Detrimental effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on intestinal microbiome diversity in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Lack of commensal sparing antibiotics Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Daniela Weber, Andreas Hiergeist, Markus Weber, Katja Dettmer, Daniel Wolff, Joachim Hahn, Wolfgang Herr, André Gessner, Ernst Holler
Maintaining gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome diversity plays a key role during allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and loss of diversity correlates with acute GI Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) and outcome.
News Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-16
8 June 2018 (Reuters [Fiston Mahamba, Aaron Ross, and William Maclean])—The Democratic Republic of Congo has recorded its first confirmed case of Ebola in over a week, the health ministry said, while medics say they have made significant progress in their efforts to contain the disease.
Bezlotoxumab for Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients at Increased Risk for Recurrence Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-10 Dale N Gerding, Ciaran P Kelly, Galia Rahav, Christine Lee, Erik R Dubberke, Princy N Kumar, Bruce Yacyshyn, Dina Kao, Karen Eves, Misoo C Ellison, Mary E Hanson, Dalya Guris, Mary Beth Dorr
Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B indicated to prevent C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence (rCDI) in adults at high risk for rCDI. This post hoc analysis of pooled monocolonal antibodies for C.difficile therapy (MODIFY) I/II data assessed bezlotoxumab efficacy in participants with characteristics associated with increased risk for rCDI.
A Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Followed by Oral Delafloxacin With Vancomycin Plus Aztreonam for the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: A Phase 3, Multinational, Double-Blind, Randomized Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-06 William O’Riordan, Alison McManus, Juri Teras, Ivan Poromanski, Maria Cruz-Saldariagga, Megan Quintas, Laura Lawrence, ShuJui Liang, Sue Cammarata, Gustavo Jorge Chaparro, Natalia Elizabeth Frassone, Graciana Morera, Antônio Tarcisio de Faria Freire, Júlio César Stobbe, Rossen Stoyanov Dimov, Borislav Tzvetanov Ninov, Ivan Poromanski, Petar Rusev, Simeon Simeonov, Georgi Vasilev Todorov, Jorge Manuel Perez Godoy, Jaak Lind, Andres Tein, Jüri Teras, Andrei Uksov, Roland Akhalaia, Erekle Gotsadze, Kakhaber Kashibadze, Jano Vashadze, Katalin Egyud, Zsolt Horváth, Lajos Kemény, Levente Kövágó, Tibor Olah, Yong Kyun Cho, Seong-Ho Choi, Won Seok Choi, Yong Pill Chong, Min Ja Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Yeon Sook Kim, Janis Gardovskis, Viktors Lovcinovskis, Maris Nalivaiko, Guntars Pupelis, Eduardo Rodriguez Noriega, Nora Patricia Quintero Pérez, Adrian Camacho Ortiz, Eugen Gutu, Sergiu Revencu, Sergiu Ungureanu, Luis A Camacho Cosavalente, Jaime Ismael Soria Medina, Maria Edelmira Cruz, Oscar Guillermo Pamo Reyna, Pedro Esteban Legua Leiva, Marius Eugen Ciurea, Ion Florea, Carmen Giuglea, Silviu Adrian Marinescu, Silviu Horia Morariu, Remus Ioan Orasan, Petrisor Z Crainiceanu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yin-Ching Chuang, Sinikka Liisa Green, Alison J McManus, Jeffrey K Kingsley, Loren Miller, Robert Houghton, Verne Leroy Willits, Steven Hugh Mannis, Sheri Stucke, Peter Rives, Eric Hansen, Pietro Giuseppe Pecci, Hermilito L Villar, Richard Beasley, Philip A Giordano, John Pullman, Chok Ping Wan, Shaukat Shah, Godson I Oguchi, Thomas M Birch, Sadi M Dar, Barr L Baynton, Melanie Hoppers
Delafloxacin is an intravenous (IV)/oral anionic fluoroquinolone with activity against gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]), gram-negative, atypical, and anaerobic organisms. It is approved in the United States for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) caused by designated susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, and is in development for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.
Safety and Effectiveness of Short-Course AmBisome in the Treatment of Post–Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Prospective Cohort Study in Bangladesh Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Margriet den Boer, Asish Kumar Das, Fatima Akhter, Sakib Burza, V Ramesh, Be-Nazir Ahmed, Eduard E Zijlstra, Koert Ritmeijer
A safe and effective short-course treatment regimen for post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is considered essential for achieving and sustaining elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent [1, 2]. Here, single-dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) has been adopted as a first-line regimen for VL; however the effectiveness and safety of AmBisome for PKDL has not been formally evaluated.
Effects of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Sexual Risk Behavior in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Michael W Traeger, Sophia E Schroeder, Edwina J Wright, Margaret E Hellard, Vincent J Cornelisse, Joseph S Doyle, Mark A Stoové
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in reducing HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, concerns remain that risk compensation in PrEP users may lead to decreased condom use and increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the impact of PrEP on sexual risk outcomes in MSM.
Serious Infections in Patients Receiving Ibrutinib for Treatment of Lymphoid Cancer Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-04-27 Tilly Varughese, Ying Taur, Nina Cohen, M Lia Palomba, Susan K Seo, Tobias M Hohl, Gil Redelman-Sidi
Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of lymphoid cancers, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and mantle cell lymphoma. Several case series have described opportunistic infections among ibrutinib recipients, but the full extent of these infections is unknown. We sought to determine the spectrum of serious infections associated with ibrutinib treatment.
Estimating the Hospital Burden of Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis in England and Its Opportunity Costs for Nonadmitted Patients Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Frank G Sandmann, Laura Shallcross, Natalie Adams, David J Allen, Pietro G Coen, Annette Jeanes, Zisis Kozlakidis, Lesley Larkin, Fatima Wurie, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit, Sarah R Deeny
Norovirus places a substantial burden on healthcare systems, arising from infected patients, disease outbreaks, beds kept unoccupied for infection control, and staff absences due to infection. In settings with high rates of bed occupancy, opportunity costs arise from patients who cannot be admitted due to beds being unavailable. With several treatments and vaccines against norovirus in development, quantifying the expected economic burden is timely.
Significant Patient Impact Observed Upon Implementation of Point-of-Care Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in an Observational Study in Malawi Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Reuben Mwenda, Youyi Fong, Termson Magombo, Emmanuel Saka, Dalitso Midiani, Christopher Mwase, James Kandulu, Melody Wang, Rachel Thomas, Judith Sherman, Lara Vojnov
In Malawi in 2014, <20% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed infants received an early infant diagnosis (EID) test in the first 2 months of life and only 30% of HIV-infected children were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to understand the potential patient impact of improving timely infant diagnosis and treatment initiation through implementation of point-of-care (POC) EID technologies in Malawi.
Delayed Sputum Culture Conversion in Tuberculosis–Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Coinfected Patients With Low Isoniazid and Rifampicin Concentrations Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-03 Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Amrei von Braun, Mohammed Lamorde, Bruno Ledergerber, Allan Buzibye, Lars Henning, Joseph Musaazi, Ursula Gutteck, Paolo Denti, Miné de Kock, Alexander Jetter, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Nadia Eberhard, Joshua Matovu, Moses Joloba, Daniel Muller, Yukari C Manabe, Moses R Kamya, Natascia Corti, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan S Fehr
The relationship between concentrations of antituberculosis drugs, sputum culture conversion, and treatment outcome remains unclear. We sought to determine the association between antituberculosis drug concentrations and sputum conversion among patients coinfected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and receiving first-line antituberculosis drugs.
Individualizing Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment: Are TB Programs in High Burden Settings Ready for Prime Time Therapeutic Drug Monitoring? Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-03 Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
(See the Major Article by Sekaggya-Wiltshire et al on pages 708–16.)
Voluntary Community Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Linkage, and Retention in Care Interventions in Kenya: Modeling the Clinical Impact and Cost-effectiveness Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-05-08 Liem B Luong Nguyen, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, David Maman, Sitima Wanjala, Alexandra Vandenbulcke, Jianthi Price, Robert A Parker, William Hennequin, Pierre Mendiharat, Kenneth A Freedberg
In southwest Kenya, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is about 25%. Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a voluntary community testing (VCT) program, with linkage to care and retention interventions, to achieve the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets by 2017. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.
Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hospitalizations With Invasive Aspergillosis in the United States, 2009–2013 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-04-28 Marya D Zilberberg, Brian H Nathanson, Rachel Harrington, James R Spalding, Andrew F Shorr
Though invasive aspergillosis (IA) complicates care of up to 13% of patients with immunocompromise, little is known about its morbidity and mortality burden in the United States.
A Randomized Study Evaluating the Effectiveness of Oseltamivir Initiated at the Time of Hospital Admission in Adults Hospitalized With Influenza-Associated Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-04-11 Julio Ramirez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy Wiemken, Sandra S Chaves, Alicia M Fry
Influenza-associated hospitalizations result in high morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if early empiric anti-influenza therapy improves outcomes of hospitalized patients with influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections (I-LRTIs).
Cytomegalovirus Shedding in Seropositive Pregnant Women From a High-Seroprevalence Population: The Brazilian Cytomegalovirus Hearing and Maternal Secondary Infection Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Nayara G Barbosa, Aparecida Y Yamamoto, Geraldo Duarte, Davi C Aragon, Karen B Fowler, Suresh Boppana, William J Britt, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata
Most congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in highly seropositive populations occur in infants born to women with preexisting CMV seroimmunity. Although essential for developing prevention strategies, CMV shedding patterns in pregnant women with nonprimary infections have not been characterized. We investigated correlates of CMV shedding in a cohort of seropositive pregnant women.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Text Messaging Intervention to Promote Virologic Suppression and Retention in Care in an Urban Safety-Net Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinic: The Connect4Care Trial Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-21 Katerina A Christopoulos, Elise D Riley, Adam W Carrico, Jacqueline Tulsky, Judith T Moskowitz, Samantha Dilworth, Lara S Coffin, Leslie Wilson, Jason Johnson Peretz, Joan F Hilton
Text messaging is a promising strategy to support human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care engagement, but little is known about its efficacy in urban safety-net HIV clinics.
Sex Difference in Meningococcal Disease Mortality, New York City, 2008–2016 Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Danielle Bloch, Kenya Murray, Eric Peterson, Stephanie Ngai, Inessa Rubinstein, Tanya A Halse, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Laura Miller, Lola Arakaki, Arianne Ramautar, Mike Antwi, Paula Del Rosso, Marie Dorsinville, Sandhya Clark, Megan Halbrook, Joseph Kennedy, Sarah Braunstein, Don Weiss
The case fatality rate (CFR) from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in New York City (NYC) is greater than national figures, with higher rates among females than males across all age groups.
Higher Anti-Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G Concentrations Are Associated With Worse Neurocognitive Performance During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-01 Scott Letendre, Ajay Bharti, Ignacio Perez-Valero, Barbara Hanson, Donald Franklin, Steven Paul Woods, Sara Gianella, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Robert K Heaton, Igor Grant, Alan L Landay, Nell Lurain
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been linked to higher risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. We aimed to determine if CMV is associated with neurocognitive performance in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Role of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Age-Related Decline in Gait Speed Among Older Men Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Jing Sun, Todd T Brown, David C Samuels, Todd Hulgan, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Beth D Jamieson, Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremy Martinson, Frank J Palella, Joseph B Margolick, Gregory D Kirk, Jennifer A Schrack
Age-related gait speed decline is accelerated in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mitochondrial genetic variation is associated with frailty and mortality in the general population and may provide insight into mechanisms of functional decline in people aging with HIV.
Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenetics of Efavirenz 400 mg Once Daily During Pregnancy and Post-Partum Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Mohammed Lamorde, Xinzhu Wang, Megan Neary, Elisa Bisdomini, Shadia Nakalema, Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Jackson K Mukonzo, Waheed Khan, Andrew Owen, Myra McClure, Marta Boffito
A clinical trial showed that efavirenz 400 mg once daily (EFV400) is as effective as the standard adult dose. World Health Organization recommends EFV400 as an alternative first-line agent, but data are lacking in the third trimester of pregnancy (TT). We investigated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics in HIV-infected women (WLWH) on EFV400 during TT and post-partum (PP).
Emergence of Integrase Resistance Mutations During Initial Therapy Containing Dolutegravir Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-21 Jennifer A Fulcher, Yushen Du, Tian-hao Zhang, Ren Sun, Raphael J Landovitz
Dolutegravir (DTG) is a preferred drug for initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. We present next-generation sequencing analysis of integrase genotypes during a period of virologic failure in a treatment-naive man who initiated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus DTG.
Dalbavancin as Primary and Sequential Treatment for Gram-Positive Infective Endocarditis: 2-Year Experience at the General Hospital of Vienna Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Selma Tobudic, Christina Forstner, Heinz Burgmann, Heimo Lagler, Michael Ramharter, Christoph Steininger, Matthias (G) Vossen, Stefan Winkler, Florian Thalhammer
The clinical outcomes and safety of dalbavancin as primary and sequential treatment of gram-positive bacteremia with infective endocarditis were evaluated retrospectively. The clinical success rate was high (92.6%), but in 24 of 27 patients dalbavancin was used only after clearance of bacteria from the bloodstream.
Diagnostic Stewardship: Opportunity for a Laboratory–Infectious Diseases Partnership Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Robin Patel, Ferric C Fang
Recent advances in microbial diagnostics are providing clinicians with information about microbes causing infections and their resistance to antimicrobial agents more rapidly than ever before. Diagnostic stewardship refers to the appropriate use of laboratory testing to guide patient management, including treatment, in order to optimize clinical outcomes and limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fulfilling the promise of diagnostic stewardship requires a seamless partnership between clinical laboratories, pharmacists, and infectious diseases clinicians, so that appropriate tests are ordered and diagnostic information is translated into appropriate management in real time.
An Unusual Finding During Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Thomas Hostiou, Marc Vergnolles, Grégoire Robert, Denis Malvy
T1c localized prostate cancer was diagnosed in a 52-year-old man who had lived in Bordeaux, France, for >30 years (prostate-specific antigen level, 6.2 ng/mL; Gleason score, 7 [4 + 3]). The findings of physical examination and ultrasonography of the urinary tract were unremarkable. The patient did not report any lower urinary tract symptoms, abdominal disturbance, or history of hematuria.
Cytomegalovirus DNAemia Burden and Mortality Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Area Under a Curve-Based Investigational Approach Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Estela Giménez, Carlos Solano, Víctor Vinuesa, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Eliseo Albert, Ariadna Pérez, José Luis Piñana, David Navarro
To the Editor—Recently published data suggest that cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia, even when present at magnitudes below the threshold levels commonly used to trigger the inception of preemptive antiviral therapy (PET)  is associated with increased overall and nonrelapse mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (allo-HSCT) , although this extent remains controversial . Elucidation of this issue is of paramount relevance because the use of PET would have to be discouraged were the veracity of this assumption proved. Hill et al.  recently reported that the area under a curve (AUC) for plasma CMV DNAemia was...
Reply to Giménez et al Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Joshua A Hill, Bryan T Mayer, Hu Xie, Wendy M Leisenring, Michael Boeckh, Joshua T Schiffer
To the Editor—Giménez and colleagues present a retrospective study of 196 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients in which they analyzed the association of plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) load area under the curve (AUC) with overall mortality by 180 and 365 days after HCT. They report no evidence of a dose–response relationship between the CMV AUC and mortality, contrary to our recent publication . The authors note differences between our studies that may contribute to the disparate findings and specifically inquire whether a difference in the AUC calculation played a role. Both studies used the curve-trapezoid rule method to calculate the AUC. Whereas Giménez and...
Increase Access to Timely and Periodic Viral Load Testing to Achieve the 90-90-90 Targets for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in China Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Na Zhang, Tao Huang, Dianmin Kang, Ning Wang
To the Editor—Ma and collaborators  recently reported that at the end of 2015 in China, 65% of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) receiving highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were virally suppressed, and after adjustment for those without viral load (VL) testing, the proportion suppressed increased to 89%. This showed that there was a great deficit in VL testing for PLWH receiving HAART in China.
Reply to Zhang et al Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-02-24 Ye Ma, Zhihui Dou, Jennifer M McGoogan, Zunyou Wu
To the Editor—Zhang and colleagues  have correctly observed that, in our study  recently published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, a considerable proportion of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) had not undergone viral load (VL) testing for HIV. They further noted that inadequate VL testing in China needs to be addressed, and they underscored the importance of VL testing for both clinical monitoring of individuals and systemic monitoring of the National Free ART Program. We could not agree more. Timely and periodic VL testing for all PLWH receiving ART is essential...
Is Ivermectin Ineffective for Strongyloidiasis? Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Dora Buonfrate, Zeno Bisoffi
To the Editor—The paper by Repetto et al.  plainly suggests that ivermectin is unable to cure chronic strongyloidiasis. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for this parasite, and its efficacy has been confirmed by all randomized clinical trials (RCT) conducted so far (resumed in Table 1 in the same article). Moreover, 2 epidemiological studies conducted in endemic areas clearly showed that, where ivermectin was regularly used for onchcerciasis or bancroftian filariasis, the prevalence of strongyloidiasis declined dramatically and remained very low for years after mass administration was interrupted [2, 3]. Now, a small observational study that lost at follow-up 50...
Reply to Buonfrate and Bisoffi Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-05-17 Silvia A Repetto, Paula Ruybal, Estela Batalla, Carlota López, Vanesa Fridman, Mariela Sierra, Marcelo Radisic, Pablo M Bravo, Marikena G Risso, Stella M González Cappa, Catalina D Alba Soto
To the Editor—We thank Drs Buonfrate and Bisoffi for reading our article. Our small long-term observational follow-up study included 21 ivermectin-treated patients; 14 of them presented with reactivation by larvae observation . A few years ago, our group reported that 1 of 10 patients with strongyloidiasis showed a persistent increase in eosinophil counts beginning 4 months after ivermectin treatment, reaching values of eosinophilia after the 10th month of follow-up . According to this observation, 3–4 consecutive stool samples were exhaustively examined by agar plate culture (APC). In the third test, at the 10th month, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected [2...
Clinical and immunological characteristics of human infections with H5N6 avian influenza virus Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Yuhai Bi, Shuguang Tan, Yang Yang, Gary Wong, Min Zhao, Qingchao Zhang, Qiang Wang, Xiaonan Zhao, Liqiang Li, Jing Yuan, Hao Li, Hong Li, Wen Xu, Weifeng Shi, Chuansong Quan, Rongrong Zou, Jianming Li, Haixia Zheng, Liuqing Yang, William J Liu, Di Liu, Huijun Wang, Yantao Qin, Lei Liu, Chengyu Jiang, Wenjun Liu, Lin Lu, George F Gao, Yingxia Liu
H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused sporadic, recurring outbreaks in China and Southeast Asia since 2013, with 19 human infections and 13 deaths. Seventeen of these infections occurred since December 2015, indicating a recent rise in the frequency of H5N6 cases.
Erratum Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-14
An error appeared in the initial publication of this article [Bojang A., Camara B., Jagne Cox I., et al. Long-term Impact of Oral Azithromycin Taken by Gambian Women During Labor on Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Their Infants: Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Clin Infect Dis https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy254]. This article was originally published with an error in that the figure legends were missing for figures 1 and 2. The legends are as follows:
Optimizing the Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials for Antibacterials Against Multidrug-resistant Organisms: A White Paper From COMBACTE’s STAT-Net Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Marlieke E A de Kraker, Harriet Sommer, Femke de Velde, Isaac Gravestock, Emmanuel Weiss, Alexandra McAleenan, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Ohad Amit, Teri Ashton, Jan Beyersmann, Leonhard Held, Andrew M Lovering, Alasdair P MacGowan, Johan W Mouton, Jean-François Timsit, David Wilson, Martin Wolkewitz, Esther Bettiol, Aaron Dane, Stephan Harbarth
Innovations are urgently required for clinical development of antibacterials against multidrug-resistant organisms. Therefore, a European, public-private working group (STAT-Net; part of Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Europe [COMBACTE]), has reviewed and tested several innovative trials designs and analytical methods for randomized clinical trials, which has resulted in 8 recommendations. The first 3 focus on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling, emphasizing the pertinence of population-based pharmacokinetic models, regulatory procedures for the reassessment of old antibiotics, and rigorous quality improvement. Recommendations 4 and 5 address the need for more sensitive primary end points through the use of rank-based or time-dependent composite end points. Recommendation 6 relates to the applicability of hierarchical nested-trial designs, and the last 2 recommendations propose the incorporation of historical or concomitant trial data through Bayesian methods and/or platform trials. Although not all of these recommendations are directly applicable, they provide a solid, evidence-based approach to develop new, and established, antibacterials and address this public health challenge.
The Proof Is in the Patient: Hepatitis C Virus Microelimination in the Swiss Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cohort Study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Mark S Sulkowski
With the advent of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the World Health Organization (WHO) and other local, regional and national entities have outlined ambitious goals for HCV elimination by 2030 . Goals set by the WHO for reducing the burden of HCV include a 90% reduction in incident cases and a 65% reduction in HCV-related mortality. The WHO also established clinical service coverage targets that, if met, are expected to lead to the achievement of these goals, including the diagnosis of 90% of infections and treatment of 80% of those eligible.
A Multi-Center Case-Control Study of the Effect of Acute Rejection and Cytomegalovirus Infection on Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP) in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 S M Hosseini-Moghaddam, M Shokoohi, G Singh, S F Dufresne, A Boucher, A Jevnikar, G V R Prasad, A Shoker, D Kabbani, M Hebert, H Cardinal, I Houde, A Humar, D Kumar
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this case-control study, we determined the association between post-transplant PCP and 3 variables: cytomegalovirus infection, allograft rejection and prophylaxis.
High Cure Rates With Grazoprevir-Elbasvir With or Without Ribavirin Guided by Genotypic Resistance Testing Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus–coinfected Men Who Have Sex With Men Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Dominique L Braun, Benjamin Hampel, Roger Kouyos, Huyen Nguyen, Cyril Shah, Markus Flepp, Marcel Stöckle, Anna Conen, Charles Béguelin, Patrizia Künzler-Heule, Dunja Nicca, Patrick Schmid, Julie Delaloye, Mathieu Rougemont, Enos Bernasconi, Andri Rauch, Huldrych F Günthard, Jürg Böni, Jan S Fehr, A Anagnostopoulos, M Battegay, E B, J B, D L B, H C Bucher, A Calmy, M Cavassini, A Ciuffi, G Dollenmaier, M Egger, L Elzi, J S F, J Fellay, H Furrer, C A Fux, H F G, D Haerry, B Hasse, H H Hirsch, M Hoffmann, I Hösli, M Huber, C Kahlert, L Kaiser, O Keiser, T Klimkait, R K, H Kovari, B Ledergerber, G Martinetti, B Martinez de Tejada, C Marzolini, K J Metzner, N Müller, D N, P Paioni, G Pantaleo, M Perreau, A R, C Rudin, A U Scherrer, P S, R Speck, M S, P Tarr, A Trkola, P Vernazza, G Wandeler, R Weber, S Yerly
This study was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of grazoprevir-elbasvir guided by baseline resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the Swiss HCVree Trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02785666).
High Number of Potential Transmitters Revealed in a Population-based Systematic Hepatitis C Virus RNA Screening Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Dominique L Braun, Benjamin Hampel, Eileen Martin, Roger Kouyos, Katharina Kusejko, Christina Grube, Markus Flepp, Marcel Stöckle, Anna Conen, Charles Béguelin, Patrick Schmid, Julie Delaloye, Mathieu Rougemont, Enos Bernasconi, Andri Rauch, Huldrych F Günthard, Jürg Böni, Jan S Fehr, A Anagnostopoulos, M Battegay, E B, J B, D L B, H C Bucher, A Calmy, M Cavassini, A Ciuffi, G Dollenmaier, M Egger, L Elzi, J S F, J Fellay, H Furrer, C A Fux, H F G, D Haerry, B Hasse, H H Hirsch, M Hoffmann, I Hösli, M Huber, C Kahlert, L Kaiser, O Keiser, T Klimkait, R K, H Kovari, B Ledergerber, G Martinetti, B Martinez de Tejada, C Marzolini, K J Metzner, N Müller, D Nicca, P Paioni, G Pantaleo, M Perreau, A R, C Rudin, A U Scherrer, P S, R Speck, M S, P Tarr, A Trkola, P Vernazza, G Wandeler, R Weber, S Yerly
The proportion of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in high-risk populations, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is unclear. Identification of potential HCV transmitters is important to reach World Health Organization HCV elimination targets.
Impact of valve culture in the prognosis of active left-sided infective endocarditis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Pablo Elpidio García-Granja, Javier López, Isidre Vilacosta, Cristina Sarriá, Raquel Ladrón, Carmen Olmos, Carmen Sáez, Luis Maroto, Salvatore Di Stefano, Itziar Gómez, J Alberto San Román
The culture of removed cardiac tissues during cardiac surgery of left-sided infective endocarditis (LSIE) helps guiding antibiotic treatment. Nevertheless, the prognostic information of a positive valve culture has never been explored.
Relationship Between Brain Arterial Pathology and Neurocognitive Performance Among Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Jose Gutierrez, Desiree Byrd, Michael T Yin, Susan Morgello
Human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) individuals have higher rates of cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease compared with uninfected populations. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular disease, specifically brain large artery disease, may play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Pre- and Post-hospital Discharge Infection Risk Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-11 Richard E Nelson, Martin E Evans, Loretta Simbartl, Makoto Jones, Matthew H Samore, Stephen M Kralovic, Gary A Roselle, Michael A Rubin
The Department of Veterans Affairs implemented an active surveillance program for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2007 in which acute care inpatients are tested for MRSA carriage on admission, unit-to-unit transfer, and discharge. Using these data, we followed patients longitudinally to estimate the difference in infection rates for those who were not colonized, those who were colonized on admission (importers), and those who acquired MRSA during their stay. We examined MRSA infections that occurred prior to discharge and at 30, 90, 180, and 365 days after discharge.
Erratum Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-10
An error appeared in the initial publication of this article [Huang K-H G, Cluzet V, Hamilton K and Fadugba O. The Impact of Reported Beta-Lactam Allergy in Hospitalized Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Requiring Antibiotics. Clin Infect Dis https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy037]. This article was originally published with an error in the abstract. The abstract’s 30-day mortality rates are quoted as “7.6% vs 15.8%” but should be “7.6% vs 5.3%”.
Plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity is associated with the size of HIV reservoir in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Jun Chen, Jingna Xun, Junyang Yang, Yongjia Ji, Li Liu, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Rosalie Ponte, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Hongzhou Lu
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that metabolises tryptophan to immunosuppressive kynurenines. We investigated whether IDO activity is associated with the size of HIV reservoirs.
Neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings among survivors of Ebola virus disease from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 J Daniel Kelly, Nicole A Hoff, D’Andre Spencer, Kamy Musene, Matthew S Bramble, David McIlwain, Daniel Okitundu, Travis C Porco, George W Rutherford, M Maria Glymour, Zach Bjornson, Patrick Mukadi, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Garry P Nolan, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Anne W Rimoin
Clinical sequelae of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have not been described more than three years post-outbreak. We examined survivors and close contacts from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and determined prevalence of abnormal neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings and their association with EVD survivorship.
Laboratory-acquired scrub typhus and murine typhus infections: The argument for risk-based approach to biosafety requirements for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi laboratory activities Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Stuart D Blacksell, Matthew T Robinson, Paul N Newton, Nicholas P J Day
This study examined the literature on laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) associated with scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) research to provide an evidence base for biosafety and biocontainment. Scrub typhus LAIs were documented in 25 individuals, from 1931-2000 with 8 (32%) deaths during the pre-antibiotic era. There were 35 murine typhus LAI reports and no deaths. Results indicated that highest risk activities were working with infectious laboratory animals involving significant aerosol exposures, accidental self-inoculation or bite related infections. A risk-based biosafety approach for in vitro and in vivo culture of O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi would require only high-risk activities (animal work or large culture volumes) be performed in high containment BSL3 laboratories. We argue that relatively low risk activities including inoculation of cell cultures or the early stages of in vitro growth using low volumes/low concentrations of infectious materials can be performed safely in BSL2 laboratories within a biological safety cabinet.
Precision surveillance for viral respiratory pathogens: virome capture sequencing for the detection and genomic characterization of severe acute respiratory infection in Uganda Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Matthew J Cummings, Rafal Tokarz, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John Kayiwa, Timothy Byaruhanga, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Allison Wolf, Barun Mathema, Julius J Lutwama, Neil W Schluger, W Ian Lipkin, Max R O’Donnell
Precision public health is a novel set of methods to target disease prevention and mitigation interventions to high-risk subpopulations. We applied a precision public health strategy to syndromic surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Uganda by combining spatiotemporal analytics with genomic sequencing to detect and characterize viral respiratory pathogens with epidemic potential.
Lumbar Puncture Is Safe in Bacterial Meningitis: Impaired Mental Status Alone Does Not Motivate Cranial Computed Tomography Before Lumbar Puncture Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Martin Glimåker, Jan Sjölin
To the Editor—We congratulate Costerus et al for their informative study on deterioration and death after admission in 1533 adults with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM): The authors conclude that lumbar puncture (LP) might be associated with deterioration in 0.1%–3% of the cases, probably closer to 0.1% . Although commented upon in their discussion, it must be emphasized that ABM may be a fulminant disease with cerebral herniation and death within hours, irrespective of LP . Hence, the observed deterioration may have easily been caused by the natural course of ABM and would have occurred even without LP.
Reply to Glimåker and Sjölin Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
To the Editor—We thank Glimåker and Sjölin for their response . Lumbar puncture (LP) is extremely helpful in patients with suspected bacterial meningitis and physicians should have a low threshold for LP in this setting . A causal relationship between LP and herniation is indeed difficult to establish, as brain herniation also occurs during bacterial meningitis disease course irrespective of LP. However, we disagree that computed tomography (CT) is not indicated prior to LP in patients with suspected bacterial meningitis who present with severely impaired consciousness without clinical signs of cerebral herniation. Our data show that LP can be performed safely...
Bacterial Cocktail to Treat Clostridium difficile Infection: Primum Non Nocere Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Matthieu Million, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Hervé Chaudet, Didier Raoult
To the Editor—We read with great interest the recent work of Dubberke et al evaluating—in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial—the efficacy and safety of a cocktail of bacteria (RBX2660) to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) . However, we believe that the authors’ conclusion that “RBX2660 was safe” is not supported by the data presented.
Reply to Million et al Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Erik R Dubberke, Ken Blount, Dale N Gerding
To the Editor—We appreciate the comments by Million et al regarding the safety of RBX2660 . We also agree Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. CDI afflicts the sickest and frailest of our patients, with increases in hospital and nursing home admissions and mortality that persist at least 6 months after the initial episode . This is especially true for patients with recurrent CDI. At 6 months after an initial episode of CDI, Olsen et al found that 36.3% of patients with recurrent CDI had died, compared to 25.7% of patients with a single episode, for a...
Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz 400 mg Once Daily Coadministered With Isoniazid and Rifampicin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Maddalena Cerrone, Xinzhu Wang, Megan Neary, Christine Weaver, Serge Fedele, Isaac Day-Weber, Andrew Owen, Andrew Hill, Myra McClure, Marta Boffito
The World Health Organization recommends efavirenz 400 mg (EFV400) as first-line antiretroviral therapy, with a disclaimer that no data with anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment exist. Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) require TB treatment with isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), which affect cytochrome P450 and antiretroviral exposure.
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Due to Imported Andes Hantavirus Infection in Switzerland: A Multidisciplinary Challenge, Two Cases and a Literature Review Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-05-22 Andrea B Kuenzli, Jonas Marschall, Joerg C Schefold, Margaret Schafer, Oliver B Engler, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, David C Reineke, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Cornelia Staehelin
Two travellers returning from South America were diagnosed with Andes hantavirus infection, the only member of the Hantaviridae family known to be transmitted from person to person. We describe the clinical course and therapeutic and infection control measures. While both patients showed high viral load (VL) and shedding over several months, 1 patient recovered within 1 week from severe respiratory illness that required noninvasive ventilation, whereas the second patient developed severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 27 days. The clinical course in the latter patient was complicated by severe disseminated intravascular coagulopathy with diffuse hemorrhage that necessitated mass transfusions, as well as by multiple organ failure, including the need for renal replacement therapy. Results of VL in blood, respiratory secretions, and semen for the first 9 months of follow-up are reported. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of Andes hantavirus infection detected in Europe.
Molecular-based Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections Using Samples Previously Collected for Vaginitis Diagnosis Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Barbara Van Der Pol, Grace Daniel, Salma Kodsi, Sonia Paradis, Charles K Cooper
Vaginal symptoms are a leading cause of primary care visits for women. Individuals exhibiting symptoms often receive laboratory testing based on clinic-specific standards of care. Thus, women seen at a family practice clinic might only receive a vaginitis workup, whereas those seen at a sexually transmitted diseases clinic could be more likely to receive only sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing.
The Utility of Screening for Coccidioidomycosis in Recipients of Inhibitors of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-02 Kristal Choi, Neha Deval, Anuj Vyas, Conor Moran, Stephen S Cha, Lester E Mertz, Shabana F Pasha, James A Yiannias, Janis E Blair
Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi) are commonly used to treat immune-mediated disorders, but they are associated with an increased risk of mycobacterial and fungal infections. We compared outcomes of TNFi recipients screened for asymptomatic coccidioidomycosis with those of unscreened patients to compare development of symptomatic coccidioidomycosis and to describe outcomes for patients with abnormal coccidioidal screening.
News Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
(Prepared by the Section Editor)—As of 1 June 2018, there have been 55 probable cases of Ebola with at least 26 dead in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The first case was reported on 8 May 2018. A major concern is that some of the cases have been in or near Mbandaka, a city of about 1 million inhabitants that is connected to Kinshasa (a city of 10 million) by the Congo River, a major transport route. Urban Ebola is a frightening prospect because of the potential for many contacts.
In the Literature Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
Wieruszewski PM, Barreto JN, Frazee E, et al. Early corticosteroids for pneumocystis pneumonia in adults without HIV are not associated with better outcome [manuscript published online ahead of print 26 April 2018]. Chest 2018. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2018.04.026.
Influenza-Associated Parotitis During the 2014–2015 Influenza Season in the United States Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Melissa A Rolfes, Alexander J Millman, Pamela Talley, Lina I Elbadawi, Natalie A Kramer, John R Barnes, Lenee Blanton, Jeffrey P Davis, Stefanie Cole, John J Dreisig, Rebecca Garten, Thomas Haupt, Mary Anne Jackson, Anna Kocharian, Daniel Leifer, Ruth Lynfield, Karen Martin, Lisa McHugh, Sara Robinson, George Turabelidze, Lori A Webber, Meghan Pearce Weinberg, David E Wentworth, Lyn Finelli, Michael A Jhung
During the 2014–2015 influenza season in the United States, 256 cases of influenza-associated parotitis were reported from 27 states. We conducted a case-control study and laboratory investigation to further describe this rare clinical manifestation of influenza.
Non-mumps Viral Parotitis During the 2014–2015 Influenza Season in the United States Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Lina I Elbadawi, Pamela Talley, Melissa A Rolfes, Alexander J Millman, Erik Reisdorf, Natalie A Kramer, John R Barnes, Lenee Blanton, Jaime Christensen, Stefanie Cole, Tonya Danz, John J Dreisig, Rebecca Garten, Thomas Haupt, Beth M Isaac, Mary Anne Jackson, Anna Kocharian, Daniel Leifer, Karen Martin, Lisa McHugh, Rebecca J McNall, Jennifer Palm, Kay W Radford, Sara Robinson, Jennifer B Rosen, Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Peter Shult, Anna K Strain, George Turabelidze, Lori A Webber, Meghan Pearce Weinberg, David E Wentworth, Brett L Whitaker, Lyn Finelli, Michael A Jhung, Ruth Lynfield, Jeffrey P Davis
During the 2014–2015 US influenza season, 320 cases of non-mumps parotitis (NMP) among residents of 21 states were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We conducted an epidemiologic and laboratory investigation to determine viral etiologies and clinical features of NMP during this unusually large occurrence.
Is Parotitis One More Complication of Influenza? The Ongoing Challenge of Determining Causal Associations Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 Andrew T Pavia
(See the Major Article by Rolfes et al on pages 485–92 and the Major Article by Elbadawi et al on pages 493–501.)
Gepotidacin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Urogenital Gonorrhea: A Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Single-Oral Dose Evaluation Clin. Infect. Dis. (IF 9.117) Pub Date : 2018-04-02 Stephanie N Taylor, David H Morris, Ann K Avery, Kimberly A Workowski, Byron E Batteiger, Courtney A Tiffany, Caroline R Perry, Aparna Raychaudhuri, Nicole E Scangarella-Oman, Mohammad Hossain, Etienne F Dumont
In this phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitor, for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea.
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