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  • Child Maltreatment and Risk for Psychopathology in Childhood and Adulthood
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Sara R. Jaffee

    Although rates of child maltreatment are declining, more than 600,000 children in the United States are substantiated victims of abuse or neglect. The focus of this review is on the relationship between maltreatment and mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Children and adults who are exposed to abuse or neglect in childhood are at risk for a range of poor mental health outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders. I review three potential mechanisms by which maltreatment may increase risk for various forms of psychopathology, (a) hypervigilance to threat, (b) deficits in emotion recognition and understanding, and (c) low responsivity to reward. I also review genetic and psychosocial factors that moderate the relationship between maltreatment and risk for psychopathology. Finally, I discuss methodological limitations of the literature on maltreatment, with an emphasis on the challenges associated with establishing a causal role for maltreatment (and moderators or mediators of maltreatment) in the development of mental health problems and the reliance of many studies on retrospective self-reports.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Self-Regulation and Psychopathology: Toward an Integrative Translational Research Paradigm
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Timothy J. Strauman

    This article presents a general framework in which different manifestations of psychopathology can be conceptualized as dysfunctions in one or more mechanisms of self-regulation, defined as the ongoing process of managing personal goal pursuit in the face of internal, interpersonal, and environmental forces that would derail it. The framework is based on the assertion that self-regulation is a critical locus for the proximal influence on motivation, cognition, emotion, and behavior of more distal factors such as genetics, temperament, socialization history, and neurophysiology. Psychological theories of self-regulation are ideal platforms from which to integrate the study of self-regulation both within and across traditional disciplines. This article has two related goals: to elucidate how the construct of self-regulation provides a unique conceptual platform for the study of psychopathology and to illustrate that platform by presenting our research on depression as an example.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Reward Processing, Neuroeconomics, and Psychopathology
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    David H. Zald, Michael T. Treadway

    Abnormal reward processing is a prominent transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. The present review provides a framework for considering the different aspects of reward processing and their assessment, and highlights recent insights from the field of neuroeconomics that may aid in understanding these processes. Although altered reward processing in psychopathology has often been treated as a general hypo- or hyperresponsivity to reward, increasing data indicate that a comprehensive understanding of reward dysfunction requires characterization within more specific reward-processing domains, including subjective valuation, discounting, hedonics, reward anticipation and facilitation, and reinforcement learning. As such, more nuanced models of the nature of these abnormalities are needed. We describe several processing abnormalities capable of producing the types of selective alterations in reward-related behavior observed in different forms of psychopathology, including (mal)adaptive scaling and anchoring, dysfunctional weighting of reward and cost variables, competition between valuation systems, and reward prediction error signaling.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • The Link Between Mental Illness and Firearm Violence: Implications for Social Policy and Clinical Practice
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    John S. Rozel, Edward P. Mulvey

    The United States has substantially higher levels of firearm violence than most other developed countries. Firearm violence is a significant and preventable public health crisis. Mental illness is a weak risk factor for violence despite popular misconceptions reflected in the media and policy. That said, mental health professionals play a critical role in assessing their patients for violence risk, counseling about firearm safety, and guiding the creation of rational and evidence-based public policy that can be effective in mitigating violence risk without unnecessarily stigmatizing people with mental illness. This article summarizes existing evidence about the interplay among mental illness, violence, and firearms, with particular attention paid to the role of active symptoms, addiction, victimization, and psychosocial risk factors. The social and legal context of firearm ownership is discussed as a preface to exploring practical, evidence-driven, and behaviorally informed policy recommendations for mitigating firearm violence risk.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Rosanna Smart

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Lovesick: How Couples’ Relationships Influence Health
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J. Wilson

    This review highlights recent advances in research addressing intimate partner relationships and health. Consideration of the strong mutual influences that the members of a couple have on each other's mental and physical health trajectories provides a new way to view the health implications of couples’ convergence or interdependence; marital closeness can have a clear downside when one partner has mental or physical health problems. Couples’ interconnectedness can also be leveraged to promote better treatment outcomes. Major themes include the pivotal role of depression and the importance of gender differences in the pathways from the marital relationship to physiological functioning and health. The health risks and benefits of support are weighed. Additionally, two prominent emerging paths from marital distress to poor health are emphasized: sleep problems and metabolic alterations that promote obesity and its comorbidities.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Subjective Cognitive Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Laura A. Rabin, Colette M. Smart, Rebecca E. Amariglio

    Older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in the absence of objective neuropsychological dysfunction are increasingly viewed as at risk for non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The past decade has witnessed tremendous growth in research on SCD, which may reflect the recognition of SCD as the earliest symptomatic manifestation of AD. Yet methodological challenges associated with establishing common assessment and classification procedures hamper the construct. This article reviews essential features of SCD associated with preclinical AD and current measurement approaches, highlighting challenges in harmonizing study findings across settings. We consider the relation of SCD to important variables and outcomes (e.g., AD biomarkers, clinical progression). We also examine the role of self- and informant-reports in SCD and various psychological, medical, and demographic factors that influence the self-report of cognition. We conclude with a discussion of intervention strategies for SCD, ethical considerations, and future research priorities.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Trait Impulsivity and the Externalizing Spectrum
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Theodore P. Beauchaine, Aimee R. Zisner, Colin L. Sauder

    This article reviews evidence that trait impulsivity—expressed early in life as the hyperactive–impulsive and combined presentations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—is a bottom-up, subcortically mediated vulnerability to all externalizing disorders. This vulnerability arises from deficient mesolimbic dopamine responding, which imbues psychological states (irritability, discontentment) that motivate excessive approach behavior (hyperactivity, impulsivity). Through complex interactions with (a) aversive motivational states that arise from largely independent subcortical systems, (b) emotion regulatory mechanisms that arise from top-down, cortical modulation of subcortical neural function, and (c) environmental risk factors that shape and maintain emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity confers vulnerability to increasingly severe externalizing behaviors across development. This perspective highlights the importance of identifying transdiagnostic neural vulnerabilities to psychopathology; dovetails with the hierarchical, latent structure of psychopathology; and suggests that progression along the externalizing spectrum is an ontogenic process whereby a common, multifactorially inherited trait interacts with endogenous and exogenous influences to yield increasingly intractable externalizing behaviors across development.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Irritability in Children and Adolescents*
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Melissa A. Brotman, Katharina Kircanski, Ellen Leibenluft

    Irritability is a common and impairing clinical presentation in children and adolescents. Despite its significant public health impact, irritability remains an elusive construct. Chronic and severe irritability is the primary symptom of the new DSM-5 diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). However, empirical and clinical approaches to irritability are in their relative infancy, and questions regarding the validity of the DMDD diagnosis have been raised. Moreover, irritability is a trait distributed continuously in youth, thereby fitting within the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria initiative. Thus, there are opportunities for scientific review and integration. Accordingly, the goals of this review include (a) clarifying the definitions of irritability, incorporating clinical and translational animal work; (b) reviewing the historical context surrounding the study of irritability; (c) reviewing the prevalence, clinical correlates, and longitudinal course of irritability; (d) presenting behavioral and neurobiological findings associated with irritability; and (e) exploring treatment options and proposing future directions for research.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Controversies in Narcissism
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Joshua D. Miller, Donald R. Lynam, Courtland S. Hyatt, W. Keith Campbell

    There has been a surge in interest in and research on narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Despite or because of this increased attention, there are several areas of substantial debate that surround the construct, including descriptions of grandiose and vulnerable dimensions or variants, questions regarding the existence of a consensual description, central versus peripheral features of narcissism, distinctions between normal and pathological narcissism, possible etiological factors, the role of self-esteem in narcissism, where narcissism should be studied, how it can be assessed, and its representation in diagnostic nosologies. We suggest that a failure to distinguish between grandiose (i.e., overtly immodest, self-centered, entitled, domineering) and vulnerable (e.g., self-centered, distrustful, neurotic, introverted) presentations of narcissism has led to a less cohesive and coherent literature and that trait-based models of personality and personality disorder can bring greater clarity to many of these important debates.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Predictive Processing, Source Monitoring, and Psychosis
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Juliet D. Griffin, Paul C. Fletcher

    A comprehensive understanding of psychosis requires models that link multiple levels of explanation: the neurobiological, the cognitive, the subjective, and the social. Until we can bridge several explanatory gaps, it is difficult to explain how neurobiological perturbations can manifest in bizarre beliefs or hallucinations, or how trauma or social adversity can perturb lower-level brain processes. We propose that the predictive processing framework has much to offer in this respect. We show how this framework may underpin and complement source monitoring theories of delusions and hallucinations and how, when considered in terms of a dynamic and hierarchical system, it may provide a compelling model of several key clinical features of psychosis. We see little conflict between source monitoring theories and predictive coding. The former act as a higher-level description of a set of capacities, and the latter aims to provide a deeper account of how these and other capacities may emerge.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Emotions in Depression: What Do We Really Know?
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Jonathan Rottenberg

    Major depressive disorder is among the most common and costly of all mental health conditions, and in the last 20 years, emotional dysfunction has been increasingly seen as central to depression. Accordingly, research on emotions in depression has proceeded with fury. The urgency of the work has tempted investigators to issue premature declarations and to sometimes overlook theoretical and methodological challenges entailed in studying emotion. I report on what we have learned thus far about how depression influences emotional reactivity and emotion regulation, and also carefully demarcate the vast terrain of what we do not yet know. Ironically, an attitude of humility may enable the field to achieve the ambitious but elusive goal of developing a rich, contextually specific account of depression-related changes in emotional reactivity and regulation. Such an account is a precondition for using knowledge about emotion to intervene more effectively to reduce depression's worldwide burden.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Panic Disorder Comorbidity with Medical Conditions and Treatment Implications
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Alicia E. Meuret, Juliet Kroll, Thomas Ritz |ԌE|Ԍ

    Panic disorder (PD) is unique among the anxiety disorders in that panic symptoms are primarily of a physical nature. Consequently, comorbidity with medical illness is significant. This review examines the association between PD and medical illness. We identify shared pathophysiological and psychological correlates and illustrate how physiological activation in panic sufferers underlies their symptom experience in the context of the fight-or-flight response and beyond a situation-specific response pattern. We then review evidence for bodily symptom perception accuracy in PD. Prevalence of comorbidity for PD and medical illness is presented, with a focus on respiratory and cardiovascular illness, irritable bowel syndrome, and diabetes, followed by an outline for potential pathways of a bidirectional association. We conclude by illustrating commonalities in mediating mechanistic pathways and moderating risk factors across medical illnesses, and we discuss implications for diagnosis and treatment of both types of conditions.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Kelly L. Klump, Kristen M. Culbert, Cheryl L. Sisk

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Psychological Treatments for the World: Lessons from Low- and Middle-Income Countries
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Daisy R. Singla, Brandon A. Kohrt, Laura K. Murray, Arpita Anand, Bruce F. Chorpita, Vikram Patel

    Common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress, are leading causes of disability worldwide. Treatment for these disorders is limited in low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review synthesizes the implementation processes and examines the effectiveness of psychological treatments for common mental disorders in adults delivered by nonspecialist providers in low- and middle-income countries. In total, 27 trials met the eligibility criteria; most treatments targeted depression or posttraumatic stress. Treatments were commonly delivered by community health workers or peers in primary care or community settings; they usually were delivered with fewer than 10 sessions over 2–3 months in an individual, face-to-face format. Treatments included common elements, such as nonspecific engagement and specific domains of behavioral, interpersonal, emotional, and cognitive elements. The pooled effect size was 0.49 (95% confidence interval = 0.36–0.62), favoring intervention conditions. Our review demonstrates that psychological treatments—comprising a parsimonious set of common elements and delivered by a low-cost, widely available human resource—have moderate to strong effects in reducing the burden of common mental disorders.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Schooling and Children's Mental Health: Realigning Resources to Reduce Disparities and Advance Public Health
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Marc S. Atkins, Elise Cappella, Elisa S. Shernoff, Tara G. Mehta, Erika L. Gustafson

    Schools have long been the primary setting for children's mental health services but have neither the resources nor the expertise to manage these services independently. The critical importance of school success for children's adjustment provides a strong rationale for schooling as an essential component of children's mental health services. In this article, we review evidence for how schooling and mental health coalesce, suggesting an alignment of school and community mental health resources that prioritizes successful schooling as a key mental health outcome. We describe collaborative principles and ecological practices that advance a public health focus on children's mental health while also reducing the burden on schools to maintain mental health services. We close with a model of mental health services illustrating these principles and practices in high-poverty urban schools and propose future directions for research and practice to promote positive mental health for all children and youth.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Memory Reconsolidation Interference as an Emerging Treatment for Emotional Disorders: Strengths, Limitations, Challenges, and Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Tom Beckers, Merel Kindt

    Experimental research on emotional memory reconsolidation interference, or the induction of amnesia for previously established emotional memory, has a long tradition, but the potential of that research for the development of novel interventions to treat psychological disorders has been recognized only recently. Here we provide an overview of basic research and clinical studies on emotional memory reconsolidation interference. We point out specific advantages of interventions based on memory reconsolidation interference over traditional treatment for emotional disorders. We also explain how findings from basic research suggest limitations and challenges to clinical translation that may help to understand why clinical trials have met with mixed success so far and how their success can be increased. In closing, we preview new intervention approaches beyond the induction of amnesia that the phenomenon of memory reconsolidation may afford for alleviating the burden imposed by emotional memories and comment on theoretical controversies regarding the nature of memory reconsolidation.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Brain Mechanisms of the Placebo Effect: An Affective Appraisal Account
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Yoni K. Ashar, Luke J. Chang, Tor D. Wager

    Placebos are sham medical treatments. Nonetheless, they can have substantial effects on clinical outcomes. Placebos depend on a person's psychological and brain responses to the treatment context, which influence appraisals of future well-being. Appraisals are flexible cognitive evaluations of the personal meaning of events and situations that can directly impact symptoms and physiology. They also shape associative learning processes by guiding what is learned from experience. Appraisals are supported by a core network of brain regions associated with the default mode network involved in self-generated emotion, self-evaluation, thinking about the future, social cognition, and valuation of rewards and punishment. Placebo treatments for acute pain and a range of clinical conditions engage this same network of regions, suggesting that placebos affect behavior and physiology by changing how a person evaluates their future well-being and the personal significance of their symptoms.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • The Philosophy of Nosology
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Peter Zachar, Kenneth S. Kendler

    Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology. A natural classification of psychiatric disorders may have the added burden of requiring normative assumptions in addition to the discovery of fact. In the natural classification tradition, the epistemic iteration perspective, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, and dimensional models offer different views about the criteria of naturalness (or validity). Also in this tradition, some thinkers believe that causes can be empirically indexed by latent variable models, especially if the latent variables are moderately heritable, but these assumptions may be neither statistically nor genetically warranted.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Personal Sensing: Understanding Mental Health Using Ubiquitous Sensors and Machine Learning
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    David C. Mohr, Mi Zhang, Stephen M. Schueller

    Sensors in everyday devices, such as our phones, wearables, and computers, leave a stream of digital traces. Personal sensing refers to collecting and analyzing data from sensors embedded in the context of daily life with the aim of identifying human behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and traits. This article provides a critical review of personal sensing research related to mental health, focused principally on smartphones, but also including studies of wearables, social media, and computers. We provide a layered, hierarchical model for translating raw sensor data into markers of behaviors and states related to mental health. Also discussed are research methods as well as challenges, including privacy and problems of dimensionality. Although personal sensing is still in its infancy, it holds great promise as a method for conducting mental health research and as a clinical tool for monitoring at-risk populations and providing the foundation for the next generation of mobile health (or mHealth) interventions.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Clinical Psychology Training: Accreditation and Beyond
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 12.136) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Robert W. Levenson

    Beginning with efforts in the late 1940s to ensure that clinical psychologists were adequately trained to meet the mental health needs of the veterans of World War II, the accreditation of clinical psychologists has largely been the province of the Commission on Accreditation of the American Psychological Association. However, in 2008 the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System began accrediting doctoral programs that adhere to the clinical science training model. This review discusses the goals of accreditation and the history of the accreditation of graduate programs in clinical psychology, and provides an overview of the evaluation procedures used by these two systems. Accreditation is viewed against the backdrop of the slow rate of progress in reducing the burden of mental illness and the changes in clinical psychology training that might help improve this situation. The review concludes with a set of five recommendations for improving accreditation.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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