. Although the gold-standard treatment of Peyronie’s disease is surgery in the stable phase, nonoperative management is preferred by some men and is the only treatment option in the acute phase of the disease, when surgery is contraindicated. No oral or topical therapy has been shown to be efficacious when administered alone, but some evidence supports their use as part of a combination therapy regimen. Intralesional therapies, particularly collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH), have shown promise. Mechanical therapies can provide benefit when applied for prolonged periods of time, improving penile curvature, indentation, and even restoring length. Regardless of the modality chosen, patient counselling is paramount, as recovery of the penis to its predisease state is highly unlikely. Thus, although many options exist for nonsurgical management of Peyronie’s disease, surgery remains the best option for men who desire the most reliable and rapid pathway to a functionally straight, erect penis. The goal of nonsurgical therapy should be a scientifically feasible, safe approach to prevent the progression of, or reduce, deformity and improve sexual function.

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • Penis evolution across species: divergence and diversity
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-11-05
    David J. Hosken, C. Ruth Archer, Clarissa M. House, Nina Wedell

    The penis is an incredibly diverse and rapidly evolving structure, such that even in closely related species that otherwise differ very little in their morphology, penis form can be highly differentiated. Penises are also much more complex than their fundamental function — sperm transfer — would seem to require. The rapid divergent evolution of male structures is typically the signature of traits under sexual selection and the current evidence suggests the penis is no different in this regard. Despite the general agreement that sexual selection is the main driver of penis evolution, many questions about penis evolution remain unresolved. Furthermore, the penis might be an ideal characteristic on which to focus in the drive to link phenotype with genotype.

    更新日期:2018-11-05
  • The psychological toll of prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-11-01
    Suzanne K. Chambers, Peter Heathcote

    The psychological toll of prostate cancer The psychological toll of prostate cancer, Published online: 01 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0111-0 Matta et al. report that men with prostate cancer who underwent surgery or radiotherapy, but not active surveillance, had greater odds of receiving antidepressants than controls. However, methodological limitations preclude the interpretation of a psychological benefit for men on active surveillance. Screening for distress and referral to evidence-based intervention should be a priority.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Supporting sexuality and improving sexual function in transgender persons
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Mats Holmberg, Stefan Arver, Cecilia Dhejne

    Sexuality is important for most cisgender as well as transgender persons and is an essential aspect of quality of life. For both the patient and their clinicians, managing gender dysphoria includes establishing a comfortable relationship with sexual health issues, which can evolve throughout the course of gender-affirming treatment. Gender-affirming endocrine treatment of transgender men and women has considerable effects on sex drive and sexual function. Gender-affirming surgery (GAS) can improve body satisfaction and ease gender dysphoria, but surgery itself can be associated with sexual sequelae associated with physical constraints of the new genitals or postsurgical pain, psychological difficulties with accepting the new body, or social aspects of having changed gender. In general, a positive body image is associated with better sexual function and satisfaction, but satisfaction with sexual function after GAS can be present despite dissatisfaction with the surgery and vice versa. Factors involved in the integrated experience of gender-affirming treatment and the way in which sexuality is perceived are complex, and supporting sexuality and improving sexual function in transgender patients is, correspondingly, multifaceted. As the transgender patient moves through their life before, during, and after gender-affirming treatment, sexuality and sexual function should be considered and maximized at all stages in order to improve quality of life.

    更新日期:2018-10-31
  • The Warburg effect in hominis: isotope-resolved metabolism in ccRCC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-29
    Daniel R. Crooks, W. Marston Linehan

    The Warburg effect in hominis: isotope-resolved metabolism in ccRCC The Warburg effect in hominis: isotope-resolved metabolism in ccRCC, Published online: 29 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0110-1 A recently published study has evaluated metabolism in human clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) using intraoperative [13C]glucose infusion during surgical procedures. The findings demonstrate aerobic glycolysis and repression of the Krebs cycle, confirming the existence of the Warburg effect in ccRCC tumours in vivo.

    更新日期:2018-10-30
  • The mechanisms and potential of stem cell therapy for penile fibrosis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-26
    Uros Milenkovic, Maarten Albersen, Fabio Castiglione

    Fibrosis is often caused by chronic tissue injury leading to a persisting inflammatory response with excessive accumulation of extracellular connective tissue proteins. Peyronie’s disease, urethral stricture and penile (corpora cavernosa) fibrosis are localized fibrotic disorders of the penile connective tissues that can substantially impair a patient’s quality of life. Research over the past few decades has revealed the ability of stem cells to secrete a wide range of paracrine factors, a characteristic that could be exploited therapeutically to prevent and treat several inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. In preclinical studies, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proven to be the most effective and readily available type of stem cells for therapeutic use. An important advantage of MSCs is their ability to circumvent the immune system and function as immunomodulatory ‘drug stores’ to influence multiple cell types simultaneously. Many studies using stem cells have been applied exclusively to corpora cavernosa fibrosis owing to its well-established disease models. A plethora of preclinical data suggest the benefit of stem cells for use in penile fibrosis. However, their exact mechanism of action and optimal timing and mode of administration must be determined before clinical translation.

    更新日期:2018-10-26
  • Nonantibiotic prevention and management of recurrent urinary tract infection
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-25
    Néha Sihra, Anna Goodman, Rhana Zakri, Arun Sahai, Sachin Malde

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are highly prevalent, lead to considerable patient morbidity, incur large financial costs to health-care systems and are one of the most common reasons for antibiotic use worldwide. The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance means that the search for nonantibiotic alternatives for the treatment and prevention of UTI is of critical importance. Potential nonantibiotic measures and treatments for UTIs include behavioural changes, dietary supplementation (such as Chinese herbal medicines and cranberry products), NSAIDs, probiotics, d-mannose, methenamine hippurate, estrogens, intravesical glycosaminoglycans, immunostimulants, vaccines and inoculation with less-pathogenic bacteria. Some of the results of trials of these approaches are promising; however, high-level evidence is required before firm recommendations for their use can be made. A combination of these agents might provide the optimal treatment to reduce recurrent UTI, and trials in specific population groups are required.

    更新日期:2018-10-25
  • IL-23 links glutamine addiction and immune function
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-25
    Conor A. Bradley

    IL-23 links glutamine addiction and immune function IL-23 links glutamine addiction and immune function, Published online: 25 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0118-6 IL-23 links glutamine addiction and immune function

    更新日期:2018-10-25
  • Mismatch mutations: aggressive but sensitive
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Annette Fenner

    Mismatch mutations: aggressive but sensitive Mismatch mutations: aggressive but sensitive, Published online: 24 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0113-y Mismatch mutations: aggressive but sensitive

    更新日期:2018-10-24
  • Mirabegron MIRACLE cure for male incontinence?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Annette Fenner

    Mirabegron MIRACLE cure for male incontinence? Mirabegron MIRACLE cure for male incontinence?, Published online: 24 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0115-9 Mirabegron MIRACLE cure for male incontinence?

    更新日期:2018-10-24
  • MicroRNA signature aids diagnosis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Annette Fenner

    MicroRNA signature aids diagnosis MicroRNA signature aids diagnosis, Published online: 24 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0114-x MicroRNA signature aids diagnosis

    更新日期:2018-10-24
  • AR variants in CTCs correlate with outcomes
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Annette Fenner

    AR variants in CTCs correlate with outcomes AR variants in CTCs correlate with outcomes, Published online: 24 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0116-8 AR variants in CTCs correlate with outcomes

    更新日期:2018-10-24
  • T1 bladder cancer: current considerations for diagnosis and management
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Brian Jordan, Joshua J. Meeks

    Stage T1 bladder cancers invade the lamina propria of the bladder and, despite sharing many of the genetic features of muscle-invasive bladder cancers, are classified as non-muscle-invasive or ‘superficial’ tumours. Yet, patients with T1 bladder cancer have an overall mortality of 33% and a cancer-specific mortality of 14% at three years after diagnosis, suggesting that these patients have a high risk of progression and, accordingly, require meticulous surgery, endoscopic surveillance and clinical decision-making. We hypothesize that the variability in the outcomes of patients with T1 bladder cancer is a result of both tumour heterogeneity and pathological staging, as well as inconsistencies in risk stratification, endoscopic resection and schedules of delivery of BCG. Owing to limitations in clinical staging, patients with T1 bladder cancer are at risk of both undertreatment with persistent use of BCG despite recurrence, and overtreatment with early cystectomy. Understanding the molecular features of T1 bladder cancers and how they respond to BCG therapy could improve biomarkers for risk stratification to align therapy with biological risk.

    更新日期:2018-10-15
  • Correlates of alisertib response
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Conor A. Bradley

    Correlates of alisertib response Correlates of alisertib response, Published online: 12 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0107-9 Correlates of alisertib response

    更新日期:2018-10-14
  • Community profiling of the urinary microbiota: considerations for low-biomass samples
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Lisa Karstens, Mark Asquith, Vincent Caruso, James T. Rosenbaum, Damien A. Fair, Jonathan Braun, W. Thomas Gregory, Rahel Nardos, Shannon K. McWeeney

    Many studies have shown that the urinary tract harbours its own microbial community known as the urinary microbiota, which have been implicated in urinary tract disorders. This observation contradicts the long-held notion that urine is a sterile biofluid in the absence of acute infection of the urinary tract. In light of this new discovery, many basic questions that are crucial for understanding the role of the urinary microbiota in human health and disease remain unanswered. Given that the urinary microbiota is an emerging area of study, optimized techniques and protocols to identify microorganisms in the urinary tract are still being established. However, the low microbial biomass and close proximity to higher microbial biomass environments (for example, the vagina) present distinct methodological challenges for microbial community profiling of the urinary microbiota. A clear understanding of the unique technical considerations for obtaining and analysing low microbial biomass samples, as well the influence of key elements of experimental design and computational analysis on downstream interpretation, will improve our ability to interpret and compare results across methods and studies and is relevant for studies profiling the urinary microbiota and other sites of low microbial abundance.

    更新日期:2018-10-14
  • The UMBRELLA SIOP–RTSG 2016 Wilms tumour pathology and molecular biology protocol
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    Gordan M. Vujanić, Manfred Gessler, Ariadne H. A. G. Ooms, Paola Collini, Aurore Coulomb-l’Hermine, Ellen D’Hooghe, Ronald R. de Krijger, Daniela Perotti, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Christian Vokuhl, Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Norbert Graf

    On the basis of the results of previous national and international trials and studies, the Renal Tumour Study Group of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP–RTSG) has developed a new study protocol for paediatric renal tumours: the UMBRELLA SIOP–RTSG 2016 protocol (the UMBRELLA protocol). Currently, the overall outcomes of patients with Wilms tumour are excellent, but subgroups with poor prognosis and increased relapse rates still exist. The identification of these subgroups is of utmost importance to improve treatment stratification, which might lead to reduction of the direct and late effects of chemotherapy. The UMBRELLA protocol aims to validate new prognostic factors, such as blastemal tumour volume and molecular markers, to further improve outcome. To achieve this aim, large, international, high-quality databases are needed, which dictate optimization and international harmonization of specimen handling and comprehensive sampling of biological material, refine definitions and improve logistics for expert review. To promote broad implementation of the UMBRELLA protocol, the updated SIOP–RTSG pathology and molecular biology protocol for Wilms tumours has been outlined, which is a consensus from the SIOP–RTSG pathology panel.

    更新日期:2018-10-12
  • The challenges of supporting male infertility treatment in South Africa
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Amir D. Zarrabi, Theunis F. Kruger

    The challenges of supporting male infertility treatment in South Africa The challenges of supporting male infertility treatment in South Africa, Published online: 03 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0099-5 Growing up in South Africa, it is not uncommon to hear the phrase ‘Africa is a tough country’ — a statement that is true on many levels, not least when it comes to managing infertility, where cultural beliefs can be an obstacle for men seeking health care and for the physicians who provide it.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Is robot-assisted surgery noninferior or real progress?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Fiona C. Burkhard

    Is robot-assisted surgery noninferior or real progress? Is robot-assisted surgery noninferior or real progress?, Published online: 03 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0101-2 The results of the RAZOR trial of robot-assisted radical cystectomy versus open radical cystectomy in patients with bladder cancer show that robotic surgery is noninferior. However, care must be taken before widespread adoption of this modality, as superiority has not yet been established.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Mitomycin C in the treatment of anterior urethral strictures
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-28
    Joon J. Park, Tricia L. Kuo, Christopher R. Chapple

    Mitomycin C in the treatment of anterior urethral strictures Mitomycin C in the treatment of anterior urethral strictures, Published online: 28 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0102-1 Anterior urethral strictures are a common urological problem and urethrotomy has limited efficacy if repeated treatment is needed. An increasing number of studies have shown that mitomycin C has potential as an adjunct to urethrotomy for improving its success rate.

    更新日期:2018-10-03
  • Intravesical device-assisted therapies for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Wei Shen Tan, John D. Kelly

    Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), the most prevalent type of bladder cancer, accounts for ~75% of bladder cancer diagnoses. This disease has a 50% risk of recurrence and 20% risk of progression within 5 years, despite the use of intravesical adjuvant treatments (such as BCG or mitomycin C) that are recommended by clinical guidelines. Intravesical device-assisted therapies, such as radiofrequency-induced thermochemotherapeutic effect (RITE), conductive hyperthermic chemotherapy, and electromotive drug administration (EMDA), have shown promising efficacy. These device-assisted treatments are an attractive alternative to BCG, as issues with supply have been a problem in some countries. RITE might be an effective treatment option for some patients who have experienced BCG failure and are not candidates for radical cystectomy. Data from trials using EMDA suggest that it is effective in high-risk disease but requires further validation, and results of randomized trials are eagerly awaited for conductive hyperthermic chemotherapy. Considerable heterogeneity in patient cohorts, treatment sessions, use of maintenance regimens, and single-arm study design makes it difficult to draw solid conclusions, although randomized controlled trials have been reported for RITE and EMDA.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Familial TGCT: polygenic aetiology advanced
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Mark H. Greene, Ruth M. Pfeiffer

    Familial TGCT: polygenic aetiology advanced Familial TGCT: polygenic aetiology advanced, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0093-y A polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis reported that familial testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) were significantly enriched for TGCT risk alleles and that ≥84% were attributable to polygenic enrichment, supporting the polygenic aetiological basis of familial TGCT. Clinical application will first require improved TGCT screening and early detection tools.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Early-life alcohol intake and high-grade prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Carlo La Vecchia

    Early-life alcohol intake and high-grade prostate cancer Early-life alcohol intake and high-grade prostate cancer, Published online: 24 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0094-x A recently published cohort study of 650 men undergoing prostate biopsy showed no association between current alcohol intake and overall prostate cancer risk, but did report an association between regular drinking during adolescence and early adulthood and high-grade prostate cancer.

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • Enzalutamide treatment for the whole spectrum of CRPC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-21
    Hanson Zhao, Stephen Freedland

    Enzalutamide treatment for the whole spectrum of CRPC Enzalutamide treatment for the whole spectrum of CRPC, Published online: 21 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0090-1 The FDA recently expanded the indication for enzalutamide for the treatment of all men with metastatic and nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer on the basis of the PROSPER trial. Now that both disease states can have the same treatment, the need to thoroughly identify metastatic lesions is questioned.

    更新日期:2018-09-22
  • CXCR4–HIF-1α interaction drives metastasis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Conor A. Bradley

    CXCR4–HIF-1α interaction drives metastasis CXCR4–HIF-1α interaction drives metastasis, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0097-7 CXCR4–HIF-1α interaction drives metastasis

    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Immunogenomic landscape of dMMR tumours
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Conor A. Bradley

    Immunogenomic landscape of dMMR tumours Immunogenomic landscape of dMMR tumours, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0095-9 Immunogenomic landscape of dMMR tumours

    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Interfocal genomic heterogeneity uncovered
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Conor A. Bradley

    Interfocal genomic heterogeneity uncovered Interfocal genomic heterogeneity uncovered, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0098-6 Interfocal genomic heterogeneity uncovered

    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • 18F-Fluciclovine-PET–CT LOCATEs recurrence
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    Conor A. Bradley

    18F-Fluciclovine-PET–CT LOCATEs recurrence 18F-Fluciclovine-PET–CT LOCATEs recurrence, Published online: 17 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0096-8 18F-Fluciclovine-PET–CT LOCATEs recurrence

    更新日期:2018-09-17
  • Urinary cell-free DNA and UTI; the age of ‘omics’
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Rhana Hassan Zakri, Jonathon Olsburgh

    Urinary cell-free DNA and UTI; the age of ‘omics’ Urinary cell-free DNA and UTI; the age of ‘omics’, Published online: 14 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0089-7 Applying the principles of ‘omics’ to urinary tract infection opens up exciting diagnostic and management avenues. Urinary cell-free DNA can be used to gain new insight not only into the spectrum of pathogens present in host urine but also their likelihood to cause disease.

    更新日期:2018-09-14
  • Mesenchymal stem cells and the embryonic reawakening theory of BPH
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-13
    W. Nathaniel Brennen, John T. Isaacs

    The prostate is the only organ in a man that continues to grow with age. John McNeal proposed, 40 years ago, that this BPH is characterized by an age-related reinitiation of benign neoplastic growth selectively in developmentally abortive distal ducts within the prostate transition–periurethral zone (TPZ), owing to a reawakening of inductive stroma selectively within these zones. An innovative variant of this hypothesis is that, owing to its location, the TPZ is continuously exposed to urinary components and/or autoantigens, which produces an inflammatory TPZ microenvironment that promotes recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and generates a paracrine-inductive stroma that reinitiates benign neoplastic nodular growth. In support of this hypothesis, MSCs infiltrate human BPH tissue and have the ability to stimulate epithelial stem cell growth. These results provide a framework for defining both the aetiology of BPH in ageing men and insights into new therapeutic approaches.

    更新日期:2018-09-13
  • Retroviral signature can predict therapy outcome
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Annette Fenner

    Retroviral signature can predict therapy outcome Retroviral signature can predict therapy outcome, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0091-0 Retroviral signature can predict therapy outcome

    更新日期:2018-09-11
  • miR-96 influences RARγ expression
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Louise Stone

    miR-96 influences RARγ expression miR-96 influences RARγ expression, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0088-8 miR-96 influences RARγ expression

    更新日期:2018-09-09
  • Oncometabolite mechanism unravelled
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-05
    Conor A. Bradley

    Oncometabolite mechanism unravelled Oncometabolite mechanism unravelled, Published online: 05 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0086-x Oncometabolite mechanism unravelled

    更新日期:2018-09-05
  • Therapy-induced small-cell disease: from mouse to man and back
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Magdalena M. Grabowska, Robert J. Matusik

    Therapy-induced small-cell disease: from mouse to man and back Therapy-induced small-cell disease: from mouse to man and back, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0084-z With the emergence of increasingly potent androgen deprivation therapy, rates of treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer are increasing. In a recent prospective study, Aggarwal and colleagues defined the frequency and clinical and genomic characteristics of these tumours.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Risk of solid cancer after chemotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-09-03
    Chunkit Fung, Lois B. Travis

    Risk of solid cancer after chemotherapy Risk of solid cancer after chemotherapy, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0085-y Platinum-based chemotherapy continues to be linked with the subsequent development of various solid tumours. In a large analytical study of >5,800 survivors of testicular cancer, Groot and colleagues observed statistically significant dose-dependent increases in gastrointestinal cancer incidence after platinum-based chemotherapy, providing evidence for a potential dose-dependent relationship.

    更新日期:2018-09-04
  • Testosterone therapy and medical hysteria
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Abraham Morgentaler

    Testosterone therapy and medical hysteria Testosterone therapy and medical hysteria, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0081-2 A recent study has shown a decline in testosterone prescriptions since media reports of potential increased cardiovascular risk in 2014. The phenomenon of medical hysteria accounts for this reduced prescribing, as numerous subsequent studies provide substantial evidence of reduced cardiovascular risk and other important benefits with testosterone therapy for men with testosterone deficiency.

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • Immunotherapy for advanced penile cancer — rationale and potential
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-08-30
    Bradley McGregor, Guru Sonpavde

    Immunotherapy for advanced penile cancer — rationale and potential Immunotherapy for advanced penile cancer — rationale and potential, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0083-0 In this Comment, McGregor and Sonpavde discuss the rationale and potential for immunotherapy in advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting associations with human papillomavirus infection and a tumour-site agnostic immunotherapy indication, which form the basis of ongoing clinical trials.

    更新日期:2018-08-30
  • The role of ketoconazole in current prostate cancer care
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Vaibhav Patel, Bobby Liaw, William Oh

    Ketoconazole is a nonselective steroid 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (CYP17A1) inhibitor that has been used, off-label, as a second-line therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The drug has shown clinical efficacy without survival benefit. Despite not improving survival, ketoconazole has beneficial characteristics, such as its low cost, a relatively favourable toxicity profile compared with chemotherapy, and its efficacy both before and after chemotherapy. The approval of several new, highly effective treatments, including abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and apalutamide, warrants re-evaluation of the role of ketoconazole and other classic agents in achieving the optimal timing and sequencing of available agents to prolong survival and maintain patients’ quality of life. In the current CRPC treatment landscape, we believe that ketoconazole can be considered in patients with nonmetastatic CRPC and in those with metastatic CRPC who do not respond to, tolerate, or have access to chemotherapy and other standard therapeutic options.

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Novel nucleoporin drives aggressiveness
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Conor A. Bradley

    Novel nucleoporin drives aggressiveness Novel nucleoporin drives aggressiveness, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0082-1 Novel nucleoporin drives aggressiveness

    更新日期:2018-08-29
  • Revisiting 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Cindy H. Chau, William D. Figg

    Revisiting 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of prostate cancerRevisiting 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of prostate cancer, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0018-9The role of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) in prostate cancer chemoprevention remains a controversy, as cancer prevention trials with 5-ARIs have shown a decreased incidence of low-grade prostate cancer but a potential increased risk in high-grade disease. Recent studies have shed light on the long-term safety of 5-ARIs in terms of influencing prostate cancer risk.

    更新日期:2018-05-08
  • Tracing the steps of cancer evolution
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Conor A. Bradley

    Tracing the steps of cancer evolutionTracing the steps of cancer evolution, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0016-yTracing the steps of cancer evolution

    更新日期:2018-05-08
  • In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Louise Stone

    In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumourIn the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour, Published online: 03 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0019-8In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Macropinocytosis for proliferation
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Macropinocytosis for proliferationMacropinocytosis for proliferation, Published online: 30 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0012-2Macropinocytosis for proliferation

    更新日期:2018-04-30
  • Historical and contemporary perspectives on cribriform morphology in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Matthew Truong, Thomas Frye, Edward Messing, Hiroshi Miyamoto

    The Gleason scoring system is widely used for the grading and prognostication of prostate cancer. A Gleason pattern 4 subtype known as cribriform morphology has now been recognized as an aggressive and often lethal pattern of prostate cancer. The vast majority of published and ongoing prostate cancer studies still do not acknowledge the prognostic differences between various Gleason pattern 4 morphologies. As a result, current treatment recommendations are likely to be imprecise and not tailored towards patients who are most likely to die from the disease. Use of active surveillance for patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer has been suggested. However, the success of such paradigms would require cribriform morphology to be reported at the time of prostate biopsy, as patients harbouring such a pattern are poor candidates for surveillance. To date, only a limited number of studies have described the molecular alterations that occur in the cribriform morphological pattern. Further refinement of prostate cancer grading paradigms to distinguish cribriform from noncribriform Gleason pattern 4 is essential.

    更新日期:2018-04-30
  • AR involved in sunitinib resistance
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Louise Stone

    AR involved in sunitinib resistanceAR involved in sunitinib resistance, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0011-3AR involved in sunitinib resistance

    更新日期:2018-04-23
  • Cryo combo augments ICI
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Annette Fenner

    Cryo combo augments ICICryo combo augments ICI, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0009-xCryo combo augments ICI

    更新日期:2018-04-19
  • Regulation of masculinization: androgen signalling for external genitalia development
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-18
    Shoko Matsushita, Kentaro Suzuki, Aki Murashima, Daiki Kajioka, Alvin Resultay Acebedo, Shinichi Miyagawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Yukiko Ogino, Gen Yamada

    The biology of masculinization is fundamentally important for understanding the embryonic developmental processes that are involved in the development of the male reproductive tract, external genitalia, and also the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer. The molecular mechanisms of masculinization are of interest to many researchers and clinicians involved in varied fields, including molecular developmental biology, cancer research, endocrinology, and urology. Androgen signalling is mediated by the nuclear androgen receptor, which has fundamental roles in masculinization during development. Various modes of androgen signalling, including 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation, have been observed in masculinization. Such regulation is essential for regulating urogenital tissue development, including external genitalia development. Androgen-induced genes, such as MAFB, which belongs to the activator protein 1 (AP-1) superfamily of genes, have essential roles in male urethral formation, and disruption of its signalling can interfere with urethral formation, which often results in hypospadias. Another AP-1 superfamily gene, ATF3, could be responsible for some instances of hypospadias in humans. These androgen-dependent signals and downstream events are crucial for not only developmental processes but also processes of diseases such as hypospadias and prostate cancer.

    更新日期:2018-04-18
  • Second-generation antiandrogens in nonmetastatic CRPC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Robert Chandler, Johann de Bono

    Second-generation antiandrogens in nonmetastatic CRPCSecond-generation antiandrogens in nonmetastatic CRPC, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0007-zThe FDA recently approved the second-generation antiandrogen apalutamide for the treatment of men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer on the basis of metastasis-free survival data from the SPARTAN trial. However, whether apalutamide is clinically superior to enzalutamide and whether early or late treatment is preferable remains to be defined.

    更新日期:2018-04-17
  • Treating vulvovaginal symptoms
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Louise Stone

    Treating vulvovaginal symptomsTreating vulvovaginal symptoms, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0010-4Treating vulvovaginal symptoms

    更新日期:2018-04-16
  • Unravelling disparate roles of NOTCH in bladder cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Akihiro Goriki, Roland Seiler, Alexander W. Wyatt, Alberto Contreras-Sanz, Akshay Bhat, Akio Matsubara, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Peter C. Black

    The Notch pathway has been implicated in both oncogenic and tumour-suppressive roles in cancer depending on the tissue type and cellular context. However, until recently, little was known about the pathway in bladder cancer. Studies have revealed that NOTCH1 copy number and expression are decreased in bladder cancer and NOTCH1 activation in bladder cancer cell lines reduces proliferation, suggesting that NOTCH1 acts as a tumour suppressor. Furthermore, in transgenic models, bladder cancer is promoted by bladder-specific inactivation of a component of the γ-secretase complex, which liberates the intracellular domain of neurogenic locus Notch homologue protein (NOTCH) and starts the signalling cascade. By contrast, further work has demonstrated that NOTCH2 acts as an oncogene that promotes cell proliferation and metastasis through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell cycle progression, and maintenance of stemness. Studies indicating that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 have opposite effects on the progression of bladder cancer could give rise to potential therapeutic approaches aimed at blocking or restoring the Notch pathway.

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Prostate cancer and social media
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Stacy Loeb, Matthew S. Katz, Aisha Langford, Nataliya Byrne, Shannon Ciprut

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain — particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 8.089) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    Clemens Thoma

    Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapyKidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy, Published online: 10 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.47Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy

    更新日期:2018-04-10
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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