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  • X-Ray Tomography for Lithium Ion Battery Research: A Practical Guide
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Patrick Pietsch, Vanessa Wood

    X-ray tomography has emerged as a powerful technique for studying lithium ion batteries, allowing nondestructive and often quantitative imaging of these complex systems, which contain solid components with length scales spanning orders of magnitude and which are in-filled with liquid electrolyte. Over the past decade, X-ray tomography has allowed interrogation of structure and material composition, providing quantitative or qualitative insight into battery operation and degradation. In this review, we first provide an overview of X-ray tomography and explore what types of experiments can yield insight into open questions in the lithium ion battery research field. In the second half of the review, we discuss the aspects a researcher must consider, and we summarize challenges and approaches to sample preparation, experimental setup, and data analysis. Finally, we describe both outstanding challenges and promise in using X-ray tomography for lithium ion battery research.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Visualization of Atomic-Scale Motions in Materials via Femtosecond X-Ray Scattering Techniques
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Aaron M. Lindenberg, Steven L. Johnson, David A. Reis

    We review current progress with respect to ultrafast, atomic-scale resolution X-ray scattering studies of materials. In the last decade, advances in sources and techniques have opened up new possibilities for probing the dynamics of how materials change in situ and in real time. These developments have enabled direct measurements of the first primary steps in how complex/functional materials transform and the flow of energy between different degrees of freedom. Unique insight into the mechanisms underlying how materials function is obtained through these studies. An outlook on future developments and new opportunities is also presented.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Transparent Perovskite Barium Stannate with High Electron Mobility and Thermal Stability
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Woong-Jhae Lee, Hyung Joon Kim, Jeonghun Kang, Dong Hyun Jang, Tai Hoon Kim, Jeong Hyuk Lee, Kee Hoon Kim

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) have become necessary materials for a variety of applications in the information and energy technologies, ranging from transparent electrodes to active electronics components. Perovskite barium stannate (BaSnO3), a new TCO or TOS system, is a potential platform for realizing optoelectronic devices and observing novel electronic quantum states due to its high electron mobility, excellent thermal stability, high transparency, structural versatility, and flexible doping controllability. This article reviews recent progress in the doped BaSnO3 system, discussing the wide range of physical properties, electron-scattering mechanism, and demonstration of key semiconducting devices such as pn diodes and field-effect transistors. Moreover, we discuss the pathways to achieving two-dimensional electron gases at the interface between BaSnO3 and other perovskite oxides and describe remaining challenges for observing novel quantum phenomena at the heterointerface.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Synthetic Two-Dimensional Polymers
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Marco Servalli, A. Dieter Schlüter

    Synthetic two-dimensional polymers (2DPs) are an emerging subclass of 2D materials that are accessible by mild and rational synthesis procedures. Because of their structure, which is reminiscent of a molecular fisherman's net, 2DPs strongly differ from conventional linear polymers. They are expected to show applications in fields such as gas separation, nonlinear optics, and miniaturization of optical devices. The article sketches the historic development that led to the first fully proven representatives, describing each case in detail and comparing the current main access routes. Insights into some application aspects are also given. Alternative synthesis routes are also presented, together with the critical analytical issues. Structure analysis is perhaps the greatest challenge in this field, which arises with regard to proving the periodic structure of a 2DP. This article intends to stimulate the interest of an interdisciplinary community to join forces to develop this promising field even more quickly.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Structural and Functional Fibers
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Huibin Chang, Jeffrey Luo, Prabhakar V. Gulgunje, Satish Kumar

    Historically, fibers are known to be relatively passive materials and are used primarily in textiles. Today, however, fibers with a range of functionalities such as electrical and thermal conductivity, superparamagnetic properties, temperature regulation, energy harvesting, and biomedical capability provide many possibilities. Most man-made fibers today are derived from petroleum, but there is increasing emphasis on making fibers biorenewable. Fibers are also the strongest structural materials available today. Different fiber fabrication technologies, available properties, and some near-term future prospects are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Silicate Deposit Degradation of Engineered Coatings in Gas Turbines: Progress Toward Models and Materials Solutions
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    David L. Poerschke, R. Wesley Jackson, Carlos G. Levi

    Modern gas turbines rely on ceramic coatings to protect structural components along the hot gas path. These coatings are susceptible to accelerated degradation caused by silicate deposits formed when ingested environmental debris (dust, sand, ash) adheres to the coatings. This article reviews the current understanding of the deposit-induced failure mechanisms for zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings and silicate environmental barrier coatings. Details of the debris melting and crystallization behavior, the nature of the chemical reactions occurring between the deposits and coatings, and the implications for the thermocyclic durability of the coatings are described. Given the challenges posed in understanding how prospective coating materials and architectures will respond to a broad range of deposit compositions, it is proposed to develop an integrated framework linking thermochemical and thermomechanical models to predict coating durability. Initial progress toward developing this framework, and the requisite research needs, are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Physical Dynamics of Ice Crystal Growth
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Kenneth G. Libbrecht

    We examine ice crystallization from liquid water and from water vapor, focusing on the underlying physical processes that determine growth rates and structure formation. Ice crystal growth is largely controlled by a combination of molecular attachment kinetics on faceted surfaces and large-scale diffusion processes, yielding a remarkably rich phenomenology of solidification behaviors under different conditions. Layer nucleation plays an especially important role, with nucleation rates determined primarily by step energies on faceted ice/water and ice/vapor interfaces. The measured step energies depend strongly on temperature and other factors, and it appears promising that molecular dynamics simulations could soon be used in conjunction with experiments to better understand the energetics of these terrace steps. On larger scales, computational techniques have recently demonstrated the ability to accurately model the diffusion-limited growth of complex structures that are both faceted and branched. Together with proper boundary conditions determined by surface attachment kinetics, this opens a path to fully reproducing the variety of complex structures that commonly arise during ice crystal growth.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Heusler 4.0: Tunable Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Lukas Wollmann, Ajaya K. Nayak, Stuart S.P. Parkin, Claudia Felser

    Heusler compounds are a large family of binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds that exhibit a wide range of properties of both fundamental and potential technological interest. The extensive tunability of the Heusler compounds through chemical substitutions and structural motifs makes the family especially interesting. In this article we highlight recent major developments in the field of Heusler compounds and put these in the historical context. The evolution of the Heusler compounds can be described by four major periods of research. In the latest period, Heusler 4.0 has led to the observation of a variety of properties derived from topology that includes topological metals with Weyl and Dirac points; a variety of noncollinear spin textures, including the very recent observation of skyrmions at room temperature; and giant anomalous Hall effects in antiferromagnetic Heuslers with triangular magnetic structures. Here we give a comprehensive overview of these major achievements and set research into Heusler materials within the context of recent emerging trends in condensed matter physics.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Deformation of Crystals: Connections with Statistical Physics
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    James P. Sethna, Matthew K. Bierbaum, Karin A. Dahmen, Carl P. Goodrich, Julia R. Greer, Lorien X. Hayden, Jaron P. Kent-Dobias, Edward D. Lee, Danilo B. Liarte, Xiaoyue Ni, Katherine N. Quinn, Archishman Raju, D. Zeb Rocklin, Ashivni Shekhawat, Stefano Zapperi

    We give a bird's-eye view of the plastic deformation of crystals aimed at the statistical physics community, as well as a broad introduction to the statistical theories of forced rigid systems aimed at the plasticity community. Memory effects in magnets, spin glasses, charge density waves, and dilute colloidal suspensions are discussed in relation to the onset of plastic yielding in crystals. Dislocation avalanches and complex dislocation tangles are discussed via a brief introduction to the renormalization group and scaling. Analogies to emergent scale invariance in fracture, jamming, coarsening, and a variety of depinning transitions are explored. Dislocation dynamics in crystals challenge nonequilibrium statistical physics. Statistical physics provides both cautionary tales of subtle memory effects in nonequilibrium systems and systematic tools designed to address complex scale-invariant behavior on multiple length scales and timescales.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Atomistic Simulations of Activated Processes in Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    G. Henkelman

    Activated processes in materials are important for many of the properties that make them function. Batteries and catalysts are examples for which understanding how the component materials function on a timescale of milliseconds to seconds is critical to making improvements in a rational way. Modeling materials over these long timescales, relative to the timescale of atomic vibrations, is one of the grand challenges of the field. Transition state theory is central to bridging this timescale gap, and in the materials community, the harmonic approximation and the determination of saddle points to quantify reaction rates are ubiquitous. In this review, single- and double-ended methods for saddle point finding are discussed, as well as how finding saddle points can be used in the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to model materials properties on the timescale of activated processes. Applications of surface diffusion and chemistry, phase boundary migration, and solid-solid phase transitions are presented.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Atomic-Scale Structure-Property Relationships in Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Zhenzhong Yang, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li

    Li ion batteries are important components of portable devices, electric vehicles, and smart grids owing to their high energy density, excellent cyclic performance, and safe operation. However, further development of electrode materials for these batteries is needed to satisfy continually increasing performance demands. Typically, both the charge/discharge kinetics and structural stability of these electrode materials depend on the transport and storage properties of the Li ions. High-spatial-resolution information on structural changes and on the strong interaction between electrons and ions is essential for a better understanding of the electrochemical performance of rechargeable batteries. In this article, we review the known atomic-scale structural changes of these electrode materials during the charge/discharge process, with special emphasis on ion/electron interactions.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Active Crystal Growth Techniques for Quantum Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Julian L. Schmehr, Stephen D. Wilson

    We review recent advances in crystal growth techniques, focusing on the development of novel quantum materials. Recent progress in instrumentation design, opening new avenues in bulk crystal growth of oxide and intermetallic compounds, is highlighted. Specifically, we illustrate leading techniques that allow for the active control of crystal nucleation/growth and provide platforms for the realization of single crystals with ultrahigh purity and minimized defects. Advances in the postgrowth manipulation of crystals, as well as the impact of purification techniques on the stabilization of delicate quantum phases, are also discussed. Throughout, we highlight new scientific avenues opened by access to high-purity single-crystal samples.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Synchrotron X-Ray Optics
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Albert T. Macrander, XiangRong Huang

    Most X-ray optics for use at synchrotron beamlines are structured to achieve a desired performance level. The fabrication steps needed to achieve a certain structure usually limit the final performance, such as for energy resolution and focus size. This review illustrates this point for monochromators, mirrors, multilayers, and zone plates, with a special emphasis on focusing optics because these provide some of the best examples of structuring. Elliptically shaped mirrors, Fresnel zone plates, and multilayer Laue lenses are reviewed.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Structured X-Ray Optics for Laboratory-Based Materials Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Carolyn A. MacDonald

    Metamaterials provide a challenge for materials analysis, as large-scale 3D geometries confound traditional methods. X-ray optics that allow for novel beam geometries and for more efficient use of conventional X-ray sources can be important in defect and structure analysis to close the loop between design and performance. Fortunately, metamaterials have also provided a new variety of array and structured X-ray optics. Because X-rays barely interact with materials, their index of refraction in any material is only slightly different from unity, so it is very difficult to make the sort of refractive optics that are used for visible light. Instead, diffraction can be used to control the direction or wavelength of X-rays. Structured diffractive optics include transmission gratings, artificial multilayers, and arrays of curved crystals. X-rays also have very high reflectivity at grazing incidence. This phenomenon allows for reflective arrays such as multipore and polycapillary optics.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Sound Absorption Structures: From Porous Media to Acoustic Metamaterials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Min Yang, Ping Sheng

    The recent advent of acoustic metamaterials has initiated a strong revival of interest on the subject of sound absorption. The present review is based on the physics perspective as the coherent basis of this diverse field. For conventional absorbers, viscous dissipation and heat conduction at the fluid-solid interface, when expressed through micro-geometric parameters, yield an effective medium description of porous media and micro-perforated panels as effectual sound absorbers. Local resonances and their geometric and symmetry constraints serve as the framework for surveying a variety of acoustic metamaterial absorbers that can realize previously unattainable absorption spectra with subwavelength-scale structures. These structures include decorated membrane resonators, degenerate resonators, hybrid resonators, and coiled Fabry-Pérot and Helmholtz resonators. As the acoustic response of any structure or material must obey the causality principle, the implied constraint—which relates the absorption spectrum of a sample to its required minimum thickness—is presented as a means to delineate what is ultimately possible for sound-absorbing structures. The review concludes by describing a recently reported strategy for realizing structures that can exhibit custom-designed absorption spectra, as well as its implementation in the form of a broadband absorber with a thickness that is close to the minimum value as dictated by causality.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Negative-Poisson's-Ratio Materials: Auxetic Solids
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Roderic S. Lakes

    Poisson's ratio had long been considered to be an intrinsic material property, confined within a narrow domain and governed solely by the geometry of interatomic bonds. Materials with designed heterogeneity allow for control over the Poisson's ratio. Poisson's ratios of any value within the thermodynamically admissible domain may be attained, including negative Poisson's ratio (termed auxetic). In this article, we discuss the role of Poisson's ratio in elasticity, two-dimensional and three-dimensional materials, phase transformations, underlying causes in the microstructure, and other negative physical properties.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Harnessing Instabilities to Design Tunable Architected Cellular Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Katia Bertoldi

    Mechanical instabilities are traditionally regarded as a route toward failure. However, they can also be exploited to design architected cellular materials with tunable functionality. In this review, we focus on three examples and show that mechanical instabilities in architected cellular materials can be harnessed (a) to design auxetic materials, (b) to control the propagation of elastic waves, and (c) to realize reusable energy-absorbing materials. Together, these examples highlight a new strategy to design tunable systems across a wide range of length scales.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • DNA-Driven Assembly: From Polyhedral Nanoparticles to Proteins
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Martin Girard, Jaime A. Millan, Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    Directed crystallization of a large variety of nanoparticles, including proteins, via DNA hybridization kinetics has led to unique materials with a broad range of crystal symmetries. The nanoparticles are functionalized with DNA chains that link neighboring functionalized units. The shape of the nanoparticle, the DNA length, the sequence of the hybridizing DNA linker, and the grafting density determine the crystal symmetries and lattice spacing. By carefully selecting these parameters, one can, in principle, achieve all the symmetries found for both atomic and colloidal crystals of asymmetric shapes as well as new symmetries and can drive transitions between them. A scale-accurate coarse-grained model with explicit DNA chains provides the design parameters, including the degree of hybridization, to achieve specific crystal structures. The model also provides surface energy values to determine the shape of defect-free single crystals with macroscopic anisotropic properties, which has potential for the fabrication of materials with specific optical and mechanical properties.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Control of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Metal Oxide Nanocrystals
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Ankit Agrawal, Robert W. Johns, Delia J. Milliron

    Metal oxides, when electronically doped with oxygen vacancies, aliovalent dopants, or interstitial dopants, can exhibit metallic behavior due to the stabilization of a substantial charge carrier concentration within the material. As a result, localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) occur in nanocrystals of conducting metal oxides. Through deliberate choice of both the host material and the defect, these resonances can be tuned across the entirety of the near- and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical modeling has revealed that the defects present have profound impacts on charge carrier mobility and electronic structure, and in some cases, choosing one dopant over another is an important trade-off for optimizing plasmonic performance. These materials are distinct from classical metals in that one can tune their LSPR in energy and intensity through their elemental composition independently of any particular size or nanocrystal morphology. In addition, the LSPR in these materials is highly modulable through external stimuli over substantial spectral windows. As a result, these materials uniquely provide a responsive plasmonic material that can offer optimal nanocrystal arrangements and morphology without compromising the intended resonance frequency for light concentration at any infrared wavelength.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    David L. Bourell

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Ceramic Stereolithography: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics by Photopolymerization
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    John W. Halloran

    Ceramic stereolithography and related additive manufacturing methods involving photopolymerization of ceramic powder suspensions are reviewed in terms of the capabilities of current devices. The practical fundamentals of the cure depth, cure width, and cure profile are related to the optical properties of the monomer, ceramic, and photo-active components. Postpolymerization steps, including harvesting and cleaning the objects, binder burnout, and sintering, are discussed and compared with conventional methods. The prospects for practical manufacturing are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Pylin Sarobol, Adam Cook, Paul G. Clem, David Keicher, Deidre Hirschfeld, Aaron C. Hall, Nelson S. Bell

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    P.C. Collins, D.A. Brice, P. Samimi, I. Ghamarian, H.L. Fraser

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed–Based Additive Manufacturing
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Matthias Markl, Carolin Körner

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Epitaxy and Microstructure Evolution in Metal Additive Manufacturing
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Amrita Basak, Suman Das

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) works on the principle of incremental layer-by-layer material consolidation, facilitating the fabrication of objects of arbitrary complexity through the controlled melting and resolidification of feedstock materials by using high-power energy sources. The focus of metal AM is to produce complex-shaped components made of metals and alloys to meet demands from various industrial sectors such as defense, aerospace, automotive, and biomedicine. Metal AM involves a complex interplay between multiple modes of energy and mass transfer, fluid flow, phase change, and microstructural evolution. Understanding the fundamental physics of these phenomena is a key requirement for metal AM process development and optimization. The effects of material characteristics and processing conditions on the resulting epitaxy and microstructure are of critical interest in metal AM. This article reviews various metal AM processes in the context of fabricating metal and alloy parts through epitaxial solidification, with material systems ranging from pure-metal and prealloyed to multicomponent materials. The aim is to cover the relationships between various AM processes and the resulting microstructures in these material systems.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    John J. Lewandowski, Mohsen Seifi

    This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Architected Cellular Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Tobias A. Schaedler, William B. Carter

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Topology Optimization for Architected Materials Design
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Mikhail Osanov, James K. Guest

    Advanced manufacturing processes provide a tremendous opportunity to fabricate materials with precisely defined architectures. To fully leverage these capabilities, however, materials architectures must be optimally designed according to the target application, base material used, and specifics of the fabrication process. Computational topology optimization offers a systematic, mathematically driven framework for navigating this new design challenge. The design problem is posed and solved formally as an optimization problem with unit cell and upscaling mechanics embedded within this formulation. This article briefly reviews the key requirements to apply topology optimization to materials architecture design and discusses several fundamental findings related to optimization of elastic, thermal, and fluidic properties in periodic materials. Emerging areas related to topology optimization for manufacturability and manufacturing variations, nonlinear mechanics, and multiscale design are also discussed.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • The Chemistry and Applications of π-Gels
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Samrat Ghosh, Vakayil K. Praveen, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh

    π-Gels are a promising class of functional soft materials formed out of short π-conjugated molecules. By utilizing the chemistry of noncovalent interactions, researchers have created a wide range of π-gels that are composed of supramolecular polymers. During the last two decades, supramolecular gel chemistry has been pursued with the hope of developing new materials for applications in, for example, organic electronics, energy harvesting, sensing, and imaging. The high expectations for π-gels were centered mainly around their electronic properties, such as tunable emission, energy transfer, electron transfer, charge transport, and electrical conductivity; such properties are amenable to modulation through size and shape control of molecular assemblies. Although a large number of exciting publications have appeared, a major technological breakthrough is yet to be realized. In this review, we analyze the recent advancements in the area of functional π-gels and their scope in future applications.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Dealloying and Dealloyed Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Ian McCue, Ellen Benn, Bernard Gaskey, Jonah Erlebacher

    A successful working model for nanoporosity evolution during dealloying was introduced 15 years ago. Since that time, the field has rapidly expanded, with research groups from across the world studying dealloying and dealloyed materials. Dealloying has grown into a rich field, with some groups focusing on fundamentals and mechanisms of dealloying, other groups creating new porous metals and alloys, and even more groups studying their properties. Dealloying was originally considered only in the context of corrosion, but now it is considered a facile self-organization technique to fabricate high-surface-area, bicontinuous nanoporous materials. Owing to their high interfacial area and the versatility of metallic materials, nanoporous metals have found application in catalysis, sensing, actuation, electrolytic and ultracapacitor materials, high-temperature templates/scaffolds, battery anodes, and radiation damage–tolerant materials. In this review, we discuss the fundamental materials principles underlying the formation of dealloyed materials and then look at two major applications: catalysis and nanomechanics.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Material Evaluation by Infrared Thermography
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Stephen D. Holland, Ricky S. Reusser

    Infrared thermography uses the temperature-imaging capability of modern thermal cameras to characterize materials and detect flaws. An energy source—whether a pulse of light from a laser or flash lamp, an induction coil, or some other source—induces heat flow in a material, and the resulting temperature patterns are imaged with the thermal camera. In flash thermography, the most widely used form of quantitative thermography, a pulse of light is used as the energy source, and then the surface cooldown is imaged with the thermal camera. Calculations based on an elementary theory of 1D heat conduction can determine thickness (or, equivalently, thermal diffusivity), and nonuniformity in the cooldown will identify defects. This article reviews the methods, approaches, and models of thermography. It focuses on illustrating and identifying the materials, thicknesses, and flaw conditions under which thermography is an effective material characterization technique.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Physics of Ultrathin Films and Heterostructures of Rare-Earth Nickelates
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    S. Middey, J. Chakhalian, P. Mahadevan, J.W. Freeland, A.J. Millis, D.D. Sarma

    The electronic structure of transition metal oxides featuring correlated electrons can be rationalized within the Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen framework. Following a brief description of the present paradigms of electronic behavior, we focus on the physics of rare-earth nickelates as an archetype of complexity emerging within the charge transfer regime. The intriguing prospect of realizing the physics of high-Tc cuprates through heterostructuring resulted in a massive endeavor to epitaxially stabilize these materials in ultrathin form. A plethora of new phenomena unfolded in such artificial structures due to the effect of epitaxial strain, quantum confinement, and interfacial charge transfer. Here we review the present status of artificial rare-earth nickelates in an effort to uncover the interconnection between the electronic and magnetic behavior and the underlying crystal structure. We conclude by discussing future directions to disentangle the puzzle regarding the origin of the metal-insulator transition, the role of oxygen holes, and the true nature of the antiferromagnetic spin configuration in the ultrathin limit.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Hiroshi Ichikawa

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Ado Jorio, Antonio G. Souza Filho

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes–anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Recent Advances in Superhard Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Zhisheng Zhao, Bo Xu, Yongjun Tian

    In superhard materials research, two topics are of central focus. One is to understand hardness microscopically and to establish hardness models with atomic parameters, which can be used to guide the design or prediction of novel superhard crystals. The other is to synthesize superhard materials with enhanced comprehensive performance (i.e., hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal stability), with the ambition of achieving materials harder than natural diamond. In this review, we present recent developments in both areas. The microscopic hardness models of covalent single crystals are introduced and further generalized to polycrystalline materials. Current research progress in novel superhard materials and nanostructuring approaches for high-performance superhard materials are discussed. We also clarify a long-standing controversy about the criterion for performing a reliable indentation hardness measurement.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Synthetic Micro/Nanomotors and Pumps: Fabrication and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Flory Wong, Krishna Kanti Dey, Ayusman Sen

    Synthetic active systems capable of autonomous motion or driving fluid flow are of great current interest owing to their potential applications in nanomachinery, cargo capture and delivery, reversible assemblies, and chemical/biochemical sensing. Designing self-powered micro/nanomotors and understanding their propulsion mechanisms and ensemble behavior are now areas of great interest in low-Reynolds-number mechanics. In this article, we classify prototypes of existing small-scale motors on the basis of the materials used in synthesis and fabrication, with the aim of understanding the importance of material selection in designing functional motors for futuristic applications.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Thermal Boundary Conductance: A Materials Science Perspective
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Christian Monachon, Ludger Weber, Chris Dames

    The thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of materials pairs in atomically intimate contact is reviewed as a practical guide for materials scientists. First, analytical and computational models of TBC are reviewed. Five measurement methods are then compared in terms of their sensitivity to TBC: the 3ω method, frequency- and time-domain thermoreflectance, the cut-bar method, and a composite effective thermal conductivity method. The heart of the review surveys 30 years of TBC measurements around room temperature, highlighting the materials science factors experimentally proven to influence TBC. These factors include the bulk dispersion relations, acoustic contrast, and interfacial chemistry and bonding. The measured TBCs are compared across a wide range of materials systems by using the maximum transmission limit, which with an attenuated transmission coefficient proves to be a good guideline for most clean, strongly bonded interfaces. Finally, opportunities for future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Ultraincompressible, Superhard Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 13.432) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Michael T. Yeung, Reza Mohammadi, Richard B. Kaner

    The search for new ultraincompressible, superhard materials has been performed largely through trial and error. Despite the difficulties in synthesizing such materials, interest in this field has blossomed with recent experimental and theoretical results. Such progress has led to the development of superhard metal borides, ultraincompressible nitrides, and strong carbides. Our previous parameters of high electron density and high covalent bond density had served us well in synthesizing ultraincompressible, superhard metals, but after a decade of research, a more detailed understanding is needed. By studying the origin of strength from previously discovered incompressible, hard materials, we hope to gain new insight into this rapidly growing field. In particular, we propose a focus on bonding and structure to understand why some materials are ultraincompressible and superhard.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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