显示样式:     当前期刊: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering    加入关注    导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Advances in Imaging Brain Metabolism
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Fahmeed Hyder, Douglas L. Rothman

    Metabolism is central to neuroimaging because it can reveal pathways by which neuronal and glial cells use nutrients to fuel their growth and function. We focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods used in brain metabolic studies. 17O-MRS and 31P-MRS, respectively, provide rates of oxygen use and ATP synthesis inside mitochondria, whereas 19F-MRS enables measurement of cytosolic glucose metabolism. Calibrated functional MRI (fMRI), an advanced form of fMRI that uses contrast generated by deoxyhemoglobin, provides maps of oxygen use that track neuronal firing across brain regions. 13C-MRS is the only noninvasive method of measuring both glutamatergic neurotransmission and cell-specific energetics with signaling and nonsignaling purposes. Novel MRI contrasts, arising from endogenous diamagnetic agents and exogenous paramagnetic agents, permit pH imaging of glioma. Overall, these magnetic resonance methods for imaging brain metabolism demonstrate translational potential to better understand brain disorders and guide diagnosis and treatment.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Regulation of Energy Homeostasis After Gastric Bypass Surgery
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Martin L. Yarmush, Matthew D'Alessandro, Nima Saeidi

    The obesity epidemic continues to escalate each year in the United States more than anywhere else in the world. The existing pharmaceutical and other nonsurgical treatments for morbid obesity produce suboptimal physiologic outcomes compared with those of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. RYGB has been the gold standard of bariatric surgery because the beneficial long-term outcomes, which include sustainable weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) resolution, are far superior to those obtained with other bariatric surgeries. However, the current understanding of RYGB's mechanisms of actions remains limited and incomplete. There is an urgent need to understand these mechanisms as gaining this knowledge may lead to the development of innovative and less invasive procedures and/or medical devices, which can mirror the favorable outcomes of RYGB surgery. In this review, we highlight current observations of the metabolic and physiologic events following RYGB, with a particular focus on the role of the anatomical reconfiguration of the gastrointestinal tract after RYGB.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Multiscale Modeling of Muscular-Skeletal Systems
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Gang Seob Jung, Markus J. Buehler

    Multiscale modeling of muscular-skeletal systems—the materials and structures that help organisms support themselves and move—is a rapidly growing field of study that has contributed key elements to the understanding of these systems, especially from a multiscale perspective. The systems, including materials such as bone and muscle, have hierarchical structures ranging from the nano- to the macroscale, and it is difficult to understand their macroscopic behaviors, both physiological and pathological, without knowledge of their hierarchical structures and properties. In this review, we discuss the methods of multiscale modeling. Through a series of case studies about key materials in muscular-skeletal systems, we describe how different methods can bridge the gap between hierarchical structures and their roles in the systems’ mechanical properties. In particular, we emphasize the importance of the quality of minerals in bone. Finally, we discuss biomimetic material designs facilitated by additive manufacturing technology.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Lauren D.C. Casa, David N. Ku

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Design Approaches to Myocardial and Vascular Tissue Engineering
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Olukemi O. Akintewe, Erin G. Roberts, Nae-Gyune Rim, Michael A.H. Ferguson, Joyce Y. Wong

    Engineered tissues represent an increasingly promising therapeutic approach for correcting structural defects and promoting tissue regeneration in cardiovascular diseases. One of the challenges associated with this approach has been the necessity for the replacement tissue to promote sufficient vascularization to maintain functionality after implantation. This review highlights a number of promising prevascularization design approaches for introducing vasculature into engineered tissues. Although we focus on encouraging blood vessel formation within myocardial implants, we also discuss techniques developed for other tissues that could eventually become relevant to engineered cardiac tissues. Because the ultimate solution to engineered tissue vascularization will require collaboration between wide-ranging disciplines such as developmental biology, tissue engineering, and computational modeling, we explore contributions from each field.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Endogenous Bioelectric Signaling Networks: Exploiting Voltage Gradients for Control of Growth and Form
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M. Finkelstein

    Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy. We suggest that quantitative strategies recently developed to infer semantic content and information processing from ionic activity in the brain might provide important clues to cracking the bioelectric code. Gaining control of the mechanisms by which large-scale shape is regulated in vivo will drive transformative advances in bioengineering, regenerative medicine, and synthetic morphology, and could be used to therapeutically address birth defects, traumatic injury, and cancer.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Emerging Frontiers of Neuroengineering: A Network Science of Brain Connectivity
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Danielle S. Bassett, Ankit N. Khambhati, Scott T. Grafton

    Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph. Here, we review the emerging discipline of network neuroscience, which uses and develops tools from graph theory to better understand and manipulate neural systems from micro- to macroscales. We present examples of how human brain imaging data are being modeled with network analysis and underscore potential pitfalls. We then highlight current computational and theoretical frontiers and emphasize their utility in informing diagnosis and monitoring, brain–machine interfaces, and brain stimulation. A flexible and rapidly evolving enterprise, network neuroscience provides a set of powerful approaches and fundamental insights that are critical for the neuroengineer's tool kit.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Objective Assessment of Surgical Technical Skill and Competency in the Operating Room
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    S. Swaroop Vedula, Masaru Ishii, Gregory D. Hager

    Training skillful and competent surgeons is critical to ensure high quality of care and to minimize disparities in access to effective care. Traditional models to train surgeons are being challenged by rapid advances in technology, an intensified patient-safety culture, and a need for value-driven health systems. Simultaneously, technological developments are enabling capture and analysis of large amounts of complex surgical data. These developments are motivating a “surgical data science” approach to objective computer-aided technical skill evaluation (OCASE-T) for scalable, accurate assessment; individualized feedback; and automated coaching. We define the problem space for OCASE-T and summarize 45 publications representing recent research in this domain. We find that most studies on OCASE-T are simulation based; very few are in the operating room. The algorithms and validation methodologies used for OCASE-T are highly varied; there is no uniform consensus. Future research should emphasize competency assessment in the operating room, validation against patient outcomes, and effectiveness for surgical training.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • FEBio: History and Advances
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Steve A. Maas, Gerard A. Ateshian, Jeffrey A. Weiss

    The principal goal of the FEBio project is to provide an advanced finite element tool for the biomechanics and biophysics communities that allows researchers to model mechanics, transport, and electrokinetic phenomena for biological systems accurately and efficiently. In addition, because FEBio is geared toward the research community, the code is designed such that new features can be added easily, thus making it an ideal tool for testing novel computational methods. Finally, because the success of a code is determined by its user base, integral goals of the FEBio project have been to offer support and outreach to our community; to provide mechanisms for dissemination of results, models, and data; and to encourage interaction between users. This review presents the history of the FEBio project, from its initial developments through its current funding period. We also present a glimpse into the future of FEBio.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Engineering Biological Systems
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Joshua B. Black, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Charles A. Gersbach

    The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These tools have been critical for the expansion of synthetic biology techniques from prokaryotic and lower eukaryotic hosts to mammalian systems. Recent progress in the development of genome and epigenome editing tools and in the engineering of designer cells with programmable genetic circuits is expanding approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease and to establish personalized theranostic strategies for next-generation medicines. This review summarizes the development of these enabling technologies and their application to transforming mammalian synthetic biology into a distinct field in research and medicine.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Dinggang Shen, Guorong Wu, Heung-Il Suk

    This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications. We introduce the fundamentals of deep learning methods and review their successes in image registration, detection of anatomical and cellular structures, tissue segmentation, computer-aided disease diagnosis and prognosis, and so on. We conclude by discussing research issues and suggesting future directions for further improvement.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Epigenetic Regulation: A New Frontier for Biomedical Engineers
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Zhen Chen, Shuai Li, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y.-J. Shyy, Shu Chien

    Gene expression in mammalian cells depends on the epigenetic status of the chromatin, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, promoter–enhancer interactions, and noncoding RNA–mediated regulation. The coordinated actions of these multifaceted regulations determine cell development, cell cycle regulation, cell state and fate, and the ultimate responses in health and disease. Therefore, studies of epigenetic modulations are critical for our understanding of gene regulation mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. The aim of this review is to provide biomedical engineers with an overview of the principles of epigenetics, methods of study, recent findings in epigenetic regulation in health and disease, and computational and sequencing tools for epigenetics analysis, with an emphasis on the cardiovascular system. This review concludes with the perspectives of the application of bioengineering to advance epigenetics and the utilization of epigenetics to translate bioengineering research into clinical medicine.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Glutaminolysis: A Hallmark of Cancer Metabolism
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Lifeng Yang, Sriram Venneti, Deepak Nagrath

    Glutamine is the most abundant circulating amino acid in blood and muscle and is critical for many fundamental cell functions in cancer cells, including synthesis of metabolites that maintain mitochondrial metabolism; generation of antioxidants to remove reactive oxygen species; synthesis of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), purines, pyrimidines, and fatty acids for cellular replication; and activation of cell signaling. In light of the pleiotropic role of glutamine in cancer cells, a comprehensive understanding of glutamine metabolism is essential for the development of metabolic therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer cells. In this article, we review oncogene-, tumor suppressor–, and tumor microenvironment–mediated regulation of glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. We describe the mechanism of glutamine's regulation of tumor proliferation, metastasis, and global methylation. Furthermore, we highlight the therapeutic potential of glutamine metabolism and emphasize that clinical application of in vivo assessment of glutamine metabolism is critical for identifying new ways to treat patients through glutamine-based metabolic therapy.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Microsphere-Based Scaffolds in Regenerative Engineering
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Vineet Gupta, Yusuf Khan, Cory J. Berkland, Cato T. Laurencin, Michael S. Detamore

    Microspheres have long been used in drug delivery applications because of their controlled release capabilities. They have increasingly served as the fundamental building block for fabricating scaffolds for regenerative engineering because of their ability to provide a porous network, offer high-resolution control over spatial organization, and deliver growth factors/drugs and/or nanophase materials. Because they provide physicochemical gradients via spatiotemporal release of bioactive factors and nanophase ceramics, microspheres are a desirable tool for engineering complex tissues and biological interfaces. In this review we describe various methods for microsphere fabrication and sintering, and elucidate how these methods influence both micro- and macroscopic scaffold properties, with a special focus on the nature of sintering. Furthermore, we review key applications of microsphere-based scaffolds in regenerating various tissues. We hope to inspire researchers to join a growing community of investigators using microspheres as tissue engineering scaffolds so that their full potential in regenerative engineering may be realized.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Bioinspired Hydrogels to Engineer Cancer Microenvironments*
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Kyung Min Park, Daniel Lewis, Sharon Gerecht

    Recent research has demonstrated that tumor microenvironments play pivotal roles in tumor development and metastasis through various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, matrix remodeling, oxygen tension, pH, cytokines, and matrix stiffness. An emerging trend in cancer research involves the creation of engineered three-dimensional tumor models using bioinspired hydrogels that accurately recapitulate the native tumor microenvironment. With recent advances in materials engineering, many researchers are developing engineered tumor models, which are promising platforms for the study of cancer biology and for screening of therapeutic agents for better clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the development and use of polymeric hydrogel materials to engineer native tumor ECMs for cancer research, focusing on emerging technologies in cancer engineering that aim to accelerate clinical outcomes.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Energy Harvesting from the Animal/Human Body for Self-Powered Electronics
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Canan Dagdeviren, Zhou Li, Zhong Lin Wang

    Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. The use of these energies presents a viable way to overcome the battery capacity limitation that constrains the long-term operation of wearable/implantable devices. The intersection of novel materials and fabrication techniques offers boundless possibilities for the benefit of human health and well-being via various types of energy harvesters. This review summarizes the existing approaches that have been demonstrated to harvest energy from the bodies of living subjects for self-powered electronics. We present material choices, device layouts, and operation principles of these energy harvesters with a focus on in vivo applications. We discuss a broad range of energy harvesters placed in or on various body parts of human and animal models. We conclude with an outlook of future research in which the integration of various energy harvesters with advanced electronics can provide a new platform for the development of novel technologies for disease diagnostics, treatment, and prevention.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Overcoming Immune Dysregulation with Immunoengineered Nanobiomaterials
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Evan A. Scott, Nicholas B. Karabin, Punn Augsornworawat

    The immune system is governed by an immensely complex network of cells and both intracellular and extracellular molecular factors. It must respond to an ever-growing number of biochemical and biophysical inputs by eliciting appropriate and specific responses in order to maintain homeostasis. But as with any complex system, a plethora of false positives and false negatives can occur to generate dysregulated responses. Dysregulated immune responses are essential components of diverse inflammation-driven pathologies, including cancer, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders. Nanoscale biomaterials (i.e., nanobiomaterials) have emerged as highly customizable platforms that can be engineered to interact with and direct immune responses, holding potential for the design of novel and targeted approaches to redirect or inhibit inflammation. Here, we present recent developments of nanobiomaterials that were rationally designed to target and modulate inflammatory cells and biochemical pathways for the treatment of immune dysregulation.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Assessing Cartilage Biomechanical Properties: Techniques for Evaluating the Functional Performance of Cartilage in Health and Disease
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Benjamin A. Lakin, Brian D. Snyder, Mark W. Grinstaff

    Osteoarthritis (OA) affects millions of people and results in weakened hyaline cartilage due to overloading. During joint articulation, hyaline cartilage must withstand high loads while maintaining low friction to prevent wear and tissue loss. Thus, cartilage compressive stiffness and the coefficient of friction are important indicators of the tissue's functional performance. These mechanical properties are often measured ex vivo using mechanical testing regimens, but arthroscopic handheld probes (e.g., for indentation testing, ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography) and noninvasive imaging modalities (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography) provide opportunities for either direct or indirect in vivo assessment of cartilage mechanical properties. In this review, we examine the application of these techniques for evaluating cartilage, with a focus on measuring mechanical properties for early-stage OA diagnosis. For each approach, we discuss the advantages, disadvantages, current and potential clinical utility, and promising technological improvement.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
  • Sulfation of Glycosaminoglycans and Its Implications in Human Health and Disorders
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 10.514) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Diana Soares da Costa, Rui L. Reis, Iva Pashkuleva

    Sulfation is a dynamic and complex posttranslational modification process. It can occur at various positions within the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) backbone and modulates extracellular signals such as cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions; different sulfation patterns have been identified for the same organs and cells during their development. Because of their high specificity in relation to function, GAG sulfation patterns are referred to as the sulfation code. This review explores the role of GAG sulfation in different biological processes at the cell, tissue, and organism levels. We address the connection between the sulfation patterns of GAGs and several physiological processes and discuss the misregulation of GAG sulfation and its involvement in several genetic and metabolic disorders. Finally, we present the therapeutic potential of GAGs and their synthetic mimics in the biomedical field.

    更新日期:2017-10-10
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
期刊列表
复旦大学施章杰课题组招聘启事
2017年“高被引科学家”,化学/材料领域完整名单
期刊版块即将升级,期待您的宝贵意见
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 10月文章访问量Top10
征稿通知:2017年绿色复合材料与纳米技术国际会议
2017年中科院JCR分区化学大类列表
【问答】如何用荧光探针检测大脑中活性氧的水平?
试剂库存管理
化合物查询
down
wechat
bug