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  • Neuroimmunology: JAK in the itch
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Yvonne Bordon

    Neuroimmunology: JAK in the itch Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.114 Chronic itch is driven by IL-4 receptor- and JAK1-mediated signalling in sensory neurons.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • γδ T cells in homeostasis and host defence of epithelial barrier tissues
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Morten M. Nielsen, Deborah A. Witherden, Wendy L. Havran

    Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body — namely, the epidermis and the intestine — and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance. Finally, we describe epithelium-specific butyrophilin-like molecules and briefly review their emerging role in selectively shaping and regulating epidermal and intestinal γδ T cell repertoires.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Neutrophils: Interfering with intestinal inflammation
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Shimona Starling

    Neutrophils: Interfering with intestinal inflammation Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.113 IFNλ can modulate the function of neutrophils and suppress intestinal inflammation.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Complement in cancer: untangling an intricate relationship
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Edimara S. Reis, Dimitrios C. Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D. Lambris

    In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis. It also offers insight into clinical aspects, including the feasibility of using complement biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and the use of complement inhibitors during cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Neutrophils: Interfering with intestinal inflammation
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Shimona Starling

    IFNλ can modulate the function of neutrophils and suppress intestinal inflammation.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Neuroimmunology: JAK in the itch
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Yvonne Bordon

    Chronic itch is driven by IL-4 receptor- and JAK1-mediated signalling in sensory neurons.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • γδ T cells in homeostasis and host defence of epithelial barrier tissues
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Morten M. Nielsen, Deborah A. Witherden, Wendy L. Havran

    Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body — namely, the epidermis and the intestine — and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance. Finally, we describe epithelium-specific butyrophilin-like molecules and briefly review their emerging role in selectively shaping and regulating epidermal and intestinal γδ T cell repertoires.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Complement in cancer: untangling an intricate relationship
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Edimara S. Reis, Dimitrios C. Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D. Lambris

    In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis. It also offers insight into clinical aspects, including the feasibility of using complement biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and the use of complement inhibitors during cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Mucosal immunology: Probiotic induction of tolerogenic T cells in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Katharine H. Wrighton

    Mucosal immunology: Probiotic induction of tolerogenic T cells in the gut Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.110 A probiotic induces CD4+ T cell differentiation into tolerogenic double-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes by activating their aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Immune homeostasis: Regulatory ILCs don't rely on FOXP3
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Yvonne Bordon

    Immune homeostasis: Regulatory ILCs don't rely on FOXP3 Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.107 The identification of a regulatory innate lymphoid cell subset in the intestine.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • T cells: Proteasome dictates CD8+ T cell fate
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Shimona Starling

    T cells: Proteasome dictates CD8+ T cell fate Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.109 Endogenous proteasome activity can modulate the fate and function of CD8+ T cells.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Functions of tissue-resident eosinophils
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Peter F. Weller, Lisa A. Spencer

    Eosinophils are a prominent cell type in particular host responses such as the response to helminth infection and allergic disease. Their effector functions have been attributed to their capacity to release cationic proteins stored in cytoplasmic granules by degranulation. However, eosinophils are now being recognized for more varied functions in previously underappreciated diverse tissue sites, based on the ability of eosinophils to release cytokines (often preformed) that mediate a broad range of activities into the local environment. In this Review, we consider evolving insights into the tissue distribution of eosinophils and their functional immunobiology, which enable eosinophils to secrete in a selective manner cytokines and other mediators that have diverse, 'non-effector' functions in health and disease.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Organ-specific protection mediated by cooperation between vascular and epithelial barriers
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Ilaria Spadoni, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno

    Immune privilege is a complex process that protects organs from immune-mediated attack and damage. It is accomplished by a series of cellular barriers that both control immune cell entry and promote the development of tolerogenic immune cells. In this Review, we describe the vascular endothelial and epithelial barriers in organs that are commonly considered to be immune privileged, such as the brain and the eye. We compare these classical barriers with barriers in the intestine, which share features with barriers of immune-privileged organs, such as the capacity to induce tolerance and to protect from external insults. We suggest that when intestinal barriers break down, disruption of other barriers at distant sites can ensue, and this may underlie the development of various neurological, metabolic and intestinal disorders.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Tumour immunology: Cell cycle inhibitors boost tumour immunogenicity
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Kirsty Minton

    Tumour immunology: Cell cycle inhibitors boost tumour immunogenicity Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.104 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors promote tumour regression by increasing antigen presentation and decreasing immune regulation.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Type 2 immunity in tissue repair and fibrosis
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Richard L. Gieseck III, Mark S. Wilson, Thomas A. Wynn

    Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses — including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages — also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms. Nevertheless, when type 2 cytokine-mediated repair processes become chronic, over-exuberant or dysregulated, they can also contribute to the development of pathological fibrosis in many different organ systems. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms by which type 2 immunity contributes to tissue regeneration and fibrosis following injury.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Synthetic immune niches for cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Jorieke Weiden, Jurjen Tel, Carl G. Figdor

    Synthetic immune niches for cancer immunotherapy Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.89 Carl Figdor and colleagues propose that delivering cancer immunotherapy in the context of engineered three-dimensional scaffolds may boost anticancer immunity. The synthetic scaffolds, which can be linked to immunomodulatory factors, can act as immune niches to support the priming and maintenance of antitumour immune responses.

    更新日期:2017-09-16
  • Mucosal immunology: Probiotic induction of tolerogenic T cells in the gut
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Katharine H. Wrighton

    Mucosal immunology: Probiotic induction of tolerogenic T cells in the gut Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.110 A probiotic induces CD4+ T cell differentiation into tolerogenic double-positive intraepithelial lymphocytes by activating their aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Immune homeostasis: Regulatory ILCs don't rely on FOXP3
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Yvonne Bordon

    Immune homeostasis: Regulatory ILCs don't rely on FOXP3 Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.107 The identification of a regulatory innate lymphoid cell subset in the intestine.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • T cells: Proteasome dictates CD8+ T cell fate
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Shimona Starling

    T cells: Proteasome dictates CD8+ T cell fate Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.109 Endogenous proteasome activity can modulate the fate and function of CD8+ T cells.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Functions of tissue-resident eosinophils
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Peter F. Weller, Lisa A. Spencer

    Functions of tissue-resident eosinophils Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.95 Tissue-resident eosinophils selectively secrete cytokines and other mediators that have diverse functions in health and disease.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Organ-specific protection mediated by cooperation between vascular and epithelial barriers
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Ilaria Spadoni, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno

    Immune privilege is a complex process that protects organs from immune-mediated attack and damage. It is accomplished by a series of cellular barriers that both control immune cell entry and promote the development of tolerogenic immune cells. In this Review, we describe the vascular endothelial and epithelial barriers in organs that are commonly considered to be immune privileged, such as the brain and the eye. We compare these classical barriers with barriers in the intestine, which share features with barriers of immune-privileged organs, such as the capacity to induce tolerance and to protect from external insults. We suggest that when intestinal barriers break down, disruption of other barriers at distant sites can ensue, and this may underlie the development of various neurological, metabolic and intestinal disorders.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Tumour immunology: Cell cycle inhibitors boost tumour immunogenicity
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 
    Kirsty Minton

    Tumour immunology: Cell cycle inhibitors boost tumour immunogenicity Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.104 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors promote tumour regression by increasing antigen presentation and decreasing immune regulation.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Type 2 immunity in tissue repair and fibrosis
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Richard L. Gieseck, Mark S. Wilson, Thomas A. Wynn

    Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses — including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages — also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms. Nevertheless, when type 2 cytokine-mediated repair processes become chronic, over-exuberant or dysregulated, they can also contribute to the development of pathological fibrosis in many different organ systems. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms by which type 2 immunity contributes to tissue regeneration and fibrosis following injury.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Synthetic immune niches for cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Jorieke Weiden, Jurjen Tel, Carl G. Figdor

    Synthetic immune niches for cancer immunotherapy Nature Reviews Immunology, Published online: 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/nri.2017.89 Carl Figdor and colleagues propose that delivering cancer immunotherapy in the context of engineered three-dimensional scaffolds may boost anticancer immunity. The synthetic scaffolds, which can be linked to immunomodulatory factors, can act as immune niches to support the priming and maintenance of antitumour immune responses.

    更新日期:2017-09-14
  • Antibodies: Herd immunity
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Yvonne Bordon

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV can be rapidly generated by immunizing cows.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • T cell–B cell collaboration
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Jonathan Sprent

    Jonathan Sprent describes a 1968 study by Graham Mitchell and Jacques Miller that showed the requirement for T cell–B cell collaboration for antibody production.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Mucosal immunology: Eye spy a protective commensal
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Shimona Starling

    A candidate ocular commensal organism isolated from mice drives ocular immune responses and protects against infection with pathogens.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Immunometabolism: NK cell subset expands with your waistline
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Lucy Bird

    A distinct subset of natural killer cells with a myeloid signature is associated with metainflammation.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Innate immunity: Nuclear waste ignites cGAS
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Yvonne Bordon

    Cytosolic chromatin activates cGAS and inflammatory gene expression following DNA damage.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Innate immunity: A new way out for lysozyme
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Shimona Starling

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress in Paneth cells induces secretory autophagy of lysozyme.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • The dichotomous nature of T helper 17 cells
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Brigitta Stockinger, Sara Omenetti

    T helper 17 (TH17) cells have been extensively studied since their discovery 10 years ago, primarily because of their known pathogenic role in many inflammatory diseases. Substantial progress has been made in understanding their development, regulation and functional activities, and genome-wide transcriptomic analysis has identified regulatory networks, nodes and interactions that provide vital clues for further studies. In this Review, we describe recent studies that have revealed the dichotomous nature of TH17 cells, which on the one hand allows these cells to be pathogenic drivers of inflammatory disorders and on the other hand allows them to support the integrity of the intestinal barrier in a non-inflammatory manner.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • The non-canonical NF-κB pathway in immunity and inflammation
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-06-05
    Shao-Cong Sun

    The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors is activated by canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways, which differ in both signalling components and biological functions. Recent studies have revealed important roles for the non-canonical NF-κB pathway in regulating different aspects of immune functions. Defects in non-canonical NF-κB signalling are associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas dysregulated activation of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we review the signalling mechanisms and the biological function of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. We also discuss recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating non-canonical NF-κB pathway activation, which may provide new opportunities for therapeutic strategies.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Chemokines in the cancer microenvironment and their relevance in cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Nisha Nagarsheth, Max S. Wicha, Weiping Zou

    The tumour microenvironment is the primary location in which tumour cells and the host immune system interact. Different immune cell subsets are recruited into the tumour microenvironment via interactions between chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these populations have distinct effects on tumour progression and therapeutic outcomes. In this Review, we focus on the main chemokines that are found in the human tumour microenvironment; we elaborate on their patterns of expression, their regulation and their roles in immune cell recruitment and in cancer and stromal cell biology, and we consider how they affect cancer immunity and tumorigenesis. We also discuss the potential of targeting chemokine networks, in combination with other immunotherapies, for the treatment of cancer.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Adult haematopoietic stem cell niches
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Genevieve M. Crane, Elise Jeffery, Sean J. Morrison

    Stem cell niches are specialized microenvironments that promote the maintenance of stem cells and regulate their function. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the niches that maintain adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These advances include new markers for HSCs and niche cells, systematic analyses of the expression patterns of niche factors, genetic tools for functionally identifying niche cells in vivo, and improved imaging techniques. Together, they have shown that HSC niches are perivascular in the bone marrow and spleen. Endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells secrete factors that promote HSC maintenance in these niches, but other cell types also directly or indirectly regulate HSC niches.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • The dichotomy of T helper 17 cells in cancer
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Lekh N. Dahal

    Immunologists have been left with considerable bewilderment by the complexity posed by the brands and flavours of T helper cell subsets. The T helper 17 (TH17) subset is a recent addition and research has focused extensively on basic biology, lineage development, promotion of

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • The pros and cons of dying tumour cells in adaptive immune responses
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Xiaochen Wang, Xiao-Jie Lu, Beicheng Sun

    Therapeutics based upon using the adaptive immune system to fight against tumours have become the most promising in the field. Increasing evidence has shown that multiform cell death-mediated events play vital roles in regulating adaptive immune responses within tumours, thus providing potential antitumour therapeutic targets.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Innate immunity: Nuclear waste ignites cGAS
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Yvonne Bordon

    Cytosolic chromatin activates cGAS and inflammatory gene expression following DNA damage.

    更新日期:2017-08-21
  • Immunometabolism: NK cell subset expands with your waistline
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Lucy Bird

    A distinct subset of natural killer cells with a myeloid signature is associated with metainflammation.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Antibodies: Herd immunity
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Yvonne Bordon

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV can be rapidly generated by immunizing cows.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Innate lymphoid cells: major players in inflammatory diseases
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Mikaël Ebbo, Adeline Crinier, Frédéric Vély, Eric Vivier

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in our understanding of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs can be classified into different groups based on their similarity to T cell subsets in terms of their expression of key transcription factors and cytokine production. Various immunological functions of ILCs have been described, and increasing numbers of studies have implicated these cells in inflammatory disorders. Here, we detail the roles of ILCs in inflammatory diseases; we cover type 2 inflammatory diseases (such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and atopic dermatitis), as well as inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis and other systemic or organ-specific inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Future directions in the field are discussed, together with potential avenues of treatment.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Innate immunity: A new way out for lysozyme
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Shimona Starling

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress in Paneth cells induces secretory autophagy of lysozyme.

    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • The theory of disappearing microbiota and the epidemics of chronic diseases
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Martin J. Blaser

    In recent decades, the incidence of many apparently unrelated chronic diseases has markedly increased. Here, I theorize that losses of particular bacterial species of our ancestral microbiota have altered the context in which immunological, metabolic and cognitive development occur in early life, which results in

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • NK cell allorecognition
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Ashley Moffett

    Ashley Moffett describes a 1995 paper by Colonna and Samaridis that provided the stiumulus to understanding the link between NK cells and pre-eclampsia.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Early life immunology: Fetal DCs — born to be mild
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Yvonne Bordon

    Fetal dendritic cells suppress pro-inflammatory T cell activity.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Asthma and allergy: Vitamin D primes neonatal immune system
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Yvonne Bordon

    Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to the development of childhood asthma, but most studies in this area have been observational. To directly examine how vitamin D status in pregnancy affects the neonatal immune system, Hornsby et al. analysed cord blood samples

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Type 2 immunity: Hero turns villain in fatty liver
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Shimona Starling

    Obesity associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with pro-fibrotic type 2 immune responses

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Haematopoiesis: Osteopontin skews lymphoid–myeloid balance
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Kirsty Minton

    Intracellular and secreted isoforms of osteopontin differentially regulate myeloid progenitors and differentiated lymphoid cells, respectively, through pro- and anti-apoptotic effects.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Innate immunity: Alarmins rewire innate immunity in newborns
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Yvonne Bordon

    This study describes an important role for the endogenous alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 in protecting newborn infants from sepsis. Healthy newborns produce extremely high levels of S100 alarmins for the first five days of life; the authors found that these alarmins signal through TLR4 to

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Microbiota: Baby bugs can't stop the thugs...
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Yvonne Bordon

    Newborns are highly susceptible to orally acquired bacterial infections and this is generally attributed to immaturity of their immune system. This study shows that another contributing factor is the neonatal microbiota, which is less effective in mediating colonization resistance. Kim et al. colonized adult

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • The unique immunological and microbial aspects of pregnancy
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Gil Mor, Paulomi Aldo, Ayesha B. Alvero

    The comparison of the immunological state of pregnancy to an immunosuppressed host–graft model continues to lead research and clinical practice to ill-defined approaches. This Review discusses recent evidence that supports the idea that immunological responses at the receptive maternal–fetal interface are not simply suppressed but are instead highly dynamic. We discuss the crucial role of trophoblast cells in shaping not only the way in which immune cells respond to the invading blastocyst but also how they collectively react to external stimuli. We also discuss the role of the microbiota in promoting a tolerogenic maternal immune system and highlight how subclinical viral infections can disrupt this status quo, leading to pregnancy complications.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Tumour vaccines: Personal training by vaccination
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Ulrike Harjes

    Two groups have shown that personalized, neoantigen-based tumour vaccines elicit effective T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma, leading to favourable clinical outcomes. Combination with checkpoint blockade can be of additional benefit.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Immunological implications of pregnancy-induced microchimerism
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Jeremy M. Kinder, Ina A. Stelzer, Petra C. Arck, Sing Sing Way

    Immunological identity is traditionally defined by genetically encoded antigens, with equal maternal and paternal contributions as a result of Mendelian inheritance. However, vertically transferred maternal cells also persist in individuals at very low levels throughout postnatal development. Reciprocally, mothers are seeded during pregnancy with genetically foreign fetal cells that persist long after parturition. Recent findings suggest that these microchimeric cells expressing non-inherited, familially relevant antigenic traits are not accidental 'souvenirs' of pregnancy, but are purposefully retained within mothers and their offspring to promote genetic fitness by improving the outcome of future pregnancies. In this Review, we discuss the immunological implications, benefits and potential consequences of individuals being constitutively chimeric with a biologically active 'microchiome' of genetically foreign cells.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Xiaoming Zhang, Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • How nutrition and the maternal microbiota shape the neonatal immune system
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Andrew J. Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C. Ganal-Vonarburg

    The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition. Members of the maternal microbiota can metabolize dietary components, pharmaceuticals and toxins, which can subsequently be passed to the developing fetus or the breast-feeding neonate. In this Review, we discuss the complex interplay between nutrition, the maternal microbiota and ingested chemicals, and summarize their effects on immunity in the offspring.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Early life factors that affect allergy development
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-15
    Lisa A. Reynolds, B. Brett Finlay

    The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the first months of life can influence the risk of allergic sensitization. In this Review, we present the evidence relating to specific early life exposures that affect future allergy development, and discuss how these exposures may promote either tolerance or allergic sensitization.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • T cell–B cell collaboration
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Jonathan Sprent

    Jonathan Sprent describes a 1968 study by Graham Mitchell and Jacques Miller that showed the requirement for T cell–B cell collaboration for antibody production.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Mucosal immunology: Eye spy a protective commensal
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Shimona Starling

    A candidate ocular commensal organism isolated from mice drives ocular immune responses and protects against infection with pathogens.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Turning the light on
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Richard Locksley

    Richard Locksley describes a 2004 study by Margaret McFall-Ngai and colleagues that showed the role of bacterial pattern recognition in driving tissue homeostasis and function.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • Chemokines in the cancer microenvironment and their relevance in cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Nisha Nagarsheth, Max S. Wicha, Weiping Zou

    The tumour microenvironment is the primary location in which tumour cells and the host immune system interact. Different immune cell subsets are recruited into the tumour microenvironment via interactions between chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these populations have distinct effects on tumour progression and therapeutic outcomes. In this Review, we focus on the main chemokines that are found in the human tumour microenvironment; we elaborate on their patterns of expression, their regulation and their roles in immune cell recruitment and in cancer and stromal cell biology, and we consider how they affect cancer immunity and tumorigenesis. We also discuss the potential of targeting chemokine networks, in combination with other immunotherapies, for the treatment of cancer.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
  • The dichotomous nature of T helper 17 cells
    Nat. Rev. Immunol. (IF 39.932) Pub Date : 2017-05-30
    Brigitta Stockinger, Sara Omenetti

    T helper 17 (TH17) cells have been extensively studied since their discovery 10 years ago, primarily because of their known pathogenic role in many inflammatory diseases. Substantial progress has been made in understanding their development, regulation and functional activities, and genome-wide transcriptomic analysis has identified regulatory networks, nodes and interactions that provide vital clues for further studies. In this Review, we describe recent studies that have revealed the dichotomous nature of TH17 cells, which on the one hand allows these cells to be pathogenic drivers of inflammatory disorders and on the other hand allows them to support the integrity of the intestinal barrier in a non-inflammatory manner.

    更新日期:2017-08-10
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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