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  • Clinical implications of PTEN loss in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Tamara Jamaspishvili, David M. Berman, Ashley E. Ross, Howard I. Scher, Angelo M. De Marzo, Jeremy A. Squire, Tamara L. Lotan

    Genomic aberrations of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene are among the most common in prostate cancer. Inactivation of PTEN by deletion or mutation is identified in ∼20% of primary prostate tumour samples at radical prostatectomy and in as many as 50% of castration-resistant tumours. Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) function leads to activation of the PI3K–AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase–RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) pathway and is strongly associated with adverse oncological outcomes, making PTEN a potentially useful genomic marker to distinguish indolent from aggressive disease in patients with clinically localized tumours. At the other end of the disease spectrum, therapeutic compounds targeting nodes in the PI3K–AKT–mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signalling pathway are being tested in clinical trials for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Knowledge of PTEN status might be helpful to identify patients who are more likely to benefit from these therapies. To enable the use of PTEN status as a prognostic and predictive biomarker, analytically validated assays have been developed for reliable and reproducible detection of PTEN loss in tumour tissue and in blood liquid biopsies. The use of clinical-grade assays in tumour tissue has shown a robust correlation between loss of PTEN and its protein as well as a strong association between PTEN loss and adverse pathological features and oncological outcomes. In advanced disease, assessing PTEN status in liquid biopsies shows promise in predicting response to targeted therapy. Finally, studies have shown that PTEN might have additional functions that are independent of the PI3K–AKT pathway, including those affecting tumour growth through modulation of the immune response and tumour microenvironment.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Prostate cancer: Numeracy and understanding of risk reduction of PSA screening
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Vigneshwar Subramanian, Michael W. Kattan

    Prostate cancer: Numeracy and understanding of risk reduction of PSA screening Prostate cancer: Numeracy and understanding of risk reduction of PSA screening, Published online: 20 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.21 Preventative use of serum PSA screening is controversial and generally undertaken as a shared decision between doctor and patient. A new study identifies a link between individuals' numeracy, or facility with quantitative concepts, and their understanding of the risk reduction benefits of PSA testing.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Louise Stone

    Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome, Published online: 20 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.23 Microbiota: Bacteriophage diversity in the urinary microbiome

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Cellular plasticity and the neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-20
    Alastair H. Davies, Himisha Beltran, Amina Zoubeidi

    The success of next-generation androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, in treating prostate cancer has been hampered by the emergence of drug resistance. This acquired drug resistance is driven, in part, by the ability of prostate cancer cells to change their phenotype to adopt AR-independent pathways for growth and survival. Around one-quarter of resistant prostate tumours comprise cells that have undergone cellular reprogramming to become AR-independent and to acquire a continuum of neuroendocrine characteristics. These highly aggressive and lethal tumours, termed neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), exhibit reactivation of developmental programmes that are associated with epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity and acquisition of stem-like cell properties. In the past few years, our understanding of the link between lineage plasticity and an emergent NEPC phenotype has considerably increased. This new knowledge can contribute to novel therapeutic modalities that are likely to improve the treatment and clinical management of aggressive prostate cancer.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Louise Stone

    Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.15 Imaging: Predicting 68Ga-PSMA-PET–CT positivity for recurrent disease

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.17 Bladder cancer: BBN mouse model mimics human MIBC

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.19 Kidney cancer: PDL1 as a biomarker in high-risk RCC

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Potentiating prostate cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Patrick Lee, Shashi Gujar

    The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapies for prostate cancer remains subpar compared with that for other cancers. The goal of most immunotherapies is the activation of immune effectors, such as T cells and natural killer cells, as the presence of these activated mediators positively correlates with patient outcomes. Clinical evidence shows that prostate cancer is immunogenic, accessible to the immune system, and can be targeted by antitumour immune responses. However, owing to the detrimental effects of prostate-cancer-associated immunosuppression, even the newest immunotherapeutic approaches fail to initiate the clinically desired antitumour immune reaction. Oncolytic viruses, originally used for their preferential cancer-killing activity, are now being recognized for their ability to overturn cancer-associated immune evasion and promote otherwise absent antitumour immunity. This oncolytic-virus-induced subversion of tumour-associated immunosuppression can potentiate the effectiveness of current immunotherapeutics, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (for example, antibodies against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4)) and chemotherapeutics that induce immunogenic cell death (for example, doxorubicin and oxaliplatin). Importantly, oncolytic-virus-induced antitumour immunity targets existing prostate cancer cells and also establishes long-term protection against future relapse. Hence, the strategic use of oncolytic viruses as monotherapies or in combination with current immunotherapies might result in the next breakthrough in prostate cancer immunotherapy.

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • A stage-dependent link between metabolic syndrome components and incident prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Jan Hammarsten, Jan-Erik Damber, Mohammad A. Haghsheno, Dan Mellström, Ralph Peeker

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cancer risk and progression at almost all sites, including the prostate in high-stage prostate cancer. However, several reports have described an inverse relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components and low-stage incident prostate cancer. Such anomalies in cancer research hamper efforts to fight cancer. Evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and its components have two distinct effects in prostate cancer, concealing prostate cancer in low-stage disease and promoting progression to high-stage incident, nonlocalized, and lethal prostate cancer. The concealment of prostate cancer by metabolic syndrome and its components might be related to bias mechanisms that reduce PSA level and lead to a delayed diagnosis of low-stage prostate cancer, meaning that fewer men with metabolic syndrome are diagnosed with low-stage disease. The inverse link between metabolic syndrome and its components and low-stage incident prostate cancer might simply be the result of such bias and the shortcomings of the diagnostic procedure rather than being related to prostate cancer biology itself. The evidence summarized here supports the hypothesis that the link between metabolic syndrome and its components and incident prostate cancer is a two-way and stage-dependent one, a theory that requires further research.

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Stones: Individual gut microbiome in nephrolithiasis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Stones: Individual gut microbiome in nephrolithiasis Stones: Individual gut microbiome in nephrolithiasis, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.16 Stones: Individual gut microbiome in nephrolithiasis

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Prostate cancer: Genomic drivers of resistance to AR therapies
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Prostate cancer: Genomic drivers of resistance to AR therapies Prostate cancer: Genomic drivers of resistance to AR therapies, Published online: 13 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.18 Prostate cancer: Genomic drivers of resistance to AR therapies

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Bladder biomechanics and the use of scaffolds for regenerative medicine in the urinary bladder
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Fatemeh Ajalloueian, Greg Lemon, Jöns Hilborn, Ioannis S. Chronakis, Magdalena Fossum

    The urinary bladder is a complex organ with the primary functions of storing urine under low and stable pressure and micturition. Many clinical conditions can cause poor bladder compliance, reduced capacity, and incontinence, requiring bladder augmentation or use of regenerative techniques and scaffolds. To replicate an organ that is under frequent mechanical loading and unloading, special attention towards fulfilling its biomechanical requirements is necessary. Several biological and synthetic scaffolds are available, with various characteristics that qualify them for use in bladder regeneration in vitro and in vivo, including in the treatment of clinical conditions. The biomechanical properties of the native bladder can be investigated using a range of mechanical tests for standardized assessments, as well as mathematical and computational bladder biomechanics. Despite a large body of research into tissue engineering of the bladder wall, some features of the native bladder and the scaffolds used to mimic it need further elucidation. Collection of comparable reference data from different animal models would be a helpful tool for researchers and will enable comparison of different scaffolds in order to optimize characteristics before entering preclinical and clinical trials.

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Bladder cancer: Improving NMIBC risk stratification
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: Improving NMIBC risk stratification Bladder cancer: Improving NMIBC risk stratification, Published online: 06 February 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.13 Bladder cancer: Improving NMIBC risk stratification

    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • The potential of 3D printing in urological research and patient care
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Marc Colaco, Daniel A. Igel, Anthony Atala

    3D printing is an evolving technology that enables the creation of unique organic and inorganic structures with high precision. In urology, the technology has demonstrated potential uses in both patient and clinician education as well as in clinical practice. The four major techniques used for 3D printing are inkjet printing, extrusion printing, laser sintering, and stereolithography. Each of these techniques can be applied to the production of models for education and surgical planning, prosthetic construction, and tissue bioengineering. Bioengineering is potentially the most important application of 3D printing, as the ability to produce functional organic constructs might, in the future, enable urologists to replicate and replace abnormal tissues with neo-organs, improving patient survival and quality of life.

    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • Labiaplasty: motivation, techniques, and ethics
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Müjde Özer, Indiana Mortimore, Elise P. Jansma, Margriet G. Mullender

    Labiaplasty (also known as labia minora reduction) is attracting increasing attention in the media and in online forums. Controversy exists among health-care professionals on how to manage a request for this surgery. Furthermore, the indications for and outcomes of labiaplasty have not yet been systematically assessed, and long-term outcomes have not yet been reported. Labia minora hypertrophy is defined as enlargement of the labia minora; however, the natural variation of labia minora size has scarcely been studied, with only one study suggesting objective criteria. Perception of the 'normal' appearance of labia minora is influenced by culture, exposure to idealized photographs in media, health-care professionals' opinions, and family, friends, and sexual partners (although this influence has not been substantiated by research). The desire for labiaplasty is predominantly based on dissatisfaction with genital appearance and not on functional complaints. Most health-care professionals believe that women seeking labiaplasty should be referred to a psychiatrist or psychologist for consultation before surgery, although whether counselling and education are effective at alleviating dissatisfaction or a low genital self-esteem is not clear. As the nature of patient motivation for this type of surgery is often psychological, counselling and education could be useful in reducing the demand for labiaplasty. However, current studies on surgical technique and outcomes include few patients, therefore, evidence on the results of different labiaplasty techniques and patient satisfaction is inconclusive. Further research is required to assess the value of this treatment and the appropriate indications for it. Improved understanding as to why women seek this treatment is needed and whether conservative treatments (such as counselling) are effective. Furthermore, systematic assessment of the surgical and patient-reported outcomes of labiaplasty is needed to assess whether it is safe and effective. Moreover, understanding the effect of cultural trends, for example, the way in which many women in Western society see any exception to the ideal body as a problem, will be insightful.

    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • A practical guide to bladder cancer pathology
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Eva Compérat, Justine Varinot, Julien Moroch, Caroline Eymerit-Morin, Fadi Brimo

    Pathological assessment of bladder cancer is becoming an increasingly complex task owing to the growing availability of molecular data for different histological subtypes and the appreciation of their importance in determining outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Urologists are aware of the need to closely collaborate with pathologists, and comprehensive sharing of information is crucial to achieve optimal patient management. Numerous steps towards this goal have been made during the past years. Important advances in the assessment and reporting of grading and staging, especially substaging of pT1 urothelial carcinomas, have been made. As part of the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR), an international expert group has suggested worldwide reporting standards for urothelial lesions. Nevertheless, several issues remain unresolved, for example, regarding the reporting of heterogeneous lesions and substaging as well as the gross handling and the reporting for lymphadenectomy specimens. During the past few years, major insights have been gained into the molecular changes that occur during bladder cancer development, but a consensus on how to integrate these data into daily practice has not been achieved.

    更新日期:2018-01-31
  • Prostate cancer: PROMs suggest a festival of benefits in LATITUDE
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Annette Fenner

    Prostate cancer: PROMs suggest a festival of benefits in LATITUDE Prostate cancer: PROMs suggest a festival of benefits in LATITUDE, Published online: 31 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.12 Prostate cancer: PROMs suggest a festival of benefits in LATITUDE

    更新日期:2018-01-31
  • Stepwise sexual development of adolescents: the Dutch approach to sexuality education
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Sanderijn van der Doef, Jo Reinders

    Stepwise sexual development of adolescents: the Dutch approach to sexuality education Stepwise sexual development of adolescents: the Dutch approach to sexuality education, Published online: 31 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.3 Dutch adolescents develop their sexuality in a stepwise manner, gradually progressing from first kiss to first sexual intercourse. Adolescents who follow a stepwise sexual development are more confident and engage in less risky sexual behaviour than those who do not. Thus, the stepwise 'sexual career' is an excellent model for guiding development of age-appropriate sex education.

    更新日期:2018-01-31
  • Infection: Vaginal microbiota and infectious infertility
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Louise Stone

    Infection: Vaginal microbiota and infectious infertility Infection: Vaginal microbiota and infectious infertility, Published online: 31 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.11 Infection: Vaginal microbiota and infectious infertility

    更新日期:2018-01-31
  • Repairing the female pelvic floor: when good enough is not good enough
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-23
    Sheila MacNeil, Sohier El Neil, Gloria Esegbona, Margot Damaser

    Repairing the female pelvic floor: when good enough is not good enough Repairing the female pelvic floor: when good enough is not good enough, Published online: 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.219 Women commonly experience pelvic floor damage during pregnancy and vaginal childbirth and later develop stress urinary incontinence and prolapse. Polypropylene mesh can repair abdominal hernias, but complications result when used in the female pelvic floor. In October, the Royal Society hosted a workshop to address issues surrounding pelvic floor disorders.

    更新日期:2018-01-23
  • Prostate cancer: Developing CAR T cell therapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-23
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Developing CAR T cell therapy Prostate cancer: Developing CAR T cell therapy, Published online: 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.4 Prostate cancer: Developing CAR T cell therapy

    更新日期:2018-01-23
  • Prostate cancer: Revealing mechanisms of resistance
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-23
    Louise Stone

    Prostate cancer: Revealing mechanisms of resistance Prostate cancer: Revealing mechanisms of resistance, Published online: 23 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2018.7 Prostate cancer: Revealing mechanisms of resistance

    更新日期:2018-01-23
  • Urothelial cancer: Optimizing and integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy across the disease spectrum
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Jay D. Raman

    Urothelial cancer: Optimizing and integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy across the disease spectrum Urothelial cancer: Optimizing and integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy across the disease spectrum, Published online: 16 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.213 Data suggest that chemotherapy is a sound treatment option for urothelial cancer across the disease spectrum. However, despite a twofold increase in survival in patients receiving chemotherapy, it does not seem to be offered to all patients.

    更新日期:2018-01-16
  • Prostate cancer: Race and prostate cancer personalized medicine: the future
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Stephen Freedland

    Prostate cancer: Race and prostate cancer personalized medicine: the future Prostate cancer: Race and prostate cancer personalized medicine: the future, Published online: 16 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.215 Most genetic analyses of prostate cancer have studied white men. A new study compares the genetic landscape of prostate cancer in Chinese men, reporting both similarities and differences. This finding highlights the need for studies to include all races and paves the way for future personalized medicine approaches for prostate cancer across races.

    更新日期:2018-01-16
  • Kidney cancer in 2017: Challenging and refining treatment paradigms
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Mark W. Ball, Ramaprasad Srinivasan

    Kidney cancer in 2017: Challenging and refining treatment paradigms Kidney cancer in 2017: Challenging and refining treatment paradigms, Published online: 16 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.220 Treatment paradigms for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continue to be challenged and refined. Recent studies in metastatic RCC have demonstrated the efficacy of first-line cabozantinib and the safety and efficacy of dual checkpoint blockade; in the adjuvant setting, pazopanib failed to improve progression-free survival in high-risk localized RCC compared with placebo.

    更新日期:2018-01-16
  • Stones: MET for distal ureteral calculi: not all stones are created equal
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
    Kelly A. Healy, Ojas Shah

    Stones: MET for distal ureteral calculi: not all stones are created equal Stones: MET for distal ureteral calculi: not all stones are created equal, Published online: 09 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.221 Results of two large randomized controlled trials have challenged the use of medical expulsive therapy for the management of ureteral calculi. A new trial now shows that tamsulosin is effective in patients with distal calculi >5 mm in size, demonstrating that the effectiveness of MET depends on stone size and location.

    更新日期:2018-01-09
  • Prostate cancer: Rapid testosterone cycling reverses castration resistance
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Louise Stone

    Prostate cancer: Rapid testosterone cycling reverses castration resistance Prostate cancer: Rapid testosterone cycling reverses castration resistance, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.223 Prostate cancer: Rapid testosterone cycling reverses castration resistance

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Bladder cancer: IMvigor211 trial outcomes reported
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: IMvigor211 trial outcomes reported Bladder cancer: IMvigor211 trial outcomes reported, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.225 Bladder cancer: IMvigor211 trial outcomes reported

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Bladder cancer: Activity and safety of avelumab in JAVELIN
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: Activity and safety of avelumab in JAVELIN Bladder cancer: Activity and safety of avelumab in JAVELIN, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.227 Bladder cancer: Activity and safety of avelumab in JAVELIN

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Prostate cancer: Pitfalls of liquid biopsy tests
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Pitfalls of liquid biopsy tests Prostate cancer: Pitfalls of liquid biopsy tests, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.222 Prostate cancer: Pitfalls of liquid biopsy tests

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Bladder cancer: Chemotherapy and checkpoint blockade
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: Chemotherapy and checkpoint blockade Bladder cancer: Chemotherapy and checkpoint blockade, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.224 Bladder cancer: Chemotherapy and checkpoint blockade

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Prostate cancer: Utility of ADT during early salvage radiotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Utility of ADT during early salvage radiotherapy Prostate cancer: Utility of ADT during early salvage radiotherapy, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.226 Prostate cancer: Utility of ADT during early salvage radiotherapy

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • Prostate cancer: Predicting risk of metastasis after prostatectomy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2018-01-03
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: Predicting risk of metastasis after prostatectomy Prostate cancer: Predicting risk of metastasis after prostatectomy, Published online: 03 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.228 Prostate cancer: Predicting risk of metastasis after prostatectomy

    更新日期:2018-01-04
  • DRAW: the value of anatomical drawing in the 21st century
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Fabrizio Dal Moro

    DRAW: the value of anatomical drawing in the 21st century DRAW: the value of anatomical drawing in the 21st century, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.214 Novel surgical tools demand revision of our anatomical knowledge. Anatomical drawings are extraordinarily useful to describe organs and highlight surgical details, representing an exceptional method of teaching and learning. DRAW is a new non-profit website with the aim of increasing knowledge of urological surgical anatomy through submissions from urologists.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Prostate cancer: A valuable tool for prediction of repeat biopsy pathology
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Pierre Karakiewicz, Sebastiano Nazzani

    Prostate cancer: A valuable tool for prediction of repeat biopsy pathology Prostate cancer: A valuable tool for prediction of repeat biopsy pathology, Published online: 28 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.216 Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) findings are not always accurate in patients with a previous negative prostate biopsy. Truong et al. have developed a nomogram to identify patients with previous negative prostate biopsy who are at elevated risk of harbouring benign histology and should undergo repeat biopsy.

    更新日期:2017-12-31
  • Testicular cancer in 2017: Sequencing advances understanding
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Matthew J. Murray, Clare Turnbull

    Testicular cancer in 2017: Sequencing advances understanding Testicular cancer in 2017: Sequencing advances understanding, Published online: 19 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.209 Our biological understanding of TGCTs has been improved using sequencing, and molecular profiles associated with the genomic evolution and development of cisplatin resistance have been identified. The genomics of variants underpinning TGCT predisposition is being delineated. Studies of circulating microRNAs have demonstrated their potential for noninvasive diagnosis and disease monitoring.

    更新日期:2017-12-19
  • Prostate cancer: Singled out: single-cell genomics for diagnosis
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Louise Stone

    Prostate cancer: Singled out: single-cell genomics for diagnosis Prostate cancer: Singled out: single-cell genomics for diagnosis, Published online: 19 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.217 Prostate cancer: Singled out: single-cell genomics for diagnosis

    更新日期:2017-12-19
  • Prostate cancer: Genomic information improves risk prediction
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-19
    Diana Romero

    Prostate cancer: Genomic information improves risk prediction Prostate cancer: Genomic information improves risk prediction, Published online: 19 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.218 Prostate cancer: Genomic information improves risk prediction

    更新日期:2017-12-19
  • Prostate cancer: Castration resistance driven by a GI transcriptional circuit
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Louise Stone

    Prostate cancer: Castration resistance driven by a GI transcriptional circuit Prostate cancer: Castration resistance driven by a GI transcriptional circuit, Published online: 12 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.211 Prostate cancer: Castration resistance driven by a GI transcriptional circuit

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Prostate cancer: Damaged good — targeting DNA damage repair in neuroendocrine disease
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Annette Fenner

    Prostate cancer: Damaged good — targeting DNA damage repair in neuroendocrine disease Prostate cancer: Damaged good — targeting DNA damage repair in neuroendocrine disease, Published online: 12 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.206 Prostate cancer: Damaged good — targeting DNA damage repair in neuroendocrine disease

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Prostate cancer in 2017: Advances in imaging
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Andreas G. Wibmer, Hebert Alberto Vargas, Hedvig Hricak

    Prostate cancer in 2017: Advances in imaging Prostate cancer in 2017: Advances in imaging, Published online: 12 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.210 In the past year, the results of three studies in the field of prostate cancer imaging — the prostate MR imaging study (PROMIS), an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various diagnostic strategies based on PROMIS data, and a retrospective analysis of a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed PET radiopharmaceutical — have been published that could have lasting effects on clinical practice.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Prostate cancer: Enzalutamide–cabazitaxel interactions
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Prostate cancer: Enzalutamide–cabazitaxel interactions Prostate cancer: Enzalutamide–cabazitaxel interactions, Published online: 12 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.212 Prostate cancer: Enzalutamide–cabazitaxel interactions

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • HSD3B1 status as a biomarker of androgen deprivation resistance and implications for prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Daniel Hettel, Nima Sharifi

    HSD3B1 status as a biomarker of androgen deprivation resistance and implications for prostate cancer HSD3B1 status as a biomarker of androgen deprivation resistance and implications for prostate cancer, Published online: 12 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.201 Hettel and Sharifi discuss how germline HSD3B1 1245A>C variant status influences outcomes of men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy, indicating its utility as a predictive biomarker. Metabolic effects of variant HSD3B1 status highlight a potential requirement to modify current treatment frameworks.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Bladder cancer: Genomics of noninvasive disease
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Clemens Thoma

    Bladder cancer: Genomics of noninvasive disease Bladder cancer: Genomics of noninvasive disease, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.207 Bladder cancer: Genomics of noninvasive disease

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Surgery: Moving towards successful penile transplantation programmes
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Jeffrey D. Campbell, Arthur L. Burnett

    Surgery: Moving towards successful penile transplantation programmes Surgery: Moving towards successful penile transplantation programmes, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.204 Implementing a successful penile transplantation programme requires a multidisciplinary approach to overcome social, institutional, and patient-related obstacles. The literature in 2017 presents controversial ethical solutions, novel research models to evaluate immunosuppression, and long-term patient reports that help advance the field towards developing successful penile transplantation programmes.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Prostate cancer: Stuck in the middle: interstitial genes in TMPRSS2–ERG fusion
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    Louise Stone

    Prostate cancer: Stuck in the middle: interstitial genes in TMPRSS2–ERG fusion Prostate cancer: Stuck in the middle: interstitial genes in TMPRSS2–ERG fusion, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.208 Prostate cancer: Stuck in the middle: interstitial genes in TMPRSS2–ERG fusion

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Immunotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma: focus on immune checkpoint inhibition
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 
    Arlene Siefker-Radtke, Brendan Curti

    Immunotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma: focus on immune checkpoint inhibition Immunotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma: focus on immune checkpoint inhibition, Published online: 05 December 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.190 Several immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for use in metastatic urothelial carcinoma and could be clinically useful alone or in combination. However, they are associated with various immune-related adverse events and specific immune-related patterns of response. In this Review, the authors discuss the data supporting the use of checkpoint inhibition and consider how to optimize therapy to reduce and manage the effects of these therapies.

    更新日期:2017-12-12
  • Prostate cancer: Glycolysis and AR expression as biomarkers
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 
    Rebecca Kelsey

    Prostate cancer: Glycolysis and AR expression as biomarkers Prostate cancer: Glycolysis and AR expression as biomarkers, Published online: 28 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.205 Prostate cancer: Glycolysis and AR expression as biomarkers

    更新日期:2017-12-12
  • A psychosocial approach to female genital pain
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 
    Marieke Dewitte, Charmaine Borg, Lior Lowenstein

    A psychosocial approach to female genital pain A psychosocial approach to female genital pain, Published online: 28 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.187 Despite its prevalence, sexual pain in women is poorly understood as it exists at the intersection of different biopsychosocial disciplines. In this Review, experts in the field describe how confusion remains at the nosological, aetiological, theoretical, methodological, and treatment levels and how a psychosocial approach can help to overcome this lack of consensus to improve theoretical models and effective treatments.

    更新日期:2017-12-12
  • Bladder cancer in 2017: Advancing care through genomics and immune checkpoint blockade
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Matthew D. Galsky

    Bladder cancer in 2017: Advancing care through genomics and immune checkpoint blockade Bladder cancer in 2017: Advancing care through genomics and immune checkpoint blockade, Published online: 28 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.199 Landmark papers published in 2017 have advanced our understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of urothelial cancer, provided insights into the genomic evolution of the disease in the context of metastasis and therapy, and established new treatment standards for patients with previously limited treatment options.

    更新日期:2017-12-12
  • Prostate cancer: H2A.Zac activates neo-enhancers
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 7.735) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Clemens Thoma

    Prostate cancer: H2A.Zac activates neo-enhancers Prostate cancer: H2A.Zac activates neo-enhancers, Published online: 28 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.202 Prostate cancer: H2A.Zac activates neo-enhancers

    更新日期:2017-12-12
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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