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  • Yes or no to local therapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Judd W. Moul

    Yes or no to local therapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer? Yes or no to local therapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer?, Published online: 23 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0028-7 Metastatic prostate cancer has traditionally been treated with systemic therapy alone, but the issue of oligometastatic disease raises the question of whether local therapy — radical prostatectomy or prostate radiotherapy — should be performed. A number of phase III trials should improve our understanding of metastatic disease and lead to better care of our patients.

    更新日期:2018-05-23
  • Signal of GV1001 efficacy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Clemens Thoma

    Signal of GV1001 efficacy Signal of GV1001 efficacy, Published online: 23 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0030-0 Signal of GV1001 efficacy

    更新日期:2018-05-23
  • [177Lu]PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy shows promise
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-22
    Conor A. Bradley

    [177Lu]PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy shows promise [177Lu]PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy shows promise, Published online: 22 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0029-6 [177Lu]PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy shows promise

    更新日期:2018-05-22
  • Hypoxia-related gene panel is prognostic
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
    Louise Stone

    Hypoxia-related gene panel is prognostic Hypoxia-related gene panel is prognostic, Published online: 17 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0025-x Hypoxia-related gene panel is prognostic

    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Surfaceome profiling for NEPC target antigens
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
    Annette Fenner

    Surfaceome profiling for NEPC target antigens Surfaceome profiling for NEPC target antigens, Published online: 17 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0026-9 Surfaceome profiling for NEPC target antigens

    更新日期:2018-05-17
  • Translational models of prostate cancer bone metastasis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Richard B. Berish, Aymon N. Ali, Patrick G. Telmer, John A. Ronald, Hon S. Leong

    Metastatic disease is the principal cause of prostate-cancer-related mortality. Our ability to accurately recapitulate the spread of prostate cancer to bone — the most common site of metastasis — is critical to the development of novel metastasis-directed therapies. Several translational models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, including animal models, cell line injection models, 3D in vitro models, bone implant models, and patient-derived xenograft models. The use of these models has led to numerous advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of metastasis and innovations in targeted therapy. Despite this progress, current models are limited by a failure to holistically reproduce each individual element of the metastatic cascade in prostate cancer bone metastasis. In addition, factors such as accurate recapitulation of immunobiological events and improvements in tumour heterogeneity require further consideration. Knowledge gained from historical and currently used models will improve the development of next-generation models. An introspective appraisal of current preclinical models demonstrating bone metastases is warranted to narrow research focus, improve future translational modelling, and expedite the delivery of urgently needed metastasis-directed treatments.

    更新日期:2018-05-17
  • Aptamer effective in vivo
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Clemens Thoma

    Aptamer effective in vivo Aptamer effective in vivo, Published online: 16 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0027-8 Aptamer effective in vivo

    更新日期:2018-05-16
  • Systemic treatments for high-risk localized prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Géraldine Pignot, Denis Maillet, Emmanuel Gross, Philippe Barthelemy, Jean-Baptiste Beauval, Friederike Constans-Schlurmann, Yohann Loriot, Guillaume Ploussard, Paul Sargos, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Sébastien Vincendeau, Gilles Pasticier, Delphine Borchiellini

    The majority of patients with prostate cancer who later develop lethal metastatic disease have high-risk localized disease at presentation, emphasizing the importance of effective treatment strategies at this stage. Multimodal treatment approaches that combine systemic and local therapies offer a promising strategy for improving the clinical outcomes of patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Combinations of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or chemohormonal therapy are considered to be the standard of care in most solid tumours and should be investigated in the future for the treatment of prostate cancer to improve patient outcomes. However, although the combination of androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy is a standard of care in high-risk localized or locally advanced prostate cancer, the benefit of chemotherapy or chemohormonal therapy has yet to be demonstrated outside of the metastatic setting. Moreover, the benefit of neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapies in combination with radical prostatectomy has not been proved. The development of next-generation hormonal agents, which have been approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer, offers further therapeutic possibilities that are being assessed in early-phase clinical trials.

    更新日期:2018-05-16
  • Optimizing radiotherapy for intermediate-risk localized disease
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Pirus Ghadjar, Thomas Wiegel

    Optimizing radiotherapy for intermediate-risk localized disease Optimizing radiotherapy for intermediate-risk localized disease, Published online: 15 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0024-y Dose-intensified radiotherapy is widely used in prostate cancer treatment but its effect on distant metastasis and overall survival is unclear. A large randomized clinical trial to evaluate the role of external-beam-based dose intensification without androgen deprivation therapy in intermediate-risk disease shows that dose escalation can reduce distant metastases.

    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Do dietary calcium and vitamin D matter in men with prostate cancer?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Thierry Capiod, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Natascha Pigat, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Vincent Goffin

    Active surveillance (AS) is an attractive alternative to immediate treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Thus, the identification of environmental factors that promote the progression of indolent disease towards aggressive stages is critical to optimize clinical management. Epidemiological studies suggest that calcium-rich diets contribute to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer and that vitamin D reduces this risk. However, the potential effect of these nutrients on the progression of early-stage prostate tumours is uncertain, as studies in this setting are scarce and have not provided unambiguous conclusions. By contrast, the results of a preclinical study from our own group demonstrate that a diet high in calcium dose-dependently accelerated the progression of early-stage prostate tumours and that dietary vitamin D prevented this effect. The extent to which the conclusions of preclinical and epidemiological studies support a role for calcium and vitamin D and the relevance of monitoring and adjustment of calcium and/or vitamin D intake in patients on AS require further investigation.

    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Personalization of prostate cancer therapy through phosphoproteomics
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-11
    Wei Yang, Michael R. Freeman, Natasha Kyprianou

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains incurable despite the approval of several new treatments. Identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets to enable personalization of CRPC therapy, with the aim of maximizing therapeutic responses and minimizing toxicity in patients, is urgently needed. Prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance are frequently driven by aberrantly activated kinase signalling pathways that are amenable to pharmacological inhibition. Personalized phosphoproteomics, which enables the analysis of signalling networks in individual tumours, is a promising approach to advance personalized therapy by discovering biomarkers of pathway activity and clinically actionable targets. Several technologies for global and targeted phosphoproteomic analysis exist, each with its own strengths and shortcomings. Global discovery phosphoproteomics is predominantly conducted using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry coupled with data-dependent or data-independent acquisition technologies. Multiplexed targeted phosphoproteomics can be divided into platforms based on mass spectrometry or antibodies, including selected or parallel reaction monitoring and triggered by offset, multiplexed, accurate mass, high-resolution, absolute quantification (known as TOMAHAQ) or forward-phase or reverse-phase protein arrays, respectively. Several obstacles still need to be overcome before the full potential of phosphoproteomics can be realized in routine clinical practice, but a future phosphoproteomics-centric trans-omic profiling approach should enable optimized personalized CRPC management through improved biomarkers and targeted treatments.

    更新日期:2018-05-11
  • Controlling mutational chaos
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Clemens Thoma

    Controlling mutational chaos Controlling mutational chaos, Published online: 09 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0021-1 Controlling mutational chaos

    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • Which antibiotics for UTI?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    Louise Stone

    Which antibiotics for UTI? Which antibiotics for UTI?, Published online: 09 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0022-0 Which antibiotics for UTI?

    更新日期:2018-05-09
  • Revisiting 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Cindy H. Chau, William D. Figg

    Revisiting 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of prostate cancer Revisiting 5α-reductase inhibitors and the risk of prostate cancer, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0018-9 The role of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) in prostate cancer chemoprevention remains a controversy, as cancer prevention trials with 5-ARIs have shown a decreased incidence of low-grade prostate cancer but a potential increased risk in high-grade disease. Recent studies have shed light on the long-term safety of 5-ARIs in terms of influencing prostate cancer risk.

    更新日期:2018-05-08
  • Tracing the steps of cancer evolution
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Conor A. Bradley

    Tracing the steps of cancer evolution Tracing the steps of cancer evolution, Published online: 08 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0016-y Tracing the steps of cancer evolution

    更新日期:2018-05-08
  • In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Louise Stone

    In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour, Published online: 03 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0019-8 In the bank: bladder organoids recapitulate original tumour

    更新日期:2018-05-03
  • Macropinocytosis for proliferation
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Macropinocytosis for proliferation Macropinocytosis for proliferation, Published online: 30 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0012-2 Macropinocytosis for proliferation

    更新日期:2018-04-30
  • Historical and contemporary perspectives on cribriform morphology in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Matthew Truong, Thomas Frye, Edward Messing, Hiroshi Miyamoto

    The Gleason scoring system is widely used for the grading and prognostication of prostate cancer. A Gleason pattern 4 subtype known as cribriform morphology has now been recognized as an aggressive and often lethal pattern of prostate cancer. The vast majority of published and ongoing prostate cancer studies still do not acknowledge the prognostic differences between various Gleason pattern 4 morphologies. As a result, current treatment recommendations are likely to be imprecise and not tailored towards patients who are most likely to die from the disease. Use of active surveillance for patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer has been suggested. However, the success of such paradigms would require cribriform morphology to be reported at the time of prostate biopsy, as patients harbouring such a pattern are poor candidates for surveillance. To date, only a limited number of studies have described the molecular alterations that occur in the cribriform morphological pattern. Further refinement of prostate cancer grading paradigms to distinguish cribriform from noncribriform Gleason pattern 4 is essential.

    更新日期:2018-04-30
  • AR involved in sunitinib resistance
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Louise Stone

    AR involved in sunitinib resistance AR involved in sunitinib resistance, Published online: 23 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0011-3 AR involved in sunitinib resistance

    更新日期:2018-04-23
  • Cryo combo augments ICI
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Annette Fenner

    Cryo combo augments ICI Cryo combo augments ICI, Published online: 19 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0009-x Cryo combo augments ICI

    更新日期:2018-04-19
  • Regulation of masculinization: androgen signalling for external genitalia development
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-18
    Shoko Matsushita, Kentaro Suzuki, Aki Murashima, Daiki Kajioka, Alvin Resultay Acebedo, Shinichi Miyagawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Yukiko Ogino, Gen Yamada

    The biology of masculinization is fundamentally important for understanding the embryonic developmental processes that are involved in the development of the male reproductive tract, external genitalia, and also the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer. The molecular mechanisms of masculinization are of interest to many researchers and clinicians involved in varied fields, including molecular developmental biology, cancer research, endocrinology, and urology. Androgen signalling is mediated by the nuclear androgen receptor, which has fundamental roles in masculinization during development. Various modes of androgen signalling, including 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation, have been observed in masculinization. Such regulation is essential for regulating urogenital tissue development, including external genitalia development. Androgen-induced genes, such as MAFB, which belongs to the activator protein 1 (AP-1) superfamily of genes, have essential roles in male urethral formation, and disruption of its signalling can interfere with urethral formation, which often results in hypospadias. Another AP-1 superfamily gene, ATF3, could be responsible for some instances of hypospadias in humans. These androgen-dependent signals and downstream events are crucial for not only developmental processes but also processes of diseases such as hypospadias and prostate cancer.

    更新日期:2018-04-18
  • Second-generation antiandrogens in nonmetastatic CRPC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-17
    Robert Chandler, Johann de Bono

    Second-generation antiandrogens in nonmetastatic CRPC Second-generation antiandrogens in nonmetastatic CRPC, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0007-z The FDA recently approved the second-generation antiandrogen apalutamide for the treatment of men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer on the basis of metastasis-free survival data from the SPARTAN trial. However, whether apalutamide is clinically superior to enzalutamide and whether early or late treatment is preferable remains to be defined.

    更新日期:2018-04-17
  • Treating vulvovaginal symptoms
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Louise Stone

    Treating vulvovaginal symptoms Treating vulvovaginal symptoms, Published online: 16 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0010-4 Treating vulvovaginal symptoms

    更新日期:2018-04-16
  • Unravelling disparate roles of NOTCH in bladder cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Akihiro Goriki, Roland Seiler, Alexander W. Wyatt, Alberto Contreras-Sanz, Akshay Bhat, Akio Matsubara, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Peter C. Black

    The Notch pathway has been implicated in both oncogenic and tumour-suppressive roles in cancer depending on the tissue type and cellular context. However, until recently, little was known about the pathway in bladder cancer. Studies have revealed that NOTCH1 copy number and expression are decreased in bladder cancer and NOTCH1 activation in bladder cancer cell lines reduces proliferation, suggesting that NOTCH1 acts as a tumour suppressor. Furthermore, in transgenic models, bladder cancer is promoted by bladder-specific inactivation of a component of the γ-secretase complex, which liberates the intracellular domain of neurogenic locus Notch homologue protein (NOTCH) and starts the signalling cascade. By contrast, further work has demonstrated that NOTCH2 acts as an oncogene that promotes cell proliferation and metastasis through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell cycle progression, and maintenance of stemness. Studies indicating that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 have opposite effects on the progression of bladder cancer could give rise to potential therapeutic approaches aimed at blocking or restoring the Notch pathway.

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Prostate cancer and social media
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-11
    Stacy Loeb, Matthew S. Katz, Aisha Langford, Nataliya Byrne, Shannon Ciprut

    The use of social media is increasing globally and is employed in a variety of ways in the prostate cancer community. In addition to their use in research, advocacy, and awareness campaigns, social media offer vast opportunities for education and networking for patients with prostate cancer and health-care professionals, and many educational resources and support networks are available to patients with prostate cancer and their caregivers. Despite the considerable potential for social media to be employed in the field of prostate cancer, concerns remain — particularly regarding the maintenance of patient confidentiality, variable information quality, and possible financial conflicts of interest. A number of professional societies have, therefore, issued guidance regarding social media use in medicine. Social media are used extensively in other cancer communities, particularly among patients with breast cancer, and both the quantity and type of information available are expected to grow in the future.

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    Clemens Thoma

    Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy, Published online: 10 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.47 Kidney cancer: Antibody pincer movement challenges sunitinib as standard therapy

    更新日期:2018-04-10
  • Prostate cancer: Validating radiographic progression-free survival
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Validating radiographic progression-free survival Prostate cancer: Validating radiographic progression-free survival, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.46 Prostate cancer: Validating radiographic progression-free survival

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Genetics of male infertility
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Csilla Krausz, Antoni Riera-Escamilla

    Male infertility is a multifactorial pathological condition affecting approximately 7% of the male population. The genetic landscape of male infertility is highly complex as semen and testis histological phenotypes are extremely heterogeneous, and at least 2,000 genes are involved in spermatogenesis. The highest frequency of known genetic factors contributing to male infertility (25%) is in azoospermia, but the number of identified genetic anomalies in other semen and aetiological categories is constantly growing. Genetic screening is relevant for its diagnostic value, clinical decision making, and appropriate genetic counselling. Anomalies in sex chromosomes have major roles in severe spermatogenic impairment. Autosome-linked gene mutations are mainly involved in central hypogonadism, monomorphic teratozoospermia or asthenozoospermia, congenital obstructive azoospermia, and familial cases of quantitative spermatogenic disturbances. Results from whole-genome association studies suggest a marginal role for common variants as causative factors; however, some of these variants can be important for pharmacogenetic purposes. Results of studies on copy number variations (CNVs) demonstrate a considerably higher CNV load in infertile patients than in normozoospermic men, whereas whole-exome analysis has proved to be a highly successful diagnostic tool in familial cases of male infertility. Despite such efforts, the aetiology of infertility remains unknown in about 40% of patients, and the discovery of novel genetic factors in idiopathic infertility is a major challenge for the field of androgenetics. Large, international, and consortium-based whole-exome and whole-genome studies are the most promising approach for the discovery of the missing genetic aetiology of idiopathic male infertility.

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Kidney cancer: Combining targeted and immunotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Clemens Thoma

    Kidney cancer: Combining targeted and immunotherapy Kidney cancer: Combining targeted and immunotherapy, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.43 Kidney cancer: Combining targeted and immunotherapy

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Erectile dysfunction: Neurotrophins to recover erectile function
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Clemens Thoma

    Erectile dysfunction: Neurotrophins to recover erectile function Erectile dysfunction: Neurotrophins to recover erectile function, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.45 Erectile dysfunction: Neurotrophins to recover erectile function

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Bladder cancer: Neuroendocrine disease genomics
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: Neuroendocrine disease genomics Bladder cancer: Neuroendocrine disease genomics, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.42 Bladder cancer: Neuroendocrine disease genomics

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Prostate cancer: Quality of life during chemohormonal therapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Quality of life during chemohormonal therapy Prostate cancer: Quality of life during chemohormonal therapy, Published online: 05 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.44 Prostate cancer: Quality of life during chemohormonal therapy

    更新日期:2018-04-06
  • Implications of TERT promoter mutations and telomerase activity in urothelial carcinogenesis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-29
    Cagatay Günes, Felix Wezel, Jennifer Southgate, Christian Bolenz

    Telomerase activity imparts eukaryotic cells with unlimited proliferation capacity, one of the cancer hallmarks. Over 90% of human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tumours are positive for telomerase activity. Telomerase activation can occur through several mechanisms. Mutations in the core promoter region of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) cause telomerase reactivation in 60–80% of UCBs, whereas the prevalence of these mutations is lower in urothelial cancers of other origins. TERT promoter mutations are the most frequent genetic alteration across all stages of UCB, indicating a strong selection pressure during neoplastic transformation. TERT promoter mutations could arise during regeneration of normal urothelium and, owing to consequential telomerase reactivation, might be the basis of UCB initiation, which represents a new model of urothelial cancer origination. In the future, TERT promoter mutations and telomerase activity might have diagnostic and therapeutic applications in UCB.

    更新日期:2018-03-29
  • Prostate cancer: Solo PSA test does not lower mortality
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-27
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Prostate cancer: Solo PSA test does not lower mortality Prostate cancer: Solo PSA test does not lower mortality, Published online: 27 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.41 Prostate cancer: Solo PSA test does not lower mortality

    更新日期:2018-03-27
  • Prostate MRI can be accurate but can variability be reduced?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Rajan T. Gupta, Andrew B. Rosenkrantz

    Prostate MRI can be accurate but can variability be reduced? Prostate MRI can be accurate but can variability be reduced?, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0002-4 Prostate MRI has reached the point of being a mature technology with an established clinical need, so the modality is here to stay. Accordingly, it is incumbent upon the radiology community to find practical solutions for the ongoing variability in interpretation and diagnostic performance of this technique.

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Two methods of prediction signatures
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Robert T. Jones, Dan Theodorescu

    Two methods of prediction signatures Two methods of prediction signatures, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0004-2 Bladder cancer molecular subtypes are promising for predicting patient outcomes. In contrast to most reports to date that used unsupervised clustering methods, a new study has demonstrated the value of a tumour differentiation signature based on normal biological expression patterns characteristic of basal or differentiated urothelial cells. Refers to Mo, Q. et al. Prognostic power of a tumour differentiation gene signature for bladder urothelial carcinomas. J. Natl Cancer Inst. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx243 (2018)

    更新日期:2018-03-26
  • Prostate cancer: Radiosensitized by STAT5 blockade
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Radiosensitized by STAT5 blockade Prostate cancer: Radiosensitized by STAT5 blockade, Published online: 20 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.37 Prostate cancer: Radiosensitized by STAT5 blockade

    更新日期:2018-03-20
  • Meeting report: Lisbon provides Port in a storm for WMSM
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Annette Fenner

    Meeting report: Lisbon provides Port in a storm for WMSM Meeting report: Lisbon provides Port in a storm for WMSM, Published online: 20 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.39 Meeting report: Lisbon provides Port in a storm for WMSM

    更新日期:2018-03-20
  • Prostate cancer: A novel mechanism of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Louise Stone

    Prostate cancer: A novel mechanism of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation Prostate cancer: A novel mechanism of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation, Published online: 20 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.40 Prostate cancer: A novel mechanism of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation

    更新日期:2018-03-20
  • Reproductive medicine: Walk, don't run: a case study of frozen embryo transfers
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Zev Rosenwaks, Nigel Pereira

    Reproductive medicine: Walk, don't run: a case study of frozen embryo transfers Reproductive medicine: Walk, don't run: a case study of frozen embryo transfers, Published online: 13 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.31 The past decade has witnessed an accelerated trend towards freeze-all or frozen embryo transfer cycles in reproductive medicine. However, the results of two recent randomized controlled trials seem to indicate that this deliberate shift in practice towards frozen embryo transfer cycles was premature and perhaps even misguided.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Sexual dysfunction and male infertility
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Francesco Lotti, Mario Maggi

    Infertility affects up to 12% of all men, and sexual dysfunction occurs frequently in men of reproductive age, causing infertility in some instances. In infertile men, hypoactive sexual desire and lack of sexual satisfaction are the most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction, ranging from 8.9% to 68.7%. Erectile dysfunction and/or premature ejaculation, evaluated with validated tools, have a prevalence of one in six infertile men, and orgasmic dysfunction has a prevalence of one in ten infertile men. In addition, infertile men can experience a heavy psychological burden. Infertility and its associated psychological concerns can underlie sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, general health perturbations can lead to male infertility and/or sexual dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction and male infertility are considered proxies for general health, the former underlying cardiovascular disorders and the latter cancerous and noncancerous conditions. The concept that erectile dysfunction in infertile men might be an early marker of poor general health is emerging. Finally, medications used for general health problems can cause sperm abnormalities and sexual dysfunction. The treatment of some causes of male infertility might improve semen quality and reverse infertility-related sexual dysfunction. In infertile men, an investigation of sexual, general, and psychological health status is advisable to improve reproductive problems and general health.

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Prostate cancer: Enhancing VTP
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Enhancing VTP Prostate cancer: Enhancing VTP, Published online: 13 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.32 Prostate cancer: Enhancing VTP

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Development: MAZ mediates urogenital development
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    Louise Stone

    Development: MAZ mediates urogenital development Development: MAZ mediates urogenital development, Published online: 13 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.38 Development: MAZ mediates urogenital development

    更新日期:2018-03-13
  • Prostate cancer: Circulating tumour cells in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Claudia Hille, Klaus Pantel

    Prostate cancer: Circulating tumour cells in prostate cancer Prostate cancer: Circulating tumour cells in prostate cancer, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.25 Different methods for detecting circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients with cancer yield distinct results with regard to cell counts and CTC subpopulations. This observation underlines the urgent need for comprehensive standardization and validation of novel CTC technologies in order to facilitate their introduction into clinical practice.

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Testicular cancer: Serum miRNA predicts viable postchemotherapy lesions
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Annette Fenner

    Testicular cancer: Serum miRNA predicts viable postchemotherapy lesions Testicular cancer: Serum miRNA predicts viable postchemotherapy lesions, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.27 Testicular cancer: Serum miRNA predicts viable postchemotherapy lesions

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Prostate cancer: Molecular lymph node analysis for prognostication
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Prostate cancer: Molecular lymph node analysis for prognostication Prostate cancer: Molecular lymph node analysis for prognostication, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.33 Prostate cancer: Molecular lymph node analysis for prognostication

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Prostate cancer: Mouse model for testing treatments
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Prostate cancer: Mouse model for testing treatments Prostate cancer: Mouse model for testing treatments, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.35 Prostate cancer: Mouse model for testing treatments

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Andrology: Ibuprofen and hypogonadism — bench to bedside to misinterpreted hype?
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Ajay K. Nangia, Derek Jensen

    Andrology: Ibuprofen and hypogonadism — bench to bedside to misinterpreted hype? Andrology: Ibuprofen and hypogonadism — bench to bedside to misinterpreted hype?, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.26 A recent study suggests modulation of luteinizing hormone signalling within the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and downstream transcriptional effects caused by sustained ibuprofen use. However, this study cannot be used to draw any clinical conclusions regarding effects of ibuprofen on male androgenic or reproductive health. Thus, the andrological effects of its use remain unclear and would benefit from further investigation.

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Testicular cancer: No major predisposition gene in TGCT
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Louise Stone

    Testicular cancer: No major predisposition gene in TGCT Testicular cancer: No major predisposition gene in TGCT, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.30 Testicular cancer: No major predisposition gene in TGCT

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Bladder cancer: Mechanisms of anti-PDL1 resistance
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: Mechanisms of anti-PDL1 resistance Bladder cancer: Mechanisms of anti-PDL1 resistance, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.28 Bladder cancer: Mechanisms of anti-PDL1 resistance

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Kidney cancer: ccrcc1–4 classification for prediction of relapse
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Kidney cancer: ccrcc1–4 classification for prediction of relapse Kidney cancer: ccrcc1–4 classification for prediction of relapse, Published online: 06 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.34 Kidney cancer: ccrcc1–4 classification for prediction of relapse

    更新日期:2018-03-07
  • Position paper: Rationale for the treatment of children with CCSK in the UMBRELLA SIOP–RTSG 2016 protocol
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-27
    Saskia L. Gooskens, Norbert Graf, Rhoikos Furtwängler, Filippo Spreafico, Christophe Bergeron, Gema L. Ramírez-Villar, Jan Godzinski, Christian Rübe, Geert O. Janssens, Gordan M. Vujanic, Ivo Leuschner, Aurore Coulomb-L'Hermine, Anne M. Smets, Beatriz de Camargo, Sara Stoneham, Harm van Tinteren, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, on behalf of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology–Renal Tumour Study Group (SIOP–RTSG)

    The International Society of Paediatric Oncology–Renal Tumour Study Group (SIOP–RTSG) has developed a new protocol for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up monitoring of childhood renal tumours — the UMBRELLA SIOP–RTSG 2016 protocol (the UMBRELLA protocol). This protocol has been designed to continue international collaboration in the treatment of childhood renal tumours and will be implemented in over 50 different countries. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, which is a rare paediatric renal tumour that most commonly occurs in children between 2 and 4 years of age, is specifically addressed in the UMBRELLA protocol.

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Prostate cancer: AR-Vs not predictive in mCRPC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-27
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: AR-Vs not predictive in mCRPC Prostate cancer: AR-Vs not predictive in mCRPC, Published online: 27 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.24 Prostate cancer: AR-Vs not predictive in mCRPC

    更新日期:2018-02-27
  • Clinical implications of PTEN loss in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Tamara Jamaspishvili, David M. Berman, Ashley E. Ross, Howard I. Scher, Angelo M. De Marzo, Jeremy A. Squire, Tamara L. Lotan

    Genomic aberrations of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene are among the most common in prostate cancer. Inactivation of PTEN by deletion or mutation is identified in ∼20% of primary prostate tumour samples at radical prostatectomy and in as many as 50% of castration-resistant tumours. Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) function leads to activation of the PI3K–AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase–RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) pathway and is strongly associated with adverse oncological outcomes, making PTEN a potentially useful genomic marker to distinguish indolent from aggressive disease in patients with clinically localized tumours. At the other end of the disease spectrum, therapeutic compounds targeting nodes in the PI3K–AKT–mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signalling pathway are being tested in clinical trials for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Knowledge of PTEN status might be helpful to identify patients who are more likely to benefit from these therapies. To enable the use of PTEN status as a prognostic and predictive biomarker, analytically validated assays have been developed for reliable and reproducible detection of PTEN loss in tumour tissue and in blood liquid biopsies. The use of clinical-grade assays in tumour tissue has shown a robust correlation between loss of PTEN and its protein as well as a strong association between PTEN loss and adverse pathological features and oncological outcomes. In advanced disease, assessing PTEN status in liquid biopsies shows promise in predicting response to targeted therapy. Finally, studies have shown that PTEN might have additional functions that are independent of the PI3K–AKT pathway, including those affecting tumour growth through modulation of the immune response and tumour microenvironment.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Prostate cancer: Numeracy and understanding of risk reduction of PSA screening
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Vigneshwar Subramanian, Michael W. Kattan

    Prostate cancer: Numeracy and understanding of risk reduction of PSA screening Prostate cancer: Numeracy and understanding of risk reduction of PSA screening, Published online: 20 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.21 Preventative use of serum PSA screening is controversial and generally undertaken as a shared decision between doctor and patient. A new study identifies a link between individuals' numeracy, or facility with quantitative concepts, and their understanding of the risk reduction benefits of PSA testing.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Louise Stone

    Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome, Published online: 20 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.23 Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Cellular plasticity and the neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Alastair H. Davies, Himisha Beltran, Amina Zoubeidi

    The success of next-generation androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, in treating prostate cancer has been hampered by the emergence of drug resistance. This acquired drug resistance is driven, in part, by the ability of prostate cancer cells to change their phenotype to adopt AR-independent pathways for growth and survival. Around one-quarter of resistant prostate tumours comprise cells that have undergone cellular reprogramming to become AR-independent and to acquire a continuum of neuroendocrine characteristics. These highly aggressive and lethal tumours, termed neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), exhibit reactivation of developmental programmes that are associated with epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity and acquisition of stem-like cell properties. In the past few years, our understanding of the link between lineage plasticity and an emergent NEPC phenotype has considerably increased. This new knowledge can contribute to novel therapeutic modalities that are likely to improve the treatment and clinical management of aggressive prostate cancer.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Louise Stone

    Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.15 Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.17 Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.19 Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC

    更新日期:2018-02-13
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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