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  • Evolutionary Rescue
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Graham Bell

    Populations that experience severe stress may avoid extinction through adaptation by natural selection. This process is called evolutionary rescue and has been studied under different names in medicine, agriculture, and conservation biology. It is a component of the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics, which investigates how the ecological attributes of species may evolve rapidly under strong selection. Its distinguishing feature is to combine the evolutionary concept of relative fitness with the ecological concept of absolute fitness in a synthetic theory of persistent adaptation. The likelihood of rescue will depend both on attributes of the population, particularly abundance and variation, and on properties of the environment, particularly the rate and severity of deterioration. Medical interventions (e.g., the administration of antibiotics), agricultural practices (e.g., the application of pesticides), and population ecology (e.g., the effects of species introductions) provide numerous examples of evolutionary rescue. The general theory of rescue has been tested in laboratory experiments with microbes, in which experimental evolution shows how different treatments affect the frequency of rescue. Overall, these experiments have supported the predictions of general theory: In particular, abundance, variation, and dispersal have pronounced and repeatable effects on the rescue of populations and communities. Extending these laboratory results to the field is a major task for future research.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Innate Receiver Bias: Its Role in the Ecology and Evolution of Plant–Animal Interactions
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Florian P. Schiestl

    Receiver bias in plant–animal interactions is here defined as “selection mediated by behavioral responses of animals, where those responses have evolved in a context outside the interactions.” As a consequence, the responses are not necessarily linked to fitness gains in interacting animals. Thus, receiver bias can help explain seemingly maladaptive patterns of behavior in interacting animals and the evolution of plant traits that trigger such behavior. In this review, I discuss principles of receiver bias, show its overlap with mimicry and how it differs from mimicry, and outline examples in different plant–animal interactions. The most numerous and best documented examples of receiver bias occur within plant–pollinator interactions. I elaborate on the ability of some plants to heat up their flowers (i.e., floral thermogenesis) and argue that this trait likely evolved under receiver bias, especially in pollination systems with oviposition mimicry. Further examples include signals in insect-mediated seed dispersal and plant defense through repellence of aphids. These examples show that receiver bias is widespread in different plant–animal interactions. For a broader understanding of the role of receiver bias in those interactions, we need more data on how animals respond to plant signals, the context and evolutionary history of those behaviors, and the evolutionary patterns of plant signals.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Identifying Causes of Patterns in Ecological Networks: Opportunities and Limitations
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Carsten F. Dormann, Jochen Fründ, H. Martin Schaefer

    Ecological networks depict the interactions between species, mainly based on observations in the field. The information contained in such interaction matrices depends on the sampling design, and typically, compounds preferences (specialization) and abundances (activity). Null models are the primary vehicles to disentangle the effects of specialization from those of sampling and abundance, but they ignore the feedback of network structure on abundances. Hence, network structure, as exemplified here by modularity, is difficult to link to specific causes. Indeed, various processes lead to modularity and to specific interaction patterns more generally. Inferring (co)evolutionary dynamics is even more challenging, as competition and trait matching yield identical patterns of interactions. A satisfactory resolution of the underlying factors determining network structure will require substantial additional information, not only on independently assessed abundances, but also on traits, and ideally on fitness consequences as measured in experimental setups.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Phylogenetics of Allopolyploids
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Bengt Oxelman, Anne Krag Brysting, Graham R. Jones, Thomas Marcussen, Christoph Oberprieler, Bernard E. Pfeil

    We give an overview of recently developed methods to reconstruct phylog-enies of taxa that include allopolyploids that have originated in relatively recent times—in other words, taxa for which at least some of the parental lineages of lower ploidy levels are not extinct and for which ploidy information is clearly shown by variation in chromosome counts. We review how these methods have been applied to empirical data, discuss challenges, and outline prospects for future research. In the absence of recombination between parental subgenomes, the allopolyploid phylogenetic histories can in principle be treated as genome tree inference. However, without whole genome or whole chromosome data, sequences must be assigned from genes sampled to parental subgenomes. The new version of the AlloppNET method, which now can handle any number of species at the diploid and tetraploid level and any number of hybridizations, is a promising attempt that can also treat gene tree discordance due to the coalescent process. The ongoing development of models that take migration, paralogy, and uncertainties in species delimitations into account offers exciting opportunities for the future of inference of species networks.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Interactions Among Invasive Plants: Lessons from Hawai‘i
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Carla M. D'Antonio, Rebecca Ostertag, Susan Cordell, Stephanie Yelenik

    Most ecosystems have multiple-plant invaders rather than single-plant invaders, yet ecological studies and management actions focus largely on single invader species. There is a need for general principles regarding invader interactions across varying environmental conditions, so that secondary invasions can be anticipated and managers can allocate resources toward pretreatment or postremoval actions. By reviewing removal experiments conducted in three Hawaiian ecosystems (a dry tropical forest, a seasonally dry mesic forest, and a lowland wet forest), we evaluate the roles environmental harshness, priority effects, productivity potential, and species interactions have in influencing secondary invasions, defined here as invasions that are influenced either positively (facilitation) or negatively (inhibition/priority effects) by existing invaders. We generate a conceptual model with a surprise index to describe whether long-term plant invader composition and dominance is predictable or stochastic after a system perturbation such as a removal experiment. Under extremely low resource availability, the surprise index is low, whereas under intermediate-level resource environments, invader dominance is more stochastic and the surprise index is high. At high resource levels, the surprise index is intermediate: Invaders are likely abundant in the environment but their response to a perturbation is more predictable than at intermediate resource levels. We suggest further testing across environmental gradients to determine key variables that dictate the predictability of postremoval invader composition.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Ecosystem Processes and Biogeochemical Cycles in Secondary Tropical Forest Succession
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jennifer S. Powers, Erika Marín-Spiotta

    Secondary tropical forests that are in a state of regeneration following clearing for agriculture are now more abundant than primary forests. Yet, despite their large spatial extent and important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, secondary tropical forests are understudied, which challenges our ability to predict how tropical landscapes will respond to future disturbance and global change. We summarize research advances on alterations to C and nutrient dynamics during reforestation and how these are influenced by ecosystem state factors. During forest succession, aboveground biomass stocks and litter fluxes increase in a predictable way, but patterns in soil C dynamics are highly variable. The heterogeneous response of nutrients to reforestation is influenced by multiple factors, including losses incurred during prior land use and management. In contrast to primary tropical forests, where productivity is often limited by rock-derived nutrients, secondary forest growth may be more limited by nutrients from the atmosphere. Future research should identify which nutrients constrain forest regrowth.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Marine Infectious Disease Ecology
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Kevin D. Lafferty

    To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as consumers in marine food webs. Although some parasites might increase with disturbance, most probably decline as food webs unravel. There are several ways to adapt epidemiological theory to the marine environment. In particular, because the ocean represents a three-dimensional moving habitat for hosts and parasites, models should open up the spatial scales at which infective stages and host larvae travel. In addition to open recruitment and dimensionality, marine parasites are subject to fishing, filter feeders, dose-dependent infection, environmental forcing, and death-based transmission. Adding such considerations to marine disease models will make it easier to predict which infectious diseases will increase or decrease in a changing ocean.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Apparent Competition
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Robert D. Holt, Michael B. Bonsall

    Most species have one or more natural enemies, e.g., predators, parasites, pathogens, and herbivores, among others. These species in turn typically attack multiple victim species. This leads to the possibility of indirect interactions among those victims, both positive and negative. The term apparent competition commonly denotes negative indirect interactions between victim species that arise because they share a natural enemy. This indirect interaction, which in principle can be reflected in many facets of the distribution and abundance of individual species and more broadly govern the structure of ecological communities in time and space, pervades many natural ecosystems. It also is a central theme in many applied ecological problems, including the control of agricultural pests, harvesting, the conservation of endangered species, and the dynamics of emerging diseases. At one end of the scale of life, apparent competition characterizes intriguing aspects of dynamics within individual organisms—for example, the immune system is akin in many ways to a predator that can induce negative indirect interactions among different pathogens. At intermediate scales of biological organization, the existence and strength of apparent competition depend upon many contingent details of individual behavior and life history, as well as the community and spatial context within which indirect interactions play out. At the broadest scale of macroecology and macroevolution, apparent competition may play a major, if poorly understood, role in the evolution of species’ geographical ranges and adaptive radiations.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The Ecology of Soil Carbon: Pools, Vulnerabilities, and Biotic and Abiotic Controls
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Robert B. Jackson, Kate Lajtha, Susan E. Crow, Gustaf Hugelius, Marc G. Kramer, Gervasio Piñeiro

    Soil organic matter (SOM) anchors global terrestrial productivity and food and fiber supply. SOM retains water and soil nutrients and stores more global carbon than do plants and the atmosphere combined. SOM is also decomposed by microbes, returning CO2, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. Unfortunately, soil carbon stocks have been widely lost or degraded through land use changes and unsustainable forest and agricultural practices. To understand its structure and function and to maintain and restore SOM, we need a better appreciation of soil organic carbon (SOC) saturation capacity and the retention of above- and belowground inputs in SOM. Our analysis suggests root inputs are approximately five times more likely than an equivalent mass of aboveground litter to be stabilized as SOM. Microbes, particularly fungi and bacteria, and soil faunal food webs strongly influence SOM decomposition at shallower depths, whereas mineral associations drive stabilization at depths greater than ∼30 cm. Global uncertainties in the amounts and locations of SOM include the extent of wetland, peatland, and permafrost systems and factors that constrain soil depths, such as shallow bedrock. In consideration of these uncertainties, we estimate global SOC stocks at depths of 2 and 3 m to be between 2,270 and 2,770 Pg, respectively, but could be as much as 700 Pg smaller. Sedimentary deposits deeper than 3 m likely contain >500 Pg of additional SOC. Soils hold the largest biogeochemically active terrestrial carbon pool on Earth and are critical for stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nonetheless, global pressures on soils continue from changes in land management, including the need for increasing bioenergy and food production.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Variability in Fitness Effects Can Preclude Selection of the Fittest
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Christopher J. Graves, Daniel M. Weinreich

    Evolutionary biologists often predict the outcome of natural selection on an allele by measuring its effects on lifetime survival and reproduction of individual carriers. However, alleles affecting traits like sex, evolvability, and cooperation can cause fitness effects that depend heavily on differences in the environmental, social, and genetic context of individuals carrying the allele. This variability makes it difficult to summarize the evolutionary fate of an allele solely on the basis of its effects on any one individual. Attempts to average over this variability can sometimes salvage the concept of fitness. In other cases, evolutionary outcomes can be predicted only by considering the entire genealogy of an allele, thus limiting the utility of individual fitness altogether. We describe a number of intriguing new evolutionary phenomena that have emerged in studies that explicitly model long-term lineage dynamics and discuss implications for the evolution of infectious diseases.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Evolution of Animal Neural Systems
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Benjamin J. Liebeskind, Hans A. Hofmann, David M. Hillis, Harold H. Zakon

    Nervous systems are among the most spectacular products of evolution. Their provenance and evolution have been of interest and often the subjects of intense debate since the late nineteenth century. The genomics era has provided researchers with a new set of tools with which to study the early evolution of neurons, and recent progress on the molecular evolution of the first neurons has been both exciting and frustrating. It has become increasingly obvious that genomic data are often insufficient to reconstruct complex phenotypes in deep evolutionary time because too little is known about how gene function evolves over deep time. Therefore, additional functional data across the animal tree are a prerequisite to a fuller understanding of cell evolution. To this end, we review the functional modules of neurons and the evolution of their molecular components, and we introduce the idea of hierarchical molecular evolution.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Spatially Explicit Metrics of Species Diversity, Functional Diversity, and Phylogenetic Diversity: Insights into Plant Community Assembly Processes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Thorsten Wiegand, María Uriarte, Nathan J.B. Kraft, Guochun Shen, Xugao Wang, Fangliang He

    Spatial processes underlie major species coexistence mechanisms. A range of spatial analysis techniques are increasingly applied to data of fully mapped communities to quantify spatial structures in species and phylogenetic and functional diversity at some given spatial scale with the goal of gaining insights into processes of community assembly and dynamics. We review these techniques, including spatial point pattern analysis, quadrat-based analyses, and individual-based neighborhood models, and provide a practical roadmap for ecologists in the analysis of local spatial structures in species and phylogenetic and functional diversity. We show how scale-dependent metrics of spatial diversity can be used in concert with ecological null models, statistical models, and dynamic community simulation models to detect spatial patterns, reveal the influence of the biotic neighborhood on plant performance, and quantify the relative contribution of species interactions, habitat heterogeneity, and stochastic processes to community assembly across scale. Future works should integrate these approaches into a dynamic spatiotemporal framework.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Pollinator Diversity: Distribution, Ecological Function, and Conservation
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jeff Ollerton

    By facilitating plant reproduction, pollinators perform a crucial ecological function that supports the majority of the world's plant diversity, and associated organisms, and a significant fraction of global agriculture. Thus, pollinators are simultaneously vital to supporting both natural ecosystems and human food security, which is a unique position for such a diverse group of organisms. The past two decades have seen unprecedented interest in pollinators and pollination ecology, stimulated in part by concerns about the decline of pollinator abundance and diversity in some parts of the world. This review synthesizes what is currently understood about the taxonomic diversity of organisms that are known to act as pollinators; their distribution in both deep time and present space; the importance of their diversity for ecological function (including agro-ecology); changes to diversity and abundance over more recent timescales, including introduction of non-native species; and a discussion of arguments for conserving their diversity.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Temporal Variation in Trophic Cascades
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jonah Piovia-Scott, Louie H. Yang, Amber N. Wright

    The trophic cascade has emerged as a key paradigm in ecology. Although ecologists have made progress in understanding spatial variation in the strength of trophic cascades, temporal variation remains relatively unexplored. Our review suggests that strong trophic cascades are often transient, appearing when ecological conditions support high consumer abundance and rapidly growing, highly edible prey. Persistent top-down control is expected to decay over time in the absence of external drivers, as strong top-down control favors the emergence of better-defended resources. Temporal shifts in cascade strength—including those driven by contemporary global change—can either stabilize or destabilize ecological communities. We suggest that a more temporally explicit approach can improve our ability to explain the drivers of trophic cascades and predict the impact of changing cascade strength on community dynamics.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Anthropogenic Extinction Dominates Holocene Declines of West Indian Mammals
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Siobhán B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Samuel T. Turvey, Nathan S. Upham

    The extensive postglacial mammal losses in the West Indies provide an opportunity to evaluate extinction dynamics, but limited data have hindered our ability to test hypotheses. Here, we analyze the tempo and dynamics of extinction using a novel data set of faunal last-appearance dates and human first-appearance dates, demonstrating widespread overlap between humans and now-extinct native mammals. Humans arrived in four waves (Lithic, Archaic, Ceramic, and European), each associated with increased environmental impact. Large-bodied mammals and several bats were extinct by the Archaic, following protracted extinction dynamics perhaps reflecting habitat loss. Most small-bodied rodents and lipotyphlan insectivores survived the Ceramic, but extensive landscape transformation and the introduction of invasive mammals following European colonization caused further extinctions, leaving a threatened remnant fauna. Both large- and small-bodied nonvolant mammals disappeared, reflecting complex relationships between body size, ecology, and anthropogenic change. Extinct bats were generally larger species, paralleling declines from natural catastrophes.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Attached Algae: The Cryptic Base of Inverted Trophic Pyramids in Freshwaters
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Yvonne Vadeboncoeur, Mary E. Power

    It seems improbable that a thin veneer of attached algae coating submerged surfaces in lakes and rivers could be the foundation of many freshwater food webs, but increasing evidence from chemical tracers supports this view. Attached algae grow on any submerged surface that receives enough light for photosynthesis, but animals often graze attached algae down to thin, barely perceptible biofilms. Algae in general are more nutritious and digestible than terrestrial plants or detritus, and attached algae are particularly harvestable, being concentrated on surfaces. Diatoms, a major component of attached algal assemblages, are especially nutritious and tolerant of heavy grazing. Algivores can track attached algal productivity over a range of spatial scales and consume a high proportion of new attached algal growth in high-light, low-nutrient ecosystems. The subsequent efficient conversion of the algae into consumer production in freshwater food webs can lead to low-producer, high-consumer biomass, patterns that Elton (1927) described as inverted trophic pyramids. Human perturbations of nutrient, sediment, and carbon loading into freshwaters and of thermal and hydrologic regimes can weaken consumer control of algae and promote nuisance attached algal blooms.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Biogeography and Biotic Assembly of Indo-Pacific Corvoid Passerine Birds
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Knud Andreas Jønsson, Michael Krabbe Borregaard, Daniel Wisbech Carstensen, Louis A. Hansen, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Antonin Machac, Petter Zahl Marki, Jon Fjeldså, Carsten Rahbek

    The archipelagos that form the transition between Asia and Australia were immortalized by Alfred Russel Wallace's observations on the connections between geography and animal distributions, which he summarized in what became the first major modern biogeographic synthesis. Wallace traveled the island region for eight years, during which he noted the marked faunal discontinuity across what has later become known as Wallace's Line. Wallace was intrigued by the bewildering diversity and distribution of life he discovered. But even today we ask ourselves how species formed within the region and why they are not evenly distributed. Biogeography, phylogeny, dispersal, biotic interactions, and abiotic factors affect the assembly of diversity. On the basis of a decade of research on the ecology, evolution, and systematics of corvoid passerine birds, we summarize what we have learned about the biogeography and assembly of island bird diversity. Corvoid passerine birds include nearly 800 species and 2,300 named taxa and thus represent a large, well-described, and globally distributed clade. Understanding the processes influencing biodiversity in this group is certain to deepen our general understanding of ecology and evolution in the context of biogeography and faunal assembly.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Analysis of Population Genomic Data from Hybrid Zones
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Zachariah Gompert, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, C. Alex Buerkle

    Hybrid zones provide a powerful opportunity to analyze ecological and evolutionary interactions between divergent lineages. As such, research on hybrid zones has played a prominent role in the fields of evolutionary biology and systematics. Herein, we clarify what hybrid zones are, what is (and is not) known about them, and how different types of genomic data contribute to our understanding of hybrid zones. We then review two key topics, namely, what genomic analyses of hybrid zones have revealed about the basis and dynamics of speciation and how hybrid zones directly affect evolutionary processes. In the latter case, we emphasize the importance of contingency and ecological and genomic context in outcomes of hybridization. Throughout, we highlight limitations and key unknowns, and suggest approaches most likely to advance our understanding of hybrid zones and evolutionary processes in general.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Evolution of Ecological Niche Breadth
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jason P. Sexton, Jorge Montiel, Jackie E. Shay, Molly R. Stephens, Rachel A. Slatyer

    How ecological niche breadth evolves is central to adaptation and speciation and has been a topic of perennial interest. Niche breadth evolution research has occurred within environmental, ecological, evolutionary, and biogeographical contexts, and although some generalities have emerged, critical knowledge gaps exist. Performance breadth trade-offs, although long invoked, may not be common determinants of niche breadth evolution or limits. Niche breadth can expand or contract from specialist or generalist lineages, and so specialization need not be an evolutionary dead end. Whether niche breadth determines diversification and distribution breadth and how niche breadth is partitioned among individuals and populations within a species are important but particularly understudied topics. Molecular genetic and phylogenetic techniques have greatly expanded understanding of niche breadth evolution, but field studies of how niche breadth evolves are essential for providing mechanistic details and allowing the development of comprehensive theory and improved prediction of biological responses under global change.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Process-Based Models of Phenology for Plants and Animals
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Isabelle Chuine, Jacques Régnière

    Phenology is a key aspect of plant and animal life strategies that determines the ability to capture seasonally variable resources. It defines the season and duration of growth and reproduction and paces ecological interactions and ecosystem functions. Phenology models have become a key component of models in agronomy, forestry, ecology, and biogeosciences. Plant and animal process-based phenology models have taken different paths that have so far not crossed. Yet, they share many features because plant and animal annual cycles also share many characteristics, from their stepwise progression, including a resting period, to their dependence on similar environmental factors. We review the strengths and shortcomings of these models and the divergences in modeling approaches for plants and animals, which are mostly due to specificities of the questions they tackle. Finally, we discuss the most promising avenues and the challenges phenology modeling needs to address in the upcoming years.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The Ecology of Mating and Its Evolutionary Consequences in Seed Plants
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Spencer C.H. Barrett, Lawrence D. Harder

    Mating in seed plants arises from interactions between plant traits and the environmental and demographic context in which individuals reside. These interactions commonly cause nonrandom mating, including selfing and promiscuous outcrossing within local neighborhoods. Shared features of seed plants, specifically immobility, hermaphroditism, and modularity, shape the essential character of mating mediated by animals, wind, and water. In addition, diverse floral strategies promote cross- and self-mating, depending on environmental circumstances. Extrinsic ecological factors influence all stages of the mating process—pollination, pollen-tube growth, ovule fertilization—as well as seed development, determining offspring quantity and quality. Traditionally, measures of plant mating systems have focused on a single axis of variation, the maternal outcrossing rate. Instead, we argue for an expanded perspective encompassing mating portfolios, which include all offspring to which individuals contribute genetically as maternal or paternal parents. This approach should expose key ecological determinants of mating-system variation and their evolutionary consequences.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity in Flowing Freshwater Systems
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jason H. Knouft, Darren L. Ficklin

    Ongoing increases in air temperature and changing precipitation patterns are altering water temperatures and flow regimes in lotic freshwater systems, and these changes are expected to continue in the coming century. Freshwater taxa are responding to these changes at all levels of biological organization. The generation of appropriate hydrologic and water temperature projections is critical to accurately predict the impacts of climate change on freshwater systems in the coming decade. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of how changes in climate affect hydrologic processes and how climate-induced changes in freshwater habitat can impact the life histories and traits of individuals, and the distributions of freshwater populations and biodiversity. Projections of biological responses during the coming century will depend on accurately representing the spatially varying sensitivity of physical systems to changes in climate, as well as acknowledging the spatially varying sensitivity of freshwater taxa to changes in environmental conditions.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The Role of Sexual Selection in Local Adaptation and Speciation
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Maria R. Servedio, Janette W. Boughman

    Sexual selection plays several intricate and complex roles in the related processes of local adaptation and speciation. In some cases sexual selection can promote these processes, but in others it can be inhibitory. We present theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these dual effects of sexual selection during local adaptation, allopatric speciation, and speciation with gene flow. Much of the empirical evidence for sexual selection promoting speciation is suggestive rather than conclusive; we present what would constitute strong evidence for sexual selection driving speciation. We conclude that although there is ample evidence that sexual selection contributes to the speciation process, it is very likely to do so only in concert with natural selection.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • The Utility of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Data in Phylogenetics
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Adam D. Leaché, Jamie R. Oaks

    Resolving the genealogy of life—the phylogenetic relationships that describe the evolutionary history of species—remains one of the great challenges of systematic biology. The recent proliferation of DNA sequencing technologies has sparked a rapid increase in the volume of genetic data being applied to phylogenetic studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, ubiquitous genetic markers once considered reserved for population genetic studies, are now being applied in phylogenetics research at deep evolutionary timescales. The potential for SNPs to resolve contentious phylogenetic problems while researchers also investigate population demographics is promising, yet serious challenges remain with respect to data collection, assembly, modeling, and analysis. The low cost and ease of collecting SNPs suggest that they will remain an important source of genetic information for inferring phylogenies across time periods ranging from the Anthropocene to the Cretaceous.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Impacts of Artificial Light at Night on Biological Timings
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Kevin J. Gaston, Thomas W. Davies, Sophie L. Nedelec, Lauren A. Holt

    The use of artificial lighting to illuminate the night has provided substantial benefits to humankind. It has also disrupted natural daily, seasonal, and lunar light cycles as experienced by a diversity of organisms, and hence it has also altered cues for the timings of many biological activities. Here we review the evidence for impacts of artificial nighttime lighting on these timings. Although the examples are scattered, concerning a wide variety of species and environments, the breadth of such impacts is compelling. Indeed, it seems reasonable to conclude that the vast majority of impacts of artificial nighttime lighting stem from effects on biological timings. This adds support to arguments that artificial nighttime lighting has a quite pervasive and marked impact on ecological systems, that the rapid expansion in the global extent of both direct illuminance and skyglow is thus of significant concern, and that a widespread implementation of mitigation measures is required.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Ecological Networks Across Environmental Gradients
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Jason M. Tylianakis, Rebecca J. Morris

    Ecological networks have a long history in ecology, and a recent increase in network analyses across environmental gradients has revealed important changes in their structure, dynamics, and functioning. These changes can be broadly grouped according to three nonexclusive mechanisms: (a) changes in the species composition of the networks (driven by interaction patterns of invaders, nonrandom extinction of species according to their traits, or differences among species in population responses across gradients); (b) changes that alter interaction frequencies via changes in search efficiency (driven by altered habitat structure or metabolic rates) or changes in spatial and temporal overlap; and (c) changes to coevolutionary processes and patterns. Taking spatial and temporal processes into account can further elucidate network variation and improve predictions of network responses to environmental change. Emerging evidence links network structure to ecosystem functioning; however, scaling up to metanetworks or multilayer networks may modify interpretations of network structure, stability, and functioning.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Ecological Responses to Habitat Fragmentation Per Se
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Lenore Fahrig

    For this article, I reviewed empirical studies finding significant ecological responses to habitat fragmentation per se—in other words, significant responses to fragmentation independent of the effects of habitat amount (hereafter referred to as habitat fragmentation). I asked these two questions: Are most significant responses to habitat fragmentation negative or positive? And do particular attributes of species or landscapes lead to a predominance of negative or positive significant responses? I found 118 studies reporting 381 significant responses to habitat fragmentation independent of habitat amount. Of these responses, 76% were positive. Most significant fragmentation effects were positive, irrespective of how the authors controlled for habitat amount, the measure of fragmentation, the taxonomic group, the type of response variable, or the degree of specialization or conservation status of the species or species group. No support was found for predictions that most significant responses to fragmentation should be negative in the tropics, for species with larger movement ranges, or when habitat amount is low; most significant fragmentation effects were positive in all of these cases. Thus, although 24% of significant responses to habitat fragmentation were negative, I found no conditions in which most responses were negative. Authors suggest a wide range of possible explanations for significant positive responses to habitat fragmentation: increased functional connectivity, habitat diversity, positive edge effects, stability of predator–prey/host–parasitoid systems, reduced competition, spreading of risk, and landscape complementation. A consistent preponderance of positive significant responses to fragmentation implies that there is no justification for assigning lower conservation value to a small patch than to an equivalent area within a large patch—instead, it implies just the opposite. This finding also suggests that land sharing will usually provide higher ecological value than land sparing.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Ecological Opportunity and Adaptive Radiation
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    James T. Stroud, Jonathan B. Losos

    The process of adaptive radiation—the proliferation of species from a single ancestor and diversification into many ecologically different forms—has been of great interest to evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Since the middle of the last century, ecological opportunity has been invoked as a potential key to understanding when and how adaptive radiation occurs. Interest in the topic of ecological opportunity has accelerated as research on adaptive radiation has experienced a resurgence, fueled in part by advances in phylogenetic approaches to studying evolutionary diversification. Nonetheless, what the term actually means, much less how it mechanistically leads to adaptive diversification, is currently debated; whether the term has any predictive value or is a heuristic useful only for post hoc explanation also remains unclear. Recent recognition that evolutionary change can occur rapidly and on a timescale commensurate with ecological processes suggests that it is time to synthesize ecological and evolutionary approaches to the study of community assembly and evolutionary diversification.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • The Role of Symbiotic Microbes in Insect Invasions
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Min Lu, Jiri Hulcr, Jianghua Sun

    The number of insect species transported to non-native regions is increasing, and, once established, these invasive insects have serious impacts on the environment and regional economies. Recent research highlights several cases of insect invasions facilitated by symbiotic microbes. Symbioses impact biological invasions, but few reviews have addressed the role of symbiotic microbes in insect invasions. Focusing on the insect–microbial symbiosis, we show the importance of microbial symbionts in determining the pest status of insects at insect–microbial levels, insect–plant–microbial levels, and other multispecific levels. Drawing on examples from different ecosystems, we review the key mechanisms and principles whereby facultative/mutualistic microbes affect insect invasions and coevolve with the invasive insects. We propose a conceptual framework for assessing the role of symbiotic microbes in insect invasions that promises improved risk analyses, spread and impact modeling, and management of invasive insects.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Modularity: Genes, Development, and Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Diogo Melo, Arthur Porto, James M. Cheverud, Gabriel Marroig

    Modularity has emerged as a central concept for evolutionary biology, thereby providing the field with a theory of organismal structure and variation. This theory has reframed long-standing questions and serves as a unified conceptual framework for genetics, developmental biology, and multivariate evolution. Research programs in systems biology and quantitative genetics are bridging the gap between these fields. Although this synthesis is ongoing, some major themes have emerged, and empirical evidence for modularity has become abundant. In this review, we look at modularity from a historical perspective, highlighting its meaning at different levels of biological organization and the different methods that can be used to detect it. We then explore the relationship between quantitative genetic approaches to modularity and developmental genetic studies. We conclude by investigating the dynamic relationship between modularity and the adaptive landscape and how this relationship potentially shapes evolution and can help bridge the gap between micro- and macroevolution.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Evolutionary Legacy Effects on Ecosystems: Biogeographic Origins, Plant Traits, and Implications for Management in the Era of Global Change
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Jeannine Cavender-Bares, David D. Ackerly, Sarah E. Hobbie, Philip A. Townsend

    Biogeographic origins of plant lineages are often reflected in species functional traits, with consequences for community assembly, diversity, and ecosystem function. The climatic and environmental conditions in which species evolved have lasting influence (legacy effects) through phylogenetic conservatism of traits that underlie community assembly and drive ecosystem processes. Legacy effects that influence community assembly may have direct consequences for ecosystem function or may be linked, owing to lineage history, to traits that impact ecosystems. Evolutionary priority effects, driven by the order of colonization and lineage diversification, as well as migration barriers and historical environmental changes, have shaped the diversity and composition of regional floras and their ecosystem functions. We examine the likely consequences of biogeographic history for plant responses to global change and consider how understanding linkages between biogeographic origins, functional traits, and ecosystem consequences can aid the management and restoration of ecosystems globally in the face of rapid environmental change.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Characterizing Species Interactions to Understand Press Perturbations: What Is the Community Matrix?
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Mark Novak, Justin D. Yeakel, Andrew E. Noble, Daniel F. Doak, Mark Emmerson, James A. Estes, Ute Jacob, M. Timothy Tinker, J. Timothy Wootton

    The community matrix is among ecology's most important mathematical abstractions, formally encapsulating the interconnected network of effects that species have on one another's populations. Despite its importance, the term “community matrix” has been applied to multiple types of matrices that have differing interpretations. This has hindered the application of theory for understanding community structure and perturbation responses. Here, we clarify the correspondence and distinctions among the Interaction matrix, the Alpha matrix, and the Jacobian matrix, terms that are frequently used interchangeably as well as synonymously with the term “community matrix.” We illustrate how these matrices correspond to different ways of characterizing interaction strengths, how they permit insights regarding different types of press perturbations, and how these are related by a simple scaling relationship. Connections to additional interaction strength characterizations encapsulated by the Beta matrix, the Gamma matrix, and the Removal matrix are also discussed. Our synthesis highlights the empirical challenges that remain in using these tools to understand actual communities.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Mediterranean Biomes: Evolution of Their Vegetation, Floras, and Climate
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Philip W. Rundel, Mary T.K. Arroyo, Richard M. Cowling, Jon E. Keeley, Byron B. Lamont, Pablo Vargas

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) are located today in southwestern Australia, the Cape Region of South Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, California, and central Chile. These MTEs possess the highest levels of plant species richness in the world outside of the wet tropics. These ecosystems include a variety of vegetation structures that range from the iconic mediterranean-type shrublands to deciduous and evergreen woodlands, evergreen forests, and herblands and grasslands. Sclerophyll vegetation similar to today's mediterranean-type shrublands was already present on oligotrophic soils in the wet and humid climate of the Cretaceous, with fire-adapted Paleogene lineages in southwestern Australia and the Cape Region. The novel mediterranean-type climate (MTC) seasonality present since the middle Miocene has allowed colonization of MTEs from a regional species pool with associated diversification. Fire persistence has been a primary driving factor for speciation in four of the five regions. Understanding the regional patterns of plant species diversity among the MTEs involves complex interactions of geologic and climatic histories for each region as well as ecological factors that have promoted diversification in the Neogene and Quaternary. A critical element of species richness for many MTE lineages has been their ability to speciate and persist at fine spatial scales, with low rates of extinction.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Coexistence in Close Relatives: Beyond Competition and Reproductive Isolation in Sister Taxa
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Marjorie G. Weber, Sharon Y. Strauss

    Understanding coexistence of closely related species lies at the nexus of disentangling how historical and ecological factors govern patterns of biodiversity. The criteria determining local coexistence in close relatives have typically been, for ecologists, whether these species meet conditions of stable coexistence when competing for resources; in contrast, evolutionists often consider coexistence of close relatives from the perspective of complete reproductive isolation. Clearly, both of these conditions must be met, but for coexistence in ecologically and phenotypically similar close relatives to occur, species must overcome a diverse suite of challenges beyond just these. The goal of this review is to present a more holistic, eco-evolutionary view of the factors governing successful coexistence of close relatives, expanding our consideration to recent clade mates, not just sister taxa, and drawing on new technologies and approaches to explore more deeply this classic conundrum. We review the major concepts explaining patterns of coexistence in close relatives, distinguishing between forces related to (a) history, speciation, and extinction; (b) divergence, dispersal, and drivers of range overlap; and (c) successful ecological coexistence of species once in contact. We end by highlighting major gaps and ways forward, including moving beyond the strict dichotomy of local and regional scales and scrutinizing non-native introductions as analogs of secondary contact to tease apart factors contributing to coexistence in real time. By reviewing literature from both ecological and evolutionary perspectives, we hope to illustrate the multifaceted factors that drive coexistence of close relatives and to highlight new questions and approaches that might expand this age-old topic to nonsister close relatives, which often face similar challenges to coexistence as those faced by sister taxa.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Patterns, Causes, and Consequences of Anthropocene Defaunation
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Hillary S. Young, Douglas J. McCauley, Mauro Galetti, Rodolfo Dirzo

    Anthropocene defaunation, the global extinction of faunal species and populations and the decline in abundance of individuals within populations, has been predominantly documented in terrestrial ecosystems, but indicators suggest defaunation has been more severe in freshwater ecosystems. Marine defaunation is in a more incipient stage, yet pronounced effects are already apparent and its rapid acceleration seems likely. Defaunation now impacts the planet's wildlife with profound cascading consequences, ranging from local to global coextinctions of interacting species to the loss of ecological services critical for humanity. Slowing defaunation will require aggressively reducing animal overexploitation and habitat destruction; mitigating climate disruption; and stabilizing the impacts of human population growth and uneven resource consumption. Given its omnipresence, defaunation should receive status of major global environmental change and should be addressed with the same urgency as deforestation, pollution, and climatic change. Global action is needed to prevent defaunation's current trajectory from catalyzing the planet's sixth major extinction.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Evolution and Ecology of CRISPR
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Edze R. Westra, Andrea J. Dowling, Jenny M. Broniewski, Stineke van Houte

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are prokaryotic adaptive immune systems that provide protection against infection by parasitic mobile genetic elements, such as viruses and plasmids. CRISPR-Cas systems are found in approximately half of all sequenced bacterial genomes and in nearly all archaeal genomes. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the evolutionary ecology of CRISPR-Cas systems, highlight their value as model systems to answer fundamental questions concerning host–parasite coevolution, and explain how CRISPR-Cas systems can be useful tools for scientists across virtually all disciplines.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Infectious Disease Dynamics in Heterogeneous Landscapes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Steven R. Parratt, Elina Numminen, Anna-Liisa Laine

    Infectious diseases dynamics are affected by both spatial and temporal heterogeneity in their environments. Our ability to quantify and predict how this heterogeneity impacts risks of infection and disease emergence is the key to successful disease prevention efforts. Here, we review the literature on infectious diseases from human, agricultural, and wildlife ecosystems to describe the rapid ecological and evolutionary responses in pathogens to environmental heterogeneity, with expected impacts on their epidemiology. To date, the underlying network structures through which disease transmission proceeds have been notoriously difficult to quantify because of this variation. We show that with recent advances in statistical methods and genomic approaches, it is now more feasible than ever to trace disease transmission networks, the molecular underpinning of infection, and the environmental variation relevant to disease dynamics. We end by identifying major new opportunities and challenges in understanding disease dynamics in an ever-changing world.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • The Mechanisms and Consequences of Interspecific Competition Among Plants
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Erik T. Aschehoug, Rob Brooker, Daniel Z. Atwater, John L. Maron, Ragan M. Callaway

    During the past 100 years, studies spanning thousands of taxa across almost all biomes have demonstrated that competition has powerful negative effects on the performance of individuals and can affect the composition of plant communities, the evolution of traits, and the functioning of whole ecosystems. In this review, we highlight new and important developments that have the potential to greatly improve our understanding of how plants compete and the consequences of competition from individuals to communities in the following major areas of research: (a) mechanisms of competition, (b) competitive effect and response, (c) direct and indirect effects of competition, (d) population-level effects of competition, (e) biogeographical differences in competition, and (f) conditionality of competition. Ecologists have discovered much about competition, but the mechanisms of competition and how competition affects the organization of communities in nature still require both theoretical and empirical exploration.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • The Evolutionary Ecology of Animals Inhabiting Hydrogen Sulfide–Rich Environments
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Michael Tobler, Courtney N. Passow, Ryan Greenway, Joanna L. Kelley, Jennifer H. Shaw

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a respiratory toxicant that creates extreme environments tolerated by few organisms. H2S is also produced endogenously by metazoans and plays a role in cell signaling. The mechanisms of H2S toxicity and its physiological functions serve as a basis to discuss the multifarious strategies that allow animals to survive in H2S-rich environments. Despite their toxicity, H2S-rich environments also provide ecological opportunities, and complex selective regimes of covarying abiotic and biotic factors drive trait evolution in organisms inhabiting H2S-rich environments. Furthermore, adaptation to H2S-rich environments can drive speciation, giving rise to biodiversity hot spots with high levels of endemism in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and freshwater sulfide springs. The diversity of H2S-rich environments and their inhabitants provides ideal systems for comparative studies of the effects of a clear-cut source of selection across vast geographic and phylogenetic scales, ultimately informing our understanding of how environmental stressors affect ecological and evolutionary processes.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Structure and Functioning of Dryland Ecosystems in a Changing World
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Fernando T. Maestre, David J. Eldridge, Santiago Soliveres, Sonia Kéfi, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Matthew A. Bowker, Pablo García-Palacios, Juan Gaitán, Antonio Gallardo, Roberto Lázaro, Miguel Berdugo

    Understanding how drylands respond to ongoing environmental change is extremely important for global sustainability. In this review, we discuss how biotic attributes, climate, grazing pressure, land cover change, and nitrogen deposition affect the functioning of drylands at multiple spatial scales. Our synthesis highlights the importance of biotic attributes (e.g., species richness) in maintaining fundamental ecosystem processes such as primary productivity, illustrates how nitrogen deposition and grazing pressure are impacting ecosystem functioning in drylands worldwide, and highlights the importance of the traits of woody species as drivers of their expansion in former grasslands. We also emphasize the role of attributes such as species richness and abundance in controlling the responses of ecosystem functioning to climate change. This knowledge is essential to guide conservation and restoration efforts in drylands, as biotic attributes can be actively managed at the local scale to increase ecosystem resilience to global change.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Integrating Paleontological and Phylogenetic Approaches to Macroevolution
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Gene Hunt, Graham Slater

    With proliferation of molecular phylogenies and advances in statistical modeling, phylogeneticists can now address macroevolutionary questions that had traditionally been the purview of paleontology. Interest has focused on three areas at the intersection of phylogenetic and paleontological research: time-scaling phylogenies, understanding trait evolution, and modeling species diversification. Fossil calibrations have long been crucial for scaling phylogenies to absolute time, but recent advances allow more equal integration of extinct taxa. Simulation and empirical studies have shown that fossil data can markedly improve inferences about trait evolution, especially for models with heterogeneous temporal dynamics and in clades for which the living forms are unrepresentative remnants of their larger clade. Recent years have also seen a productive cross-disciplinary conversation about the nature and uncertainties of inferring diversification dynamics. Challenges remain, but the present time represents a flowering of interest in integrating these two views on the history of life.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • A Genomic Perspective on the Generation and Maintenance of Genetic Diversity in Herbivorous Insects
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Andrew D. Gloss, Simon C. Groen, Noah K. Whiteman

    Understanding the processes that generate and maintain genetic variation within populations is a central goal in evolutionary biology. Theory predicts that some of this variation is maintained as a consequence of adapting to variable habitats. Studies in herbivorous insects have played a key role in confirming this prediction. Here, we highlight theoretical and conceptual models for the maintenance of genetic diversity in herbivorous insects, empirical genomic studies testing these models, and pressing questions within the realm of evolutionary and functional genomic studies. To address key gaps, we propose an integrative approach combining population genomic scans for adaptation, genome-wide characterization of targets of selection through experimental manipulations, mapping the genetic architecture of traits influencing fitness, and functional studies. We also stress the importance of studying the maintenance of genetic variation across biological scales—from variation within populations to divergence among populations—to form a comprehensive view of adaptation in herbivorous insects.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • The Mutualistic Niche: Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Community Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Kabir G. Peay

    The niche is generally viewed in terms of species' intrinsic physiological potential and limitations due to competition. Although DNA sequencing has revealed the ubiquity of beneficial microbial symbioses, the role of mutualisms in shaping species niches is not broadly recognized. In this review, I use a widespread terrestrial mutualism, the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, to help develop the mutualistic niche concept. Using contemporary niche theory, I show how mycorrhizal symbioses expand environmental ranges (requirement niche) and influence resource use (impact niche) for both plants and fungi. Simple niche models for competition between resource specialists and generalists also predict a range of ecological phenomena, from unexpected monodominance by some tropical trees to the functional biogeography of mycorrhizal symbiosis. A niche-based view of mutualism may also help explain stability of mutualisms even in the absence of clear benefits. The niche is a central concept in ecology, and better integration of mutualism will more accurately reflect the positive interactions experienced by nearly all species.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Evolution and Extinction of Land Snails on Oceanic Islands
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Satoshi Chiba, Robert H. Cowie

    Nonmarine molluscs are the major animal group with the greatest number of recorded extinctions due to anthropogenic impacts, and that number is certainly a serious underestimate. Land snails, particularly endemic land snails of oceanic islands, are the group of molluscs that have sustained the most extinctions. Understanding their ecology and the evolutionary processes that have led to their extreme vulnerability is crucial if we are to be able to conserve these diverse and important species. Oceanic island snails tend to have low α-diversity and high β-diversity, and divergence of habitat use among related species is known to occur in some radiations of land snails on oceanic islands. Processes of speciation and ecological interaction are possible major drivers of these patterns. The ecological opportunities available at the initial stage of insular evolution and the scarcity of effective predators may have led to divergence of habitat use and high β-diversity in oceanic island snails. Fewer and less diverse predators on oceanic islands lead to the evolution of fewer and less diverse defense traits in oceanic island snails, which results in their high vulnerability to non-native predators. High β-diversity of oceanic island snails also results in great vulnerability to habitat loss. Accordingly, the high susceptibility of oceanic island snails to extinction reflects their evolutionary history.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Forests, Climate, and Public Policy: A 500-Year Interdisciplinary Odyssey
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Gordon B. Bonan

    Forests regulate climate at local, regional, and global scales through exchanges of momentum, energy, moisture, and chemicals with the atmosphere. The notion that forests affect climate is not new. A vigorous debate about deforestation, land use, and climate change occurred during the colonial settlement of North America and continued through the 1800s, but the arguments of conservationists and foresters for forest–climate influences were dismissed by meteorologists. Modern climate science shows that forests warm climate annually by decreasing surface albedo, cool climate through surface roughness and evapotranspiration and by storing carbon, and have additional effects through atmospheric chemistry. Land use is a key aspect of climate policy, but we lack comprehensive policy recommendations. Like our predecessors, we are seeking a deeper understanding of Earth's climate, its ecosystems, and our uses of those ecosystems, and just as importantly we are still searching for the right interdisciplinary framework in which to find those answers.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Evolutionary History, Selective Sweeps, and Deleterious Variation in the Dog
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Adam H. Freedman, Kirk E. Lohmueller, Robert K. Wayne

    The dog is our oldest domesticate and has experienced a wide variety of demographic histories, including a bottleneck associated with domestication and individual bottlenecks associated with the formation of modern breeds. Admixture with gray wolves, and among dog breeds and populations, has also occurred throughout its history. Likewise, the intensity and focus of selection have varied, from an initial focus on traits enhancing cohabitation with humans, to more directed selection on specific phenotypic characteristics and behaviors. In this review, we summarize and synthesize genetic findings from genome-wide and complete genome studies that document the genomic consequences of demography and selection, including the effects on adaptive and deleterious variation. Consistent with the evolutionary history of the dog, signals of natural and artificial selection are evident in the dog genome. However, conclusions from studies of positive selection are fraught with the problem of false positives given that demographic history is often not taken into account.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Is There a Genetic Paradox of Biological Invasion?
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Arnaud Estoup, Virginie Ravigné, Ruth Hufbauer, Renaud Vitalis, Mathieu Gautier, Benoit Facon

    Bottlenecks in population size can reduce fitness and evolutionary potential, yet introduced species often become invasive. This poses a dilemma referred to as the genetic paradox of invasion. Three characteristics must hold true for an introduced population to be considered paradoxical in this sense. First, it must pass through a bottleneck that reduces genetic variation. Second, despite the bottleneck, the introduced population must not succumb to the many problems associated with low genetic variation. Third, it must adapt to the novel environment. Some introduced populations are not paradoxical as they do not combine these conditions. In some cases, an apparent paradox is spurious, as seen in introduced populations with low diversity in neutral markers that maintain high genetic variation in ecologically relevant traits. Even when the genetic paradox is genuine, unique aspects of a species' biology can allow a population to thrive. We propose research directions into remaining paradoxical aspects of invasion genetics.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • An Evolutionary Genetic Perspective on Cancer Biology
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Max Shpak, Jie Lu

    Cancer biology can be better understood by drawing upon methods and concepts from evolutionary genetics. Cancer progression proceeds through somatic evolution, being driven by selection on clonal lineages via the differential survival and proliferation of cell lines. This within-patient evolution can be modeled and analyzed using population genetic and phylogenetic tools to identify mutations and genotypes that are under directional selection during tumor growth, spatial differentiation, and metastasis. Evolutionary genetics can also explain the persistence of cancer within populations. A minority of cancers are associated with inherited risk alleles, which are maintained in populations through genetic drift or antagonistic pleiotropy. Finally, cancer biology can be understood from a macroevolutionary perspective as a case study of evolutionary cooperation and conflict between different levels of biological organization.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • The Phyllosphere: Microbial Jungle at the Plant–Climate Interface
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 10.182) Pub Date : 2016-11-03
    Corinne Vacher, Arndt Hampe, Annabel J. Porté, Ursula Sauer, Stéphane Compant, Cindy E. Morris

    The surface of plant leaves, or the phyllosphere, harbors hyperdiverse microbial communities. These communities mediate foliar functional traits, influence plant fitness, and contribute to several ecosystem functions, including nutrient and water cycling. In this review, we briefly recall the history of phyllosphere research and present the features of this microbial habitat. Adopting a recent framework for evolutionary community ecology, we then review evidence for each of the four major processes shaping phyllosphere microbial communities: dispersal, evolutionary diversification, selection, and drift. We show how these processes are influenced by the host plant, the surrounding atmospheric conditions, and microbial interactions. Rapidly growing evidence indicates that phyllosphere microbial communities are altered by global change, with potential cascading effects on plant performance, plant evolution, and ecosystem functioning. We propose future avenues for phyllosphere research aimed at improving plant adaptation and ecosystem resilience to environmental changes.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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