
Dynamic stabilization of the RayleighTaylor instability of miscible liquids and the related “frozen waves” Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180223
Gerd (Gerhard) H. WolfSuperimposed miscible liquids, the heavier one on top, when subjected to vibrations vertical to their interface (dynamic stabilization), can only be maintained for a certain period. A mechanism is presented explaining the resulting process of degradation and “anomalous diffusion” through that interface. Superimposed liquids, the lighter one on top, exposed to horizontal vibrations, develop a sawtoothlike pattern called “frozen waves.” These are subject to conditions similar to those of dynamic stabilization and, if miscible, thus can also only be maintained for a certain period. A further analysis of these processes would be desirable, also in view of their relation to analogue phenomena.

Nonequilibrium electrophoresis of an ionselective microgranule for weak and moderate external electric fields Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180207
E. A. Frants, G. S. Ganchenko, V. S. Shelistov, S. Amiroudine, E. A. DemekhinElectrokinetics and the movement of chargeselective microgranules in an electrolyte solution under the influence of an external electric field are investigated theoretically. Straightforward perturbation analysis is applied to a thin electric double layer and a weak external field, while a numerical solution is used for moderate electric fields. The asymptotic solution enables the determination of the salt concentration, electric charge distribution, and electroosmotic velocity fields. It may also be used to obtain a simple analytical formula for the electrophoretic velocity in the case of quasiequilibrium electrophoresis (electrophoresis of the first kind). This formula differs from the famous HelmholtzSmoluchowski relation, which applies to dielectric microparticles, but not to ionselective granules. Numerical calculations are used to validate the derived formula for weak external electric fields, but for moderate fields, nonlinear effects lead to a significant increase in electrophoretic mobility and to a transition from quasiequilibrium electrophoresis of the first kind to nonequilibrium electrophoresis of the second kind. Theoretical results are successfully compared with experimental data.

Ratchet flow of thin liquid films induced by a twofrequency tangential forcing Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180207
Elad StermanCohen, Michael Bestehorn, Alexander OronA possibility of saturating RayleighTaylor instability in a thin liquid film on the underside of a substrate in the gravity field by harmonic vibration of the substrate was recently investigated [E. StermanCohen, M. Bestehorn, and A. Oron, Phys. Fluids 29, 052105 (2017); Erratum, Phys. Fluids 29, 109901 (2017)]. In the present work, we investigate the feasibility of creating a directional flow of the fluid in a film in the RayleighTaylor configuration and controlling its flow rate by applying a twofrequency tangential forcing to the substrate. It is shown that in this situation, a ratchet flow develops, and the dependence of its flow rate on the vibration frequency, amplitude, its periodicity, and asymmetry level is investigated for water and siliconeoil films. A cause for the emergence of symmetrybreaking and an ensuing flow in a preferred direction is discussed. Some aspects of a ratchet flow in a liquid film placed on top of the substrate are discussed as well. A comparison with the case of a neglected fluid inertia is made, and the differences are explained.

Extension of local front reconstruction method with controlled coalescence model Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180207
A. H. Rajkotwala, H. Mirsandi, E. A. J. F. Peters, M. W. Baltussen, C. W. M. van der Geld, J. G. M. Kuerten, J. A. M. KuipersThe physics of droplet collisions involves a wide range of length scales. This poses a challenge to accurately simulate such flows with standard fixed grid methods due to their inability to resolve all relevant scales with an affordable number of computational grid cells. A solution is to couple a fixed grid method with subgrid models that account for microscale effects. In this paper, we improved and extended the Local Front Reconstruction Method (LFRM) with a film drainage model of Zang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)]. The new framework is first validated by (near) headon collision of two equal tetradecane droplets using experimental film drainage times. When the experimental film drainage times are used, the LFRM method is better in predicting the droplet collisions, especially at high velocity in comparison with other fixed grid methods (i.e., the front tracking method and the coupled level set and volume of fluid method). When the film drainage model is invoked, the method shows a good qualitative match with experiments, but a quantitative correspondence of the predicted film drainage time with the experimental drainage time is not obtained indicating that further development of film drainage model is required. However, it can be safely concluded that the LFRM coupled with film drainage models is much better in predicting the collision dynamics than the traditional methods.

Influence of complex interfacial rheology on the thermocapillary migration of a surfactantladen droplet in Poiseuille flow Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180209
Sayan Das, Suman ChakrabortyThe effect of surface viscosity on the motion of a surfactantladen droplet in the presence of a nonisothermal Poiseuille flow is studied, both analytically and numerically. The presence of bulkinsoluble surfactants along the droplet surface results in interfacial shear and dilatational viscosities. This, in turn, is responsible for the generation of surfaceexcess viscous stresses that obey the BoussinesqScriven constitutive law for constant values of surface shear and dilatational viscosities. The present study is primarily focused on finding out how this confluence can be used to modulate droplet dynamics in the presence of Marangoni stress induced by nonuniform distribution of surfactants and temperature along the droplet surface, by exploiting an intricate interplay of the respective forcing parameters influencing the interfacial stresses. Under the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and thermal convection, the steadystate migration velocity of a nondeformable spherical droplet, placed at the centerline of an imposed unbounded Poiseuille flow, is obtained for the limiting case when the surfactant transport along the interface is dominated by surface diffusion. Our analysis proves that the droplet migration velocity is unaffected by the shear viscosity whereas the dilatational viscosity has a significant effect on the same. The surface viscous effects always retard the migration of a surfactantladen droplet when the temperature in the farfield increases in the direction of the imposed flow although the droplet always migrates towards the hotter region. On the contrary, if a large temperature gradient is applied in a direction opposite to that of the imposed flow, the direction of droplet migration gets reversed. However, for a sufficiently high value of dilatational surface viscosity, the direction of droplet migration reverses. For the limiting case in which the surfactant transport along the droplet surface is dominated by surface convection, on the other hand, surface viscosities do not have any effect on the motion of the droplet. These results are likely to have farreaching consequences in designing an optimal migration path in dropletbased microfluidic technology.

Soliton solutions to the fifthorder Korteweg–de Vries equation and their applications to surface and internal water waves Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180209
K. R. Khusnutdinova, Y. A. Stepanyants, M. R. TranterWe study solitary wave solutions of the fifthorder Korteweg–de Vries equation which contains, besides the traditional quadratic nonlinearity and thirdorder dispersion, additional terms including cubic nonlinearity and fifth order linear dispersion, as well as two nonlinear dispersive terms. An exact solitary wave solution to this equation is derived, and the dependence of its amplitude, width, and speed on the parameters of the governing equation is studied. It is shown that the derived solution can represent either an embedded or regular soliton depending on the equation parameters. The nonlinear dispersive terms can drastically influence the existence of solitary waves, their nature (regular or embedded), profile, polarity, and stability with respect to small perturbations. We show, in particular, that in some cases embedded solitons can be stable even with respect to interactions with regular solitons. The results obtained are applicable to surface and internal waves in fluids, as well as to waves in other media (plasma, solid waveguides, elastic media with microstructure, etc.).

Drop splashing is independent of substrate wetting Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180212
Andrzej Latka, Arnout M. P. Boelens, Sidney R. Nagel, Juan J. de PabloA liquid drop impacting a dry solid surface with sufficient kinetic energy will splash, breaking apart into numerous secondary droplets. This phenomenon shows many similarities to forced wetting, including the entrainment of air at the contact line. Because of these similarities and the fact that forced wetting has been shown to depend on the wetting properties of the surface, existing theories predict splashing to depend on wetting properties as well. However, using highspeed interference imaging, we observe that at high capillary numbers wetting properties have no effect on splashing for various liquidsurface combinations. Additionally, by fully resolving the NavierStokes equations at length and time scales inaccessible to experiments, we find that the shape and motion of the airliquid interface at the contact line/edge of the droplet are independent of wettability. We use these findings to evaluate existing theories and to compare splashing with forced wetting.

Energetic analysis of drop’s maximum spreading on solid surface with low impact speed Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180213
HaiMeng Huang, XiaoPeng ChenDrops impacting on a flat solid surface will spread until it reaches maximum contact with the substrate underneath. After that, it recoils. In the present work, the variations of energy components during the spreading are studied carefully, including kinetic, capillary, and dissipated energies. Our experimental and numerical results show that, when the impact speed is low, the fast slipping of the contact line (in inertiacapillary regime) and corresponding “interface relaxation” lead to extra dissipation. An auxiliary dissipation is therefore introduced into the traditional theoretical model. The energy components predicted by the improved model agree with the experimental and numerical results very well. As the impact speed increases (the Weber number, W e = ρ D 0 V 0 2 / γ , becomes larger than 40 in the present work), the dissipation induced by the initial velocity plays more important roles. The analyses also indicate that on the hydrophobic surfaces the auxiliary dissipation is lower than that on hydrophilic ones. In the later circumstances, the contact angle is larger and the spreading is weaker.

A twolayer model for buoyant inertial displacement flows in inclined pipes Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180214
Ali Etrati, Ian A. FrigaardWe investigate the inertial flows found in buoyant miscible displacements using a twolayer model. From displacement flow experiments in inclined pipes, it has been observed that for significant ranges of Fr and Re cos β/Fr, a twolayer, stratified flow develops with the heavier fluid moving at the bottom of the pipe. Due to significant inertial effects, thinfilm/lubrication models developed for laminar, viscous flows are not effective for predicting these flows. Here we develop a displacement model that addresses this shortcoming. The complete model for the displacement flow consists of mass and momentum equations for each fluid, resulting in a set of four nonlinear equations. By integrating over each layer and eliminating the pressure gradient, we reduce the system to two equations for the area and mean velocity of the heavy fluid layer. The wall and interfacial stresses appear as source terms in the reduced system. The final system of equations is solved numerically using a robust, shockcapturing scheme. The equations are stabilized to remove nonphysical instabilities. A linear stability analysis is able to predict the onset of instabilities at the interface and together with numerical solution, is used to study displacement effectiveness over different parametric regimes. Backflow and instability onset predictions are made for different viscosity ratios.

Microcones on a liquid interface in high electric field: Ionization effects Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180215
Andrey V. Subbotin, Alexander N. SemenovWe formulate and explore electrohydrodynamic equations for conductive liquids taking dissociation/recombination processes into account and discover a novel type of liquid cones which carry both surface and net bulk charge and can be formed on a liquid interface in an electric field. The bulk charge is generated by the corona discharge due to a high electric field at the cone apex. We establish correlation between the cone angle and physical parameters of the liquid on the one hand and the electric current passing through the cone on the other hand. It is shown that the current strongly increases when the cone angle tends to a critical value which is a function of the dielectric permittivity of the liquid. The cone stability with respect to axially symmetric perturbations is analyzed. It is shown that the cones with apex angles close to the critical angle are likely to be stable. The effect of the imposed flow on the cone apex stability is also discussed.

Linear stability of an active fluid interface Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180215
Amarender Nagilla, Ranganathan Prabhakar, Sameer JadhavMotivated by studies suggesting that the patterns exhibited by the collectively expanding fronts of thin cells during the closing of a wound [S. Mark et al., “Physical model of the dynamic instability in an expanding cell culture,” Biophys. J. 98(3), 361–370 (2010)] and the shapes of single cells crawling on surfaces [A. C. CallanJones et al., “Viscousfingeringlike instability of cell fragments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 258106 (2008)] are due to fingering instabilities, we investigate the stability of actively driven interfaces under the HeleShaw confinement. An initially radial interface between a pair of viscous fluids is driven by active agents. Surface tension and bending rigidity resist the deformation of the interface. A point source at the origin and a distributed source are also included to model the effects of injection or suction and growth or depletion, respectively. Linear stability analysis reveals that for any given initial radius of the interface, there are two key dimensionless driving rates that determine interfacial stability. We discuss stability regimes in a state space of these parameters and their implications for biological systems. An interesting finding is that an actively mobile interface is susceptible to the fingering instability irrespective of viscosity contrast.

Numerical study on tilting salt finger in a laminar shear flow Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180228
Xianfei Zhang, Lingling Wang, Cheng Lin, Hai Zhu, Cheng ZengSalt fingers as a mixing mechanism in the ocean have been investigated for several decades, together with a key issue being focused on their convective evolution and flux ratio variation. However, related studies on tilting fingers in the ocean produced by shear flow have been ignored by previous researchers. In this paper, a 2D numerical model is presented to study the evolution of the doublediffusion salt finger in a twolayer thermohaline system with laminar shear flow. The model is divided into a steadystate solver and doublediffusion convection system, aimed to reveal the effect of shear flow on salt fingers and analyze the mechanism behind the shear and fingers. Several cases are conducted for Re = 0 ∼ 900 to study the evolution of salt fingers in a laminar shear flow and the variation of salt flux with Re. The results show that salt fingers exist and tilt in the presence of laminar shear flow. The mass transport in the vertical direction is weakened as the Reynolds number increases. An asymmetric structure of the salt finger is discovered and accounts for the morphological tilt and salt flux reduction.

Thermodynamics of viscoelastic ratetype fluids with stress diffusion Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180202
Josef Málek, Vít Průša, Tomáš Skřivan, Endre SüliWe propose thermodynamically consistent models for viscoelastic fluids with a stress diffusion term. In particular, we derive variants of compressible/incompressible Maxwell/OldroydB models with a stress diffusion term in the evolution equation for the extra stress tensor. It is shown that the stress diffusion term can be interpreted either as a consequence of a nonlocal energy storage mechanism or as a consequence of a nonlocal entropy production mechanism, while different interpretations of the stress diffusion mechanism lead to different evolution equations for the temperature. The benefits of the knowledge of the thermodynamical background of the derived models are documented in the study of nonlinear stability of equilibrium rest states. The derived models open up the possibility to study fully coupled thermomechanical problems involving viscoelastic ratetype fluids with stress diffusion.

Application of nonlinear rheology to assess the effect of secondary nanofiller on network structure of hybrid polymer nanocomposites Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180212
Milad Kamkar, Ehsan Aliabadian, Ali Shayesteh Zeraati, Uttandaraman SundararajCarbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrical properties by forming a percolated network. Adding a secondary filler can significantly affect the CNTs’ network, resulting in changing the electrical properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of adding manganese dioxide nanowires (MnO2NWs) as a secondary nanofiller on the CNTs’ network structure inside a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Incorporating MnO2NWs to PVDF/CNT samples produced a better state of dispersion of CNTs, as corroborated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The steady shear and oscillatory shear flows were employed to obtain a better insight into the nanofiller structure and viscoelastic behavior of the nanocomposites. The transient response under steady shear flow revealed that the stress overshoot of hybrid nanocomposites (twofillers), PVDF/CNT/MnO2NWs, increased dramatically in comparison to binary nanocomposites (singlefiller), PVDF/CNT and PVDF/MnO2NWs. This can be attributed to microstructural changes. Large amplitude oscillatory shear characterization was also performed to further investigate the effect of the secondary nanofiller on the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the samples. The nonlinear rheological observations were explained using quantitative nonlinear parameters [strainstiffening ratio (S) and shearthickening ratio (T)] and LissajousBowditch plots. Results indicated that a more rigid nanofiller network was formed for the hybrid nanocomposites due to the better dispersion state of CNTs and this led to a more nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

Measurement and characterization of slippage and sliplaw using a rigorous analysis in dynamics of oscillating rheometer: Newtonian fluid Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180213
Martin Ndi AzeseThis article presents a rigorous calculation involving velocity slip of Newtonian fluid where we analyze and solve the unsteady NavierStokes equation with emphasis on its rheological implication. The goal of which is to model a simple yet effective noninvasive way of quantifying and characterizing slippage. Indeed this contrasts with previous techniques that exhibit inherent limitations whereby injecting foreign objects usually alter the flow. This problem is built on the Couette rheological flow system such that μNewton force and μstress are captured and processed to obtain wall slip. Our model leads to a linear partial differential equation and upon enforcing linearNavier slip boundary conditions (BC) yields inhomogeneous and unsteady “Robintype” BC. A dimensional analysis reveals salient dimensionless parameters: Roshko, Strouhal, and Reynolds while highlighting slipnumbers from BC. We also solve the slipfree case to corroborate and validate our results. Several graphs are generated showing slip effects, particularly, studying how slipnumbers, a key input, differentiate themselves to the outputs. We also confirm this in a graphical fashion by presenting the flow profile across channel width, velocity, and stress at both walls. A perturbation scheme is introduced to calculate longtime behavior when the system seats for long. More importantly, in the end, we justify the existence of a reverse mechanism, where an inverse transformation like Fourier transform uses the output data to retrieve slipnumbers and slip law, thus quantifying and characterizing slip. Therefore, we not only substantiate our analysis, but we also justify our claim, measurement and characterization, and theorize realizability of our proposition.

Wavelets solution of MHD 3D fluid flow in the presence of slip and thermal radiation effects Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180215
M. Usman, T. Zubair, M. Hamid, Rizwan Ul Haq, Wei WangThis article is devoted to analyze the magnetic field, slip, and thermal radiations effects on generalized threedimensional flow, heat, and mass transfer in a channel of lower stretching wall. We supposed two various lateral direction rates for the lower stretching surface of the wall while the upper wall of the channel is subjected to constant injection. Moreover, influence of thermal slip on the temperature profile beside the viscous dissipation and Joule heating is also taken into account. The governing set of partial differential equations of the heat transfer and flow are transformed to nonlinear set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using the compatible similarity transformations. The obtained nonlinear ODE set tackled by means of a new wavelet algorithm. The outcomes obtained via modified Chebyshev wavelet method are compared with RungeKutta (order4). The worthy comparison, error, and convergence analysis shows an excellent agreement. Additionally, the graphical representation for various physical parameters including the skin friction coefficient, velocity, the temperature gradient, and the temperature profiles are plotted and discussed. It is observed that for a fixed value of velocity slip parameter a suitable selection of stretching ratio parameter can be helpful in hastening the heat transfer rate and in reducing the viscous drag over the stretching sheet. Finally, the convergence analysis is performed which endorsing that this proposed method is well efficient.

Rolling viscous drops on a nonwettable surface containing both micro and macroscale roughness Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180216
Mehran Abolghasemibizaki, Connor J. Robertson, Christian P. Fergusson, Robert L. McMasters, Reza MohammadiIt has previously been shown that when a liquid drop of high viscosity is placed on a nonwettable inclined surface, it rolls down at a constant descent velocity determined by the balance between viscous dissipation and the reduction rate of its gravitational potential energy. Since increasing the roughness of the surface boosts its nonwetting property, the drop should move faster on a surface structured with macrotextures (ribbed surface). Such a surface was obtained from a superhydrophobic soot coating on a solid specimen printed with an extrudertype 3D printer. The sample became superoleophobic after a functionalization process. The descent velocity of glycerol drops of different radii was then measured on the prepared surface for varied tilting angles. Our data show that the drops roll down on the ribbed surface approximately 27% faster (along the ridges) than on the macroscopically smooth counterpart. This faster velocity demonstrates that ribbed surfaces can be promising candidates for dragreduction and selfcleaning applications. Moreover, we came up with a modified scaling model to predict the descent velocity of viscous rolling drops more accurately than what has previously been reported in the literature.

Hall effects on unsteady MHD oscillatory free convective flow of second grade fluid through porous medium between two vertical plates Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180223
M. VeeraKrishna, G. Subba Reddy, A. J. ChamkhaThe effects of radiation and Hall current on an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convective flow in a vertical channel filled with a porous medium have been studied. We consider an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting incompressible viscous second grade fluid bounded by a loosely packed porous medium. The fluid is driven by an oscillating pressure gradient parallel to the channel plates, and the entire flow field is subjected to a uniform inclined magnetic field of strength Ho inclined at an angle of inclination α with the normal to the boundaries in the transverse xyplane. The temperature of one of the plates varies periodically, and the temperature difference of the plates is high enough to induce the radiative heat transfer. The effects of various parameters on the velocity profiles, the skin friction, temperature field, rate of heat transfer in terms of their amplitude, and phase angles are shown graphically.

Approximate deconvolution model for the simulation of turbulent gassolid flows: An a priori analysis Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180201
Simon Schneiderbauer, Mahdi SaeedipourHighly resolved twofluid model (TFM) simulations of gassolid flows in vertical periodic channels have been performed to study closures for the filtered drag force and the Reynoldsstresslike contribution stemming from the convective terms. An approximate deconvolution model (ADM) for the largeeddy simulation of turbulent gassolid suspensions is detailed and subsequently used to reconstruct those unresolved contributions in an a priori manner. With such an approach, an approximation of the unfiltered solution is obtained by repeated filtering allowing the determination of the unclosed terms of the filtered equations directly. A priori filtering shows that predictions of the ADM model yield fairly good agreement with the fine grid TFM simulations for various filter sizes and different particle sizes. In particular, strong positive correlation (ρ > 0.98) is observed at intermediate filter sizes for all subgrid terms. Additionally, our study reveals that the ADM results moderately depend on the choice of the filters, such as box and Gaussian filter, as well as the deconvolution order. The a priori test finally reveals that ADM is superior compared to isotropic functional closures proposed recently [S. Schneiderbauer, “A spatiallyaveraged twofluid model for dense largescale gassolid flows,” AIChE J. 63, 3544–3562 (2017)].

A smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) study on polydisperse sediment from technical activities on seabed Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180222
Thien TranDuc, Nhan PhanThien, Boo Cheong KhooTechnical activities to collect polymetallic nodules on a seabed are likely to disturb the toplayer sediment and resuspend it into the ambient ocean water. The transport of the resuspended polydispersesized sediment is a process in which particles’ size variation leads to a difference in their settling velocities; and thus the polydispersity in sizes of sediment has to be taken into account in the modeling process. The sediment transport within a window of 12 km is simulated and analyzed numerically in this study. The sediment characteristic and the ocean current data taken from the Peru Basin, Pacific Ocean, are used in the simulations. More than 50% of the resuspended sediment are found to return to the bottom after 24 h. The sediment concentration in the ambient ocean water does not exceed 3.5 kg/m3 during the observed period. The deposition rate steadily increases and reaches 70% of the sediment resuspension rate after 24 h. The sediment plume created by the activities comprises mainly very fine sediment particles (clays and silts), whereas coarser particles (sands) are found in abundance in the deposited sediment within 1 km from the source location. It is also found that the deposition process of the resuspended sediment is changed remarkably as the current velocity increases from 0.05 m/s (medium current) to 0.1 m/s (strong current). The strong sediment deposition trend is also observed as the sediment source moves continuously over a region due to the sediment scattering effect.

Numerical investigation for entropy generation in hydromagnetic flow of fluid with variable properties and slip Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180205
M. Ijaz Khan, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed AlsaediThis modeling and computations present the study of viscous fluid flow with variable properties by a rotating stretchable disk. Rotating flow is generated through nonlinear rotating stretching surface. Nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption are studied. Flow is conducting for a constant applied magnetic field. No polarization is taken. Induced magnetic field is not taken into account. Attention is focused on the entropy generation rate and Bejan number. The entropy generation rate and Bejan number clearly depend on velocity and thermal fields. The von Kármán approach is utilized to convert the partial differential expressions into ordinary ones. These expressions are nondimensionalized, and numerical results are obtained for flow variables. The effects of the magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, radiative parameter, heat generation/absorption parameter, and slip parameter on velocity and temperature fields as well as the entropy generation rate and Bejan number are discussed. Drag forces (radial and tangential) and heat transfer rates are calculated and discussed. Furthermore the entropy generation rate is a decreasing function of magnetic variable and Reynolds number. The Bejan number effect on the entropy generation rate is reverse to that of the magnetic variable. Also opposite behavior of heat transfers is observed for varying estimations of radiative and slip variables.

Threedimensional finite amplitude electroconvection in dielectric liquids Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180209
Kang Luo, Jian Wu, HongLiang Yi, HePing TanCharge injection induced electroconvection in a dielectric liquid lying between two parallel plates is numerically simulated in three dimensions (3D) using a unified lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Cellular flow patterns and their subcritical bifurcation phenomena of 3D electroconvection are numerically investigated for the first time. A unit conversion is also derived to connect the LBM system to the real physical system. The 3D LBM codes are validated by three carefully chosen cases and all results are found to be highly consistent with the analytical solutions or other numerical studies. For strong injection, the steady state roll, polygon, and square flow patterns are observed under different initial disturbances. Numerical results show that the hexagonal cell with the central region being empty of charge and centrally downward flow is preferred in symmetric systems under random initial disturbance. For weak injection, the numerical results show that the flow directly passes from the motionless state to turbulence once the system loses its linear stability. In addition, the numerically predicted linear and finite amplitude stability criteria of different flow patterns are discussed.

A sharp interface immersed boundary method for vortexinduced vibration in the presence of thermal buoyancy Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180213
Hemanshul Garg, Atul K. Soti, Rajneesh BhardwajWe report the development of an inhouse fluidstructure interaction solver and its application to vortexinduced vibration (VIV) of an elastically mounted cylinder in the presence of thermal buoyancy. The flow solver utilizes a sharp interface immersed boundary method, and in the present work, we extend it to account for the thermal buoyancy using Boussinesq approximation and couple it with a springmass system of the VIV. The oneway coupling utilizes an explicit time integration scheme and is computationally efficient. We present benchmark code verifications of the solver for natural convection, mixed convection, and VIV. In addition, we verify a coupled VIVthermal buoyancy problem at a Reynolds number, Re = 150. We numerically demonstrate the onset of the VIV in the presence of the thermal buoyancy for an insulated cylinder at low Re. The buoyancy is induced by two parallel plates, kept in the direction of flow and symmetrically placed around the cylinder. The plates are maintained at the hot and cold temperature to the same degree relative to the ambient. In the absence of the thermal buoyancy (i.e., the plates are at ambient temperature), the VIV does not occur for Re ≤ 20 due to stable shear layers. By contrast, the thermal buoyancy induces flow instability and the vortex shedding helps us to achieve the VIV at Re ≤ 20, lower than the critical value of Re (≈21.7), reported in the literature, for a selfsustained VIV in the absence of the thermal buoyancy. The present simulations show that the lowest Re to achieve VIV in the presence of the thermal buoyancy is around Re ≈ 3, at Richardson number, Ri = 1. We examine the effect of the reduced velocity (UR), mass ratio (m), Prandtl number (Pr), Richardson number (Ri) on the displacement of the cylinder, lift coefficient, oscillation frequency, the phase difference between displacement and lift force, and wake structures. We obtain a significantly larger vibration amplitude of the cylinder over a wide range of UR as compared to that in the absence of the thermal buoyancy.

Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180216
Siyuan Song, Xiahu Yang, Fengxian Xin, Tian Jian LuFluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in fourorder approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

Dynamics and control of the vortex flow behind a slender conical forebody by a pair of plasma actuators Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180202
Xuanshi Meng, Yuexiao Long, Jianlei Wang, Feng Liu, Shijun LuoDetailed particleimagevelocimetry (PIV) and surface pressure measurements are presented to study the vortex flow behind a slender conical forebody at high angles of attack. The results confirm the existence of two randomly appearing mirror imaged asymmetric bistable states of the separation vortices, giving rise to large side force and moment. A pair of carefully designed dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators mounted near the apex and on both sides of the conical body are used to manipulate the vortex flow and thus provide control of the side forces on the body without using flaps. By making use of a dutycycle actuation scheme that alternately actuates the port and starboard plasma actuators and optimizing the dutycycle frequency, the present work demonstrates the feasibility of achieving a nearly perfect linear proportional control of the side force and moment in response to the dutycycle ratio. Phaselocked PIV and surface pressure measurements are used to study the unsteady dynamic evolution of the flow within one dutycycle actuation to reveal the flow control mechanism. It is found that under the dutycycle actuation with the optimized frequency, the vortex flow essentially follows the plasma actuation by alternating between the two bistable states controlled directly by the dutycycle ratio.

Continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices in a bistable state Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180226
Qite Wang, Keming Cheng, Yunsong Gu, Zhuoqi LiAiming at the problem of continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices at a high angle of attack in a bistable regime, a dual synthetic jet actuator embedded in an ogive forebody was designed. Alternating unsteady disturbance with varying degree asymmetrical flow fields near the nozzles is generated by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal of the actuator, specifically embodying the asymmetric timeaveraged pattern of jet velocity, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy. Experimental results show that within the range of relatively high angles of attack, including the angleofattack region in a bistable state, the lateral force of the ogive forebody is continuously controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal; the position of the forebody vortices in space, the vorticity magnitude, the total pressure coefficient near the vortex core, and the vortex breakdown location are continuously changed with the duty cycle increased observed from the timeaveraged flow field. Instantaneous flow field results indicate that although the forebody vortices are in an unsteady oscillation state, a continuous change in the forebody vortices’ oscillation balance position as the duty cycle increases leads to a continuous change in the model’s surface pressure distribution and timeaveraged lateral force. Different from the traditional control principle, in this study, other different degree asymmetrical states of the forebody vortices except the bistable state are obtained using the dual synthetic jet control technology.

Rayleigh–Bénard–Marangoni convection in a weakly nonBoussinesq fluid layer with a deformable surface Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180226
D. V. Lyubimov, T. P. Lyubimova, N. I. Lobov, J. I. D. AlexanderThe influence of surface deformations on the Rayleigh–Bénard–Marangoni instability of a uniform layer of a nonBoussinesq fluid heated from below is investigated. In particular, the stability of the conductive state of a horizontal fluid layer with a deformable surface, a flat isothermal rigid lower boundary, and a convective heat transfer condition at the upper free surface is considered. The fluid is assumed to be isothermally incompressible. In contrast to the Boussinesq approximation, density variations are accounted for in the continuity equation and in the buoyancy and inertial terms of the momentum equations. Two different types of temperature dependence of the density are considered: linear and exponential. The longwave instability is studied analytically, and instability to perturbations with finite wavenumber is examined numerically. It is found that there is a decrease in stability of the system with respect to the onset of longwave Marangoni convection. This result could not be obtained within the framework of the conventional Boussinesq approximation. It is also shown that at Ma = 0 the critical Rayleigh number increases with Ga (the ratio of gravity to viscous forces or Galileo number). At some value of Ga, the Rayleigh–Bénard instability vanishes. This stabilization occurs for each of the density equations of state. At small values of Ga and when deformation of the free surface is important, it is shown that there are significant differences in stability behavior as compared to results obtained using the Boussinesq approximation.

Vibration influence on the onset of the longwave Marangoni instability in twolayer system Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180227
Irina S. Fayzrakhmanova, Alexander A. NepomnyashchyWe study the longwave Marangoni convection in twolayer films under the influence of a low frequency vibration. A linear stability analysis is performed by means of the Floquet theory. A competition of subharmonic, synchronous, and quasiperiodic modes is considered. It has been found that the monotonic instability, which exists at constant gravity, is transformed into a synchronous instability, which is critical in a wide range of vibration amplitude. At parameters where oscillatory instability exists, the longwave quasiperiodic mode remains critical until a subharmonic mode becomes critical with the growth of the vibration amplitude.

Mesoscopic study of miscible nanoflow instabilities Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180227
Mohammad Zargartalebi, Jalel AzaiezNanofluids have recently been introduced as a remedy to control flow instability. The complex behavior of nanoparticles under different hydrodynamic and thermodynamic conditions makes the modeling and predictions of the process complicated, and such an erratic nature entails the carefully scrutinized analysis of hydrodynamic movement and deposition of nanoparticles. In this study, the effects of nanoparticles on instability are examined using the lattice Boltzmann approach. The flow geometry is a porous medium consisting of regularly arranged disks, and the adopted mesoscopic model accounts for heat transfer effects as well as nanoparticle deposition. A new probabilistic model has been proposed for particle deposition to better predict the behavior of nanoparticles. It is shown that nanoparticles behave differently at various viscous regimes and the instability is controlled by physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles. The study also reveals some interesting behavior of nanoparticles at different sizes and surface potentials which directly affect the instability. Furthermore, thermal induced instabilities show how nanoparticles behave differently at various temperatures.

Experimental study on the stability of laminar flow in a channel with streamwise and oblique riblets Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180228
Huy Quang Ho, Masahito AsaiThe influence of riblets on the streamwise growth of TollmienSchlichting (TS) waves was examined experimentally in a channel flow. Riblets having triangular ridges and trapezoidal valleys, with a heighttowidth ratio of 0.5, were glued on the upper channel wall. The ridge spacing was 11% of the channel halfdepth which gave a nondimensional wavenumber of 57. In addition to the effects of streamwise riblets, the effects of oblique riblets whose direction was inclined to the streamwise direction were examined to see how the instability characteristics depended on the riblet alignment. The result showed that the critical Reynolds number for the linear instability Recr was reduced to about 4200 by the streamwise riblets, while the wavenumber of the TS wave was little influenced by the presence of riblets. For the present small riblets, the parabolic velocity profile was modified only in the vicinity of the ribbed surface, with the virtual wall position located inside the riblets. Such a local and small change in the velocity profile enhanced the instability of the plane Poiseuille flow appreciably. When the riblets were inclined to the streamwise direction, Recr increased as the oblique angle of riblets ϕ was increased. For ϕ ≥ 45°, the riblets had no noticeable influence on the structure of the TS wave and the growth rates were the same as those in the smoothwall case.

The regimes of twinfluid jetincrossflow at atmospheric and jetengine operating conditions Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180201
Zu Puayen Tan, Oleksandr Bibik, Dmitriy Shcherbik, Ben T. Zinn, Nayan PatelThe “TwinFluid JetinCrossflow (TFJICF)” is a nascent variation of the classical JICF, in which a liquid jet is coinjected with an annular sleeve of gas into a gaseous crossflow. Jetengine designers are interested in using TFJICF for liquidfuel injection and atomization in the nextgeneration combustors because it is expected to minimize combustordamaging autoignition and fuelcoking tendencies. However, experimental data of TFJICF are sparse. Furthermore, a widely accepted TFJICF model that correlates the spray’s penetration to the combined liquidgas momentumflux ratio (Jeff) is increasingly showing discrepancy with emerging results, suggesting a gap in the current understanding of TFJICF. This paper describes an investigation that addressed the gap by experimentally characterizing the TFJICF produced by a single injector across wide ranges of operating conditions (i.e., jetA injectant, crossflow of air, crossflow Weber number = 1751050, crossflow pressure Pcf = 1.89.5 atm, momentumflux ratio J = 540, and airnozzle dP = 0%150% of Pcf). These covered the conditions previously used to develop the Jeff model, recently reported conditions that produced Jeff discrepancies, and highpressure conditions found in jetengines. Dyebased shadowgraph was used to acquire highresolution (13.52 μm/pixel) images of the TFJICF, which revealed wideranging characteristics such as the disrupted RayleighTaylor jet instabilities, airinduced jet corrugations, spraybifurcations, and promptatomization. Analyses of the data showed that contrary to the literature, the TFJICF’s penetration is not monotonically related to Jeff. A new conceptual framework for TFJICF is proposed, where the flow configuration is composed of four regimes, each having different penetration trends, spray structures, and underlying mechanisms.

Drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent pipe flow Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180201
Roberta Costantini, JeanPaul Mollicone, Francesco BattistaThe drag reduction induced by superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated in a turbulent pipe flow. Wetted superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to trap gas bubbles in their asperities. This stops the liquid from coming in direct contact with the wall in that location, allowing the flow to slip over the air bubbles. We consider a welldefined texture with streamwise grooves at the walls in which the gas is expected to be entrapped. This configuration is modeled with alternating noslip and shearfree boundary conditions at the wall. With respect to the classical turbulent pipe flow, a substantial drag reduction is observed which strongly depends on the grooves’ dimension and on the solid fraction, i.e., the ratio between the solid wall surface and the total surface of the pipe’s circumference. The drag reduction is due to the mean slip velocity at the wall which increases the flow rate at a fixed pressure drop. The enforced boundary conditions also produce peculiar turbulent structures which on the contrary decrease the flow rate. The two concurrent effects provide an overall flow rate increase as demonstrated by means of the mean axial momentum balance. This equation provides the balance between the mean pressure gradient, the Reynolds stress, the mean flow rate, and the mean slip velocity contributions.

Mixed convection heat transfer enhancement in a cubic liddriven cavity containing a rotating cylinder through the introduction of artificial roughness on the heated wall Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180214
Ali Khaleel Kareem, Shian GaoThe aim of the present numerical investigation is to comprehensively analyse and understand the heat transfer enhancement process using a roughened, heated bottom wall with two artificial rib types (Rs and Rc) due to unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure that has a central rotating cylinder, and to compare these cases with the smooth bottom wall case. These different cases (roughened and smooth bottom walls) are considered at various clockwise and anticlockwise rotational speeds, −5 ≤ Ω ≤ 5, and Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10 000. The top and bottom walls of the liddriven cavity are differentially heated, whilst the remaining cavity walls are assumed to be stationary and adiabatic. A standard kε model for the Unsteady ReynoldsAveraged NavierStokes equations is used to deal with the turbulent flow. The heat transfer improvement is carefully considered and analysed through the detailed examinations of the flow and thermal fields, the turbulent kinetic energy, the mean velocity profiles, the wall shear stresses, and the local and average Nusselt numbers. It has been concluded that artificial roughness can strongly affect the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving the introduced artificial rips. Increasing the cylinder rotational speed or Reynolds number can enhance the heat transfer process, especially when the wall roughness exists.

Turbulent stress measurements of fibre suspensions in a straight pipe Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180215
Jordan MacKenzie, Daniel Söderberg, Agne Swerin, Fredrik LundellThe focus of the present work is an experimental study of the behaviour of semidilute, opaque fibre suspensions in fully developed cylindrical pipe flows. Measurements of the normal and turbulent shear stress components and the mean flow were acquired using phasecontrast magnetic resonance velocimetry. Two fibre types, namely, pulp fibre and nylon fibre, were considered in this work and are known to differ in elastic modulus. In total, three different mass concentrations and seven Reynolds numbers were tested to investigate the effects of fibre interactions during the transition from the plug flow to fully turbulent flow. It was found that in fully turbulent flows of nylon fibres, the normal, ⟨ u z u z ⟩ + , and shear, ⟨ u z u r ⟩ + (note that ⟨·⟩ is the temporal average, u is the fluctuating velocity, z is the axial or streamwise component, and r is the radial direction), turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number regardless of the crowding number (a concentration measure). For pulp fibre, the turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number when a fibre plug was present in the flow and were spatially similar in magnitude when no fibre plug was present. Pressure spectra revealed that the stiff, nylon fibre reduced the energy in the inertialsubrange with an increasing Reynolds and crowding number, whereas the less stiff pulp fibre effectively cuts the energy cascade prematurely when the network was fully dispersed.

Flow dynamics in a variablespacing, three bluffbody flowfield Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180220
M. Meehan, A. Tyagi, J. O’ConnorThis work explores the wake dynamics of systems with three bluff bodies with variable spacing. Studies of singlewake systems have shown that coherent wake vortices have a regular and predictable periodicity. A growing literature of dualwake studies has shown that multiwake systems are more stochastic than singlewake systems, and their dynamics are highly dependent on the spacing between the wakes. Here, we expand on this literature by investigating threewake systems and find that the coherent dynamics of the wakes are highly intermittent. We use proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the most energetic modes of the threewake system at six bluffbody spacings that span a range of dynamical “regimes.” After describing the timedependent behavior of the interacting wakes in these regimes, we use a statistical approach to describe the relative phase between oscillations in each of the wakes, identifying regimes where oscillations are more or less random. Interestingly, the wake oscillations are less random when the bluff bodies are positioned very close and relatively far from each other. In between these two extremes, an intermediary regime is identified where the wake oscillations are almost completely random; this finding parallels data from the dualwake literature. Finally, we discuss the implications of the observed behaviors and possible future directions for this work.

Oscillatory mode transition for supersonic open cavity flows Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180221
Mayank Kumar, Aravind VaidyanathanThe transition in the primary oscillatory mode in an open cavity has been experimentally investigated and the associated characteristics in a Mach 1.71 flow has been analyzed. The lengthtodepth (L/D) ratios of the rectangular cavities are varied from 1.67 to 3.33. Unsteady pressure measurement and flow visualization are employed to understand the transitional flow physics. Flow visualization revealed the change in oscillation pattern from longitudinal mode to transverse mode and is also characterized by the presence of two bow shocks at the trailing edge instead of one. The transition is found to occur between L/D 1.67 and 2, marked by a change in the feedback mechanism, resulting in a shift from the vortex circulation driven transverse feedback mode to the oscillating shear layer driven longitudinal feedback mode. Cavities oscillating in the transition mode exhibit multiple tones of comparable strength. Correlation analysis indicated the shift in the feedback mechanism. Wavelet analysis revealed the temporal behaviour of tones during transition. Tone switching is observed in deeper cavities and is attributed to the occurrence of two bow shocks as evident from the temporospectral characteristics of transition that affects the shear layer modal shape.

Highresolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents undergoing wandering and splitting motions in a rotating system Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180208
Albert Dai, ChingSen WuHighresolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents when wandering and splitting motions occur in a rotating system are reported. In this study, our attention is focused on the situation of unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents when the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces is larger, namely, 0.5 ≤ C ≤ 2.0, in comparison to the stable ones when C ≤ 0.3 as investigated previously by the authors. The simulations reproduce the major features of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents observed in the laboratory, i.e., vortexwandering or vortexsplitting following the contractionrelaxation motion, and good agreement is found when compared with the experimental results on the outrush radius of the advancing front and on the number of bulges. Furthermore, the simulations provide energy budget information which could not be attained in the laboratory. After the heavy fluid is released, the heavy fluid collapses and a contractionrelaxation motion is at work for approximately 2−3 revolutions of the system. During the contractionrelaxation motion of the heavy fluid, the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents behave similar to the stable ones. Towards the end of the contractionrelaxation motion, the dissipation rate in the system reaches a local minimum and a quasigeostrophic equilibrium state is reached. After the quasigeostrophic equilibrium state, vortexwandering or vortexsplitting may occur depending on the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces. The vortexsplitting process begins with nonaxisymmetric bulges and, as the bulges grow, the kinetic energy increases at the expense of decreasing potential energy in the system. The completion of vortexsplitting is accompanied by a local maximum of dissipation rate and a local maximum of kinetic energy in the system. A striking feature of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents is the persistent upwelling and downwelling motions, which are observed for both the vortexwandering and vortexsplitting motions and were not previously documented for such flows. Depending on the Reynolds number, the bulges around the circumference of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents may or may not develop into cutoff distinct circulations. The number of bulges is seen to be dependent on the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces but independent of the Reynolds number for the range of Reynolds number considered in this study.

Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180206
Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Stephen Hibberd, KwingSo ChoiIce accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the “freezing fraction” is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different “packing densities” of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple onedimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

Thermodynamic and experimental study on heat transfer mechanism of miniature loop heat pipe with watercopper nanofluid Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180208
Xiaowu Wang, Zhenping Wan, Yong TangA miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) is a promising device for heat dissipation of electronic products. Experimental study of heat transfer performance of an mLHP employing Cuwater nanofluid as working fluid was conducted. It is found that, when input power is above 25 W, the temperature differences between the evaporator wall and vapor of nanofluid, Te − Tv, and the total heat resistance of mLHP using nanofluid are always lower than those of mLHP using deionized water. The values of Te − Tv and total heat resistance of mLHP using nanofluid with concentration 1.5 wt. % are the lowest, while when the input power is 25 W, the values of Te − Tv and total heat resistance of mLHP using deionized water are even lower than those of mLHP using nanofluid with concentration 2.0 wt. %. At larger input power, the dominant interaction is collision between small bubbles and nanoparticles which can facilitate heat transfer. While at lower input power, nanoparticles adhere to the surface of large bubble. This does not benefit boiling heat transfer. For mLHP using nanofluid with larger concentration, for example 2.0%, the heat transfer may even be worse compared with using deionized water at lower input power. The special structure of the mLHP in this study, two separated chambers in the evaporator, produces an extra pressure difference and contributes to the heat transfer performance of the mLHP.

The shape and dynamics of the generation of the splash forms in singlephase systems after drop hitting Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180212
Agata Sochan, Michał Beczek, Rafał Mazur, Magdalena Ryżak, Andrzej BieganowskiThe splash phenomenon is being increasingly explored with the use of modern measurement tools, including the highspeed cameras. Recording images at a rate of several thousand frames per second facilitates parameterization and description of the dynamics of splash phases. This paper describes the impact of a single drop of a liquid falling on the surface of the same liquid. Three singlephase liquid systems, i.e., water, petrol, and diesel fuel, were examined. The falling drops were characterized by different kinetic energy values depending on the height of the fall, which ranged from 0.1 to 7.0 m. Four forms, i.e., waves, crowns, semiclosed domes, and domes, were distinguished depending on the drop energy. The analysis of the recorded images facilitated determination of the static and dynamic parameters of each form, e.g., the maximum height of each splash form, the width of the splash form at its maximum height, and the rate of growth of the splash form. We, Re, Fr, and K numbers were determined for all analyzed liquid systems. On the basis of the obtained values of dimensionless numbers, the areas of occurrence of characteristic splash forms were separated.

The precise and accurate production of millimetric water droplets using a superhydrophobic generating apparatus Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180215
Michael J. Wood, Felipe Aristizabal, Matthew Coady, Kent Nielson, Paul J. Ragogna, AnneMarie KietzigThe production of millimetric liquid droplets has importance in a wide range of applications both in the laboratory and industrially. As such, much effort has been put forth to devise methods to generate these droplets on command in a manner which results in high diameter accuracy and precision, welldefined trajectories followed by successive droplets and low oscillations in droplet shape throughout their descents. None of the currently employed methods of millimetric droplet generation described in the literature adequately addresses all of these desired droplet characteristics. The reported methods invariably involve the cohesive separation of the desired volume of liquid from the bulk supply in the same step that separates the single droplet from the solid generator. We have devised a droplet generation device which separates the desired volume of liquid within a teeapparatus in a step prior to the generation of the droplet which has yielded both high accuracy and precision of the diameters of the final droplets produced. Further, we have engineered a generating tip with extreme antiwetting properties which has resulted in reduced adhesion forces between the liquid droplet and the solid tip. This has yielded the ability to produce droplets of low mass without necessitating different diameter generating tips or the addition of surfactants to the liquid, welldefined droplet trajectories, and low oscillations in droplet volume. The trajectories and oscillations of the droplets produced have been assessed and presented quantitatively in a manner that has been lacking in the current literature.

Aerodynamic heating in transitional hypersonic boundary layers: Role of secondmode instability Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180104
Yiding Zhu, Xi Chen, Jiezhi Wu, Shiyi Chen, Cunbiao Lee, Mohamed GadelHakThe evolution of secondmode instabilities in hypersonic boundary layers and its effects on aerodynamic heating are investigated. Experiments are conducted in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using fastresponse pressure sensors, fluorescent temperaturesensitive paint, and particle image velocimetry. Calculations based on parabolic stability equations and direct numerical simulations are also performed. It is found that secondmode waves, accompanied by highfrequency alternating fluid compression and expansion, produce intense aerodynamic heating in a small region that rapidly heats the fluid passing through it. As the secondmode waves decay downstream, the dilatationinduced aerodynamic heating decreases while its shearinduced counterpart keeps growing. The latter brings about a second growth of the surface temperature when transition is completed.

Simulating particle inertia for velocimetry measurements of a flow behind an expanding shock wave Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180125
E. Koroteeva, I. Mursenkova, Yu. Liao, I. ZnamenskayaWhen particlebased velocimetry techniques are applied to complex highspeed flows, the nonideal tracing capability of seeding particles becomes most prominent. Here, we present a numerical particle tracking methodology to predict the bias errors associated with particle image velocimetry (PIV) of flows with moving shocks. The methodology involves performing computational fluid dynamics simulations that yield timevarying flow fields, which are then used to compute the actual paths and velocities of the seeding particles. We test this approach on PIV measurements of the velocity field behind an expanding semicylindrical shock wave, generated by a pulsed sliding discharge. Although in transient highspeed compressible flows the PIV imaging accuracy is still hindered by the finite particle response, the proposed methodology allows for both a successful quantification of PIV errors as well as a direct comparison between particlebased velocimetry and numerical simulations.

On the formation modes in vortex interaction for multiple coaxial corotating vortex rings Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180103
Suyang Qin, Hong Liu, Yang XiangInteraction among multiple vortices is of particular importance to biological locomotion. It plays an essential role in the force and energy capture. This study examines the motion and dynamics of multiple coaxial corotating vortex rings. The vortex rings, which have the same formation time, are successively generated in a pistoncylinder apparatus by accurately controlling the interval time. The flow fields are visualized by the finitetime Lyapunov exponent and then repelling Lagrangian coherent structures (rLCSs) are determined. Two types of vortex interactions (“strong” and “weak”) are defined by investigating the rLCSs: a strong interaction is indicated by connected rLCSs showing a channel for fluid transport (termed as a “flux window”); a weak interaction is indicated by disconnected rLCSs between the vortex rings. For strong interaction, leapfrogging and merger of vortex rings can happen in the later stage of the evolution process; however, the rings are separated for weak interaction. Two distinct formation modes, the formation enhancement mode (FEM) and formation restraint mode (FRM), refer to the effect of one or multiple vortex ring(s) on the initial circulation of the subsequently formed vortex ring. In the FEM, the circulation of a vortex ring is larger than that of an isolated (without interaction) vortex ring. On the other hand, the situation is opposite in the FRM. A dimensionless number reflecting the interaction mechanism, “structure stretching number” S*, is proposed, which evaluates the induced effect of the wake vortices on the formation of a vortex ring. A limiting S* ( S L * = ( 2 ± 0.4 ) × 1 0 − 4 ) is the bifurcation point of the two formation modes. The augmentation of circulation reaches up to 10% for the FEM when S * < S L * , while in the FRM ( S * > S L * ), the circulation decreases for at most 20%. The newly defined formation modes and number could shed light on the understanding of the dynamics of multiple vortex ring flows.

Flow characteristics around a deformable stenosis under pulsatile flow condition Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180122
Woorak Choi, Jun Hong Park, Hyeokjun Byeon, Sang Joon LeeA specific portion of a vulnerable stenosis is deformed periodically under a pulsatile blood flow condition. Detailed analysis of such deformable stenosis is important because stenotic deformation can increase the likelihood of rupture, which may lead to sudden cardiac death or stroke. Various diagnostic indices have been developed for a nondeformable stenosis by using flow characteristics and resultant pressure drop across the stenosis. However, the effects of the stenotic deformation on the flow characteristics remain poorly understood. In this study, the flows around a deformable stenosis model and two different rigid stenosis models were investigated under a pulsatile flow condition. Particle image velocimetry was employed to measure flow structures around the three stenosis models. The deformable stenosis model was deformed to achieve high geometrical slope and height when the flow rate was increased. The deformation of the stenotic shape enhanced jet deflection toward the opposite vessel wall of the stenosis. The jet deflection in the deformable model increased the rate of jet velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production as compared with those in the rigid models. The effect of stenotic deformation on the pulsating waveform related with the pressure drop was analyzed using the TKE production rate. The deformable stenosis model exhibited a phase delay of the peak point in the waveform. These results revealed the potential use of pressure drop waveform as a diagnostic index for deformable stenosis.

Physics of selfaligned assembly at room temperature Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180117
V. Dubey, E. Beyne, J. Derakhshandeh, I. De WolfSelfaligned assembly, making use of capillary forces, is considered as an alternative to active alignment during thermocompression bonding of Si chips in the 3D heterogeneous integration process. Various process parameters affect the alignment accuracy of the chip over the patterned binding site on a substrate/carrier wafer. This paper discusses the chip motion due to wetting and capillary force using a transient coupled physics model for the two regimes (that is, wetting regime and damped oscillatory regime) in the temporal domain. Using the transient model, the effect of the volume of the liquid and the placement accuracy of the chip on the alignment force is studied. The capillary time (that is, the time it takes for the chip to reach its mean position) for the chip is directly proportional to the placement offset and inversely proportional to the viscosity. The time constant of the harmonic oscillations is directly proportional to the gap between the chips due to the volume of the fluid. The predicted behavior from transient simulations is next experimentally validated and it is confirmed that the liquid volume and the initial placement affect the final alignment accuracy of the top chip on the bottom substrate. With statistical experimental data, we demonstrate an alignment accuracy reaching <1 μm.

Inertial particle focusing in serpentine channels on a centrifugal platform Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180122
Amir Shamloo, Ali MashhadianInertial particle focusing as a powerful passive method is widely used in diagnostic test devices. It is common to use a curved channel in this approach to achieve particle focusing through balancing of the secondary flow drag force and the inertial lift force. Here, we present a focusing device on a disk based on the interaction of secondary flow drag force, inertial lift force, and centrifugal forces to focus particles. By choosing a channel whose cross section has a low aspect ratio, the mixing effect of the secondary flow becomes negligible. To calculate inertial lift force, which is exerted on the particle from the fluid, the interaction between the fluid and particle is investigated accurately through implementation of 3D Direct Numerical Solution (DNS) method. The particle focusing in three serpentine channels with different corner angles of 75°, 85°, and 90° is investigated for three polystyrene particles with diameters of 8 μm, 9.9 μm, and 13 μm. To show the simulation reliability, the results obtained from the simulations of two examples, namely, particle focusing and centrifugal platform, are verified against experimental counterparts. The effects of angular velocity of disk on the fluid velocity and on the focusing parameters are studied. Fluid velocity in a channel with corner angle of 75° is greater than two other channels. Furthermore, the particle equilibrium positions at the cross section of channel are obtained at the outlet. There are two equilibrium positions located at the centers of the long walls. Finally, the effect of particle density on the focusing length is investigated. A particle with a higher density and larger diameter is focused in a shorter length of the channel compared to its counterpart with a lower density and shorter diameter. The channel with a corner angle of 90° has better focusing efficiency compared to other channels. This design focuses particles without using any pump or sheath flow. Inertial particle focusing on centrifugal platform, which rarely has been studied, can be used for a wide range of diagnostic labonadisk device.

Magnetic nanofluid flow and convective heat transfer in a porous cavity considering Brownian motion effects Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180129
M. Sheikholeslami, Houman B. RokniIn the present article, the improvement of nanofluid heat transfer inside a porous cavity by means of a nonequilibrium model in the existence of Lorentz forces has been investigated by employing control volume based finite element method. Nanofluid properties are estimated by means of KooKleinstreuerLi. The DarcyBoussinesq approximation is utilized for the nanofluid flow. Roles of the solidnanofluid interface heat transfer parameter N h s , Hartmann number H a , porosity ε , and Rayleigh number R a were presented. Outputs demonstrate that the convective flow decreases with the rise of N h s , but it enhances with the rise of R a . Porosity has opposite relationship with the temperature gradient.

Elliptical spreading characteristics of a liquid metal droplet impact on a glass surface under a horizontal magnetic field Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180104
JuanCheng Yang, TianYu Qi, TianYang Han, Jie Zhang, MingJiu NiThe spreading characteristics of a liquid GaInSn alloy droplet on a glass surface with the action of a horizontal magnetic field have been experimentally investigated in the present paper. With changing the impact velocity from 0.1 m/s to 1.2 m/s and increasing the magnetic field from 0 T to 1.6 T, we focus on studying the influence of the horizontal magnetic field on the spreading characteristics of a liquid metal droplet using the shadowgraph method. The elliptical spreading pattern of a liquid metal droplet induced by the horizontal magnetic field was discovered by experiments. By introducing a numerical method in getting the distribution of current lines and the Lorentz force inside the droplet, we give a detailed explanation on the mechanism of elliptical spreading. Furthermore, some quantitative results on a maximum spreading factor and time at moment of maximum spreading varied with the Hartmann number and Weber number are shown to give us a comprehensive understanding of the elliptical spreading. With the increasing of the magnetic field, the maximum spreading factor in the front view is reduced while that in the side view is increased, which reveals a larger deformation happened during the spreading process. While with the increasing of impact velocity, the spreading factor increased. Finally, we present a nondimensional parameter to get scaling laws for the averaged maximum spreading factor and the aspect ratio of the maximum spreading factor; results show that the predict data can agree with experimental data in a certain degree.

Application of boundary element method to Stokes flows over a striped superhydrophobic surface with trapped gas bubbles Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180105
A. I. Ageev, I. V. Golubkina, A. N. OsiptsovA slow steady flow of a viscous fluid over a superhydrophobic surface with a periodic striped system of 2D rectangular microcavities is considered. The microcavities contain small gas bubbles on the curved surface of which the shear stress vanishes. The general case is analyzed when the bubble occupies only a part of the cavity, and the flow velocity far from the surface is directed at an arbitrary angle to the cavity edge. Due to the linearity of the Stokes flow problem, the solution is split into two parts, corresponding to the flows perpendicular and along the cavities. Two variants of a boundary element method are developed and used to construct numerical solutions on the scale of a single cavity with periodic boundary conditions. By averaging these solutions, the average slip velocity and the slip length tensor components are calculated over a wide range of variation of governing parameters for the cases of a sheardriven flow and a pressuredriven channel flow. For a sufficiently high pressure drop in a microchannel of finite length, the variation of the bubble surface shift into the cavities induced by the streamwise pressure variation is estimated from numerical calculations.

Experimental investigation of ventilated supercavitation with gas jet cavitator Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180109
Yunhua Jiang, Siyao Shao, Jiarong HongWe conduct an experimental study of the ventilated supercavitation generated from gas jet cavitator [gas jet ventilated supercavitation (GJVS)] over a broad range of ventilation and flow conditions for two gas jet nozzle sizes. The experiments show that supercavity evolves across different cavity regimes with distinct patterns, i.e., bubbly flow, Stable Cavity (SC), Unstable Cavity (UC), and Jet Cavity (JC) with increasing ventilation rate. The supercavity transition is shown to be a result of the stagnation location of gas jet shifting from the potential core zone to the established turbulent flow zone of the jet as ventilation increases. The variation of supercavity regimes under a broad range of Froude numbers is compiled, and the map of supercavity regime transition shows similar trends for different Froude numbers and nozzle sizes. Compared to a disc cavitator, in the SC regime, the GJVS exhibits similar ventilation hysteresis with a significantly higher ventilation demand for the formation of a supercavity. The transitions from SC to UC and UC to JC are examined using the ratio of gas jet length to potential core length, which shows a variation across different Froude numbers and nozzle sizes. Moreover, the change of supercavity dimension upon increasing ventilation is examined for SC and JC regimes. In the SC regime, the maximum diameter of the supercavity and the corresponding cavitation number remain constant with increasing ventilation, similar to the case of a disc cavitator. In contrast, the maximum diameter and the cavitation number grow linearly upon an increase of ventilation in the JC regime.

Acoustic bubble dynamics in a microvessel surrounded by elastic material Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180110
S. P. Wang, Q. X. Wang, D. M. Leppinen, A. M. Zhang, Y. L. LiuThis paper is concerned with microbubble dynamics in a blood vessel surrounded by elastic tissue subject to ultrasound, which are associated with important applications in medical ultrasonics. Both the blood flow inside the vessel and the tissue flow external to the vessel are modeled using the potential flow theory coupled with the boundary element method. The elasticity of tissue is modeled through the inclusion of a pressure term in the dynamic boundary condition at the interface between the two fluids. Weakly viscous effects are considered using viscous potential flow theory. The numerical model is validated by comparison with the theoretical results of the RayleighPlesset equation for spherical bubbles, the numerical results for acoustic bubbles in an unbounded flow, and the experimental images for a spark generated bubble in a rigid circular cylinder. Numerical analyses are then performed for the bubble oscillation, jet formation and penetration through the bubble, and the deformation of the vessel wall in terms of the ultrasound amplitude and the vessel radius.

The stability cycle—A universal pathway for the stability of films over topography Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180111
Mario Schörner, Nuri AkselIn the present study on the linear stability of gravitydriven Newtonian films flowing over inclined topographies, we consider a fundamental question: Is there a universal principle, being valid to describe the parametric evolution of the flow’s stability chart for variations of different system parameters? For this sake, we first screened all experimental and numerical stability charts available in the literature. In a second step, we performed experiments to fill the gaps which remained. Variations of the fluid’s viscosity and the topography’s specific shape, amplitude, wavelength, tip width, and inclination were considered. That way, we identified a set of six characteristic patterns of stability charts to be sufficient to describe and unify all results on the linear stability of Newtonian films flowing over undulated inclines. We unveiled a universal pathway—the stability cycle—along which the linear stability charts of all considered Newtonian films flowing down periodically corrugated inclines evolved when the system parameters were changed.

Surface roughness effects on contact line motion with small capillary number Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180112
FengChao Yang, XiaoPeng Chen, Pengtao YueIn this work, we investigate how surface roughness influences contact line dynamics by simulating forced wetting in a capillary tube. The tube wall is decorated with microgrooves and is intrinsically hydrophilic. A phasefield method is used to capture the fluid interface and the moving contact line. According to the numerical results, a criterion is proposed to judge whether the grooves are entirely wetted or not at vanishing capillary numbers. When the contact line moves over a train of grooves, the apparent contact angle exhibits a periodic nature, no matter whether the CassieBaxter or the Wenzel state is achieved. The oscillation amplitude of apparent contact angle is analyzed and found to be inversely proportional to the interface area. The contact line motion can be characterized as stickjumpslip in the CassieBaxter state and stickslip in the Wenzel state. By comparing to the contact line dynamics on smooth surfaces, equivalent microscopic contact angles and slip lengths are obtained. The equivalent slip length in the CassieBaxter state agrees well with the theoretical model in the literature. The equivalent contact angles are, however, much greater than the predictions of the CassieBaxter model and the Wenzel model for equilibrium stable states. Our results reveal that the pinning of the contact line at surface defects effectively enhances the hydrophobicity of rough surfaces, even when the surface material is intrinsically hydrophilic and the flow is under the Wenzel state.

Solving the incompressible surface NavierStokes equation by surface finite elements Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180116
Sebastian Reuther, Axel VoigtWe consider a numerical approach for the incompressible surface NavierStokes equation on surfaces with arbitrary genus g ( S ) . The approach is based on a reformulation of the equation in Cartesian coordinates of the embedding R 3 , penalization of the normal component, a Chorin projection method, and discretization in space by surface finite elements for each component. The approach thus requires only standard ingredients which most finite element implementations can offer. We compare computational results with discrete exterior calculus simulations on a torus and demonstrate the interplay of the flow field with the topology by showing realizations of the PoincaréHopf theorem on ntori.

Observation of two coupled Faraday waves in a vertically vibrating HeleShaw cell with one of them oscillating horizontally Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180116
Xiaochen Li, Xiaoming Li, Shijun LiaoA system of two coupled Faraday waves is experimentally observed at the two interfaces of the three layers of fluids (air, pure ethanol, and silicon oil) in a covered HeleShaw cell with periodic vertical vibration. Both the upper and lower Faraday waves are subharmonic, but they coexist in different forms: the upper one vibrates vertically, while the crests of the lower one oscillate horizontally with unchanged wave height, and the troughs of the lower one usually remain in the same place (relative to the basin). Besides, they are strongly coupled: the wave height of the lower Faraday waves is either a linear function (when forcing frequency is fixed) or a parabolic function (when acceleration amplitude is fixed) of that of the upper one with a same wavelength.

Influence of thermal effects on stability of nanoscale films and filaments on thermally conductive substrates Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180122
Ivana Seric, Shahriar Afkhami, Lou KondicWe consider fluid films and filaments of nanoscale thickness on thermally conductive substrates exposed to external heating and discuss the influence of the variation of material parameters with temperature on film stability. Particular focus is on metal films exposed to laser irradiation. Due to the short length scales involved, the absorption of heat in the metal is directly coupled to the film evolution, since the absorption length and the film thickness are comparable. Such a setup requires selfconsistent consideration of fluid mechanical and thermal effects. We approach the problem via volumeoffluidbased simulations that include destabilizing liquid metal–solid substrate interaction potentials. These simulations couple fluid dynamics directly with the spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature field both in the fluid and in the substrate. We focus on the influence of the temperature variation of material parameters, in particular of surface tension and viscosity. Regarding variation of surface tension with temperature, the main finding is that while the Marangoni effect may not play a significant role in the considered setting, the temporal variation of surface tension (modifying normal stress balance) is significant and could lead to complex evolution including oscillatory evolution of the liquid metalair interface. Temperature variation of film viscosity is also found to be relevant. Therefore, the variations of surface tensions and viscosity could both influence the emerging wavelengths in experiments. By contrast, the filament geometry is found to be much less sensitive to a variation of material parameters with temperature.

Spreading dynamics of superposed liquid drops on a spinning disk Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180123
Subhadarshinee Sahoo, Ashish V. Orpe, Pankaj DoshiWe have experimentally studied simultaneous spreading of superposed drops of two Newtonian liquids on top of a horizontal spinning disk using the flow visualization technique. An inner drop of high surface tension liquid is placed centrally on the disk followed by a drop of outer liquid (lower surface tension) placed exactly above that. The disk is then rotated at a desired speed for a range of volume ratios of two liquids. Such an arrangement of two superposed liquid drops does not affect the spreading behavior of the outer liquid but influences that of the inner liquid significantly. The drop spreads to a larger extent and breaks into more fingers (Nf) as compared to the case where the same liquid is spreading in the absence of outer liquid. The experimentally observed number of fingers is compared with the prediction using available theory for single liquid. It is found that the theory overpredicts the value of Nf for the inner liquid while it is covered by an outer liquid. We provide a theoretical justification for this observation using linear stability analysis. Our analysis demonstrates that for small but finite surface tension ratio of the two liquids, the presence of the outer interface reduces the value of the most unstable wave number which is equivalent to the decrease in the number of fingers observed experimentally. Finally, sustained rotation of the disk leads to the formation of droplets at the tip of the fingers traveling outwards.

Numerical study on droplet generation in axisymmetric flow focusing upon actuation Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180124
Kai Mu, Ting Si, Erqiang Li, Ronald X. Xu, Hang DingIn the pure axisymmetric flow focusing (AFF), it is difficult to generate uniform droplets due to the random breakup of bulk flows. Therefore, applying external perturbations is a desirable approach to control the monodispersity of the droplets and makes it possible to produce uniform droplets at relatively high flow rates. In the present study, the effects of different external perturbations (waveform shape, frequency f and amplitude A) on the droplet generation are numerically investigated. When the focused phase is singly actuated, the size of the uniform droplets can be obtained and manipulated by adjusting f and A. In particular, the jet breakup has the same frequency as the external perturbation in the generation of uniform droplets. There exists a cutoff frequency beyond which the perturbation cannot control the jet breakup, even with large A. This is found to be associated with the critical condition for the onset of the RayleighPlateau instability. In addition, the reservoir effect of the cone in the AFF effectively reduces the influence of the perturbation on the liquid supply to the liquid jet, accounting for the presence of jetting at low f and large A. Moreover, we apply the perturbations either singly to the focusing phase or simultaneously to the focused and focusing phases and assess their effects on the jet breakup. Finally, the square waveform perturbations acting on the droplet generation are discussed. The present work provides a guidance of the actuationaided AFF for practical applications of ondemand droplet generation.

Droplet spreading and capillary imbibition in a porous medium: A coupled IBVOF method based numerical study Appl. Phys. Rev. (IF 13.667) Pub Date : 20180129
Saurish Das, H. V. Patel, E. Milacic, N. G. Deen, J. A. M. KuipersWe investigate the dynamics of a liquid droplet in contact with a surface of a porous structure by means of the porescale level, fully resolved numerical simulations. The geometrical details of the solid porous matrix are resolved by a sharp interface immersed boundary method on a Cartesian computational grid, whereas the motion of the gasliquid interface is tracked by a mass conservative volume of fluid method. The numerical simulations are performed considering a model porous structure that is approximated by a 3D cubical scaffold with cylindrical struts. The effect of the porosity and the equilibrium contact angle (between the gasliquid interface and the solid struts) on the spreading behavior, liquid imbibition, and apparent contact angle (between the gasliquid interface and the porous base) are studied. We also perform several simulations for droplet spreading on a flat surface as a reference case. Gasliquid systems of the Laplace number, La = 45 and La = 144 × 103 are considered neglecting the effect of gravity. We report the time exponent (n) and prefactor (C) of the power law describing the evolution of the spreading diameter (S = Ctn) for different equilibrium contact angles and porosity. Our simulations reveal that the apparent or macroscopic contact angle varies linearly with the equilibrium contact angle and increases with porosity. Not necessarily for all the wetting porous structures, a continuous capillary drainage occurs, and we find that the rate of the capillary drainage very much depends on the fluid inertia. At La = 144 × 103, numerically we capture the capillary wave induced pinchoff and daughter droplet ejection. We observe that on the porous structure the pinchoff is weak compared to that on a flat plate.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.