Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics of efavirenz 400 mg once daily during pregnancy and post-partum Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Mohammed Lamorde, Xinzhu Wang, Megan Neary, Elisa Bisdomini, Shadia Nakalema, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Jackson K Mukonzo, Waheed Khan, Andrew Owen, Myra McClure, Marta Boffito
ENCORE-1 showed that efavirenz 400mg (EFV400) is as effective as the standard adult dose. WHO guidelines recommend EFV400 as an alternative first-line agent, with a disclaimer that no data exist on EFV400 during the third trimester of pregnancy (TT). Eliminating this caveat would allow wider use of EFV400. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy and CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics in women living with HIV (WLWH) on EFV400 during TT and post-partum (PP).
Impact of Implementing Antibiotic Stewardship Programs in 15 Small Hospitals: A Cluster-Randomized Intervention Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Whitney R Buckel, Peter Jones, Xiaoming Sheng, R Scott Evans, John P Burke, Bert K Lopansri, Rajendu Srivastava, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
Studies on the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) in small hospitals are limited. Accreditation organizations now require all hospitals to have ASPs.
The Role of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Age-Related Decline in Gait Speed Among Older Men Living with HIV Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jing Sun, Todd T Brown, David C Samuels, Todd Hulgan, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Beth D Jamieson, Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremy Martinson, Frank J Palella, Joseph B Margolick, Gregory D Kirk, Jennifer A Schrack
Age-related gait speed decline is accelerated in men with HIV. Mitochondrial genetic variation is associated with frailty and mortality in the general population, and may provide insight into mechanisms of functional decline in people aging with HIV.
Cytokine Release Syndrome Grade is a Predictive Marker for Infections in Relapsed or Refractory B-cell All Patients Treated with CAR T Cells Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jae H Park, F Andres Romero, Ying Taur, Michel Sadelain, Renier J Brentjens, Tobias M Hohl, Susan K Seo
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells that target the CD19 antigen present a novel promising therapy for the treatment of relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity have emerged as predominant non-infectious complications of CD19 CAR T cell therapy, infections associated with this treatment modality have not been well documented.
Incidence, Risk Factors and Long-Term Outcome of Acute Leukemia Patients with Early Candidemia after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation. A Study by the Acute Leukemia and Infectious Diseases Working Parties of EBMT Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Simone Cesaro, Gloria Tridello, Nicole Blijlevens, Per Ljungman, Charles Craddock, Mauricette Michallet, Alexander Martin, John A Snowden, Mohamad Mohty, Johan Maertens, Jacob Passweg, Eefke Petersen, Anne Nihtinen, Cecilia Isaksson, Noel Milpied, Pierre-Simon Rohlich, Eric Deconinck, Charles Crawley, Marie-Pierre Ledoux, Jennifer Hoek, Arnon Nagler, Jan Styczynski
To assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, Candida infection in the first 100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and the impact on long-term survival.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society (IDSA) of America and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 A Clinton White, Christina M Coyle, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Gagandeep Singh, W Allen Hauser, Aaron Mohanty, Hector H Garcia, Theodore E Nash
Guidelines for the clinical management of patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC) were prepared by a panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). The guidelines are intended for infectious disease specialists, neurologists, neurological surgeons, internists, pediatricians, and family practitioners.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Virologic Suppression and Retention in Care in an Urban Safety-Net HIV Clinic: The Connect4Care (C4C) Trial Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Katerina A Christopoulos, Elise D Riley, Adam W Carrico, Jacqueline Tulsky, Judith T Moskowitz, Samantha Dilworth, Lara S Coffin, Leslie Wilson, Jason Johnson Peretz, Joan F Hilton
Text messaging is a promising strategy to support HIV care engagement, but little is known about its efficacy in urban safety-net HIV clinic populations.
Poor immunogenicity, not vaccine strain egg adaptation, may explain the low H3N2 influenza vaccine effectiveness in 2012-13 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Sarah Cobey, Sigrid Gouma, Kaela Parkhouse, Benjamin S Chambers, Hildegund C Ertl, Kenneth E Schmader, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman R Das, Emily Landon, Vera Tesic, Ilan Youngster, Benjamin A Pinsky, David E Wentworth, Scott E Hensley, Yonatan H Grad
Influenza vaccination aims to prevent infection by influenza virus and reduce associated morbidity and mortality; however, vaccine effectiveness (VE) can be modest, especially for subtype A(H3N2). Low VE has been attributed to mismatches between the vaccine and circulating influenza strains and to the vaccine’s elicitation of protective immunity in only a subset of the population. The low H3N2 VE in the 2012-2013 season was attributed to egg-adaptive mutations that created antigenic mismatch between the actual vaccine strain (IVR-165) and both the intended vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011) and the predominant circulating strains (clades 3C.2 and 3C.3).
Should acute Q-fever patients be screened for valvulopathy to prevent endocarditis? Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Marit M A de Lange, Laura E V Gijsen, Cornelia C H Wielders, Wim van der Hoek, Arko Scheepmaker, Peter M Schneeberger
Echocardiographic screening of acute Q-fever patients and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with cardiac valvulopathy are considered an important approach to prevent chronic Q-fever-related endocarditis. During a large Q-fever epidemic in the Netherlands, routine screening echocardiography was discontinued, raising controversy in the international literature. We followed a cohort of acute Q-fever patients to estimate the risk for developing chronic Q-fever, and we evaluated the impact of screening in patients who were not yet known to have a valvulopathy.
A Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Agona Infections Associated With Consumption of Fresh, Whole Papayas Imported From Mexico—United States, 2011 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-19 Adamma Mba-Jonas, Wright Culpepper, Thomas Hill, Venessa Cantu, Julie Loera, Julie Borders, Lori Saathoff-Huber, Johnson Nsubuga, Ingrid Zambrana, Shannon Dalton, Ian Williams, Karen P Neil
Nontyphoidal Salmonella causes ~1 million food-borne infections annually in the United States. We began investigating a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Agona infections in April 2011.
Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Jennifer A Manuzak, Toni M Gott, Jay S Kirkwood, Ernesto Coronado, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Charlene Miller, Ryan K Cheu, Ann C Collier, Nicholas T Funderburg, Jeffery N Martin, Michael C Wu, Nina Isoherranen, Peter W Hunt, Nichole R Klatt
Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined.
First Report of CTX-M-15 Salmonella Typhi From England Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Gauri S Godbole, Martin R Day, Saraswathi Murthy, Marie A Chattaway, Satheesh Nair
To the Editor—We read with interest the article by Kleine et al . The Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit (GBRU) received presumptive isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi A, B, and C) from cases of enteric fever from England and Wales, most of which were from travelers returning from endemic countries. Until now, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing strains of S. Typhi have not been reported in the United Kingdom.
Reply to Godbole et al Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Stefan Schlabe, Carola-Ellen Kleine, Gunnar T R Hischebeth, Ernst Molitor, Yvonne Pfeifer, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Ulrich Spengler
To the Editor—We have read with interest Godbole et al’s brief report about isolation of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing and quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, serovar Typhi (S.Typhi).
Assessing Viral Transfer During Doffing of Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment in a Biocontainment Unit Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6.
Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Lisa Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing.
Effectiveness of Seven and Thirteen Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in a Schedule without a Booster dose: a Ten Year Observational Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Sanjay Jayasinghe, Clayton Chiu, Helen Quinn, Rob Menzies, Robin Gilmour, Peter McIntyre
Uniquely among high income countries, Australia uses a 3+0 schedule (3 primary doses; no booster) for infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine since January 2005, initially 7-valent (PCV7) then 13-valent (PCV13) from July 2011. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) of both PCVs against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) by two methods.
A registry for patients with asplenia/hyposplenism reduces the risk of infections with encapsulated organisms Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Alicia Arnott, Penelope Jones, Lucinda J Franklin, Denis Spelman, Karin Leder, Allen C Cheng
Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious complication of asplenia. Clinical guidelines recommend a number of measures to reduce the risk of OPSI, but awareness and adherence to preventative measures is generally poor. We aimed to determine whether a registry for asplenic/hyposplenic patients was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection with encapsulated bacteria.
Urinary Cytomegalovirus Shedding in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2004 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Minal M Amin, Stephanie R Bialek, Sheila C Dollard, Chengbin Wang
There are no data on the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding from a representative sample of the US population. This information is critical for understanding and preventing CMV.
Protecting the Community through Child Vaccination Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Evan J Anderson, Michael A Daugherty, Larry K Pickering, Walter A Orenstein, Ram Yogev
The direct impact of vaccines upon children is well described, but the major public health impact of indirect protection provided to the community by vaccines is under-appreciated. Community protection occurs when vaccinated people block the chain of transmission, protecting undervaccinated or unvaccinated susceptible community members by preventing exposure and limiting the spread of the pathogen through the community. Substantial declines in disease incidence have occurred shortly after implementing new childhood vaccines, including declines among vaccine-ineligible children, adolescents, and adults. Protection of susceptible community members depends on maintaining high vaccination rates. Improved recognition of community protection will strengthen childhood vaccination strategies that will protect our communities into the future.
Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV: Results from the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection (COCOMO) Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-17 Marco Gelpi, Shoaib Afzal, Jens Lundgren, Andreas Ronit, Ashley Roen, Amanda Mocroft, Jan Gerstoft, Anne-Mette Lebech, Birgitte Lindegaard, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Børge G Nordestgaard, Susanne Dam Nielsen
People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension, in a large cohort of predominantly well-treated PLWH and matched controls.
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children: 2017 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis. Clostridium difficile remains the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and has become the most commonly identified cause of healthcare-associated infection in adults in the United States. Moreover, C. difficile has established itself as an important community pathogen. Although the prevalence of the epidemic and virulent ribotype 027 strain has declined markedly along with overall CDI rates in parts of Europe, it remains one of the most commonly identified strains in the United States where it causes a sizable minority of CDIs, especially healthcare-associated CDIs. This guideline updates recommendations regarding epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, infection prevention, and environmental management.
Risk factors for recurrent Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the efficacy of selective digestive decontamination with kanamycin to prevent recurrence Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Hideki Araoka, Masaru Baba, Chikako Okada, Muneyoshi Kimura, Tomoaki Sato, Yutaka Yatomi, Kyoji Moriya, Akiko Yoneyama
Previous studies suggest that Helicobacter cinaedi can cause recurrent bacteremia. This study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for recurrent H. cinaedi bacteremia and explore the efficacy of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) as a preventive measure.
Effects of Rifampin and Doxycycline Treatments in Patients with Uncomplicated Scrub Typhus: An Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 Yun Sung Kim, Dong-Min Kim, Na-Ra Yoon, Mi-Sun Jang, Choon-Mee Kim
Doxycycline is currently the most frequently used treatment in patients with scrub typhus, but doxycycline-resistant strains have been found, necessitating the development of a new treatment. Rifampin is known to be effective even for such strains. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effects of rifampin and doxycycline treatment in patients with scrub typhus in areas in which resistance to doxycycline has not been reported.
Impact of timing of influenza vaccination in pregnancy on transplacental antibody transfer, influenza incidence and birth outcomes; a randomized trial in rural Nepal Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Mark C Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C LeClerq, Naoko Kozuki, James M Tielsch
Maternal influenza vaccination protects mothers and their infants in low resource settings but little is known about whether the protection varies by gestational age at vaccination.
Association of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status With Risk of Infection and Sepsis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 John P Donnelly, Sindhu Lakkur, Suzanne E Judd, Emily B Levitan, Russell Griffin, George Howard, Monika M Safford, Henry E Wang
Prior studies suggest disparities in sepsis risk and outcomes based on place of residence. We sought to examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and hospitalization for infection and sepsis.
Infectious Diseases Physicians: Leading the Way in Antimicrobial Stewardship Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-12 Belinda Ostrowsky, Ritu Banerjee, Robert A Bonomo, Sara E Cosgrove, Lisa Davidson, Shira Doron, David N Gilbert, Amanda Jezek, John B Lynch, Edward J Septimus, Javeed Siddiqui, Nicole M Iovine
Antimicrobial resistance is a well-documented public health crisis that seriously threatens patient outcomes and national security. Further, the World Health Organization has recognized antimicrobial resistance as a threat to global stability . The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents are key drivers of the development of resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) optimize patient outcomes while minimizing unintended consequences of antimicrobial use. Antimicrobial stewardship has been defined as “coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents by promoting the selection of the optimal antimicrobial drug regimen including dosing, duration of therapy, and route of administration.”  Given new regulatory requirements and political support for stewardship, healthcare facilities will...
New Molecular Method for Detection of Candidemia, but Don’t Forget the Blood Cultures Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 H Bradford Hawley
Candida species rank in the top 10 of organisms causing bloodstream infections, and in high risk areas, such as intensive care units, they are often the third or fourth most common . Bloodstream invasion by Candida organisms may be the result of, or the cause of, deep-seated or invasive candidiasis. Although there are some forms of invasive candidiasis that are usually blood culture-negative, the majority of these infections are thought to have been associated with early or transient candidemia. The culturing of blood for Candida species has an overall sensitivity of 38% (range 21–71%) based on autopsy studies . There are several reasons for this poor sensitivity. Rapid clearance of antifungal therapy may result in the absence of viable organisms in the circulation,...
Prophylactic Antimicrobial Therapy for Acute Aspiration Pneumonitis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Vlad Dragan, Lex Wei, Marion Elligsen, Alex Kiss, Sandra A N Walker, Jerome A Leis
Prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is frequently prescribed for acute aspiration pneumonitis following macro-aspiration with the intent of preventing the development of aspiration pneumonia; however, few clinical studies have examined the benefits and harms of this practice.
Severity of Chagasic Cardiomyopathy Is Associated With Response To A Novel Rapid Diagnostic Test For Trypanosoma cruzi TcII/V/VI Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Tapan Bhattacharyya, Louisa A Messenger, Caryn Bern, Pascal Mertens, Quentin Gilleman, Nicolas Zeippen, Bruno C Bremer Hinckel, Niamh Murphy, Robert H Gilman, Michael A Miles
Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease in the Americas. Outcome of infection ranges from lifelong asymptomatic status to severe disease. Understanding how history of T. cruzi lineage (TcI-TcVI) infection relates to clinical prognosis is challenging. We previously described peptide-based lineage-specific ELISA with Trypomastigote Small Surface Antigen (TSSA).
Detecting Infections Rapidly and Easily for Candidemia Trial, Part 2 (DIRECT2): A Prospective, Multicenter Study of the T2Candida Panel Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Cornelius J Clancy, Peter G Pappas, Jose Vazquez, Marc A Judson, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, George R Thompson, Kevin W Garey, Annette Reboli, Richard N Greenberg, Senu Apewokin, G Marshall Lyon, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Alan H B Wu, Ellis Tobin, M Hong Nguyen, Angela M Caliendo
Blood cultures are approximately 50% sensitive for diagnosing invasive candidiasis. The T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel uses T2 magnetic resonance and a dedicated instrument to detect Candida directly within whole blood samples.
Statin use and risks of influenza-related outcomes among older adults receiving standard-dose or high-dose influenza vaccines through Medicare during 2010-2015 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-09 Hector S Izurieta, Yoganand Chillarige, Jeffrey A Kelman, Richard Forshee, Yandong Qiang, Michael Wernecke, Jill M Ferdinands, Yun Lu, Yuqin Wei, Wenjie Xu, Michael Lu, Alicia Fry, Douglas Pratt, David K Shay
Statins are used to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggest that statin use may be associated with an increased influenza risk among influenza vaccinees. We used Medicare data to evaluate associations between statins and risks of influenza-related encounters among vaccinees.
A Smartphone-Driven Thermometer Application for Real-Time Population- and Individual-Level Influenza Surveillance Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Aaron C Miller, Inder Singh, Erin Koehler, Philip M Polgreen
Smartphone-based sensors may enable real-time surveillance of infectious diseases at population and household levels. This study evaluates the use of data from commercially available ‘smart thermometers,’ connected to a mobile phone application, for the surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI).
Daily and Nondaily Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis in Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Trials Network 067/ADAPT Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Robert M Grant, Sharon Mannheimer, James P Hughes, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Avelino Loquere, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Marcel E Curlin, Maoji Li, K Rivet Amico, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Bonnie J Dye, Mark A Marzinke, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Laura McKinstry, Vanessa Elharrar, Michael Stirratt, James F Rooney, Susan H Eshleman, Janet M McNicholl, Frits van Griensven, Timothy H Holtz
Nondaily dosing of oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may provide equivalent coverage of sex events compared with daily dosing.
Incidence and clinical profile of norovirus disease in Guatemala, 2008–2013 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Marieke Bierhoff, Wences Arvelo, Alejandra Estevez, Joe Bryan, John P McCracken, María Reneé López, Beatriz López, Umesh D Parashar, Kim A Lindblade, Aron J Hall
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity worldwide, particularly among children in developing countries. With the decline of rotavirus disease rates following introduction of rotavirus vaccines, the relative importance of norovirus will likely increase. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence and clinical profile of norovirus disease in Guatemala.
Population level outcomes and cost-effectiveness of expanding the recommendation for age-based hepatitis C testing in the United States Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Joshua A Barocas, Abriana Tasillo, Golnaz Eftekhari Yazdi, Jianing Wang, Claudia Vellozzi, Susan Hariri, Cheryl Isenhour, Liisa Randall, John W Ward, Jonathan Mermin, Joshua A Salomon, Benjamin P Linas
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for persons born 1945-1965 and targeted testing for high-risk persons. This strategy targets HCV testing to a prevalent population at high risk for HCV morbidity and mortality, but does not include younger populations with high incidence. To address this gap and improve access to HCV testing, age-based strategies should be considered.
Racial/ethnic disparities in the lifetime risk of Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosis and adverse reproductive health outcomes among women in King County, Washington Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Laura C Chambers, Christine M Khosropour, David A Katz, Julia C Dombrowski, Lisa E Manhart, Matthew R Golden
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common reportable infection in the US and can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal factor infertility (TFI).
News Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
13 November 2017 (Reuters [Dan Whitcomb])—Disneyland has shut down and decontaminated 2 cooling towers following an outbreak of Legionnaires disease that sickened 12 people, 9 of them guests or employees at the theme park in Anaheim, county health officials said.
In the Literature Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
Kosaka M, Ushiki A, Ikuyama Y, et al. Efficacy and toxicity of low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection: a four-center retrospective study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother doi:10.1128/AAC.01173-17. Epub ahead of print 11 September 2017.
The Transmissibility of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Intensive Care Units Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-15 Tanya Gurieva, Mirjam J D Dautzenberg, Marek Gniadkowski, Lennie P G Derde, Marc J M Bonten, Martin C J Bootsma
The global emergence of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in intensive care units (ICUs) is, at least partly, driven by cross-transmission. Yet, individual transmission capacities of bacterial species have not been quantified.
Insight Into the Complex Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-15 Gabriel Birgand, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Jean-Christophe Lucet
(See the Major Article by Gurieva et al on pages 489–93.)
Associations Between Enteral Colonization With Gram-Negative Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit–Acquired Infections and Colonization of the Respiratory Tract Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-16 Jos F Frencken, Bastiaan H J Wittekamp, Nienke L Plantinga, Cristian Spitoni, Kirsten van de Groep, Olaf L Cremer, Marc J M Bonten
Enteral and respiratory tract colonization with gram-negative bacteria may lead to subsequent infections in critically ill patients. We aimed to clarify the interdependence between gut and respiratory tract colonization and their associations with intensive care unit (ICU)–acquired infections in patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD).
No Clinical Benefit of Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy for Pediatric Diarrhea in a High-Usage, High-Resistance Setting Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-26 Vu Thuy Duong, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Van Minh, James I Campbell, Hoang Le Phuc, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Lu Lan Vi, Corinne N Thompson, Guy E Thwaites, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Stephen Baker
Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low- to middle-income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
Overutilization of Antibiotics in Children With Diarrhea: First Do No Harm Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-26 Timothy Jones
(See the Major Article by Duong et al on pages 504–11.)
Low Risk of Primary Clostridium difficile Infection With Tetracyclines: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Raseen Tariq, Janice Cho, Saloni Kapoor, Robert Orenstein, Siddharth Singh, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
The choice of antibiotics for systemic infections in patients with a high risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a clinical practice dilemma. Although some studies suggest that tetracyclines may be associated with a lower risk of CDI than other antibiotics, other results are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of studies that assessed the risk of CDI with tetracyclines compared to other antibiotics.
Prognostic Models for 9-Month Mortality in Tuberculous Meningitis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-26 Le Thi Phuong Thao, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Huu Lan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Jeremy Day, Jeremy J Farrar, M Estee Torok, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E Thwaites, Marcel Wolbers
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We developed and validated prognostic models for 9-month mortality in adults with TBM, with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Evidence for Cross-species Influenza A Virus Transmission Within Swine Farms, China: A One Health, Prospective Cohort Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-16 Mai-Juan Ma, Guo-Lin Wang, Benjamin D Anderson, Zhen-Qiang Bi, Bing Lu, Xian-Jun Wang, Chuang-Xin Wang, Shan-Hui Chen, Yan-Hua Qian, Shao-Xia Song, Min Li, John A Lednicky, Teng Zhao, Meng-Na Wu, Wu-Chun Cao, Gregory C Gray
Our understanding of influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs is limited.
Impact of Pneumococcal Vaccination on Pneumonia Hospitalizations and Related Costs in Ontario: A Population-Based Ecological Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-26 Dara Lee Luca, Jeffrey C Kwong, Anna Chu, Beate Sander, Ryan O’Reilly, Allison J McGeer, David E Bloom
In Ontario, Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was approved for infants in 2001 and became part of the publicly funded routine immunization schedule in 2005. We assessed the population-level impact of PCV on pneumonia hospitalizations and related costs.
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated With Rafting on an Artificial Whitewater River: Case Report and Environmental Investigation Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-19 Jennifer R Cope, Jennifer Murphy, Amy Kahler, Daniel G Gorbett, Ibne Ali, Brandi Taylor, Lisa Corbitt, Shantanu Roy, Nicole Lee, Dawn Roellig, Scott Brewer, Vincent R Hill
Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic ameba found in freshwater that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ponds during recreational water activities. In June 2016, an 18-year-old woman died of PAM after traveling to North Carolina, where she participated in rafting on an artificial whitewater river.
Safety and Immunogenicity of Newborn MVA85A Vaccination and Selective, Delayed Bacille Calmette-Guerin for Infants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mothers: A Phase 2 Randomized, Controlled Trial Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-10-26 Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill, Charmaine Abrahams, Deborah Abrahams, Hadn Africa, Veronica Baartman, Beauty Bavuma, Nicole Bilek, Natasja Botes, Yolande Brown, Yolundi Cloete, Margareth Damons, Ronel De Vos, Portia Dlakavu, Karen Du Preez, Mzwandile Erasmus, Claudia Francis, Hendrik Geldenhuys, Mandy Geldenhuys, Katriena Goedeman, Sandra Golliath, Angelique Hendricks Mouton, Christiaan Hopley, Ruwijda Jansen, Carolynne Jones, Alana Keyser, Benjamin Kagina, Gloria Khomba, Fazlin Kola–Cassiem, Sandra Kruger, Daphne Leukes, Loyiso Louw, Angelique Luabeya, Theresa Maart, Lebohang Makhethe, Simbarashe Mbabwe, Eunice Mtshamba, Boniswa Mvinjelwa, Lungisa Nkantsu, Julia Noble, Sizwe Nqweniso, Fajwa Opperman, Christel Petersen, Patiswa Plaatjie, Susan Rossouw, Roxanne Solomoms, Marcia Steyn, Liticia Swanepoel, Asma Toefy, Heidi van Deventer, Elma van Rooyen, Daphne van Ster, Bongiwe Vazana, Ashley Veldsman, Noncedo Xoyana
Vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis vaccination strategy that protects against tuberculosis early in life and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded.
Prevalence of Hypogammaglobulinemia in Adult Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Juthaporn Cowan, Thuy Linh Do, Sacha Desjardins, Karamchand Ramotar, Vicente Corrales-Medina, Donald William Cameron
Patients with humoral immune deficiency are susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). This study estimates the prevalence of underlying hypogammaglobulinemia in admitted IPD cases and examines whether IPD cases had received preventative treatment.
Infrequent Testing of Women for Rectal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in the United States Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-10-06 Guoyu Tao, Karen W Hoover, Melinda B Nye, Philip J Peters, Thomas L Gift, Barbara A Body
Anal sex is a common sexual behavior among women that increases their risk of acquiring rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC).
Impact of Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment and Birth Weight on Mother-to-Child Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission: Findings From an 18-Month Prospective Cohort of a Nationally Representative Sample of Mother–Infant Pairs During the Transition From Option A to Option B+ in Zimbabwe Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-16 Thu-Ha Dinh, Angela Mushavi, Ray W Shiraishi, Beth Tippett Barr, Shirish Balachandra, Gerald Shambira, Justice Nyakura, Sekesai Zinyowera, Mufuta Tshimanga, Owen Mugurungi, Peter H Kilmarx
Preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus transmission (MTCT) depends on early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report the 18-month MTCT risk during the transition from Option A to Option B+ in Zimbabwe, and assess whether ART preconception could eliminate MTCT in breastfeeding populations.
Identifying Immune Correlates of Protection Against Plasmodium falciparum Through a Novel Approach to Account for Heterogeneity in Malaria Exposure Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-18 Aida Valmaseda, Eusebio Macete, Augusto Nhabomba, Caterina Guinovart, Pedro Aide, Azucena Bardají, Quique Bassat, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sonia Maculuve, Aina Casellas, Llorenç Quintó, Sergi Sanz, Alfons Jiménez, Gaoqian Feng, Christine Langer, Linda Reiling, K Sony Reddy, Alok Pandey, Chetan E Chitnis, Virander S Chauhan, Ruth Aguilar, John J Aponte, Carlota Dobaño, James G Beeson, Deepak Gaur, Clara Menéndez, Pedro L Alonso, Alfredo Mayor
A main criterion to identify malaria vaccine candidates is the proof that acquired immunity against them is associated with protection from disease. The age of the studied individuals, heterogeneous malaria exposure, and assumption of the maintenance of a baseline immune response can confound these associations.
Time to Switch to Second-line Antiretroviral Therapy in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Europe and Thailand Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-26 Tessa Goetghebuer, Marc Hainaut, Evelyne Van der Kelen, Marc Delforge, Josiane Warszawski, Jerome Le Chenadec, Elisa Ramos, Olivia Dialla, Thierry Wack, Corine Laurent, Lamya Ait si Selmi, Isabelle Leymarie, Fazia Ait Benali, Maud Brossard, Leila Boufassa, Corinne Floch-Tudal, Ghislaine Firtion, Isabelle Hau, Anne Chace, Pascal Bolot, St éphane Blanche, Mich èle Granier, Philippe Labrune, Eric Lachassine, Catherine Dollfus, Martine Levine, Corinne Fourcade, Brigitte Heller, Camille Runel-Belliard, Jo ëlle Tricoire, Catherine Chirouze, Véronique Reliquet, Jacques Brouard, Kamila Kebaili, Muriel Lalande, Françoise Mazingue, Maria Luisa Partisani, Christoph Königs, Stephan Schultze-Strasser, U Baumann, T Niehues, J Neubert, R Kobbe, C Feiterna-Sperling, C Königs, B Buchholz, G Notheis, Vana Spoulou, Pier Angelo Tovo, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini, Osimani Patrizia, Domenico Larovere, Maurizio Ruggeri, Giacomo Faldella, Francesco Baldi, Raffaele Badolato, Carlotta Montagnani, Elisabetta Venturini, Catiuscia Lisi, Antonio Di Biagio, Lucia Taramasso, Vania Giacomet, Paola Erba, Susanna Esposito, Rita Lipreri, Filippo Salvini, Claudia Tagliabue, Monica Cellini, Eugenia Bruzzese, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Osvalda Rampon, Daniele Donà, Amelia Romano, Icilio Dodi, Anna Maccabruni, Rita Consolini, Stefania Bernardi, Hyppolite Tchidjou Kuekou, Orazio Genovese, Paolina Olmeo, Letizia Cristiano, Antonio Mazza, Silvia Garazzino, Antonio Pellegatta, Emma Kinderziekenhuis, D Pajkrt, H J Scherpbier, A M Weijsenfeld, A van der Plas, S Jurriaans, N K T Back, H L Zaaijer, B Berkhout, M T E Cornelissen, C J Schinkel, K CWolthers, Erasmus MC–Sophia, P L A Fraaij, A M C van Rossum, L C van der Knaap, E G Visser, C A B Boucher, M P G Koopmans, J J A van Kampen, S D Pas, S S V Henriet, M van de Flier, K van Aerde, R Strik-Albers, J Rahamat-Langendoen, F F Stelma, E H Schölvinck, H de Groot-de Jonge, H G M Niesters, C C van Leer-Buter, M Knoester, L J Bont, S P M Geelen, T F W Wolfs, N Nauta, C W Ang, R van Houdt, A M Pettersson, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, P Reiss, D O Bezemer, A I van Sighem, C Smit, F W M N Wit, T S Boender, S Zaheri, M Hillebregt, A de Jong, D Bergsma, S Grivell, A Jansen, M Raethke, R Meijering, L de Groot, M van den Akker, Y Bakker, E Claessen, A El Berkaoui, J Koops, E Kruijne, C Lodewijk, L Munjishvili, B Peeck, C Ree, R Regtop, Y Ruijs, T Rutkens, M Schoorl, A Timmerman, E Tuijn, L Veenenberg, S van der Vliet, A Wisse, T Woudstra, B Tuk, Magdalena Marczynska, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Jolanta Popielska, Urszula Coupland, Malgorzata Doroba, Laura Marques, Carla Teixeira, Alexandre Fernandes, Luminita Ene, Cosmina Gingaras, Roxana Radoi, Liubov Okhonskaia, Evgeny Voronin, Milana Miloenko, Svetlana Labutina, Pere Soler-Palacín, Maria Antoinette Frick, Santiago Pérez-Hoyos, Antonio Mur, Núria López, María Méndez, Lluís Mayol, Teresa Vallmanya, Olga Calavia, Lourdes García, Maite Coll, Valentí Pineda, Neus Rius, Núria Rovira, Joaquín Dueñas, Clàudia Fortuny, Antoni Noguera-Julian, María José Mellado, Luis Escosa, Milagros García Hortelano, Talía Sainz, María Isabel González-Tomé, Pablo Rojo, Daniel Blázquez, José Tomás Ramos, Luis Prieto, Sara Guillén, María Luisa Navarro, Jesús Saavedra, Mar Santos, Mª Angeles Muñoz, Beatriz Ruiz, Carolina Fernandez Mc Phee, Santiago Jimenez de Ory, Susana Alvarez, Miguel Ángel Roa, José Beceiro, Jorge Martínez, Katie Badillo, Miren Apilanez, Itziar Pocheville, Elisa Garrote, Elena Colino, Jorge Gómez Sirvent, Mónica Garzón, Vicente Román, Abián Montesdeoca, Mercedes Mateo, María José Muñoz, Raquel Angulo, Olaf Neth, Lola Falcón, Pedro Terol, Juan Luis Santos, David Moreno, Francisco Lendínez, Ana Grande, Francisco José, Carlos Pérez, Miguel Lillo, Begoña Losada, Mercedes Herranz, Matilde Bustillo, Carmelo Guerrero, Pilar Collado, José Antonio Couceiro, Amparo Pérez, Ana Isabel Piqueras, Rafael Bretón, Inmaculada Segarra, César Gavilán, Enrique Jareño, Elena Montesinos, Marta Dapena, Cristina Álvarez, Ana Gloria Andrés, Víctor Marugán, Carlos Ochoa, Santiago Alfayate, Ana Isabel Menasalvas, Elisa de Miguel, Lars Naver, Sandra Soeria-Atmadja, Vendela Hagås, K Aebi-Popp, S Asner, V Aubert, M Battegay, M Baumann, E Bernasconi, J Böni, P Brazzola, HC Bucher, A Calmy, M Cavassini, A Ciuffi, A Duppenthaler, G Dollenmaier, M Egger, L Elzi, J Fehr, J Fellay, K Francini, H Furrer, CA Fux, C Grawe, HF Günthard, D Haerry, B Hasse, HH Hirsch, M Hoffmann, I Hösli, C Kahlert, L Kaiser, O Keiser, T Klimkait, H Kovari, RD Kouyos, B Ledergerber, G Martinetti, B Martinez de Tejada, KJ Metzner, Müller, D Nicca, P Paioni, G Pantaleo, Ch Polli, K Posfay-Barbe, A Rauch, C Rudin, P Schmid, AU Scherrer, R Speck, P Tarr, M Thanh Lecompte, A Trkola, P Vernazza, N Wagner, G Wandeler, R Weber, CA Wyler, S Yerly, Pornchai Techakunakorn, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Vanichaya Wanchaitanawong, Sookchai Theansavettrakul, Sirisak Nanta, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Siriluk Phanomcheong, Suchat Hongsiriwon, Warit Karnchanamayul, Ratchanee Kwanchaipanich, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Nareerat Kamonpakorn, Maneeratn Nantarukchaikul, Prapaisri Layangool, Jutarat Mekmullica, Paiboon Lucksanapisitkul, Sudarat Watanayothin, Narong Lertpienthum, Boonyarat Warachit, Sansanee Hanpinitsak, Sathit Potchalongsin, Pimpraphai Thanasiri, Sawitree Krikajornkitti, Pornsawan Attavinijtrakarn, Sakulrat Srirojana, Suthunya Bunjongpak, Achara Puangsombat, Sathaporn Na-Rajsima, Pornchai Ananpatharachai, Noppadon Akarathum, Weerasak Lawtongkum, Prapawan Kheunjan, Thitiporn Suriyaboon, Airada Saipanya, Kanchana Than-in-at, Nirattiya Jaisieng, Rapeepan Suaysod, Sanuphong Chailoet, Naritsara Naratee, Suttipong Kawilapat, T Kaleeva, Y Baryshnikova, S Soloha, N Bashkatova, I Raus, O Glutshenko, Z Ruban, N Prymak, G Kiseleva, H Bailey, Hermione Lyall, Karina Butler, Katja Doerholt, Caroline Foster, Nigel Klein, Esse Menson, Andrew Riordan, Delane Shingadia, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Pat Tookey, Steve Welch, Intira Jeannie Collins, Claire Cook, Donna Dobson, Keith Fairbrother, Diana M Gibb, Ali Judd, Lynda Harper, Francesca Parrott, Anna Tostevin, Nadine Van Looy, K Butler, A Walsh, S Scott, Y Vaughan, S Welch, N Laycock, J Bernatoniene, A Finn, L Hutchison, G Sharpe, A Williams, E G H Lyall, P Seery, P Lewis, K Miles, B Subramaniam, L Hutchinson, P Ward, K Sloper, G Gopal, C Doherty, R Hague, V Price, A Bamford, H Bundy, M Clapson, J Flynn, D M Gibb, N Klein, V Novelli, D Shingadia, P Ainsley-Walker, P Tovey, D Gurtin, J P Garside, A Fall, D Porter, S Segal, C Ball, S Hawkins, P Chetcuti, M Dowie, S Bandi, M Eisenhut, J Handforth, P K Roy, T Flood, S Liebeschuetz, C Kavanagh, C Murphy, K Rowson, T Tan, J Daniels, Y Lees, E Kerr, F Thompson, M Le Provost, A Williams, L Cliffe, A Smyth, S Stafford, A Freeman, T Reddy, K Fidler, S Christie, A Gordon, D Rogahn, S Harris, L Hutchinson, A Collinson, L Hutchinson, L Jones, B Offerman, V Van Someren, C Benson, A Riordan, A Riddell, R O’Connor, N Brown, L Ibberson, F Shackley, S N Faust, J Hancock, K Doerholt, S Donaghy, K Prime, M Sharland, S Storey, S Gorman, E G H Lyall, C Monrose, P Seery, G Tudor-Williams, S Walters, R Cross, E Menson, J Broomhall, L Hutchinson, D Scott, J Stroobant, A Bridgwood, P McMaster, J Evans, T Gardiner, R Jones, K Gardiner
Data on durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are limited. We assessed time to switch to second-line therapy in 16 European countries and Thailand.
Trichomonas vaginalis Brain Abscess in a Neonate Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-10-24 Hunter Hamilton, Kristen L Pontiff, Michael Bolton, Richard S Bradbury, Blaine A Mathison, Henry Bishop, Marcos de Almeida, Beverly W Ogden, Evan Barnett, Donna Rastanis, Angelle L Klar, Adaora S Uzodi
We describe a case of cerebral trichomoniasis in a neonate in whom seizures and multiorgan failure developed during treatment for staphylococcal sepsis. Brain abscesses were identified with cranial sonography, and Trichomonas vaginalis was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid samples. The patient died despite metronidazole therapy.
Comparative Epidemiology and Outcomes of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Non-HIV Non-transplant, and Solid Organ Transplant Associated Cryptococcosis: A Population-Based Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-10-04 Ige A George, Andrej Spec, William G Powderly, Carlos A Q Santos
In this population-based study in the contemporary era in the United States, the proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative patients with cryptococcosis approaches that in HIV-infected patients. Cryptococcosis is associated with higher mortality rates in HIV-negative patients (including organ transplant recipients).
Addressing the Unknowns of Antimicrobial Resistance: Quantifying and Mapping the Drivers of Burden Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-08-23 Gwenan M Knight, Ceire Costelloe, Kris A Murray, Julie V Robotham, Rifat Atun, Alison H Holmes
The global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has arisen through a network of complex interacting factors. Many different sources and transmission pathways contribute to the ever-growing burden of AMR in our clinical settings. The lack of data on these mechanisms and the relative importance of different factors causing the emergence and spread of AMR hampers our global efforts to effectively manage the risks. Importantly, we have little quantitative knowledge on the relative contributions of these sources and are likely to be targeting our interventions suboptimally as a result. Here we propose a systems mapping approach to address the urgent need for reliable and timely data to strengthen the response to AMR.
Use of Viral Load as a Surrogate Marker in Clinical Studies of Cytomegalovirus in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2017-09-05 Yoichiro Natori, Ali Alghamdi, Mahmood Tazari, Veronica Miller, Shahid Husain, Takashi Komatsu, Paul Griffiths, Per Ljungman, Ani Orchanian-Cheff, Deepali Kumar, Atul Humar, Rekha Abichandani, Barbara Alexander, Robin Avery, Fausto Baldanti, Susan Barnett, Paul Baum, M Michelle Berrey, Debra Birnkrant, Emily Blumberg, Michael Boeckh, David Boutolleau, Terry Bowlin, Jennifer Brooks, Roy Chemaly, Sunwen Chou, Gavin Cloherty, William Cruikshank, Lesia Dropulic, Hermann Einsele, Jay Erdman, Gary Fahle, Lynn Fallon, Heather Gillis, Dimitri Gonzalez, Paul Griffiths, Kurt Gunter, Hans Hirsch, Aimee Hodowanec, Atul Humar, Peter Hunt, Filip Josephson, Takashi Komatsu, Camille Kotton, Philip Krause, Frank Kuhr, Christopher Lademacher, Randall Lanier, Tadd Lazarus, John Leake, Randi Leavitt, Sandra Nusinoff Lehrman, Li Li, Per Ljungman, Paula Isabelle Lodding, Jens Lundgren, Francisco (Paco) Martinez-Murillo, Howard Mayer, Megan McCutcheon, John McKinnon, Thomas Mertens, Veronica Miller, Kevin Modarress, Johann Mols, Sally Mossman, Yoshihiko Murata, David Murawski, Jeffrey Murray, Yoichiro Natori, Garrett Nichols, Jules O’Rear, Karl Peggs, Andreas Pikis, Mark Prichard, Raymund Razonable, Marcie Riches, Jeff Roberts, Wael Saber, Chalom Sayada, Mary Singer, Thomas Stamminger, Anna Wijatyk, Dong Yu, Bernhardt Zeiher
Symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease has been the standard endpoint for clinical trials in organ transplant recipients. Viral load may be a more relevant endpoint due to low frequency of disease. We performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. We found several lines of evidence to support the validity of viral load as an appropriate surrogate end-point, including the following: (1) viral loads in CMV disease are significantly greater than in asymptomatic viremia (odds ratio, 9.3 95% confidence interval, 4.6–19.3); (2) kinetics of viral replication are strongly associated with progression to disease; (3) pooled incidence of CMV viremia and disease is significantly lower during prophylaxis compared with the full patient follow-up period (viremia incidence: 3.2% vs 34.3%; P < .001) (disease incidence: 1.1% vs 13.0%; P < .001); (4) treatment of viremia prevented disease; and (5) viral load decline correlated with symptom resolution. Based on the analysis, we conclude that CMV load is an appropriate surrogate endpoint for CMV trials in organ transplant recipients.
Acute Pulmonary Symptoms in a 19-Year-Old Man With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
(See pages 633–4 for the Answer to the Photo Quiz.)
Acute Pulmonary Symptoms in a 19-Year-Old Man With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 8.216) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Leslie C Avant, Paul Bryant, Sushilkumar K Sonavane, Christina A Muzny
(See page 632 for the Photo Quiz.)
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