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  • Robust 3IMPL Control Algorithm For Power Management of SyRG/PV/BES Based Distributed Islanded Microgrid
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Rohini Sharma; Seema Kewat; Bhim Singh

    In an islanded AC microgrid, a comprehensive algorithm of three phase, improved magnitude, phase locked loop (3IMPL) control algorithm is developed to provide DC off set removal, steady state error removal and fast dynamic response. In addition, the control of the voltage source converter (VSC) using 3IMPL algorithm, provides voltage and frequency control and elimination of harmonics of nonlinear loads. In proposed microgrid, a solar PV array is connected to the DC link through a boost converter and an INC (Incremental Conductance) technique is used for extraction of maximum power from a PV array. Due to intermittency of PV array, a synchronous reluctance generator (SyRG) is used for pico-hydro generation because it is economical, ecologically sustainable, requires less maintenance and extremely reliable. Moreover, a microgrid suffers from problems of variation in generation and continuous load fluctuations, therefore for power balancing between the source and the load, a storage battery is connected across the DC link of VSC through a bidirectional DC-DC converter. Test results on a prototype have verified the control strategy and it is able to improve the power quality of the system at varying solar insolation and unbalance in loads.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • An Intelligent Time-adaptive Data-driven Method for Sensor Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motor Drive System
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Bin Gou; Yan Xu; Yang Xia; Gary Wilson; Shuyong Liu

    Three-phase PWM inverter fed induction motor drive system is widely applied in high power drive applications. Sensor faults are very common in the drive system which, once occur, might result in degraded system performance or even system shutdown. In order to rapidly and accurately diagnose the sensor faults, this paper proposes an intelligent time-adaptive data-driven method to identify the fault location and fault type of sensors in the drive system. An emerging machine learning technology named extreme learning machine (ELM) is applied to learn the sensor fault dataset, an ensemble ELM classifier is then designed to improve diagnostic accuracy, based on which a time-adaptive fault diagnosis process is proposed to achieve a high and balanced diagnostic accuracy and speed. As a data-driven method, the proposed method only employs the phase current, DC-link voltage, and speed signals as the inputs to the ensemble ELM classifiers, and requires no additional sensors and other hardware. Simulated and experimental tests show that the proposed method can rapidly and accurately detect the fault sensor location and identify offset fault, stuck fault, and noise faults with an average diagnostic accuracy of 98% and average decision time of 10ms after the fault occurs.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Gain-Scheduled Control of Linear Differential Inclusions Subject to Actuator Saturation
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Pengyuan Li; Yuhu Wu; Xi-Ming Sun; Ziqiang Lang

    This paper focuses on the problem of robust stabilization of linear differential inclusions (LDIs) subject to actuator saturation. A continuous set of nonlinear controllers is constructed by a parameter-dependent convex hull Lyapunov function (CHLF) to avoid actuator saturation for known worst-case disturbances. The controller which can achieve the best closed-loop performance while complies the saturation bound is selected at each time, based on the closed-loop states. Thanks to the application of the continuous dynamic gain-scheduled control law, the internal stability and guaranteed disturbance attenuation can be obtained simultaneously. A quarter-car active suspension system is studied to demonstrate the benefit of the proposed method.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Four-Switch Three Phase Operation of Grid Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator with Three Vectors Predictive Direct Power Control Strategy
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei; Carlos Veganzones; Jaime R. Arribas; Dionisio Ramirez

    A predictive power control for a four- switch three phase (FSTP) grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) is presented. In this new method, three voltage vectors are employed to ensure that the proposed strategy maintains the switching frequency constant while the ripple of the active and reactive powers of the GSC is minimized. Moreover, a compensation power to eliminate the DC voltage deviation in the capacitors is presented, and it can be estimated without using any low pass filter. The proposed method can be implemented in a microcontroller very easily. Firstly, the proposed strategy has been evaluated in Matlab/Simulink environment and afterwards it was implemented in a laboratory prototype. The simulation and experimental results of the proposed predictive strategy show that it is capable to suppress the DC link voltage offset, featuring balanced currents and a fast dynamic response while the GSC current THD is low. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is compared to two other predictive controls. The results prove that the proposed method is well suitable for the FSTP GSC of a DFIG.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • A Simplified Model based State-of-Charge Estimation Approach for Lithium-ion Battery with Dynamic Linear Model
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Jinhao Meng; Daniel Stroe; Mattia Ricco; Guangzhao Luo; Remus Teodorescu

    The performance of model based State-of-Charge (SOC) estimation method relies on an accurate battery model. Nonlinear models are thus proposed to accurately describe the external characteristics of the Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery. The nonlinear estimation algorithms and online parameter identification methods are needed to guarantee the accuracy of the model based SOC estimation with nonlinear battery models. A new approach forming a dynamic linear battery model is proposed in this paper, which enables the application of the linear Kalman filter for SOC estimation and also avoids the usage of online parameter identification methods. With a moving window technology, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression is able to establish a series of piecewise linear battery models automatically. One element state space equation is then obtained to estimate the SOC from the linear Kalman filter. The experiments on a LiFePO4 battery prove the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with two Resistance and Capacitance (RC) Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) and the Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) with Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LSSVM).

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Constant-Frequency Capacitor Current Hysteresis Control of Buck Converter Using Reconstructed Ideal-Capacitor Voltage
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Weiguo Lu; Shaoling Li; Yidi Yang; Zhaoyang Zhao; Herbert Iu

    For the case with electrolytic capacitors as the output capacitor, the traditional capacitor current hysteresis (CCH) controlled buck converter is always in over-damping state due to the ESR, and has a poor dynamic performance. Moreover, there is a problem of variable switching frequency operation in the CCH controlled buck converter. To solve these problems, an improved constant-frequency CCH (CF-CCH) control scheme using the reconstructed ideal-capacitor voltage is proposed in this paper. The ideal-capacitor voltage is reconstructed through a low-pass filter and an integrator, and introduced into the control loop to replace the actual output voltage. In the proposed CF-CCH control scheme, the damping ratio is designed as the optimum value 0.707, which is in under-damping state. Furthermore, the switching frequency is kept constant by disturbing the hysteresis bands with a pair of periodic ramp signals. In addition, the circuit design of the proposed CF-CCH control scheme is presented. Finally, the validity and superiority of the proposed CF-CCH control scheme are verified by simulation and experiments.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • A Novel Switch Current Stress Reduction Technique for Single Switch Boost- Fly-back Integrated High Step Up DC-DC Converter
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Tanmoy Roy Choudhury; Byamakesh Nayak; Subhendu Bikash Bikash Santra

    This paper presents a novel switch current stress reduction technique for a single switch boost-fly-back high step up dc-dc converter. Coupled inductor based converters do not have sufficiently higher inductance value of their windings. This creates current surge during transient and steady state, which in turn increases current stress at main switch. To compensate this difficulty in coupled inductor based boost fly back converter, an inductor - diode parallel combination has been connected in series with the switch. This technique increases the effective inductance of the coupled inductor primary winding during Switch turn ON operation and helps to reduce current stress. Steady state operating principle with proposed technique is analyzed in CCM. The current reduction technique is discussed with a proper mathematical derivation. To verify theoritical findings simulation study is carried out in MATLAB/Simulink R2014b. Lastly laboratory based 40 W protopype converter is designed to show the effectiveness of the proposed switch current reduction technique.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Reduction of Li-ion Battery Qualification Time Based on Prognostics and Health Management
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Jinwoo Lee; Daeil Kwon; Michael Pecht

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used in a wide variety of applications, ranging from portable electronics to electric vehicles. During repetitive charging and discharging, a battery's capacity fades due to electrochemical reactions such as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth. Lithium-ion batteries reach an end-of-life (EOL) point, after which use is not recommended. However, some unhealthy batteries reach their EOL sooner than expected. A qualification test is usually conducted to evaluate the reliability of Li-ion batteries and classify unhealthy batteries, but this test requires several months. This study developed a data-driven method to reduce the qualification time by detecting anomalies before EOL. The method detects an anomaly in the capacity fade curve of unhealthy batteries based on their capacity fade trend. Since the developed method detects anomalies of unhealthy batteries before EOL, the method is effective for reducing the time for the qualification test of Li-ion batteries.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Non-Planar Overlapped Inductors Applied to Domestic Induction Heating Appliances
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Javier Serrano; Ignacio Lope; Jesus Acero

    Domestic induction heating appliances are evolving from surfaces with three to five fixed cooking areas to flexible cooking zones. These are able to adapt to a number of vessels of any size and shape by using multiple coils. Some state-of-the-art induction systems make use of overlapped inductors in two layers, which combine the high efficiency of large inductors with the high flexibility of small adjacent coils. The main drawback of this concept is the unequal distance between different coils and the vessel, which implies that each coil presents a different impedance depending on its layer. This paper presents an induction system conformed by non-planar inductors. These inductors are designed in such a way that they can be assembled in overlapping structures while preserving equivalence among them, i.e. they all present the same impedance. The paper includes the FEM modeling of the non-planar coil, an analysis on the conductor's losses and an experimental verification.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Fully integrated, 406 μA, 5 °/hr, full digital output Lissajous frequency-modulated gyroscope
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Mauro Leoncini; Marco Bestetti; Andrea Giovanni Bonfanti; Stefano Facchinetti; Paolo Minotti; Giacomo Langfelder

    A complete system of a frequency modulated (FM) gyroscope with digital output for future low-power, high-stability and wide full-scale applications is presented. The system includes the microelectromechanical transducer, two analog oscillators, two mixed-signal frequency to digital converters and a fundamental mixed-signal block for the real-time extraction and digitization of the demodulation phase reference. With an overall consumption of 406 μA, the system has a 90 dB dynamic range on a 50 Hz bandwidth, with a 5 °/hr stability after 20-minute observation interval, and a scale-factor drift coefficient of 20 ppm/K only.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • A Hybrid Nine-Arm Modular Multilevel Converter for Medium-Voltage Six-Phase Machine Drives
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Mohamed Said Diab; Ahmed Elserougi; Ahmed M. Massoud; Shehab Ahmed; Barry Williams

    The nine-arm modular multilevel converter (9A-MMC) has been recently proposed as a reduced MMC topology variation for six-phase drive applications, with 25% reduction in the number of employed arms and associated components, compared to a standard dual three-phase MMC, however with a limited output voltage amplitude. This paper proposes a hybrid 9A-MMC comprised of half-bridge submodules (SMs) in both the upper and lower arms, and full-bridge SMs in the middle arms. By employing the negative-voltage state of the full-bridge SMs, the hybrid 9A-MMC avoids the limitations imposed on the dc-link voltage utilization, while achieves further reduction in the component count, compared to a standard 9A-MMC with identical half-bridge SMs. The operating principles of the proposed hybrid 9A-MMC are illustrated with mathematical analysis, while its characteristics are verified through both simulation and experimentation. An assessment of the proposed topology quantifying its employed components is also provided, in comparison to other MMC-based six-phase machine drives.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Post-Fault Full Torque-Speed Exploitation of Dual Three-Phase IPMSM Drives
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Hisham Magdy Eldeeb; Ayman Samy Abdel-Khalik; Christoph M. Hackl

    This paper exploits the torque-speed operating limits of a dual three-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (ADT-IPMSM) during post-fault operation for different neutral configurations. To achieve the maximum permissible torque-speed limits, the study proposes software and hardware modifications to the latest fault-tolerant techniques using: (i) an offline optimization that takes into account simultaneously the voltage and current constraints during post-fault operation and (ii) a simple hardware addition that modifies the neutral points configuration to either isolated (1N) or connected (2N) based on the operating torque and/or speed. Compared to literature, the proposed study considers the field-weakening operation, extending the permissible achievable speeds. A 2.5 kW ADT-IPMSM prototype validates the theoretical findings.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Introduction and Advantage of Space Opposite Vectors Modulation Utilized in Dual Two-level Inverters with Isolated DC Sources
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Amir Aghazadeh; Mohamadsaleh Jafari; Naser Khodabakhshi-Javinani; Hamed Nafisi; Hamed Jabbari Namvar

    In this paper, Space Opposite Vectors Modulation (SOVM) is proposed to decrease Common-Mode Voltage (CMV), and also improve inverter switching losses compared to PWM7 for Dual Two-Level Inverters (DTLI). Employing the control simplicity of DTLI to achieve multi-level winding voltages, the two conventional two-level inverters of DTLI are independently controlled; consequently, the capability of adjusting Phase Difference between the Carriers (PDC) of two inverters is established. To mathematically evaluate and compare the performance of DTLI driven by SOVM and PWM7, CMV and losses for different PWMs are formulated. Moreover, contour, 3-D and 2-D analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of PDC and Modulation Index (MI) on CMV, voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage Weighted Total Harmonic Distortion (WTHD) and switching losses. All theoretical bases, simulation results from MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results conducted by a DTLI prototype validate the superiority of SOVM over PWM7.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • A novel estimation method for the state of health of lithium-ion battery using prior knowledge-based neural network and Markov chain
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Houde Dai; Guangcai Zhao; Mingqiang Lin; Ji Wu; Gengfeng Zheng

    The state of health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is a critical parameter of the battery management system. Because of the complex internal electrochemical properties of LIBs and uncertain external working environment, it is difficult to achieve an accurate SOH determination. In this study, we proposed a novel SOH estimation method by using prior knowledge-based neural network (PKNN) and Markov chain for a single lithium-ion battery. Firstly, we extract multiple features to capture the battery aging process. Due to its effective fitting ability for complex nonlinear problems, the neural network with prior knowledge-based optimization strategy is adopted for the battery SOH prediction. The Markov chain, with the advantageous prediction performance for the long-term system, is established to modify the PKNN estimation results based on the prediction error. Experimental results show that the maximum estimation error of the state of health is reduced to less than 1.7% by adopting the proposed method. By comparing with the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and back propagation neural network in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMNN), the proposed estimation method obtains the highest SOH accuracy.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Single-Inductor Dual-Output DC/DC Converter with Capability of Feeding a Constant Power Load in Open-Loop Manner
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Yalda Azadeh; Ebrahim Babaei; Hadi Tarzamni; Mehran Sabahi

    In this paper, a single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) DC/DC converter is proposed. The significant feature of the proposed converter is feeding a constant power load in low voltage side (LVS) port, where even feeding a variable load at LVS doesn't have any cross regulation to high voltage side port with the desired approximation. Magnificently, both merits are obtained in open-loop manner which is an outstanding characteristic in comparison with existed converters. In this paper, soft commutation and soft switching of switches and diodes are investigated along with the aforementioned main novelty. Moreover, detailed theoretical analyses of the proposed SIDO DC/DC converter in continuous conduction mode are presented besides the comparisons with some other structures. Finally, theoretical analyses are verified through a 1500W experimental prototype results.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Voltage-Dip Analysis of Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator Using Reduced T-model
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Seyed M. Madani; Ramtin Sadeghi; Thomas Anthony Lipo; M. R. Agha Kashkooli; Mohammad Ataei; Sul Ademi

    This paper presents the performance analysis of brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) during symmetrical voltage-dips. The equivalent-circuit consists of resistances and dependent voltage-sources in its rotor loop, thus its voltage-dip analysis becomes more challenging. To overcome such difficulty, a reduced full order model of the BDFIG into a new T-model is presented. A detailed mathematical analysis is performed subject to voltage-dip conditions. The time variation for the machines fluxes, EMFs, voltages, currents, active and reactive powers are analyzed and their analytical approach are derived. The current/voltage stress of power converter during voltage-dip is discussed. The accuracy of the proposed T-model and the theoretical voltage-dip is confirmed via experimental tests on a 3 kW BDFIG, and simulation results of a 2 MW BDFIG.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Distributed Containment Control of Continuous-Time Multi-Agent Systems with Nonconvex Control Input Constraints
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Chunhua Yang; Mengmeng Duan; Peng Lin; Wei Ren; Weihua Gui

    In this paper, we investigate the distributed constrained containment control problem for continuous-time multi-agent systems with nonconvex control input constraints. A nonlinear projection containment control algorithm for followers with double-integrator continuous-time dynamics is proposed. We show that each follower finally stays in the convex hull formed by multiple stationary leaders provided that for each follower, there exists at least one directed path from leaders to it in the union of the graphs in each bounded time interval. Finally, a simulation example is implemented to illustrate theoretical results.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Alternately Controlled Optical Pixel Sensor System Using Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistors
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Chih-Lung Lin; Chia-En Wu; Chia-Lun Lee; Fu-Hsing Chen; Yu-Sheng Lin; Wan-Lin Wu; Jian-Shen Yu

    This work presents an optical pixel sensor that uses a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photo thin-film transistor (TFT). The proposed optical pixel sensor applies photo TFTs that are combined with one primary color filter (red, green, or blue) to determine the input signal to the optical sensor. Other photo TFTs covered with filters of other colors are utilized to provide an index of the ambient white light, inducing compensating photocurrents to maintain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the proposed sensor. To reduce the degradation of photo TFTs under constant drain-to-source voltage (VDS) bias stress, an alternately controlled sensing structure is proposed to reduce the effective stress time of the photo TFTs. The optical characteristics and the degradation of a-Si:H photo TFTs under VDS stress with different duty ratios are investigated to verify the effect of reduced stress time on photo TFTs. Measurements further reveal that the proposed optical sensor achieves a significant initial SNR under high-intensity ambient white light of 13230 lux and that the SNR remains high after 408 h of long-term operation at 70 °C, demonstrating the feasibility of the alternately controlled sensing structure and the long-term reliability of the sensor.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Tracking Control for a DC Microgrid Feeding Uncertain Loads in More Electric Aircraft: Adaptive Backstepping Approach
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Shirin Yousefizadeh; Jan Bendtsen; Navid Vafamand; Mohammad Hassan Khooban; Frede Blaabjerg; Tomislav Dragicevic

    More electric aircrafts (MEAs) comprise a vast amount of power electronic loads, which usually behave as constant power loads (CPLs). The incremental negative impedance of CPLs threatens system stability. To ensure an effective control of power flow in MEAs, eliminating the undesired behavior of CPLs is a necessity. This aim requires spontaneous power estimation of the time-varying uncertain loads. In this paper, an adaptive backstepping controller, which is interconnected to a 3rd degree cubature Kalman filter (CKF), is developed for a DC MG feeding non-ideal CPLs. At first, the load power is considered as an artificial state and augmented into the system states, which enables estimation of not only the DC MG states but also the unknown value of the load power. The estimated load power is then forwarded to a backstepping controller. The systematic approach of this controller allows obtaining the control signal, which is the duty ratio of the switch, to not only system stabilizing but also tracking a desired voltage of the DC bus under the load power variations. The proposed adaptive controller is tested on a DC MG that has one CPL. The conducted experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Analysis of Radial Vibration Caused by Magnetic Force and Torque Pulsation in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Considering Air-gap Deformations
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Feng Chai; Yi Li; Yulong Pei; Yanjun Yu

    This paper mainly studies the influences of air-gap deformations on the electromagnetic performances and radial vibration characteristics of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) at peak rotating speed with rated power. Considering different air-gap states in the electromagnetic finite element models of investigated IPMSMs, the effects of stator oval deformation, rotor centrifugal distortion, and both deformations on the air-gap magnetic flux field, radial and tangential magnetic force and electromagnetic torque are analyzed and compared, respectively. Then, based on the accurate structural model of the stator system, the motor vibration characteristics are investigated with loading different electromagnetic force excitations on the stator inner face. Finally, the vibration experiments of the investigated IPMSM prototype are carried out to verify the results obtained by the simulations at high-speed load condition. It is found that the air-gap deformations give a large increase in the particular vibration level. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of motor vibration characteristics, the air-gap deformations under all electromagnetic excitations, including magnetic force and torque pulsation, should be taken into consideration.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Variable Time-Stepping Modular Multi-Level Converter Model for Fast and Parallel Transient Simulation of Multi-Terminal DC Grid
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Ning Lin; Venkata Dinavahi

    The efficiency of multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grid simulation decreases with an expansion of its scale and the inclusion of accurate component models. Thus, the variable time-stepping scheme is proposed in this work to expedite the electromagnetic transient (EMT) computation. A number of criteria are proposed to evaluate the time-step and regulate it dynamically during simulation. Meanwhile, as the accuracy of results is heavily reliant on the switch model in the modular multilevel converter (MMC), the nonlinear behavioral model with a greater accuracy is proposed in addition to the classic ideal model, and their corresponding variable time-stepping schemes are analyzed. Circuit partitioning is effective in accelerating the MTDC grid simulation via fine-grained separation of nonlinearities. A subsequent large number of identical circuits enabled a massively parallel implementation on the graphics processing unit (GPU), which achieved a remarkable speedup over the CPU-based implementation. The inclusion of variable time-stepping schemes eventually makes the simulation of MTDC grid with highly detailed nonlinear switch models feasible. The results are validated by commercial device-level and system-level simulation tools.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Health Estimation of Individual Capacitors in a Bank With Reduced Sensor Requirements
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Yugal Gupta; Md. Waseem Ahmad; Sagar Narale; Sandeep Anand

    Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors (AECs) are connected in a bank to meet the requirement of capacitance, voltage and current rating for dc-link of power electronic converters. Performance of capacitor bank deteriorates with time due to degradation of AECs in bank. Further, each AEC degrades differently based on core temperature, which in turn depends on current and Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR). Therefore, health monitoring of bank would require monitoring of individual AECs. However, extending available literature on health monitoring of AEC to capacitor bank, would require voltage/current sensors for individual AECs. To address the aforementioned issue, this paper suggests a method to online assess the health of individual AECs in the bank without using sensors for each AECs. The proposed method involves estimation of current through each capacitor, which is used to determine core temperature by using thermal model. Core temperature is used for estimation of ESR and capacitance of each capacitor using degradation model. For consistent matching of degradation model to actual degradation, coefficients of the model are sequentially updated. For updating, an algorithm based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used. The proposed scheme is experimentally validated on laboratory prototype of single-phase, grid-connected solar PV inverter under variable load conditions.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • An Integrated On-Board EV Charger with Safe Charging Operation for Three-Phase IPM Motor
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Yang Xiao; Chunhua Liu; Feng Yu

    This paper presents a safe charging operation for the integrated on-board electric vehicle (EV) charging system, where the power electronic components are reconfigured from the propulsive system. First, the rotational movement is detected and analyzed, when the motor windings are reutilized as the DC/DC inductors. Then, the safe charging operation is investigated, which is based on the analysis of the charging torque and the ripple currents. Moreover, a new control strategy is presented with the purpose of the safe operation and smoothing reactor during the EV charging process. Finally, both simulation and experimentation are carried out to verify the safe charging operation. The results prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed safe charging operation for on-board charger with the three-phase interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motor.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • A Simplified MPFC with Capacitor Voltage Offset Suppression for the Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverter-Fed PMSM Drive
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Dan Sun; Junpan Su; Chong Sun; Heng Nian

    This paper proposes a simplified model predictive flux control (S-MPFC) for a four-switch three-phase inverter (FSTPI) fed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system with the consideration of capacitor voltage offset suppression. A stator flux compensator is introduced to fulfill the capacitor voltage offset suppression. A reference stator flux vector is obtained to represent the reference flux, the reference torque and the capacitor voltage offset based on the id = 0 control mode. Therefore, the flux vector is taken as the only control term in the cost function without any dreary weighting factor tuning work. Moreover, an offset flux error is defined according to the inherent features of the FSTPI, therefore, the optimal voltage vector can be selected in the stationary reference frame using a simple sector division and only one prediction calculation. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed S-MPFC.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Intelligent Collaborative Localization among Air-Ground Robots for Industrial Environment Perception
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Jianhua Zhang; Ruyu Liu; Kejie Yin; Zengyuan Wang; Mengping Gui; S.Y. Chen

    Multiple mobile robots have gradually played a key role in many industrial systems, such as factory freight logistics system, patrol security systems and multi-robots collaborative service and work. As a key issue in industrial environment perception, the accurate robot localization can enhance their autonomous ability and is an important branch of robotics studies in artificial intelligence. In this paper, we propose a new method for cooperative autonomous localization among air-ground robots in a wide-ranging outdoor industrial environment. The aerial robot first maps an area of interest and achieves self-localization. Then a simplified orthogonal perspective 2.5D map from the aerial robot is transferred to the ground robots for collaboration. Within the collaboration, the ground robot achieves pose estimation with respect to the UAV pose by instantaneously registering a single panorama with respect to the 2.5D map. The 2.5D map is used as the spatial association among air-ground robots. Our method effectively overcomes the dramatic differences between the air-level view and the ground-level view. A set of experiments are performed in the outdoor industrial environment to demonstrate the applicability of our localization method. The proposed robotic collaborative localization outperforms most consumer sensor in accuracy and also has an outstanding running time.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • A Tightly-Coupled Inductive Power Transfer System for Low-Voltage and High-Current Charging of Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs)
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Fei Lu; Hua Zhang; Chong Zhu; Lijun Diao; Minming Gong; Weige Zhang; Chunting Chris Mi

    This paper proposes a tightly-coupled inductive power transfer (IPT) system for the low-voltage and high-current charging of automatic guided vehicles (AGVs). There are two challenges in the system design. First, the wide varying range of the airgap introduces difficulties to design the compensation circuit. Second, the low-voltage and high-current working condition introduces difficulties to maintain the system efficiency. This paper reveals that there are a large amount of high-order harmonic currents in a tightly-coupled IPT system, and we have provided an effective design method to reduce the harmonics. The integrated-LCC compensation circuit is selected as a solution, showing four merits: good robustness to the airgap variation, easy controllability, convenience to optimize the efficiency, and low high-order harmonics. A prototype is implemented and the magnetic coupler size is 220mm×200mm×10mm. Experimental results show that it achieves 1.78 kW power transfer from a 300 V DC source to a 24 V battery with 86.1% efficiency and a 73.8A charging current across an airgap of 15 mm. When the airgap varies between 5 mm to 25 mm, the system power variation is within$\pm$36.7% and the efficiency is not significantly affected.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Nonlinear Constrained Optimal Control of Wave Energy Converters with Adaptive Dynamic Programming
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Jing Na; Bin Wang; Guang Li; Siyuan Zhan; Wei He

    In this paper, we address the energy maximization problem of wave energy converters (WEC) subject to nonlinearities and constraints, and present an efficient online control strategy based on the principle of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) for solving the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. To solve the derived constrained nonlinear optimal control problem, a critic neural network (NN) is used to approximate the time-dependant optimal cost value and then calculate the practical suboptimal causal control action. The proposed novel WEC control strategy leads to a simplified ADP framework without involving the widely used actor NN. The significantly improved computational efficacy of the proposed control makes it attractive for its practical implementation on a WEC to achieve a reduced unit cost of energy output, which is especially important when the dynamics of a WEC are complicated and need to be described accurately by a high-order model with nonlinearities and constraints. Simulation results are provided to show the efficacy of the proposed control method.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • An Improved Modulation Strategy for Fast Capacitor Voltage Balancing of Three-Level NPC Inverters
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Santu Giri; Subrata Banerjee; Chandan Chakraborty

    This paper presents an improved pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy in conjunction with an optimal compensator for fast capacitor voltage balancing in three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter. The voltage balancing compensator is designed in such a way that it produces optimal unbalance compensation coefficient according to the inherent limitations related to the variability range of modulating signals. It generates maximum compensating neutral current for the full modulation depth extending into overmodulation region and throughout the entire range of load power factor angles, and thus improves the unbalance compensation ability for all the operating conditions of the inverter. The optimal compensation offset signal corresponding to each operating point is determined from the boundary limit of the auxiliary modulating signals. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied for such purpose. The performance of the proposed optimal compensator for different combinations of modulation index and load power factors are evaluated through extensive simulation study using Matlab/Simulink and validated in experimentation using a three-level NPC inverter prototype with induction motor load. Finally, the voltage balancing performances of the proposed compensator are compared with that available in literature to confirm the usefulness of the proposed concept.

    更新日期:2018-11-16
  • Robotic Material Perception using Active Multi-Modal Fusion
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Huaping Liu; Fuchun Sun; Xinyu Zhang

    Robotic material perception is an extremely important but challenging problem for industrial intelligence. The main difficulties come from the fact that the material properties are difficult to be comprehensibly evaluated by single visual, auditory or tactile modality. Conventional multi-modal fusion methods require collecting all of the multi-modal information for a testing sample before the recognition. This is expensive, redundant and may incur large latency. To tackle this problem, a new active fusion framework for the multi-modal material recognition is proposed in this paper. We first adopt the adversarial learning method to obtain the modal-invariant representations to effectively bridge the gap between different modalities, and then develop a reinforcement learning method for active modality selection. The developed framework and algorithms are evaluated on a publicly available dataset and show promising material recognition results. The developed framework provides an effective method for industrial material inspection.

    更新日期:2018-11-14
  • Disturbance Observer-Based Control for Dual-Stage Grid-Tied Photovoltaic System under Unbalanced Grid Voltages
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Rachid Errouissi; Ahmed Al-Durra

    This paper presents the design and experimental validation of disturbance observer-based control for grid-tied photovoltaic inverters fed by a dc-dc boost converter considering unbalanced grid voltages. The main controller is designed to regulate the active and reactive powers injected into the grid via controlling the grid-tied inverter. Under unbalanced grid voltages, the active and reactive power is composed of a dc component as well as an ac component that oscillates at twice the grid frequency. Therefore, the unknown perturbation can be treated as a sum of a constant offset and a sinusoidal disturbance. A disturbance observer is designed to estimate the unknown perturbation, which is then canceled by a feedback-linearizing control. By considering the control input limitation in the observer synthesis, an anti-windup compensator arises naturally in the control law, which attenuates the effect of the windup phenomenon during control saturation. Moreover, a simplified representation of the disturbance observer is proposed to facilitate real-time implementation. The proposed approach for the power control can be used in both balanced and unbalanced systems since it can reject constant and sinusoidal disturbances. Experimental tests were performed to investigate the ability of the proposed controller to achieve good transient and steady-state performances.

    更新日期:2018-11-14
  • Disturbance Observer Based DC-Bus Voltage Control for Ripple Mitigation and Improved Dynamic Response in Two-Stage Single-Phase Inverter System
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 
    Majid Ali; Muhammad Yaqoob; Cao Lingling; Ka Hong Loo

    Two-stage single-phase inverter system has found many applications in distributed generators and grid-connected systems. However, the existence of double-line frequency ripple on the dc-bus voltage due to single-phase inverter's operation has given rise to some design and reliability issues. Some of these are the degradation in the quality of inverter's output voltage and shortening of dc-bus capacitor's lifetime. The problem is rooted in the controller design of the front-end dc-dc converter, which is often designed based on a simplified mathematical model of the dc-dc converter that fails to account for some complex phenomena such as system's non-linearities and circuit parameter variations due to temperature and ageing effects. In this paper, a disturbance observer based control is proposed where these un-modeled effects are treated in the form of lumped disturbance and compensated for in a feed-forward manner. The major advantage of this control solution is that only minimal plant information is needed for controller design and that a decoupled composite controller can be realized, where the feedback compensator is designed to meet certain stability criteria while the disturbance observer based feed-forward compensator is designed to handle fast transient events. A prototype of a DAB dc-dc converter implemented with disturbance observer based control is constructed to verify its effectiveness.

    更新日期:2018-11-12
  • Series-Capacitor Based Buck PFC Converter With High Power Factor and Ultra High Step-down Conversion Ratio
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 
    Zhangyong Chen; Chengyu Zhang; Yunfeng Wu; Yong Chen; Changhua Zhang

    In this paper, a series-capacitor based interleaving Buck Power Factor Correction (PFC) converter is proposed, which the bus capacitance is operated at DCVM mode, and automatic power factor correction for this converter is obtained. Moreover, the voltage across the series capacitor of the proposed PFC converter is clamped at the input voltage. By effectively regulating the charge/discharge time for the series capacitor, ultrahigh step down conversion ratio of the proposed converter is achieved, which only related to the switching frequency and circuit parameters. Therefore, high power factor can be obtained due to very narrow dead time of the input current. Meanwhile, the proposed PFC converter can realize the soft turn-on of component devices. In addition, comparing with the traditional DCM PFC, the input current of the proposed PFC converter is continuous so that the peak value and root-mean-square value of input current can be reduced. The operational principle, performance analysis and parameter design principle are given in this paper. The analysis results show that the power factor (PF) and total harmonic distortion (THD) are also independent of the duty cycle. Finally, a 220Vac input, 60W/15V output experimental prototype is built to verify the validity of the theoretical analysis.

    更新日期:2018-11-12
  • Short-Circuit Fault-Tolerant Operation of Dual-Winding Permanent-Magnet Motor under the Four-Quadrant Condition
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 
    Xuefeng Jiang; Da Xu; Ling Gu; Qiang Li; Bo Xu; Yunzhi Li

    In this paper, a short-circuit fault-tolerant operation control strategy of dual-winding permanent-magnet motor (DWPMM) under the four-quadrant condition for electrical flight surface actuator application is proposed and investigated. By the comparative analysis of the current fault-tolerant PM motor drive system, it can be concluded that the DWPMM drive system is suitable for electrical flight surface actuator application. However, the current DWPMM drive system lacks the research on short-circuit fault-tolerant operation under the four-quadrant condition. Then, the electrical flight surface actuator system based on the DWPMM and short-circuit fault-tolerant operation control strategy under the four-quadrant condition are proposed and investigated. The experimental results show that the electrical flight surface actuator system based on the DWPMM can achieve the high performance of the four-quadrant fault-tolerant control with short-circuit fault under the four-quadrant operational condition.

    更新日期:2018-11-12
  • Modified Repetitive Control for Odd Harmonic Current Suppression in Magnetically Suspended Rotor Systems
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-08
    Peiling Cui; Guoxi Zhang

    In magnetically suspended rotor (MSR) system, harmonic current mainly caused by mass imbalance and sensor runout would produce harmonic vibration. Repetitive control (RC) is one remarkable approach for eliminating such harmonics. Conventional RC (CRC) attempts to compensate for all frequency components simultaneously. However, in practical MSR system, it is usual that the current comprises only odd-harmonic components. This paper investigates a modified odd-harmonic RC (MORC) scheme to response to this issue. The signal generator of arbitrary-order discrete- time periodic signal is established, by which the general forms of CRC and ORC can be obtained. Besides, it is proved that ORC with halved data memory possesses faster convergence rate, higher repetitive gain, wider frequency bandwidth at targeted frequency and greater robustness to frequency fluctuation than CRC. The stability criterion for the MORC-controlled MSR system is proved as well. Simulation and experimental results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

    更新日期:2018-11-09
  • High-Resolution Non-Destructive Test Probes Based on Magnetoresistive Sensors
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Diogo Miguel Caetano; Taimur Rabuske; Jorge Fernandes; Matthias Pelkner; Claude Fermont; Susana Cardoso de Freitas; Belen Ribez; Fernando Franco; Johannes Paul; Moises Piedade; Paulo P. Freitas

    This work discloses two high-sensitivity probes for Eddy Current Non-Destructive Test (NDT) of buried and surface defects. These probes incorporate 8 and 32 magnetoresistive sensors, respectively, which are optimized for high sensitivity and spatial resolution. The signal processing and interfacing are carried out by a full-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC signal chain performs with a thermal input-referred noise of 30 nV/ $\sqrt{\mathrm {HZ}}$ at 1 kHz, with 66 mW of power consumption, in a die with 3.7×3.4 mm $^2$ . NDT results are presented, showing that there is an increase in spatial resolution of surface defects when contrasted to prior art, enabling the probes to resolve defects with diameters of 0.44 mm, pitches of 0.6 mm, and minimum edge distance as low as 0.16 mm. The results also show that the probe for buried defects is a good all-round tool for detection of defects under cladding and multiple-plate flat junctions.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Tomographic Approach for Universal Tactile Imaging with Electromechanically Coupled Conductors
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Shunsuke Yoshimoto; Yoshihiro Kuroda; Osamu Oshiro

    We proposed a novel, low-cost, and universal tactile sensing technology for imaging pressure distribution using a tomographic approach with conductors. In particular, we focused on the fact that pressure is related to the contact resistance between two conductive objects. The sensor comprised driving and probing conductors, which were electromechanically coupled. The system solved an inverse problem for estimating electrical boundary conditions using the voltage sets from electrodes on the border of the probing conductor. The sensing system successfully estimated the pressure distribution, contact location (error rate: 5.68 $\pm$ 2.78 %), and local pressure (error in the range 0.0269 - 0.0509 N/mm $^2$ for a maximum pressure of 0.50 N/mm $^2$ ). Finally, tactile imaging by sheet- and finger-type sensors was demonstrated as practical applications of the developed sensor.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • High-Voltage Circuit Breaker Fault Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Feature Transformation Approach Based on Random Forest and Stacked Auto-Encoder
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Suliang Ma; Mingxuan Chen; Jianwen Wu; Yuhao Wang; Bowen Jia; Yuan Jiang

    In recent years, machine learning techniques have been applied to test the fault type in HVCBs. Most related research involve in improving the classification method for higher precision. Nevertheless, as an important part of the diagnosis, the feature information description of the vibration signal of an HVCB has been neglected; in particular, its diversity and significance are rarely considered in many real-world fault diagnosis applications. Therefore, in this study, a hybrid feature transformation is proposed to optimize the diagnosis performance for HVCB faults. First, we introduce a non-linear feature mapping in the wavelet package time-frequency energy rate (WTFER) feature space based on random forest binary coding (RFBC) to extend the feature width. Then, a stacked auto-encoder (SAE) neural network is used for compressing the feature depth. Finally, five typical classifiers are applied in the hybrid feature space based on the experimental dataset. The superiority of the proposed feature optimal approach is verified by comparing the results in the three abovementioned feature spaces.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • PV module fault diagnosis based on micro-converters and day-ahead forecast
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Sonia Leva; Marco Mussetta; Emanuele Ogliari

    The employment of solar micro-converter allows a more detailed monitoring of the PV output power at the single module level; thus, machine learning techniques are capable to track the peculiarities of modules in the PV plants such as regular shadings. In this way it is possible to compare in real-time the day-ahead forecast power with the actual one in order to better evaluate faults or anomalous trends which might have occurred in the PV plant. This paper presents a method for an effective fault diagnosis; this method is based on the day-ahead forecast of the output power from an existing PV module, linked to a micro-converter, and on the outcome of the neighbor PV modules. Finally, this paper proposes also the analysis of the most common error definitions with new mathematical formulations, by comparing their effectiveness and immediate comprehension, in view of increasing power forecasting accuracy and performing both real-time and offline analysis of PV modules performance and possible faults.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Extracting and Matching Lines of Low-textured Region in Close-range Navigation for Tethered Space Robot
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Lu Chen; Panfeng Huang; Jia Cai

    When dealing with lines in regions with sparse texture, such as satellite's brackets, some existing line matching methods do not work well due to the incorrect location of line endpoints and line fragments. In this research, we study how to automatically match low-textured lines. The designed feature only uses their neighborhood appearance and there are no any other priori knowledge or constraints needed. We combine point and line features to propose a novel line matching method. It includes the following three main steps. First, line extraction based on pixel gradient is adopted and we design a mergence strategy to ensure continuity. Then, line-point invariant and CS-LBP descriptor are combined together to represent lines. Last, two corresponding criterions are designed to measure the similarities between each pair images. Extensive experiments on real and synthetic images show that our proposed method exceeds the reference methods in performance under scale, illumination and dynamic cases.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Lyapunov-Based Model Predictive Control of a PUC7 Grid-Connected Multilevel Inverter
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Hamza Makhamreh; Mohammad Sleiman; Osman Kukrer; Kamal Al-Haddad

    A new Lyapunov-based model predictive controller is proposed for a 7-Level Packed U-Cell (PUC7) grid-connected inverter. Cost function of the proposed model predictive controller is designed from system stability point of view, inspired by Lyapunov control theory. The proposed controller eliminates the need for gains that are associated with cost function coefficients, as seen in classical Model-Predictive-Control (MPC) based controllers. Therefore, the control design problem is significantly simplified. In addition, the average switching frequency is also reduced, as shown in both simulation and experimental results, leading to a reduction in switching losses. Simulation and experimental tests on a PUC7 lab prototype, demonstrates the excellent performance of the proposed control system, in terms of high disturbance rejection, robustness to parameter mismatches, and fast dynamic response. Such features qualify the proposed control strategy as a good candidate for grid-tied applications.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Fixed-time consensus control of multi-agent systems using input shaping
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Ti Chen; Jinjun Shan

    This paper presents the development of novel fixed-time consensus controllers of simple form for the second-order multi-agent systems based on input shaping under undirected communication graph. To satisfy the requirement of multi-agent systems, the input shaping technique is extended to solve the control of an oscillation system with non-zero initial position firstly. Then, three cases are considered under the connected undirected graph. Theoretical analyses are presented to solve the exact convergence time based on the responses of the closed-loop multi-agent systems. Finally, numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • A Distributed Parameter Maxwell-Slip Model for the Hysteresis in Piezoelectric Actuators
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Yanfang Liu; Du Desong; Naiming Qi; Jun Zhao

    The Maxwell-slip (MS) model is extended to a distributed parameter Maxwell-slip (DPMS) model, and a DPMS model parameter identification process is proposed for the hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators (PEAs). This model is governed by a saturation deformation function (SDF) and a stiffness function (SF); it requires only a few parameters and can capture nonconvex hysteresis. It has a clear interpretation in the mechanical domain and provides insight into the mechanism of hysteresis generation; hence, it can predict the performance in the unidentified range. With a linear SDF, exponential, power-law, and polynomial SFs are studied for a PEA-based nanopositioning system. The normalized root mean square (NRMS) errors for these SFs are 0.60%, 0.43%, and 0.47%, respectively. With parameters identified from the middle hysteresis loop, the NRMS error is 0.68%. For nonconvex hysteresis, the NRMS error is 2.78%. With compensation by DPMS models with the above three SFs, the hysteresis decreases by 86.95%, 87.13%, and 97.13%, respectively. The rate dependence of the frequency response is eliminated, and the -3-dB bandwidth increases from 320 Hz to 890 Hz.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • A Time-Delay Compensation Method for IPMSM Hybrid Sensorless Drives in Rail Transit Applications
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Hang Zhang; Weiguo Liu; Zhe Chen; Shuai Mao; Tao Meng; Jichang Peng; Ningfei Jiao

    This paper proposes a hybrid sensorless control strategy for rail transit application employing Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM), which works under low switching frequency. Due to a long system time-delay, the convergence rate of estimated position in the sensorless dynamic region is reduced. As the speed increases, the dq-axis currents coupling is more severe, and deteriorates the control performance. In order to solve these problems, the analysis of time-delay effect on the IPMSM sensorless drives is firstly derived. Then, using q-axis current error, a global time-delay compensation method is designed to eliminate the lag-angle of estimated position. Furthermore,the effect of this compensation on audible noise reduction is also analyzed. Through a phaselocked loop (PLL), the hybrid estimated position is obtained from a normalized position error. Finally, a 3.7-kW IPMSM is tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed sensorless method.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Efficient Predictive Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Mohamed Mamdouh El shormbably; Mohammad A. Abido

    Finite control set mode predictive control (FCS-MPC) is an emerging technique for control of power electronic converters. This paper introduces a simple and efficient predictive torque control (PTC) algorithm for induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed technique eliminates the need for flux weighting factor for the conventional PTC. As a result, tedious offline tuning is no longer required. At the same time, the proposed technique ensures that the relative importance between torque and flux ripples are determined in an online fashion. Moreover, unlike the conventional method which needs to evaluate the cost function seven times (for two level three-phase inverter case), the proposed method needs only to test four voltage vectors (VVs) at each control sample which leads to a significant reduction in the computation time and switching frequency without sacrificing the performance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by both simulation and experimental results with comprehensive comparisons with the reported literature.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Scaling of the drive train dynamics of large-scale wind turbine systems for real-time emulation in small-scale laboratory setups
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Korbinian Schechner; Christoph Michael Hackl

    The nonlinear state-space dynamical model of the drive train of large-scale wind turbine systems and its scaling for small-scale real-time wind turbine system emulation in the laboratory is discussed. Shaft elasticity and the nonlinear, aerodynamical turbine torque are considered. To allow for a physically reasonable emulation of the dynamical behaviour of multi-megawatt wind turbine drive trains at a small-scale laboratory test bench, a general scaling method is presented which is based on the ratios of physical SI-units. Furthermore, inertia emulation, elasticity emulation and friction compensation are addressed and possible implementations are proposed. Simulation results of the full-scale wind turbine system model and measurement results of the small-scale real-time wind turbine system emulation are compared to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scaling.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • A Metamaterial-Coupled Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Cubic High Dielectric Resonators
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Rupam Kumar Das; Abdul Basir; Hyoungsuk Yoo

    In this study, a metamaterial-coupled, highly-efficient, miniaturized, and long-range Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system based on a Cubic High Dielectric Resonator (CHDR) is explored. The proposed WPT system consists of two CHDR metamaterials separated by a distance and excited by two rectangular coils. Initially, this WPT system is analyzed by considering the cube dielectric permittivity, $\varepsilon_{r}=1000$ , and loss tangent, tan $\delta=0.00001$ . From the HFSS simulation, it is observed that the system operates in the hybrid resonance mode resonating as a horizontal magnetic dipole providing more than 90% power transfer efficiency at a distance of 0.1 $\lambda$ . In addition, parametric studies regarding the transmitter and receiver sizes, loss tangent, receiver misorientation, cubes periodicity, etc. are carried out. The WPT efficiency due to misorientation of the receiver can be increased by changing the CHDR cube rotation. Due to inaccessibility of the very high $\varepislon_{r}=1000$ , eighteen microwave ceramic samples of EXXELIA TEMEX E5080 (Oxide composition: Ba Sm Ti) which has a permittivity, $\varepsilon_{r}=78$ , permeability, $\mu_{r}$ = 1, and a loss tangent, tan $\delta= 0.0004$ was made for experimental verification. These cubes are surrounded by Teflon to make the CHDR resonators. From simulations and measurements, we found that the proposed system outperforms the most recent high-dielectric or copper based WPT systems in terms of efficiency, range, size, and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR).

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Squirrel Cage Rotor Design and Manufacturing for High-Speed Applications
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Jan Barta; Nikita Uzhegov; Petr Losak; Cestmir Ondrusek; Martin Mach; Juha Pyrhonen

    A high-speed squirrel-cage induction machine requires totally different design compared to the traditional squirrel cage industrial motor because of mechanical limitations caused by the high speed. This results in a more complicated rotor construction, expensive material selection and sets higher standards to the manufacturing precision. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the design aspects, material selection, and manufacturing of a squirrel cage rotor for high-speed applications. In this paper, the rotor dimensioning approach based on equations and data analysis is presented. Rotor material selection and construction topology influence on the electrical machine design are discussed. The results are illustrated with the design of a 6 kW, 120 000 rpm induction machine for a turbo-circulator. The rotor parameters' influence on the electromagnetic performance of the designed machine is demonstrated. Mechanical stresses for different topologies are studied with Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis. Several manufacturing methods to produce a high precision rotor are described and compared. Presented rotor design approach, which enables high electromagnetic performance and robust construction is verified by testing of a prototype.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Severity Estimation of Inter Turn Short Circuit Fault for PMSM
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Yuan Qi; Bilal Akin

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate the number of shorted turns in a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) following the detection of inter turn short circuit (ITSC) fault and its location. In this proposed method, PMSM is excited through a low sinusoidal voltage at stand still condition to obtain the winding resistance and synchronous inductance by current response. It is shown that, the inter turn short circuit (ITSC) fault introduces variation in the current response which is used to calculate the number of shorted turns under zero fault resistance assumption. Using this practical procedure, the fault severity can be estimated directly in a straight-forward manner. In other words, the severity estimation for a given machine can be done without complex machine modeling or experiments on ITSC prototype with multiple taps. The findings in this paper are essential for a comprehensive solution including fault mitigation algorithms and post-fault operations. In order to verify the findings, a three phase equivalent circuit model supported by FEA results is used to take saturation and space harmonics into account. In addition, experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the severity estimation.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • A Novel Bidirectional Solid-State Circuit Breaker for DC Microgrid
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Yufeng Wang; Weilin Li; Xuanlyu Wu; Xiaohua Wu

    DC microgrid has attracted more and more attention due to its unique characteristics, but the development of DC microgrid is also facing some challenges, such as interruption and isolation of short circuit fault currents. Therefore, DC circuit breaker plays an important role in ensuring the normal work of DC microgrid. In this paper, a novel bidirectional DC solid-state circuit breaker is proposed to realize the bidirectional flow of energy, which ensures the higher operating efficiency of the DC microgrid. Compared with other solid-state circuit breakers, the proposed novel topology has simpler structure, common ground and fewer components. Firstly, this paper makes a detailed analysis of the different working stages of the circuit when the fault occurs in combination with simulation results of the circuit topology. Then, the standard of selecting the components through the calculation and analysis of the circuit is given in this paper. Finally, the performance of the novel bidirectional solid-state circuit breaker is verified by experiments.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Consensus of second-order multi-agent systems with both velocity and input constraints
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Junjie Fu; Guanghui Wen; Wenwu Yu; Tingwen Huang; Xinghuo Yu

    This paper considers consensus control of second- order multi-agent systems subject to both velocity and input constraints under general directed communication graphs. A new class of distributed consensus controller is proposed which is shown that under proper initial velocity conditions, consensus can be achieved while both the velocity and input constraints are satisfied during the consensus process. The proposed controller can be designed without relying on global information about the communication graph such as the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix. Extensions to dynamic formation control and leader- following consensus with both velocity and input constraints are also presented based on the consensus controller. Furthermore, sampled-data leader-following case is also investigated when communication rate is constrained. Simulations on the outer-loop coordination control of multiple quadrotors are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Geometric Analysis Based Double Closed-loop Iterative Learning Control of Output PDF Shaping of Fiber Length Distribution in Refining Process
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Ming jie Li; Ping Zhou; Hong Wang; Tianyou Chai

    In order to improve the pulp quality and to reduce the energy consumption, the fiber length distribution (FLD) is generally employed as one of the important technological indexes in the refining process. Considering that the traditional mean and variance of fiber length are unable to adequately characterize the non-Gaussian distribution properties, this paper proposes a novel geometric analysis based double closed-loop iterative learning control (ILC) method for probability density function (PDF) shaping of output FLD in the refining process. Primarily, a RBF neural network (NN) with Gaussian-type is utilized to approximate the square root PDF in the inner loop, where the RBF basis function parameters (center and width) are tuned between any two adjacent batches by using an ILC law, and the subspace identification method can be applied to establish the state-space model of weight vector. Then, for the sake of accelerating the convergence rate of the closed-loop sysyem, a geometric analysis based ILC method is adopted in the outer loop. Finally, both simulation and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed approach.

    更新日期:2018-11-08
  • Combined Multi-Physics Model of Switched Flux PM Machines under Fault Operations
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-11-06
    Petrica Taras; Guang-Jin Li; Zi-Qiang Zhu; Martin P. Foster; David A. Stone

    In this paper, the transient thermal response of a conventional double layer switched flux permanent magnet machine is studied for both healthy and fault conditions such as inter-turn short-circuit. A highly optimized and accurate co-simulation model for different operating conditions is developed requiring low computation and time resources. The electro-mechanical models for both healthy and faulty operation are implemented in Matlab/Simulink while the thermal model is implemented using 3D FEM software. Both models are dynamically coupled to enable the influence of temperature rise on the electromagnetic performance and vice versa to be predicted. Operation under various conditions are investigated and it is found that the temperature rise under fault conditions and high speed can lead to irreversible demagnetization of the permanent magnets. The superposition principle is used to accurately estimate the impact of short-circuit currents on the temperature rise. A series of dynamic tests are carried out to validate the transient thermal response prediction when operating during both the healthy and fault conditions.

    更新日期:2018-11-07
  • Multifunctional Hybrid Structure of SVC and Capacitive Grid-Connected Inverter (SVC//CGCI) for Active Power Injection and Nonactive Power Compensation
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Lei Wang; Chi-Seng Lam; Man-Chung Wong

    In this paper, the structure, coordinate control method, and parameter design of a hybrid system are proposed for active power injection and nonactive power (reactive, harmonic, and unbalance power) compensation. The proposed hybrid system consists of a static var compensator (SVC) in parallel with a capacitive-coupling grid-connected inverter (CGCI) (SVC//CGCI). In SVC//CGCI, the SVC part is used to dynamic compensate the reactive power and unbalance power, while the low rating CGCI part is used to inject active power, provide harmonic power and a fixed amount of capacitive reactive power. Compared with conventional inductive-coupling grid-connected inverter (IGCI), the CGCI can provide active, reactive and harmonic power with low rating of active inverter part. The cost of the SVC part is much lower than that of active inverter part, thus the reduction of inverter rating can lead to a decrease in the total cost of the SVC//CGCI. Therefore, the SVC//CGCI can be a cost effective solution for active power injection and nonactive power compensation. Finally, simulation and experimental results are provided to show the advantages and validity of the proposed SVC//CGCI in compared with the conventional IGCI and SVC//IGCI.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Optimal Space Vector Modulation of Current-Source Converter for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Xiaoqiang Guo; Yong Yang; Xuehui Wang

    DC-link current ripple is one of the important factors for operating the current-source converter. In practice, the dc-link current ripple can be reduced by increasing the switching frequency or inductance. However, it may result in the higher switching losses, larger size, or higher cost. In order to deal with this problem, the inherent limitation of the conventional solution is discussed in this paper. The time-domain equation of the dc-link current is established for the first time. And then, a new space vector control strategy is proposed to reduce the ripple with no need of increasing the switching frequency or inductance. The space vector is divided into 12 sectors, where the dc-link current ripple can be effectively reduced by the optimal vector sequence. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on the TMS320F28335DSP + XC3400FPGA digital control hardware platform. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Cooling of Automotive Traction Motors: Schemes, Examples, and Computation Methods
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Yaohui Gai; Mohammad Kimiabeigi; Yew Chuan Chong; James D. Widmer; Xu Deng; Mircea Popescu; James Goss; Dave A. Staton; Andrew Steven

    This paper presents a comprehensive over-view of the latest studies and analyses of the cooling technologies and computation methods for the automotive traction motors. Various cooling methods, including the natural, forced air, forced liquid, and phase change types, are discussed with the pros and cons of each method being compared. The key factors for optimizing the heat transfer efficiency of each cooling system are highlighted here. Furthermore, the real-life examples of these methods, applied in the latest automotive traction motor prototypes and products, have been set out and evaluated. Finally, the analytical and numerical techniques describing the nature and performance of different cooling schemes have been explained and addressed. This paper provides guidelines for selecting the appropriate cooling methods and estimating the performance of them in the early stages of their design.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Performance Evaluation on a Novel Power Converter With Minimum Number of Switches for a Six-Phase Switched Reluctance Motor
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Yanfang Hu; Tao Wang; Wen Ding

    In this paper, a novel converter with the minimum number of power switches is comparatively investigated with an asymmetric half bridge (AHB) converter by individually applying them to a six-phase switched reluctance motor (SRM). To begin with, topology, operation principle, and electrical equations are analyzed based on an SRM with double-phase excitation. Compared with AHB converter, the number of power switches is reduced to half and no additional devices are added. Besides, every switch is shared by two adjacent phases and works in turn. Steady-state, transient, and fault tolerance performances are discussed and compared by the means of simulations and experiments. The results validate that the novel converter is able to provide a higher output power, a less torque ripple, and a faster dynamic response, but the fault tolerance ability is inferior to the AHB converter.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Sensorless Startup Strategy for a 315-kW High-Speed Brushless DC Motor With Small Inductance and Nonideal Back EMF
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Shaohua Chen; Gang Liu; Lianqing Zhu

    This paper presents a novel sensorless startup strategy for a 315-kW high-speed magnetic suspension brushless dc (BLDC) motor with small inductance and nonideal back electromotive force (EMF). Two key strategies on the sensorless startup strategy of the BLDC motor are presented: First, small current startup strategy for the high-speed BLDC motor with small inductance; and second, self-adaption control strategy to compensate the commutation error for the BLDC motor with nonideal back EMF in the startup stage. A hybrid pulsewidth modulation strategy based on the load torque is proposed to limit the startup current. An optimal motor startup curve based on the system parameters is presented, and a self-adaption control strategy is proposed to solve the synchronous switching problem. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method is verified by a series of experiments on the 315 kW, 20 000 r/min magnetic suspension blower platform.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Reduction of Open-Circuit DC-Winding-Induced Voltage in Wound Field Switched Flux Machines by Skewing
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Z. Z. Wu; Z. Q. Zhu; C. Wang; J. C. Mipo; S. Personnaz; P. Farah

    In this paper, the open-circuit dc-winding-induced voltage in a wound field switched flux (WFSFs) machines is analyzed. The phenomenon of open-circuit dc-winding-induced voltage is illustrated and the mechanism is explained. Rotor skewing is proposed to reduce the open-circuit dc-winding-induced voltage, and the optimal skewing angle is analytically derived based on the analytically deduced harmonic orders of the open-circuit dc-winding-induced voltage. Finite-element (FE) analyses show that the open-circuit dc-winding-induced voltages in the analyzed 12-stator-pole partitioned stator WFSF machines having 10-, 11-, 13-, and 14-rotor-pole rotors can be effectively reduced by >94%, while the ac-winding phase-fundamental back-EMFs can be maintained by >95%. Twelve/ten-stator/rotor-pole prototypes with skewed and nonskewed rotors are built and tested to verify the analytical and FE results.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • An Inverse Thermal Modeling Approach for Thermal Parameter and Loss Identification in an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Hendrik Vansompel; Anna Yarantseva; Peter Sergeant; Guillaume Crevecoeur

    Despite the use of state-of-the-art thermal modeling tools in the design stage, the measured thermal behavior of prototype electrical machines can differ significantly from the modeled ones. This paper shows how a thermal model, based on the finite-element method, of an electric machine can be improved using inverse modeling techniques. In a thorough study, a forward high fidelity finite-element thermal model of a 4-kW axial flux permanent magnet (PM) machine is introduced and improved using inverse modeling techniques via noncollocated thermal sensors. Parametric model order reduction of the high fidelity finite-element thermal model based on the moment matching method is performed to make the recovery of the actual thermal parameters characterizing the thermal behavior of the axial flux PM machine tractable. Furthermore, the same reduced order model is used to identify the different power loss components in the machine. Experimental results confirm that the presented two-stage approach is capable of identifying the thermal parameters and losses with high accuracy.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Elimination of Even-Order Harmonics and Unipolar Leakage Flux in Consequent-Pole PM Machines by Employing N-S-Iron–S-N-Iron Rotor
    IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (IF 7.05) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    J. Li; K. Wang; F. Li; S. S. Zhu; C. Liu

    This paper presents a novel consequent-pole permanent magnet (CPM) machine featuring N-S-iron–S-N-iron sequences to eliminate the even-order harmonics of phase back electromotive force (EMF) and the unipolar leakage flux in the end region. The flux barrier is employed to improve the symmetry of the air-gap flux and reduce the saturation of the stator yoke, and hence the output torque can be improved. The proposed CPM machine, as well as its conventional counterpart with N-iron sequences, is optimized by finite-element analyses. Moreover, the electromagnetic performance of the proposed CPM machine, including the open-circuit air-gap flux density, back EMF, average torque, torque ripple, loss, efficiency, and unipolar leakage flux, is compared with the conventional CPM and surface-mounted PM (SPM) machines. Although both the proposed and conventional CPM machines have lower output torque than the SPM machine, the utilization ratio of PM material is increased by >33%. It is demonstrated that the proposed CPM machine has similar output torque and efficiency, but much lower torque ripple compared to the conventional one. Moreover, unipolar leakage flux does not exist in the end shaft of the proposed machine, and thus, the magnetization of the mechanical components can be effectively eliminated. Finally, the 9-slot/6-pole CPM machine is prototyped and measured to validate the analyses.

    更新日期:2018-11-02
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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