Clostridium Difficile Screening for Colonization During an Outbreak Setting Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Katherine Linsenmeyer, William O'Brien, Stephen M Brecher, Judith Strymish, Alexandra Rochman, Kamal Itani, Kalpana Gupta
A rapidly deployed ward-based screen and isolate initiative for C. difficile carriers during an outbreak averted 5 of 10 expected HA-CDI cases without identified harms. ARIMA modeling predicted a number needed to screen of 197 and to isolate of 4.4. Targeted C. difficile screening can be utilized for outbreak mitigation.
Trends in the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Mechanisms of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance in a Large U.S. Clinic Population Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Soo-Yon Rhee, Dana Clutter, W Jeffrey Fessel, Daniel Klein, Sally Slome, Benjamin A Pinsky, Julia L Marcus, Leo Hurley, Michael J Silverberg, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Robert W Shafer
There are few large studies of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence and the drug resistance mutations (DRMs) responsible for TDR in the U.S.
Revaccination with Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccine and Infectious Disease Morbidity: A Danish Register-based Cohort Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-26 Signe Sørup, Aksel K G Jensen, Peter Aaby, Christine S Benn
It has been hypothesized that revaccination with live vaccines could be associated with reductions in off-target morbidity and mortality. We examined if revaccination with the live measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) is associated with a lower rate of off-target infections.
Increased Risk of Infectious Complications in Older Patients with Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Exposed to Bendamustine Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Monica Fung, Eric Jacobsen, Arnold Freedman, Daniel Prestes, Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Xiangmei Gu, Paul L Nguyen, Sophia Koo
Bendamustine is a potent chemotherapy agent increasingly used to treat indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL). While effective, it causes significant T-cell lymphopenia, which may increase risk of infection. We examined infectious complications associated with bendamustine-containing regimens among older patients with iNHL.
In the Literature Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17
Adani S, Bhowmick T, Weinstein MP, Narayanan N. Clinical outcomes of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia treated with vancomycin at an institution with suppressed MIC reporting: impact of vancomycin MIC. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jan 29. pii: AAC.02512-17. doi:10.1128/AAC.02512-17. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29378704.
Antibiotic Resistance and the Risk of Recurrent Bacteremia Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Sjoukje H S Woudt, Sabine C de Greeff, Annelot F Schoffelen, Anne L M Vlek, Marc J M Bonten, J W T Cohen Stuart, A J L Weersink, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C E Visser, M L van Ogtrop, D J Kaersenhout, M Scholing, B C van Hees, P H J van Keulen, J A J W Kluytmans, E M Kraan, E E Mattsson, F W Sebens, E de Jong, H M E Frénay, B Maraha, A J van Griethuysen, W Silvis, A Demeulemeester, B B Wintermans, M van Trijp, A Ott, J P Arends, G A Kampinga, D Veenendaal, C Hol, E I G B de Brauwer, F S Stals, L J Bakker, J W Dorigo-Zetsma, B Ridwan, J H van Zeijl, A T Bernards, S Erkens-Hulshof, B M de Jongh, B J M Vlaminckx, M H Nabuurs-Franssen, S Kuipers, B M W Diederen, D C Melles, M van Rijn, S Dinant, O Pontesilli, P de Man, N Vaessen, M A Leversteijn-van Hall, E P M van Elzakker, A E Muller, N H Renders, D W van Dam, A G M Buiting, A L M Vlek, M P D Deege, F N J Frakking, I T M A Overdevest, R W Bosboom, T Trienekens, G P Voorn, G J H M Ruijs, M J H M Wolfhagen, J Alblas, W Altorf–van der Kuil, L Blijboom, S Groenendijk, J van Heereveld, R Hertroys, J C Monen, D W Notermans, E A Reuland, M I van Triest, C C H Wielders
Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with resistance.
Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in South African Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Pregnant and Postpartum Women: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Shabir A Madhi, Clare L Cutland, Sarah Downs, Stephanie Jones, Nadia van Niekerk, Eric A F Simoes, Marta C Nunes
Limited data exist on the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness among pregnant women, to determine their potential benefit from RSV vaccination. We evaluated the incidence of RSV illness from midpregnancy until 24 weeks postpartum in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–uninfected and HIV-infected women and their infants.
Contribution of Maternal Antiretroviral Therapy and Breastfeeding to 24-Month Survival in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Children: An Individual Pooled Analysis of African and Asian Studies Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Shino Arikawa, Nigel Rollins, Gonzague Jourdain, Jean Humphrey, Athena P Kourtis, Irving Hoffman, Max Essex, Tim Farley, Hoosen M Coovadia, Glenda Gray, Louise Kuhn, Roger Shapiro, Valériane Leroy, Robert C Bollinger, Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi, Shahin Lockman, Carina Marquez, Tanya Doherty, François Dabis, Laurent Mandelbrot, Sophie Le Coeur, Matthieu Rolland, Pierre Joly, Marie-Louise Newell, Renaud Becquet
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected pregnant women increasingly receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Studies suggest HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children face higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children, but most evidence relates to the pre-ART era, breastfeeding of limited duration, and considerable maternal mortality. Maternal ART and prolonged breastfeeding while on ART may improve survival, although this has not been reliably quantified.
Detecting Infections Rapidly and Easily for Candidemia Trial, Part 2 (DIRECT2): A Prospective, Multicenter Study of the T2Candida Panel Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Cornelius J Clancy, Peter G Pappas, Jose Vazquez, Marc A Judson, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, George R Thompson, Kevin W Garey, Annette Reboli, Richard N Greenberg, Senu Apewokin, G Marshall Lyon, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Alan H B Wu, Ellis Tobin, M Hong Nguyen, Angela M Caliendo
Blood cultures are approximately 50% sensitive for diagnosing invasive candidiasis. The T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel uses T2 magnetic resonance and a dedicated instrument to detect Candida directly within whole blood samples.
New Molecular Method for Detection of Candidemia, but Don’t Forget the Blood Cultures Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 H Bradford Hawley
(See the Major Article by Clancy et al on pages 1678–86.)
ACTG A5353: A Pilot Study of Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine for Initial Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1)–infected Participants With HIV-1 RNA <500000 Copies/mL Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Babafemi O Taiwo, Lu Zheng, Andrei Stefanescu, Amesika Nyaku, Baiba Bezins, Carole L Wallis, Catherine Godfrey, Paul E Sax, Edward Acosta, David Haas, Kimberly Y Smith, Beverly Sha, Cornelius Van Dam, Roy M Gulick
Limited data exist on initial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment with dolutegravir plus lamivudine.
A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in Adult Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Yoichiro Natori, Mika Shiotsuka, Jaclyn Slomovic, Katja Hoschler, Victor Ferreira, Peter Ashton, Coleman Rotstein, Les Lilly, Jeffrey Schiff, Lianne Singer, Atul Humar, Deepali Kumar
The annual standard-dose (SD) influenza vaccine has suboptimal immunogenicity in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). Influenza vaccine that contains higher doses of antigens may lead to greater immunogenicity in this population.
Durability and Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplant Treatment in Patients With Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Yafet Mamo, Michael H Woodworth, Tiffany Wang, Tanvi Dhere, Colleen S Kraft
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) appears safe and effective for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, durability, long-term clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction after FMT are not well described.
Daily and Nondaily Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis in Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Trials Network 067/ADAPT Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Robert M Grant, Sharon Mannheimer, James P Hughes, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Avelino Loquere, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Marcel E Curlin, Maoji Li, K Rivet Amico, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Bonnie J Dye, Mark A Marzinke, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Laura McKinstry, Vanessa Elharrar, Michael Stirratt, James F Rooney, Susan H Eshleman, Janet M McNicholl, Frits van Griensven, Timothy H Holtz
Nondaily dosing of oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may provide equivalent coverage of sex events compared with daily dosing.
Tennessee’s In-state Vulnerability Assessment for a “Rapid Dissemination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Hepatitis C Virus Infection” Event Utilizing Data About the Opioid Epidemic Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Michael Rickles, Peter F Rebeiro, Lindsey Sizemore, Paul Juarez, Mitchell Mutter, Carolyn Wester, Melissa McPheeters
Knowing which factors contribute to county-level vulnerability to a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak, and which counties are most vulnerable, guides public health and clinical interventions. We therefore examined the impact of locally available indicators related to the opioid epidemic on prior national models of HIV/HCV outbreak vulnerability.
Massive Iatrogenic Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Rural Cambodia, 2014–2015 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-04 François Rouet, Janin Nouhin, Du-Ping Zheng, Benjamin Roche, Allison Black, Sophearot Prak, Marie Leoz, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Laurent Ferradini, Chandara Mom, Sovatha Mam, Charlotte Gautier, Gérard Lesage, Sreymom Ken, Kerya Phon, Alexandra Kerleguer, Chunfu Yang, William Killam, Masami Fujita, Chhivun Mean, Didier Fontenille, Francis Barin, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Trevor Bedford, Artur Ramos, Vonthanak Saphonn
In 2014–2015, 242 individuals aged 2–89 years were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Roka, a rural commune in Cambodia. A case-control study attributed the outbreak to unsafe injections. We aimed to reconstruct the likely transmission history of the outbreak.
Hepatitis C in Patients With Minimal or No Hepatic Fibrosis: The Impact of Treatment and Sustained Virologic Response on Patient-Reported Outcomes Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Tarik Asselah, Graham Foster, Keyur Patel, Norbert Bräu, Mark Swain, Tram Tran, Rafael Esteban, Massimo Colombo, Stephen Pianko, Linda Henry, Marc Bourliere
While the necessity of treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV)–infected patients with advanced liver disease is widely accepted, the benefit of treating patients without significant liver disease is less well established. Our aim was to assess the effect of treating HCV in patients with no or minimal fibrosis (Metavir stage F0–F1) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs).
Vivax Malaria Chemoprophylaxis: The Role of Atovaquone-Proguanil Compared to Other Options Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Eyal Meltzer, Galia Rahav, Eli Schwartz
Atovaquone-proguanil is considered causal prophylaxis (inhibition of liver-stage schizonts) for Plasmodium falciparum; however, its causal prophylactic efficacy for Plasmodium vivax is not known. Travelers returning to nonendemic areas provide a unique opportunity to study P. vivax prophylaxis.
A Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Agona Infections Associated With Consumption of Fresh, Whole Papayas Imported From Mexico—United States, 2011 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Adamma Mba-Jonas, Wright Culpepper, Thomas Hill, Venessa Cantu, Julie Loera, Julie Borders, Lori Saathoff-Huber, Johnson Nsubuga, Ingrid Zambrana, Shannon Dalton, Ian Williams, Karen P Neil
Nontyphoidal Salmonella causes ~1 million food-borne infections annually in the United States. We began investigating a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Agona infections in April 2011.
Silent Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease Is Twice as Prevalent in Middle-Aged Individuals With Well-Controlled, Combination Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Than in HIV-Uninfected Individuals Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Antoine Moulignier, Julien Savatovsky, Lambert Assoumou, François-Xavier Lescure, Cédric Lamirel, Ophelia Godin, Nadia Valin, Roland Tubiana, Ana Canestri, Pascal Roux, Jean-Claude Sadik, Laurence Salomon, Marie Abrivard, Christine Katlama, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Gilles Pialoux, Pierre-Marie Girard, Dominique Costagliola, A Moulignier, A Moulignier, C Amiel, L Assoumou, A Canestri, I Cochereau, J Capeau, D Costagliola, O Godin, P M Girard, C Katlama, C Lamirel, F X Lescure, L Marchand, M Mazighi, M Obadia, M Paques, G Pialoux, E Plaisier, R Tubiana, N Valin, Y Yazdanpanah, P Yeni, A Moulignier, M Abrivard, A S Alonso, I Cochereau, P Koskas, C Lamirel, L Lopes, M Mazighi, M Obadia, P Roux, J C Sadik, L Salomon, J Savatovsky, V Vasseur, F X Lescure, M Chansombat, R Landman, B Phung, D Rahli, Y Yazdanpanah, P Yeni, C Katlama, L Lenclume, R Tubiana, M Valantin, P M Girard, J L Meynard, M Sebire, N Valin, G Pialoux, A Adda Liévin, C Amiel, J P Bastard, A Canestri, J Capeau, S Fellahi, M G Lebrette, E Plaisier, P Thibaut, M Paques, D Costagliola, L Assoumou, G Dos Santos, O Godin, L Marchand, P Girard, J P Vincensini
Silent cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) is defined as white matter hyperintensities, silent brain infarction, or microbleeds. CSVD is responsible for future vascular events, cognitive impairment, frailty, and shorter survival. CSVD prevalence among middle-aged people living with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (PLHIV) is unknown.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antiretroviral Resistance and Transmission in Mother-Infant Pairs Enrolled in a Large Perinatal Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-19 Nava Yeganeh, Tara Kerin, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Esau C Joao, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Valdilea G Veloso, Yvonne Bryson, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Ruth Dickover, Mariza G Morgado, Breno Santos, Regis Kreitchmann, Lynne Mofenson, Karin Nielsen-Saines
The presence of antiretroviral drug-associated resistance mutations (DRMs) may be particularly problematic in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected pregnant women as it can lead to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of resistant HIV strains. This study evaluated the prevalence and the effect of antiretroviral DRMs in previously untreated mother-infant pairs.
Increased Cervical Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) RNA Shedding Among HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Compared to Cryotherapy for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2/3 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-20 Sharon A Greene, Christine J McGrath, Dara A Lehman, Kara G Marson, T Tony Trinh, Nelly Yatich, Evans Nyongesa-Malava, Catherine Kiptinness, Barbra A Richardson, Grace C John-Stewart, Hugo De Vuyst, Samah R Sakr, Nelly R Mugo, Michael H Chung
Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women to prevent cervical cancer may stimulate HIV RNA cervical shedding and risk HIV transmission.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group O Infection in France: Clinical Features and Immunovirological Response to Antiretrovirals Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Guillemette Unal, Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, Marie Leoz, Juliette Pavie, Clément Lefèvre, Henri Panjo, Charlotte Charpentier, Diane Descamps, Francis Barin, François Simon, Laurence Meyer, Jean-Christophe Plantier, J Chennebault, P Fialaire, H Le Guillou-Guillemette, S Rehaiem, B Chanzy, G Clavere, J Gaillat, L Courdavault, P Genet, J Gerbe, C Benoit, S Honore Bouakline, A Waldner, D Bettinger, C Chirouze, N Bernard, S Reigadas, X Dupont, J L Gaillard, E Gault, E Reimann, G Otterbein, L Thomas, P Vaghefi, M Benoit, N Buthiot, A Goux, V Chambrin, C Deback, R Fior, M Raho Moussa, O Antoniotti, D Coban, L Cormerais, C Henquell, C Jacomet, O Lesens, N Chanoine, A Villmant, J L Van Autreve, M Bloch, H Ichou, V Manceron, E Mortier, A Zeng, M Bouvier-Alias, S Dominguez, A S Lascaux-Cametez, J D Lelievre, Y Levy, G Melica-Gregoire, J M Pawlotsky, P Pothier, A Waldner, L Inchiappa, A Verhaeghe, B Olivier, J P Pathe, H Berthe, D Mathez, V Favret, D Troisvallets, E Vandemeulebroucke, J Ceccaldi, Z El Harif, L Bocket, P Barbut, F Chaix, C Lambert, T Lambolez, J Miatezila, O Son, P Brunet, C Chappe, C Dhiver, V Lecomte, L Meddeb, I Poizot-Martin, C Tamalet, J Valadier, G Beck-Wirth, M Benomar, J M Delarbre, J M Peter, S Bevilacqua, V Venard, V Daneluzzi, N Idri, B Montoya, V Ferre, E Garnier, H Hue, L Larmet, P Point, F Raffi, V Reliqiet, A Rodallec, S Secher, P Amoyel, E Botton, M Janowski, Y Le Cocguic, P Deleplanque, J M Descamps, M Lapine, S Sunder, M Chansombat, C Charpentier, F Damond, B Diallo, X Duval, Z Julia, R Landman, S Legac, C Rioux, P Yeni, A Krivine, P Blanche, A Cros, P Gazalet, J Ghosn, A Krivine, A Sobel, B Bercot, M Diemer, M Parrinello, C Bey Boumezrag, L Bodard, S Gibert, F X Huche, L Raffenne, M Strebler, C Blanc, E Bourzam, B Hansel, C Lupin, M Wirden, E Bourzam, L Collias, J Effa, C Jung, J Pavie, H Pere, A Si Mohamed, C Delaugerre, L Gerard, B Loze, S Maylin, R Nabias, D Ponscarme, J Deleuze, F Rozenberg, B Bachour, F Bani-Sadr, J Chas, M Hamidi, L Kherallah, S Le Nagat, C Le Pendeven, F Moreau, J C Nicolas, V Schneider, M D Tabone, G Vaudre, G Giraudeau, G Le Moal, D Plainchamp, G Blondin, I Dorval, J C Duthe, P Perfezou, J L Berger, V Brodard, I Kmiec, C Rouger, C Strady, J M Chappelin, A Maillard, M Ratajczak, Y Debab, F De Oliveira, A Depatureaux, I Gueit, V Lemee, D Theron, I Pasdeloup, P Camps, C Bigaillon, C Ficko, C Imbert, C Rapp, C Grand, C Michau, D Bornarel, P Devillier, E Farfour, C Majerholc, D Vignon, D Zucman, M El Addouli, M F Danjoux, J Journe, Y Leveneur, B Marchou, F Nicot, F Prevoteau Du Clary, S Bonne
To obtain reliable clinical data of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (HIV-1/O) infection, and immunovirological responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in a large series of 101 patients.
Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine Maintains Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Suppression Through Week 48 in a Pilot Randomized Trial Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-21 Babafemi O Taiwo, Vincent C Marconi, Baiba Berzins, Carlee B Moser, Amesika N Nyaku, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Constance A Benson, Timothy Wilkin, Susan L Koletar, Jonathan Colasanti, Edward P Acosta, Jonathan Z Li, Paul E Sax
In this randomized pilot clinical trial, dolutegravir plus lamivudine was noninferior to continuation of standard 3-drug maintenance antiretroviral therapy. There was no emergence of drug resistance in the participant who experienced virologic failure while receiving dolutegravir plus lamivudine.
Urine Tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-06 Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Judd L Walson, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Patricia B Pavlinac
Despite diagnostic performance limitations, urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) predicts death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected adults with tuberculosis. Pediatric data are limited. Among 137 hospitalized HIV-infected children, mortality was 4.9-fold higher among those with positive LAM (127 vs 31 per 100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio, 4.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79–13.49; P = .002). Lipoarabinomannan identifies HIV-infected children at risk for death potentially missed by respiratory sampling.
A Systematic Review of Safety and Immunogenicity of Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Pearlie P Chong, Lara Handler, David J Weber
Immunogenicity from seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) remains suboptimal in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We conducted a systematic review that compared the safety and immunogenicity of nonstandard influenza vaccination strategies with single-dose IIV in SOTRs. Booster doses and possibly high-dose (HD) influenza vaccination strategies seem to hold promise for improving vaccination immunogenicity in SOTRs. Administration of intradermal and MF59-adjuvanted trivalent IIV (IIV3) did not improve vaccine immunogenicity compared with single-dose intramuscular IIV. Alternative vaccine strategies were generally well tolerated; SOTRs who received HD, intradermal or adjuvanted IIV3 had a higher frequency of infection site reactions, while systemic adverse events were more frequent in SOTRs who received HD IIV3. Allograft rejection rates were similar in both groups. SOTRs should continue to receive standard-dose IIV annually in accordance with current recommendations, pending future studies to determine the optimal timing, frequency, and dosage of IIV using the booster-dose strategy.
IDSA Did Not Endorse the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-01-20 Rita Murri, Francesco Taccari, Claudia Palazzolo, Massimo Fantoni, Roberto Cauda
To the Editor—We are grateful to the authors of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) position statement titled “Why IDSA Did Not Endorse the Surviving Sepsis Campaign [SSC] Guidelines” . We do agree with all the points the authors explained in the statement. We would like to add some other issues to the discussion.
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 James R Johnson
To the Editor—Spivak et al  conclude correctly that, among veterans, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is commonly misdiagnosed as “urinary tract infection” (UTI) and treated unnecessarily, to the patient’s detriment. However, limitations in the definitions these authors used may undercut their important message and lead providers to disregard their findings.
Reply to Johnson Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 Emily S Spivak, Melinda M Neuhauser, Rongping Zhang, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Francesca E Cunningham
To the Editor—We thank Dr. Johnson for his questions raised regarding our definitions used for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), cystitis and pyelonephritis, and potential implications on interpretation of our data. Namely, he states we may have categorized some patients as ASB that in reality clinicians may be reluctant not to treat, thereby negating the significance of our findings. Specifically, (1) those with only 1 localizing symptom of cystitis and no pyuria on urinalysis (UA), and (2) those lacking ≥ 2 typical urinary symptoms in the absence of a UA. Additionally, he suggests our requirement of fever in addition to localizing symptoms for pyelonephritis...
Ecological Fallacy, Nonspecific Outcomes, and the Attribution of Disproportionate Vaccine Benefits Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Gaston De Serres, Danuta M Skowronski
To the Editor—In their recent publication, Luca et al  used an ecological design to compare all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations and associated costs in Ontario before (1992–2001) and after infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) availability—initially as 7-valent PCV (PCV7) for private purchase (2001–2004), then as publicly funded programs of PCV7 (2005–2009), 10-valent PCV (2009–2010), and 13-valent PCV (2010–2014). The authors attribute large reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations to the direct and indirect effects of infant PCV—reaching a 45% reduction among infants and a comparable reduction of 40% in elderly adults.
Too Much Optimism in the HANDOC Score Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Shungo Yamamoto, Sho Nishimura
To the Editor—We read with interest the developmental study of the HANDOC score by Sunnerhagen et al , which stratified the risk of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with non-beta-hemolytic streptococci (NBHS). The authors reported that the score had a sensitivity of 100% in both the derivation and validation cohorts. They stated that the performance of the score when applied to the whole cohort, including the unknown category, was similar to the performance of the score when applied only to IE and non-IE cases. They did not clearly describe in the article how they dealt with the unknown category, and we guess from the...
Reply to Yamamoto and Nishimura Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Torgny Sunnerhagen, Magnus Rasmussen
To the Editor—We thank Drs Yamamoto and Ishimura for their interest in our work and for pointing out an important aspect of it. Many studies on risk stratification regarding infective endocarditis (IE) in bacteremia divide patients into IE-cases and non-IE cases, whereas we chose to acknowledge that excluding IE is difficult [1–3]. Refuting IE in a given patient demands careful investigations with trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and computerized tomography as a minimum and these types of investigations had not been performed in the majority of patients in our retrospective cohorts. Therefore, we created the “unknown group,” which consists of patients who did neither meet the...
The Argument Against Testing for INSTI Resistance in Treatment Naive Patients Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-08 Peter J Veldkamp, John W Mellors, Elias K Halvas
To the Editor—Koullias et al  argue against testing for integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance in newly diagnosed patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The authors’ position is based on the low prevalence of primary INSTI resistance and the preserved efficacy of dolutegravir despite certain resistance mutations in integrase selected by other INSTI . One point omitted from their position is the possibility of false positive test results. Here we describe a recently encountered instance of a false positive INSTI resistance genotype.
Antimicrobial Stewardship, Volume 2 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Habiba Hassouna, Abhishek Deshpande
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently posing a global health risk of epidemic proportions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, at least 2 million persons in the United States are infected by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resulting in 23000 deaths yearly, with an estimated 700000 deaths worldwide. In the face of this threat and the lack of new antibiotics, national and international initiatives have been undertaken to develop antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies.
Norovirus transmission dynamics in a paediatric hospital using full genome sequences Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Julianne R Brown, Sunando Roy, Divya Shah, Charlotte A Williams, Rachel Williams, Helen Dunn, John Hartley, Kathryn Harris, Judy Breuer
Norovirus is a leading cause of worldwide and nosocomial gastroenteritis. This study aimed to assess the utility of molecular epidemiology using full genome sequences, compared to routine Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) investigations.
Imaging of Human Neurolisteriosis: A Prospective Study of 71 Cases Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Caroline Charlier, Sylvain Poirée, Christophe Delavaud, Gaby Khoury, Clémence Richaud, Alexandre Leclercq, Olivier Hélénon, Marc Lecuit
Neurolisteriosis ranks among the most severe neurological infections. Its radiological features have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to describe the neuroradiological features of neurolisteriosis and assess their prognostic value.
21st Century Cures Act and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Clinical Implications in the Era of Multidrug Resistance Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Romney M Humphries, Janet Hindler, Mary Jane Ferraro, Amy Mathers
Clinical laboratories act at the frontline of identification of infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms, and yet the tools they apply are often woefully out of date. Incomplete adoption of current testing standards, updated breakpoints and tests for new drugs across laboratories has been exacerbated by lack of co-ordination between standard development organizations (SDOs), pharmaceutical companies, susceptibility test manufacturers and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The 21st Century Cures Act includes provisions to enable alignment between these groups by: 1) allowing recognition of breakpoints set by qualified SDOs; 2) publicly posting recognized breakpoints; and 3) reviewing breakpoints for necessary updates, every six months. Combined, these provisions will ensure more rapid recognition of current breakpoints, improving detection and management of resistant infections. Although several limitations remain, this will ultimately allow susceptibility test manufacturers to more readily update to current breakpoints.
Missed Opportunities to Prescribe Preexposure Prophylaxis in South Carolina, 2013-2016 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Dawn K Smith, Man-Huei Chang, Wayne A Duffus, Stella Okoye, Sharon Weissman
Expanding use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in ways that address current racial/ethnic disparities is an important HIV prevention goal. We investigated missed opportunities to provide PrEP during healthcare visits occurring prior to HIV infection.
Effectiveness of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Older US Adults: A Test-Negative Design Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-21 John M McLaughlin, Qin Jiang, Raul E Isturiz, Heather L Sings, David L Swerdlow, Bradford D Gessner, Ruth M Carrico, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L Wiemken, William A Mattingly, Julio A Ramirez, Luis Jodar
Following universal recommendation for use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in US adults aged ≥65 years in September 2014, we conducted the first real-world evaluation of PCV13 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against hospitalized vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in this population.
Risk Factors for Group A Streptococcus Colonization During an Outbreak among People Experiencing Homelessness in Anchorage, Alaska, 2017 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Tolulope Adebanjo, Emily Mosites, Chris A Van Beneden, Jennifer Onukwube, Matthew Blum, Michael Harper, Karen Rudolph, Anna Frick, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin, Michael G Bruce, Prabhu Gounder
We identified risk factors for any emm-type group A streptococcal (GAS) colonization while investigating an invasive emm26.3 GAS outbreak among people experiencing homelessness in Alaska. Risk factors included upper extremity skin breakdown, sleeping outdoors, sharing blankets, and infrequent tooth brushing. Our results may help guide control efforts in future outbreaks.
Frailty, Neurocognitive Impairment, or Both in Predicting Poor Health Outcomes Among Adults Living with HIV Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-18 Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremiah Perez, Mona Abdo, Kevin Robertson, Ronald J Ellis, Susan L Koletar, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is strongly associated with frailty in people living with HIV (PLWH); the overlap of frailty and NCI, and the impact on health outcomes in PLWH is unknown.
Polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin in clindamycin-treated patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Tom Parks, Clare Wilson, Nigel Curtis, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Shiranee Sriskandan
We evaluated the effect of adjunctive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on mortality in clindamycin-treated streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patients using a meta-analysis. In association with IVIG, mortality fell from 33.7% to 15.7% (risk ratio 0.46, 95% confidence intervals 0.26-0.83, p=0.010) with remarkable consistency across the single randomised and four non-randomised studies.
Comparison of C. difficile Stool Toxin Concentrations in Adults with Symptomatic Infection and Asymptomatic Carriage using an Ultrasensitive Quantitative Immunoassay Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Nira R Pollock, Alice Banz, Xinhua Chen, David Williams, Hua Xu, Christine A Cuddemi, Alice X Cui, Matthew Perrotta, Eaman Alhassan, Brigitte Riou, Aude Lantz, Mark A Miller, Ciaran P Kelly
We used an ultrasensitive, quantitative Single Molecule Array (Simoa) immunoassay to test whether concentrations of C. difficile toxins A and/or B in the stool of adult inpatients with CDI were higher than in asymptomatic carriers of toxinogenic C. difficile.
The Contribution of Genetic Variation of Streptococcus Pneumoniae to the Clinical Manifestation of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Amelieke J H Cremers, Fredrick M Mobegi, Christa van der Gaast – de Jongh, Michelle van Weert, Fred J van Opzeeland, Minna Vehkala, Mirjam J Knol, Hester J Bootsma, Niko Välimäki, Nicholas J Croucher, Jacques F Meis, Stephen Bentley, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Jukka Corander, Aldert L Zomer, Gerben Ferwerda, Marien I de Jonge
Different clinical manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) have thus far mainly been explained by patient characteristics. Here we studied the contribution of pneumococcal genetic variation to IPD phenotype.
Risk Factors for Treatment Failure and Mortality among Hospitalised Patients with Complicated Urinary Tract Infection: A Multicentre Retrospective Cohort Study, RESCUING Study Group Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Noa Eliakim-Raz, Tanya Babitch, Evelyn Shaw, Ibironke Addy, Irith Wiegand, Christiane Vank, Laura Torre-Vallejo, Vigo Joan-Miquel, Morris Steve, Sally Grier, Margaret Stoddart, Cuperus Nienke, Leo van den Heuvel, Cuong Vuong, Alasdair MacGowan, Jordi Carratalà, Leonard Leibovici, Miquel Pujol
Complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) are responsible for a major share of all antibiotic consumption in hospitals. We aim to describe risk factors for treatment failure and mortality among hospitalised patients with cUTIs.
Rabies Antibody Response after Booster Immunization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Annefleur C Langedijk, Cornelis A de Pijper, Rene Spijker, Rebecca Holman, Martin P Grobusch, Cornelis Stijnis
Although fatal once symptomatic, rabies is preventable by administration of pre- and post-exposure vaccines. International guidelines suggest life-long protection by a pre-exposure vaccination scheme followed by timely post-exposure vaccines. Rapidity and magnitude of the antibody recall response after booster inoculation are essential, as many people have been previously immunized a long time ago. The objective of this study was therefore to systematically review the evidence on the boostability of rabies immunization to date. We included 36 studies, of which nineteen studies were suitable for meta-analysis. Reduced antibody levels were found after intradermal primary schedules as compared to intramuscular schedules. However, responses after booster immunization were adequate for both routes. Although studies showed that antibody levels decline over time, adequate booster responses were still retained over long time intervals indicating that post-exposure treatment is effective without extra measures after long periods of time.
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae among Children Hospitalized with Community-acquired Pneumonia Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Preeta K Kutty, Seema Jain, Thomas H Taylor, Anna M Bramley, Maureen H Diaz, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Kathryn M Edwards, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Jonas M Winchell, Stephanie J Schrag, Lauri A Hicks
The burden and epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among U.S. children (<18 years) hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood.
Is Ivermectin Ineffective for Strongyloidiasis? Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Dora Buonfrate, Zeno Bisoffi
To the Editor—The paper by Repetto et al.  plainly suggests that ivermectin is unable to cure chronic strongyloidiasis. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for this parasite, and its efficacy has been confirmed by all randomized clinical trials (RCT) conducted so far (resumed in Table 1 in the same article). Moreover, 2 epidemiological studies conducted in endemic areas clearly showed that, where ivermectin was regularly used for onchcerciasis or bancroftian filariasis, the prevalence of strongyloidiasis declined dramatically and remained very low for years after mass administration was interrupted [2, 3]. Now, a small observational study that lost at follow-up 50...
Reply to Buonfrate and Bisoffi Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Silvia A Repetto, Paula Ruybal, Estela Batalla, Carlota López, Vanesa Fridman, Mariela Sierra, Marcelo Radisic, Pablo M Bravo, Marikena G Risso, Stella M González Cappa, Catalina D Alba Soto
To the Editor—We thank Drs Buonfrate and Bisoffi for reading our article. Our small long-term observational follow-up study included 21 ivermectin-treated patients; 14 of them presented with reactivation by larvae observation . A few years ago, our group reported that 1 of 10 patients with strongyloidiasis showed a persistent increase in eosinophil counts beginning 4 months after ivermectin treatment, reaching values of eosinophilia after the 10th month of follow-up . According to this observation, 3–4 consecutive stool samples were exhaustively examined by agar plate culture (APC). In the third test, at the 10th month, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected [2...
Clinical implications of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Malawi Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Andrea G Buchwald, Alick Sixpence, Mabvuto Chimenya, Milius Damson, John D Sorkin, Mark L Wilson, Karl Seydel, Sarah Hochman, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Miriam K Laufer
Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent asymptomatic infections and malaria illness.
Efficacy of anthelminthic drugs and drug combinations against soil-transmitted helminths: a systematic review and network meta-analysis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Naomi E Clarke, Suhail A R Doi, Kinley Wangdi, Yingxi Chen, Archie C A Clements, Susana V Nery
Periodic mass distribution of benzimidazole anthelminthic drugs is the key strategy to control soil-transmitted helminths (STH) globally. However, benzimidazoles have low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, and there are concerns about benzimidazole resistance potentially emerging in humans. Therefore, identifying alternative drug regimens is a pressing priority. We present a systematic review and network meta-analysis, comparing the efficacy of 21 different anthelminthic drug regimens, including standard, novel, and combination treatments.
Clinical and cardiac safety of long-term levofloxacin in children treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Heather R Draper, Heather Finlayson, Jana Winckler, André Burger, Barend Fourie, Stephanie Thee, Anneke C Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
Safety concerns persist for long-term pediatric fluoroquinolone use. Seventy children (median age 2.1 years) treated with levofloxacin 10–20 mg/kg once daily for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (median observation time 11.8 months) had few musculoskeletal events, no levofloxacin-attributed serious adverse events, and no QTcF >450 ms. Long-term levofloxacin was safe and well tolerated.
Effects of Immunonutrition in Advanced HIV Disease: a Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial (Promaltia Study) Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Sergio Serrano-Villar, María de Lagarde, Jorge Vázquez-Castellanos, Alejandro Vallejo, J Ignacio Bernadino, Nadia Madrid, Mariano Matarranz, Alberto Díaz-Santiago, Carolina Gutiérrez, Alfonso Cabello, Judit Villar-García, José Ramón Blanco, Otilia Bisbal, Talía Sainz, Andrés Moya, Santiago Moreno, María José Gosalbes, Vicente Estrada
While nutritional interventions with prebiotics and probiotics seem to exert immunological effects, their clinical implications in HIV-infected subjects initiating ART at advanced HIV disease remain unclear.
Breakthrough fungal infections in leukemia patients receiving isavuconazole Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Caitlin R Rausch, Adam J DiPippo, Prithviraj Bose, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Isavuconazole (ISA) is increasingly used in leukemia patients. We retrospectively assessed breakthrough invasive fungal infections (b-IFIs) in 100 consecutive leukemia patients receiving ISA as single agent; 13 developed documented b-IFIs. (6 candidiasis, 6 mold infections, 4 mucormycosis). All b-IFIs were observed in patients with prolonged neutropenia and active leukemia.
Detection and Isolation of C. difficile Asymptomatic Carriers during C. difficile Infection Outbreaks – an Exploratory Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Philippe Gervais, Jean-Francois Roussy, Sylvie Trottier, Matthew Oughton, Ivan Brukner, Jean Longtin, Vivian G Loo, Andre Dascal, Yves Longtin
Unit-wide detection and isolation of C. difficile asymptomatic carriers was performed during four C. difficile infection outbreaks. Of 114 patients screened, 15 (13%) were carriers. Prevalence of carriage varied between outbreaks from 0% to 29% (p=0.004). Isolating carriers was not associated with significantly shorter outbreak duration compared with historical controls.
US Black Women and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention: Time for New Approaches to Clinical Trials Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
An error appeared in an article published in the 15 July 2017 issue of the journal [Adimora AA, Cole SR, Eron JJ. US Black Women and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention: Time for New Approaches to Clinical Trials. Clin Infect Dis 2017: 65(2):324–7]. The journal editors wish to clarify the authors’ potential conflicts of interest. No outside support was provided for activities related to the publication. Dr Adimora has received payment for consultative services provided to Merck and ViiV. Her institution has received payment for her consultative services to Gilead Sciences. Dr Eron has received payment for consultative services provided to Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hanssen, Gilead...
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