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  • Effects of pristine polyvinyl chloride fragments on whole body histology and protease activity in silver barb Barbodes gonionotus fry ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Nicholas Romano, Munirah Ashikin, Jun Chin Teh, Fadhil Syukri, Ali Karami

    Silver barb Barbodes gonionotus fry were exposed to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments at increasing concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L for 96 h, following which whole body histological evaluation and analysis of the digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin were performed. Whole body trypsin and chymotrypsin activities increased significantly in fish exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L PVC as compared those exposed to zero or 0.2 mg/L PVC. In fish exposed to all tested concentrations, PVCs were observed in both the proximal and distal intestine, and fish exposed to 0.5–1.0 and 1.0 mg/L PVC, respectively, and these particles were associated with localized thickening of the mucosal epithelium. No tissue damage was evident in any other internal organs or gills. This lack of damage may be attributed to the absence of contaminants associated with the PVC fragments and their relatively smooth surface. The increased whole body trypsin and chymotrypsin activities may indicate an attempt to enhance digestion to compensate for epithelial thickening of the intestine and/or to digest the plastics.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Incorporating long-term satellite-based aerosol optical depth, localized land use data, and meteorological variables to estimate ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in Taiwan from 2005 to 2015 ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Chau-Ren Jung, Bing-Fang Hwang, Wei-Ting Chen

    Satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) is now comprehensively applied to estimate ground-level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This study aimed to construct the AOD-PM2.5 estimation models over Taiwan. The AOD-PM2.5 modeling in Taiwan island is challenging owing to heterogeneous land use, complex topography, and humid tropical to subtropical climate conditions with frequent cloud cover and prolonged rainy season. The AOD retrievals from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites were combined with the meteorological variables from reanalysis data and high resolution localized land use variables to estimate PM2.5 over Taiwan island from 2005 to 2015. Ten-fold cross validation was carried out and the residuals of the estimation model at various locations and seasons are assessed. The cross validation (CV) R2 based on monitoring stations were 0.66 and 0.66, with CV root mean square errors of 14.0 μg/m3 (34%) and 12.9 μg/m3 (33%), respectively, for models based on Terra and Aqua AOD. The results provided PM2.5 estimations at locations without surface stations. The estimation revealed PM2.5 concentration hotspots in the central and southern part of the western plain areas, particularly in winter and spring. The annual average of estimated PM2.5 concentrations over Taiwan consistently declined during 2005–2015. The AOD-PM2.5 model is a reliable and validated method for estimating PM2.5 concentrations at locations without monitoring stations in Taiwan, which is crucial for epidemiological study and for the assessment of air quality control policy.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Arifin Sandhi, Tommy Landberg, Maria Greger

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts. Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts. Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Vertical characteristics of VOCs in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain during pollution periods ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-20
    Jie Sun, Yuesi Wang, Fangkun Wu, Guiqian Tang, Lili Wang, Yinghong Wang, Yuan Yang

    In recent years, photochemical smog and gray haze-fog have frequently appeared over northern China. To determine the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during a pollution period, tethered balloon flights were conducted over a suburban site on the North China Plain. Statistical analysis showed that the VOCs concentrations peaked at the surface, and decreased with altitude. A rapid decrease appeared from the surface to 400 m, with concnetrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and halocarbons decreasing by 48.0%, 53.3%, 43.3% and 51.1%, respectively. At heights in the range of 500–1000 m, alkenes concnetrations decline by 40.2%; alkanes and halocarbons concnetrations only decreased by 24.8% and 6.4%, respectively; and aromatics increased slightly by 5.5%. High concentrations VOCs covered a higher range of height (400 m) on heavy pollution days due to lacking of diffusion power. The VOCs concentrations decreased by 50% at 200 m on light pollution days. The transport of air mass affected the composition and concentration of high-altitude VOCs, especially on lightly polluted days. These air masses originated in areas with abundant traffic and combustion sources. Reactive aromatics (kOH>20,000 ppm−1 min−1 and kOH<20,000 ppm−1 min−1) were the main contributor to the ozone formation, accounting for 37%, on the surface on light pollution days. The contribution increased to 52% with pollution aggravated, and increased to 64% with height. The contributions of reactive aromatics were influenced by the degree of air mass aging. Under the umbrella of aging air mass, the contribution of reactive aromatics increased with height.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Role of black carbon in soil distribution of organochlorines in Lesser Himalayan Region of Pakistan ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Usman Ali, Rahat Riaz, Andrew James Sweetman, Kevin C. Jones, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Riffat Naseem Malik

    Black carbon and total organic carbon (TOC) along with organochlorines (OCs) were analyzed in soils from four sampling zones of Lesser Himalayan Region based on source proximity/anthropogenic influences along the altitude. CTO-375 method was used for BC analysis while OCs were analyzed by GC-MS/MS system. BC and TOC ranged between 0.16–1.77 and 6.8–41.3 mg g−1 while those of OCPs and PCBs ranged between 0.69 and 5.77 and 0.12–2.55 ng g−1, respectively. ∑DDTs were the dominant (87.9%) among OCPs while tri- and tetra- (65.5%) homologue groups among PCBs. Hexa-PCBs, however also showed higher contribution (20.4%) in the region. Source diagnostic ratios of DDE + DDD/DDT (0.1–1.53) indicated both fresh and old input while α-HCH/γ-HCH (0.19–2.49) showed presence of lindane in the region. Higher concentration of OCs were observed in Zone C at altitudinal range of 737–975 masl that are close to the human influences and potential sources of POPs. The results of linear regression analysis revealed potential input of BC in soil distribution of OC concentrations in the region.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Lifetime exposure to particulate air pollutants is negatively associated with lung function in non-asthmatic children ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Hung-Chang Tsui, Chi-Hsien Chen, Ying-Hsuan Wu, Hung-Che Chiang, Bing-Yu Chen, Yue Leon Guo

    Background Pulmonary function is known to be affected by acute and subacute exposure to ambient air pollution. However, the impacts of lifetime exposure to air pollution on the pulmonary function of children have been inconsistent. The present study investigated the impact of lifetime residential exposure to intermediate levels of air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. Methods In 2011, a survey of children aged 6–15 years was conducted in 44 schools in Taiwan. Atopic history, residential history, and environmental factors were recorded. Spirograms were obtained from a random sample of children without asthma. A total of 535 girls and 481 boys without a history of asthma were enrolled. Lifetime residential exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), was estimated using the kriging method, based on monitored data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the association between lifetime air pollution exposure and pulmonary function, after adjustment for potential confounders and recent exposure. Results After adjustment for 7-day average air pollutant levels, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 was related to reductions in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (−2.00%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −3.09% to −0.90%), forced vital capacity (−1.86%; CI: −2.96% to −0.75%), and maximal midexpiratory flow (−2.28%; CI: −4.04% to −0.51%). These associations were independent of the other pollutants. Conclusion Lifetime exposure to 25–85 μg/m3 of PM10 has negative impacts on the pulmonary function of children.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Bioindicators for monitoring marine litter ingestion and its impacts on Mediterranean biodiversity ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-16
    Maria Cristina Fossi, Cristina Pedà, Montserrat Compa, Catherine Tsangaris, Carme Alomar, Francoise Claro, Christos Ioakeimidis, Francois Galgani, Tatjana Hema, Salud Deudero, Teresa Romeo, Pietro Battaglia, Franco Andaloro, Ilaria Caliani, Silvia Casini, Cristina Panti, Matteo Baini

    The Mediterranean Sea has been described as one of the most affected areas by marine litter in the world. Although effects on organisms from marine plastic litter ingestion have been investigated in several oceanic areas, there is still a lack of information from the Mediterranean Sea. The main objectives of this paper are to review current knowledge on the impact of marine litter on Mediterranean biodiversity, to define selection criteria for choosing marine organisms suitable for use as bioindicator species, and to propose a methodological approach to assessing the harm related to marine litter ingestion in several Mediterranean habitats and sub-regions. A new integrated monitoring tool that would provide the information necessary to design and implement future mitigation actions in the Mediterranean basin is proposed. According to bibliographic research and statistical analysis on current knowledge of marine litter ingestion, the area of the Mediterranean most studied, in terms of number of species and papers in the Mediterranean Sea is the western sub-area as well as demersal (32.9%) and pelagic (27.7%) amongst habitats. Applying ecological and biological criteria to the most threatened species obtained by statistical analysis, bioindicator species for different habitats and monitoring scale were selected. A threefold approach, simultaneously measuring the presence and effects of plastic, can provide the actual harm and sub-lethal effects to organisms caused by marine litter ingestion. The research revealed gaps in knowledge, and this paper suggests measures to close the gap. This and the selection of appropriate bioindicator species would represent a step forward for marine litter risk assessment, and the implementation of future actions and mitigation measures for specific Mediterranean areas, habitats and species affected by marine litter ingestion.

    更新日期:2017-11-20
  • Subcellular distribution and biotransformation of phenanthrene in pakchoi after inoculation with endophytic Pseudomonas sp. as probed using HRMS coupled with isotope-labeling
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Kai Sun, Mussie Y. Habteselassie, Juan Liu, Shunyao Li, Yanzheng Gao

    Contamination of food-crops with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses a grave concern to food safety, especially when PAHs are internalized. We have demonstrated in our previous study that inoculation of crop with a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Ph6-gfp could overcome this problem. Here, the subcellular distribution and biotransformation mechanism of phenanthrene in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) seedlings with inoculation of Ph6-gfp were further investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The possible biotransformation products of phenanthrene were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) coupled with 13C2-phenanthrene labeling. Results indicated that Ph6-gfp colonized pakchoi interior and reduced the content of phenanthrene in different cell compartments. Notably, the inoculation hindered the subcellular distribution of phenanthrene from intercellular space to subcellular fractions (i.e., cell wall, cell membrane, cell solution, and cell organelles), likely resulting from the interception and biodegradation of phenanthrene by the bacterium between the cell wall and intercellular space. Additionally, the conjugation reactions of phenanthrene-metabolites and endogenous plant compounds were enhanced as a result of the inoculation. We propose that endophytic degradation, plant metabolism, and conjugation reaction are the three possible biotransformation mechanisms that could account for the changes in phenanthrene inside the plant cell compartments. This is the first observation of endophytic bacteria (EB)-enhanced biotransformation and conjugation of phenanthrene in pakchoi at the subcellular level, which drive novel insights in regulating food-crop contamination with endophytes in PAH-contaminated matrices.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Sensitivity of the early life stages of a mayfly to fine sediment and orthophosphate levels
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Nicholas C. Everall, Matthew F. Johnson, Paul Wood, Lauren Mattingley

    The ecological effects of interacting stressors within lotic ecosystems have been widely acknowledged. In particular, the ecological effects of elevated fine sediment inputs and phosphate have been identified as key factors influencing faunal community structure and composition. However, while knowledge regarding adult and larval life stage responses to environmental stressors has grown, there has been very limited research on their eggs. In this study, the eggs of the mayfly Serratella ignita (Ephemerellidae: Ephemeroptera) were collected and incubated in laboratory aquaria to hatching under differing concentrations of inert suspended sediment (SS) and orthophosphate (OP), individually and in combination. Results indicate that SS and OP have greater effects on egg hatching in combination than when either were considered in isolation. SS displayed a greater effect on egg survival than OP in isolation or when OP was added to elevated SS treatments. Egg mortality in control treatments was around 6% compared to 45% in treatments with 25 mg l−1 SS and 52% in 0.3 mg l−1 OP treatments. Even relatively modest levels of each stressor (10 mg l−1 SS; 0.1 mg l−1 OP), below national legal thresholds, had significant effects on egg survival to hatching. The results support calls for legal levels of SS to be reassessed and suggest that more research is required to assess the impacts of pollution on invertebrate egg development given their different sensitivity and exposure pathways compared to other life stages.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Impacts of environmental factors on the whole microbial communities in the rhizosphere of a metal-tolerant plant: Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Songqiang Deng, Tan Ke, Longtai Li, Shenwen Cai, Yuyue Zhou, Yue Liu, Limin Guo, Lanzhou Chen, Dayi Zhang

    Rhizospheric microbes play important roles in plant growth and heavy metals (HMs) transformation, possessing great potential for the successful phytoremediation of environmental pollutants. In the present study, the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun was comprehensively studied to uncover the influence of environmental factors (EFs) on the whole microbial communities including bacteria, fungi and archaea, via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing. By analyzing molecular ecological network and multivariate regression trees (MRT), we evaluated the distinct impacts of 37 EFs on soil microbial community. Of them, soil pH, HMs, soil texture and nitrogen were identified as the most influencing factors, and their roles varied across different domains. Soil pH was the main environmental variable on archaeal and bacterial community but not fungi, explaining 25.7%, 46.5% and 40.7% variation of bacterial taxonomic composition, archaeal taxonomic composition and a-diversity, respectively. HMs showed important roles in driving the whole microbial community and explained the major variation in different domains. Nitrogen (NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N and TN) explained 47.3% variation of microbial population composition and 15.9% of archaeal taxonomic composition, demonstrating its influence in structuring the rhizospheric microbiome, particularly archaeal and bacterial community. Soil texture accounted for 10.2% variation of population composition, 28.9% of fungal taxonomic composition, 19.2% of fungal a-diversity and 7.8% of archaeal a-diversity. Rhizosphere only showed strong impacts on fungi and bacteria, accounting for 14.7% and 4.9% variation of fungal taxonomic composition and bacterial a-diversity. Spatial distance had stronger influence on bacteria and archaea than fungi, but not as significant as other EFs. For the first time, our study provides a complete insight into key influential EFs on rhizospheric microbes and how their roles vary across microbial domains, giving a hand for understanding the construction of microbial communities in rhizosphere.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Inorganic sulfur and mercury speciation in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: The role of inorganic reduced sulfur on mercury methylation
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Jiang Liu, Tao Jiang, Feiyue Wang, Jinzhong Zhang, Dingyong Wang, Rong Huang, Deliang Yin, Zeyan Liu, Jinzhu Wang

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China is a unique geomorphological unit that undergoes annual flooding and drying alternation cycle. The alternating redox conditions within the WLFZ are expected to result in dynamic cycling of reduced sulfur species, which could affect mercury (Hg) methylation due to the high affinity of reduced sulfur species to both inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)i) and methylmercury (MeHg). Variations of inorganic sulfur species (measured as acid volatile sulfide, chromium reductive sulfur, elemental sulfur, and water-soluble sulfate), total mercury (THg) and MeHg were studied at two typical WLFZ sites in the TGR from July 2015 to June 2016. Whereas the water-soluble sulfate contents stayed essentially constant, the reduced inorganic sulfur contents varied greatly as the water level changed. Compared with the control soils, the MeHg contents in the WLFZ soils increased, suggesting that water level fluctuations accelerated the methylation process of Hg(II)i. In situ Hg(II)i-methylation also appeared to occur in the sub-layer of the drained sediment during the draw-down season. The significant correlation between MeHg and elemental sulfur (S(0)) further suggests that polysulfides may have played a role in Hg(II)i-methylation by increasing the bioavailable Hg(II)i content in the WLFZ of the TGR.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Toxicity-associated changes in the invasive cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in response to nitrogen fluctuations
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-15
    Yiming Yang, Youxin Chen, Fangfang Cai, Xiang Liu, Yilang Wang, Renhui Li

    The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is of particular concern due to its ability to fix nitrogen (N), sporadic bloom, potential toxicity and apparent invasiveness. However, the toxicity associated behavior and response of toxic C. raciborskii under N fluctuations in water have been poorly investigated. The present study initiated based on the field survey in which Cylindrospermopsis species was found to have a high fitness under nitrate concentrations fluctuating from 0.02 mg L−1 to 2.90 mg L−1 in Chinese freshwater lakes. Examination on the role of short-term N fluctuations was conducted in two C. raciborskii strains which were exposed to a range of N concentrations supplied in two patterns, namely one-time pattern and ten-time pattern in which the equal amount of N was divided into ten-time accretions. The results showed the growth of both strains were not vulnerable to the transient nutrient fluctuations. The toxic strain showed considerable toxicological flexibility with the highest yield of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) obtained in the absence of N and the lowest in full medium. Generally, larger amounts of total CYN were observed at lower N levels, indicating that N deficiency promoted the intracellular accumulation and simultaneously restrained the extracellular release of CYN. Furthermore, CYN production was significantly different in two N supply patterns. The maximum quotas of intracellular and extracellular CYN in one-time pattern were respectively 2.79–3.53 and 3.94–7.20 times higher compared to the ten-time pattern. To our knowledge, our results are the first evidence of toxicity variations of C. raciborskii to the impermanent N fluctuations, shedding new light on its toxicological plasticity.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Effects of red earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on leachability of lead minerals in soil
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Armin Kavehei, Grant C. Hose, Damian B. Gore

    Contamination of soils by metals and metalloids is an important environmental problem in many residential and industrial sites around the world. Lead is a common contaminant, which enters the soil through mining, industrial activities and waste disposal. A range of technologies can be used to remediate soil lead, however most remediation technologies adversely affect the environment and particularly soil biota. We have assessed the efficacy of vermiremediation (the use of earthworms for remediation) to reduce water extractable lead concentrations in soil. Earthworms were introduced to a sandy soil spiked with the common lead minerals cotunnite (PbCl2), cerussite (PbCO3), massicot (PbO) or galena (PbS) at 1000 mg (Pb) kg−1. Lead concentrations in pore water extracted during the experiment were not significantly different in contaminated soil with and without worms. However, concentrations of lead in water from a deionised water extraction (washing) of contaminated soil were significantly lower in soil with earthworms than in soil without. Earthworms accumulated on average (±1 standard deviation) 276 ± 118, 235 ± 66, 241 ± 58 and 40 ± 30 mg kg−1 (dry weight of earthworms) of lead in their bodies, in PbCl2, PbCO3, PbO and PbS-dosed soils, respectively. During the experiment, earthworms lost weight in all contaminated soils, except those containing PbS.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Reproductive effects linked to DNA methylation in male zebrafish chronically exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Yan-Bo Ma, Pan-Pan Jia, Muhammad Junaid, Li Yang, Chun-Jiao Lu, De-Sheng Pei

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) possesses the potential to interfere with the male reproductive endocrine system in mammals; however, its reproductive toxicity in male zebrafish and associated epigenetic studies have not been explored. In this study, three-month-old male zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DEHP (0, 10, 33 and 100 μg/L) for 3 months, and then the impact on the reproduction of males and the underlying mechanism were investigated. Histological testing showed that an exposure concentration of 100 μg/L DEHP significantly inhibited spermatogenesis, with an associated decline in capability to fertilize untreated oocytes. Electron microscopic examinations also revealed noticeable damage to the testicular ultrastructure at the 100 μg/L DEHP exposure level. In addition, exposure to 33 and 100 μg/L of DEHP resulted in a decline of circulating testosterone (T) and an increase in the level of 17β-estradiol (E2), both of which were possibly derived from the downregulation of cyp17a1 and hsd17b3 genes and the upregulation of the cyp19a1a gene in the gonads. The DNA methylation statuses of these genes were altered within their promoter regions. A significant increase in global DNA methylation in both the male testes and their offspring larvae was observed at higher exposure concentration of DEHP. Our findings demonstrate that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of DEHP can damage the testes, disturbe the sex hormones production, and inhibite spermatogenesis, which ultimately impairs the reproduction of male zebrafish.

    更新日期:2017-11-16
  • Comparative effects of graphene and graphene oxide on copper toxicity to Daphnia magna: Role of surface oxygenic functional groups ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Yingying Liu, Wenhong Fan, Zhizhen Xu, Weihua Peng, Shenglian Luo

    Although the risk of graphene materials to aquatic organisms has drawn wide attention, the combined effects of graphene materials with other contaminants such as toxic metals, which may bring about more serious effects than graphene materials alone, have seldom been explored. Herein, the effects of graphene (GN) and graphene oxide (GO, an important oxidized derivative of graphene) on copper (Cu) toxicity to Daphnia magna were systematically investigated. The results indicated that GN remarkably increased the Cu accumulation in D. magna and enhanced the oxidative stress injury caused by Cu, whereas did not significantly alter D. magna acute mortality within the tested Cu concentrations (0–200 μg L−1). On the contrary, GO significantly decreased the Cu accumulation in D. magna and alleviated the oxidative stress injury caused by Cu. Meanwhile, the presence of GO significantly reduced the mortality of D. magna when Cu concentration exceeded 50 μg L−1. The different effects of GN and GO on Cu toxicity were possibly dependent on the action of surface oxygenic functional group. Because of the introduction of surface oxygenic functional groups, the adsorption ability to metal ions, stability in water and interaction mode with organisms of GO are quite different from that of GN, causing different effects on Cu toxicity. This study provides important information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals as affected by graphene materials in natural water.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Illicit drug ketamine induces adverse effects from behavioral alterations and oxidative stress to p53-regulated apoptosis in medaka fish under environmentally relevant exposures
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Pei-Han Liao, Wen-Kai Yang, Ching-Hsin Yang, Chun-Hon Lin, Chin-Chu Hwang, Pei-Jen Chen

    With increasing problems of drug abuse worldwide, aquatic ecosystems are contaminated by human pharmaceuticals from the discharge of hospital or municipal effluent. However, ecotoxicity data and related toxic mechanism for neuroactive controlled or illicit drugs are still lacking, so assessing the associated hazardous risk is difficult. This study aims to investigate the behavioral changes, oxidative stress, gene expression and neurotoxic or apoptosis effect(s) in larvae of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with environmentally relevant exposures of ketamine (KET) solutions for 1–14 days. KET exposure at an environmentally relevant concentration (0.004 μM) to 40 μM conferred specific patterns in larval swimming behavior during 24 h. At 14 days, such exposure induced dose- and/or time-dependent alteration on reactive oxygen species induction, the activity of antioxidants catalase and superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and malondialdehyde contents in fish bodies. KET-induced oxidative stress disrupted the expression of acetylcholinesterase and p53-regulated apoptosis pathways and increased caspase expression in medaka larvae. The toxic responses of medaka larvae, in terms of chemical effects, were qualitatively analogous to those of zebrafish and mammals. Our results implicate a toxicological impact of waterborne KET on fish development and human health, for potential ecological risks of directly releasing neuroactive drugs-containing wastewater into the aquatic environment.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Noise can affect acoustic communication and subsequent spawning success in fish
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
    Karen de Jong, M. Clara P. Amorim, Paulo J. Fonseca, Clive J. Fox, Katja U. Heubel

    There are substantial concerns that increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in the oceans may impact aquatic animals. Noise can affect animals physically, physiologically and behaviourally, but one of the most obvious effects is interference with acoustic communication. Acoustic communication often plays a crucial role in reproductive interactions and over 800 species of fish have been found to communicate acoustically. There is very little data on whether noise affects reproduction in aquatic animals, and none in relation to acoustic communication. In this study we tested the effect of continuous noise on courtship behaviour in two closely-related marine fishes: the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens) and the painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus) in aquarium experiments. Both species use visual and acoustic signals during courtship. In the two-spotted goby we used a repeated-measures design testing the same individuals in the noise and the control treatment, in alternating order. For the painted goby we allowed females to spawn, precluding a repeated-measures design, but permitting a test of the effect of noise on female spawning decisions. Males of both species reduced acoustic courtship, but only painted gobies also showed less visual courtship in the noise treatment compared to the control. Female painted gobies were less likely to spawn in the noise treatment. Thus, our results provide experimental evidence for negative effects of noise on acoustic communication and spawning success. Spawning is a crucial component of reproduction. Therefore, even though laboratory results should not be extrapolated directly to field populations, our results suggest that reproductive success may be sensitive to noise pollution, potentially reducing fitness.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Bisphenol A alternatives bisphenol S and bisphenol F interfere with thyroid hormone signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Yin-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Min Ren, Yuan-Yuan Li, Xiao-Fang Yao, Chuan-Hai Li, Zhan-Fen Qin, Liang-Hong Guo

    The wide use of the alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) has raised concerns about their potential toxicities. Considering the disrupting activity of BPA on thyroid hormone (TH) signaling, we investigated whether bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), two leading alternatives, could interfere with TH signaling pathway using a series of assays in vitro and in vivo. In the fluorescence competitive binding assay, we found BPS and BPF, like BPA, bound to TH receptors (TRα and TRβ), with the binding potencies an order of magnitude lower than BPA (BPA > BPF > BPS). Molecular docking data also show their binding potencies to TRs. In the coactivator recruitment assay, BPS and BPF recruited coactivator to TRβ but not TRα, with weaker potencies than BPA. Correspondingly, agonistic actions of the three bisphenols in the absence or presence of T3 were observed in the TR-mediated reporter gene transcription assay. Also, all the three bisphenols induced TH-dependent GH3 cell proliferation, whereas BPA and BPF inhibited T3 induction in the presence of T3. As for in vivo assay, the three bisphenols like T3 induced TH-response gene transcription in Pelophylax nigromaculatus tadpoles, but in the presence of T3 altered T3-induced gene transcription in a biphasic concentration-response manner. These results for the first time demonstrate that BPS and BPF, like BPA, have potential to interfere with TH signaling pathway, i.e., they generally activate TH signaling in the absence of T3, but in the presence of TH, display agonistic or/and antagonistic actions under certain condition. Our study highlights the potential risks of BPS and BPF as BPA alternatives.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Responses of reef building corals to microplastic exposure
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Jessica Reichert, Johannes Schellenberg, Patrick Schubert, Thomas Wilke

    Pollution of marine environments with microplastic particles (i.e. plastic fragments <5 mm) has increased rapidly during the last decades. As these particles are mainly of terrestrial origin, coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs are particularly threatened. Recent studies revealed that microplastic ingestion can have adverse effects on marine invertebrates. However, little is known about its effects on small-polyp stony corals that are the main framework builders in coral reefs. The goal of this study is to characterise how different coral species I) respond to microplastic particles and whether the exposure might II) lead to health effects. Therefore, six small-polyp stony coral species belonging to the genera Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites were exposed to microplastics (polyethylene, size 37–163 μm, concentration ca. 4000 particles L−1) over four weeks, and responses and effects on health were documented.The study showed that the corals responded differentially to microplastics. Cleaning mechanisms (direct interaction, mucus production) but also feeding interactions (i.e. interaction with mesenterial filaments, ingestion, and egestion) were observed. Additionally, passive contact through overgrowth was documented. In five of the six studied species, negative effects on health (i.e. bleaching and tissue necrosis) were reported.We here provide preliminary knowledge about coral-microplastic-interactions. The results call for further investigations of the effects of realistic microplastic concentrations on growth, reproduction, and survival of stony corals. This might lead to a better understanding of resilience capacities in coral reef ecosystems.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Arsenic speciation in environmental multimedia samples from the Youngsan River Estuary, Korea: A comparison between freshwater and saltwater
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Seongjin Hong, Sung-Deuk Choi, Jong Seong Khim

    Differences in the distribution, partitioning, and bioaccumulation characteristics of arsenicals between freshwater and saltwater systems remain poorly understood. To determine the characteristics of distribution and behavior of arsenicals, multimedia environmental samples including water, suspended particles, zooplankton, sediments, and porewater were collected from inner (five sites, freshwater) and outer (five sites, saltwater) regions of the estuary dike of the Youngsan River Estuary in South Korea (Nov., 2012). Six organic and inorganic forms of As were separated and measured using HPLC–ICP/MS equipped with an anion exchange column. Concentrations of arsenicals in water samples of the inner region (mean = 1.5 μg As L−1) were significantly lower than in those of the outer region (mean = 5.2 μg As L−1). Conversely, concentrations of As in suspended particles in the inner region (mean = 14 μg As g−1) were much greater than in the outer region (mean = 5.7 μg As g−1). The field-based distribution coefficient (Kd) for As depended strongly on salinity; relatively greater Kd values were found in freshwater compared with saltwater. The AsV was found to be the major form of As in all water and particle samples in both inner and outer regions. The zooplankton species were significantly distinguishable between the inner and outer regions; cladocerans were the most dominant species in freshwater and cyclopoida were predominantly found in saltwater. The As concentrations in zooplankton were shown to be particle-concentration dependent, suggesting that dietary exposure plays a substantial role in the bioaccumulation of As. Inorganic arsenicals, such as AsV and AsIII were the most dominant forms found in zooplankton. Partitioning behavior of As between porewater and sediments was similar to that in water–particle distributions. The results of the present study enhance the understanding of As biogeochemistry in river and estuarine environments.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Mercury exposure and short-term consequences on physiology and reproduction in Antarctic petrels
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Alice Carravieri, Jérôme Fort, Arnaud Tarroux, Yves Cherel, Oliver P. Love, Solène Prieur, Maud Brault-Favrou, Paco Bustamante, Sébastien Descamps

    Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antarctic seabirds, where increasing environmental perturbations challenge animal populations. This study focuses on the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica from Svarthamaren, Antarctica, where the world's largest breeding population is thought to be in decline. Hg and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C, proxy of feeding habitat) and nitrogen (δ15N, trophic position/diet) were measured in red blood cells from 266 individuals over two breeding years (2012–13, 2013–14). Our aims were to 1) quantify the influence of individual traits (size and sex) and feeding ecology (foraging location, δ13C and δ15N values) on Hg exposure, and 2) test the relationship between Hg concentrations with body condition and breeding output (hatching success and chick survival). Hg concentrations in Antarctic petrels (mean ± SD, 0.84 ± 0.25, min-max, 0.42–2.71 μg g−1 dw) were relatively low when compared to other Antarctic seabirds. Hg concentrations increased significantly with δ15N values, indicating that individuals with a higher trophic level (i.e. feeding more on fish) had higher Hg exposure. By contrast, Hg exposure was not driven by feeding habitat (inferred from both foraging location and δ13C values), suggesting that Hg transfer to predators in Antarctic waters is relatively homogeneous over a large geographical scale. Hg concentrations were not related to body condition, hatching date and short-term breeding output. At present, Hg exposure is likely not of concern for this population. Nevertheless, further studies on other fitness parameters and long-term breeding output are warranted because Hg can have long-term population-level effects without consequences on current breeding success.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • On-board measurements of particle and gaseous emissions from a large cargo vessel at different operating conditions
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Thuy Chu-Van, Zoran Ristovski, Ali Mohammad Pourkhesalian, Thomas Rainey, Vikram Garaniya, Rouzbeh Abbassi, Sanaz Jahangiri, Hossein Enshaei, U-Shen Kam, Richard Kimball, Liping Yang, Ali Zare, Harry Bartlett, Richard J. Brown

    This study investigated particle and gaseous emission factors from a large cargo vessel for her whole voyage including at berth, manoeuvring and cruising. Quantification of these factors assists in minimising the uncertainty in the current methods of exhaust gas emission factor estimation. Engine performance and emissions from the main marine engine were measured on-board while the ship was manoeuvring and cruising at sea. Emissions of an auxiliary engine working at 55% of maximum continuous rating (MCR) were measured when the ship was at actual harbour stopovers. Gaseous and particle emission factors in this study are presented in g kWh−1 or # kWh−1, and compared with previous studies. Results showed that the SO2 emission factor is higher than that of previous studies due to the high sulphur content of the fuel used. The particle number size distributions showed only one mode for different operating conditions of the ship, with a peak at around 40–50 nm, which was dominated by ultrafine particles. Emission factors of CO, HC, PM and PN observed during ship manoeuvring were much higher than that of those recorded at cruising condition. These findings highlight the importance of quantification and monitoring ship emissions in close proximity to port areas, as they can have the highest impact on population exposure.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Effects of polystyrene microplastics on early stages of two marine invertebrates with different feeding strategies
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Silvia Messinetti, Silvia Mercurio, Marco Parolini, Michela Sugni, Roberta Pennati

    Nowadays, microplastics represent one of the main threats to marine ecosystems, being able to affect organisms at different stages of their life cycle and at different levels of the food web. Although the presence of plastic debris has been reported in different habitats and the ability to ingest it has been confirmed for different taxa, few studies have been performed to elucidate the effects on survival and development of marine animals. Thus, we explored the effects of different environmental concentrations of polystyrene microbeads on the early stages of two invertebrate species widespread in the Mediterranean shallow waters: the pelagic planktotrophic pluteus larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the filter-feeding sessile juveniles of the ascidian Ciona robusta. We evaluated the effects on larvae and juvenile development and determined the efficiency of bead ingestion. The feeding stages of both species proved to be extremely efficient in ingesting microplastics. In the presence of microbeads, the metamorphosis of ascidian juveniles was slowed down and development of plutei altered. These results prompted the necessity to monitor the populations of coastal invertebrates since microplastics affect sensitive stages of life cycle and may have consequences on generation recruitment.

    更新日期:2017-11-14
  • Modeling of the transport and deposition of polydispersed particles: Effects of hydrodynamics and spatiotemporal evolution of the deposition rate ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Enze Ma, Tariq Ouahbi, Huaqing Wang, Nasre-Dine Ahfir, Abdellah Alem, Ahmed Hammadi

    A time-distance-dependent deposition model is built to investigate the effects of hydrodynamic forces on the transport and deposition of polydispersed particles and the evolution of deposition rates with time and distance. Straining and the heterogeneity of the particle population are considered to play important roles in the decreasing distribution of deposition rates. Numerical simulations were applied in a series of sand column experiments at different fluid velocities for three different porous media. The effects of hydrodynamics forces are elaborated with the systematic variations of deposition dynamic parameters of the proposed model. With retention distributions with particle size as well as temporal and spatial evolutions of deposition rates, the transport and deposition mechanisms of polydispersed particles will be elucidated through the interplay of the variation of the particle size distribution of mobile particle populations and the geometrical change of the porous medium due to retention (straining and blocking).

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Exposure to the fungicide propamocarb causes gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorder in mice ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Sisheng Wu, Cuiyuan Jin, Yueyi Wang, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin

    Propamocarb (PM) is a widely used fungicide with property of affecting fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis in funguses. In this study, we explored its effects on mice gut microbiota and metabolism by exposing mice to 3, 30, and 300 mg/L PM through drinking water for a duration of 28 days. We observed that the transcription of hepatic genes related to regulate lipid metabolism were perturbed by PM exposure. The microbiota in the cecal contents and feces changed during or after PM exposure at phylum or genus levels. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the cecal content revealed shifted in overall microbial structure after PM exposure, and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analysis indicated that 32.2% of OTUs changed by 300 mg/mL PM exposure for 28 days. In addition, based on 1H NMR analysis,a total of 20 fecal metabolites mainly including succinate, short chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine were found to be significantly influenced by exposure to 300 mg/L PM.,. These metabolites were tightly correlated to host metabolism. Our findings indicated that high doses of PM exposure could disturb mice metabolism through, or partly through, altering the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Diesel exhaust inhalation exposure induces pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Jing Liu, Xiaoqing Ye, Dapeng Ji, Xiaofei Zhou, Cong Qiu, Weiping Liu, Luyang Yu

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the main sources of urban air pollution. An increasing number of evidence showed the association of air pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most disastrous vascular diseases, which results in right ventricular failure and death. However, the relationship of DE inhalation exposure with PAH is still unknown. In this study, male adult mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered ambient air (negative control), 10% O2 hypoxia (PAH-phenotype positive control), 350 μg/m3 particulate matter whole DE, or the combination of DE and hypoxic condition. DE inhalation induced PAH-phenotype accompanied with increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricle hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial thickening in a mouse model. DE exposure induced the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and apoptosis of endothelial cells in pulmonary artery. DE inhalation exposure induced an accumulation of CD45+ lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages surrounding and infiltrating pulmonary arteriole. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-13 produced by T helper 17 (Th17) and Th2 cells were markedly elevated in lung tissues of mice after DE inhalation exposure. Our findings suggest DE exposure induces PAH by activating Th17-skewed and Th2-droved responses, stimulating VSMCs proliferation and inducing endothelial cell apoptosis by the production of multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6 and TNF-α. Considering the adverse impact of air pollution on health care, it is imperative to understand air pollution-induced susceptibility of progressive cardiopulmonary disease, such as PAH, and also elucidate critical mechanistic pathways which mediate pulmonary artery vascular remodeling and may serve as targets for preventive measures.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Effects of chlortetracycline on the fate of multi-antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community during swine manure composting ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Zhiqiang Chen, Yao Wang, Qinxue Wen

    Excessive use of antibiotics in breeding industry leads to accumulation of antibiotic residuals and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment from improperly treated livestock excrements. Four commonly used veterinary antibiotics including chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamerazine (SMZ), enrofloxacin (ENR) and erythromycin (ERY) were monitored in the swine manure composting. Co-resistance and cross-resistance effects among relative ARGs, correlations between ARGs and bacterial community under multiple antibiotics residual during the composting were investigated in this research. With CTC addition up to 20 mg/kg, more than 99% of CTC removal was achieved after composting, and most of the other antibiotics can be thoroughly removed as well. The variations in ARGs during the composting were strongly correlated to the compositions of the microbial community, Bacteroides and Sporosarcina were main ARGs carriers in the thermophlic phase. Clostridium Ⅺ, Clostridium sensu stricto, and Pseudoxanthomonas, might spread ARGs in cooling and maturing stage. Most of the tested ARGs in swine manure can be effectively reduced through composting, thus makes the compost products safe for soil fertilization.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • In-situ examination of graphene and graphene oxide impact on the depuration of phenanthrene and fluoranthene adsorbed onto spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf surfaces ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Haifeng Sun, Ruijie Feng, Yanli Nan, Zhang Chen, Nan Sang

    To further assess the human being's exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through the dietary pathway, understanding the partitioning of these chemicals co-existed with nanomaterials in edible vegetable systems deserves specific consideration. In this study, the fiber-optic fluorimetry was applied to in situ examine the effects of graphene (GNS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on the quantification and depuration of three-ringed phenanthrene (Phe) and four-ringed fluoranthene (Fla) adsorbed individually onto the living spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) surfaces. When the GNS and GO dosages separately increased to the maximum values: a respective red-shift of 4–5 nm and blue-shift of 2–3 nm occurred for the optimal detection emission wavelengths (λem) of the two PAHs, indicating that individual GNS and GO resulted in different changes to the epicuticular wax (ECW) polarity; GNS-inducing fluorescence quenching for the PAHs was about two times greater than GO, owing to the stronger π-π interactions between PAH molecules and GNS relative to GO; the volatilization coefficients (kC1) were reduced by 31.1% versus 26.7% for Phe, and 51.6% versus 34.4% for Fla, mainly via providing an additional adsorbent and promoting the accessibility of the leaf cuticle; respective photolysis coefficients (kP2) of Phe and Fla decreased by 42.9% and 50.0% with GNS, primarily owing to the enhancement of the ECW light-adsorption capacity, but increased by 33.3% and 40.0% with GO due to its photocatalytic activities; overall, total depuration coefficients (kT1, kT2) of the two PAHs decreased by 11.1–55.6%. These findings demonstrate that GNS and GO significantly alter the depuration behavior of PAHs in vegetable systems, potentially posing a threat to the safety of edible vegetables.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    B. González-Alzaga, M. Lacasaña, A.F. Hernández, J.P. Arrebola, I. López-Flores, F. Artacho-Cordón, J.P. Bonde, N. Olea, C. Aguilar-Garduño

    Background Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. Objective To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls –PCBs–) in children living in agricultural communities from Almería (South-Eastern Spain), and to identify the main predictors of exposure related to socio-economic characteristics, diet and lifestyle. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 children aged 6–11 years selected from public schools of the study area. OCs compounds were determined in serum samples by GC/ECD. Anthropometric measures were obtained during sample collection. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, parental occupation, residential history, lifestyle and frequency of food consumption, among other relevant factors, was obtained by questionnaires administered to the mothers. Results Geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/ml) were 0.11 for β-hexachloro-cyclohexane (β-HCH), 0.09 for endosulfan, 0.20 for endosulfan-ether, 0.51 for hexachorobenzene (HCB), 0.08 for mirex, 0.06 for oxychlordane, 0.36 for p,p'-DDE, 0.20 for PCB 138, 0.36 for PCB 153, and 0.45 for PCB 180. Percentage of samples above the limit of detection (0.05 ppb) ranged from 32 (β-HCH) to 100 (HCB). A high variability in OC levels depending on the compound was observed between our results and others found in similar studies carried out in children. Variables related to fish consumption were found to be the major dietary determinant of PCB 138, p,p´-DDE, endosulfan-α, β-HCH, mirex and oxychlordane levels. Conclusions Children participating in this study showed detectable levels of many OC, despite these compounds are no longer used. Their presence in children serum can be explained by their high lipophilicity and environmental persistence, leading to contamination of fatty food. In this line, fish consumption seemed to be the most relevant determinant of OC levels found in our study.

    更新日期:2017-11-11
  • Traffic-related distribution of antimony in roadside soils
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Corinna Földi, Simon Sauermann, Reiner Dohrmann, Tim Mansfeldt

    Vehicular emissions have become one of the main source of pollution of urban soils; this highlights the need for more detailed research on various traffic-related emissions and related distribution patterns. Since the banning of asbestos in the European Union, its substitution with antimony (Sb) in brake linings has led to increased inputs of this toxic metalloid to environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to provide detailed information about the spatial distribution patterns of Sb and to assess its mobility and bioavailability. Roadside soils along an arterial road (approx. 9000 vehicles per day) in Cologne (Germany) were studied along five transects, at four soil depths and at seven sampling points set at varying distances from the road (n = 140). For all samples, comprehensive soil characterization was performed and inverse aqua regia-extractable trace metal content was determined being pseudo-total contents. Furthermore, for one transect, also total Sb and a chemical sequential extraction procedure was applied (n = 28). Pseudo-total Sb for all transects decreased significantly with soil depth and distance from the road, reflecting a distribution pattern similar to that of other trace metals associated with brake lining emissions. Conversely, metals associated with exhaust emissions showed a convex distribution. The geochemical fractionation of Sb revealed the following trends: i) non-specifically sorbed Sb was <5%; ii) specifically sorbed Sb was only detected within 1 m distance from the road and decreased with depth; iii) Sb associated with poorly-crystalline Fe oxides decreased with distance from the road; and iv) content of Sb bounded to well-crystalline Fe oxides, and Sb present in the residual fraction remained relatively constant at each depth. Consequently, roadside soils appear to inhibit brake lining-related Sb contamination, with significant but rather low ecotoxicological potential for input into surface and groundwater.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Relationship of particulate matter and ozone with 3-nitrotyrosine in the atmosphere
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Tatsuo Ito, Keiki Ogino, Kenjiro Nagaoka, Kei Takemoto

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in the past few decades. Bio-aerosol proteins and their chemical modifications, such as 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), in the atmosphere have been attracting attention due to their promotive effects on allergies. 3-NT is generated from the amino acid, tyrosine, through a reaction with ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we measured 3-NT and evaluated the relationships among 3-NT and various pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), NOx (NO + NO2), ozone (O3), PM7, total suspended particulate matter (TSP) containing proteins, humidity, and temperature. 3-NT positively correlated with O3, SO2, humidity, and temperature, and negatively correlated with NOx. A multiple regression analysis showed that 3-NT positively associated with O3, humidity, and PM7. O3 positively associated with 3-NT and PM7, and negatively associated with NOx and humidity. These results suggest that 3-NT is generated from PM proteins through a reaction with O3 under high humidity conditions, and that the measurement of 3-NT is important and useful for the research of O3.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Occurrence and human exposure to brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants via indoor dust in a Brazilian city
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Joyce Cristale, Tiago Gomes Aragão Belé, Silvia Lacorte, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi

    Indoor dust is considered an important human exposure route to flame retardants (FRs), which has arised concern due the toxic properties of some of these substances. In this study, ten organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and four new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were determined in indoor dust from different places in Araraquara-SP (Brazil). The sampled places included houses, apartments, offices, primary schools and cars. The analysis of the sample extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and two ionization techniques were used (electron ionization – EI; electron capture negative ionization – ECNI). OPFRs were the most abundant compounds and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) were present at the highest concentrations. Among the brominated FRs, the most ubiquitous compounds were BDE-209, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). Statistical analysis revealed that there were differences among dust typologies for TBOEP, TDCIPP, ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), BDE-209, 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), BEH-TEBP and DBDPE, which were attributed to different construction materials in each particular environment and to the age of the buildings. The highest levels of brominated FRs were observed in offices, TBOEP was at high concentration in primary schools, and TDCIPP was at high concentration in cars. A preliminary risk assessment revealed that toddlers were exposed to TBOEP levels higher than the reference dose when considering the worst case scenario. The results obtained in this study showed for the first time that although Brazil does not regulate the use of FRs, these substances are present in indoor dust at levels similar to the observed in countries that have strict fire safety standards, and that humans are exposed to complex mixtures of these contaminants via indoor dust.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Nanoparticulate-specific effects of silver on teleost cardiac contractility
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-10
    Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Kenneth Javier Williams, J. Craig Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack

    Silver nanoparticles (nAg), due to their biocidal properties, are common in medical applications and are used in more consumer products than any other engineered nanomaterial. This growing abundance, combined with their ability to translocate across the epithelium and bioaccumulate, suggests that internalized nAg may present a risk of toxicity to many organisms in the future. However, little experimentation has been devoted to cardiac responses to acute nAg exposure, even though nAg is known to disrupt ion channels even when ionic Ag+ does not. In this study, we examined the cardiac response to nAg exposure relative to a sham and an ionic AgNO3 control across cardiomyocyte survival and homeostasis, ventricular contractility, and intrinsic pacing rates of whole hearts. Our results suggest that nAg, but not Ag+ alone, inhibits force production by the myocardium, that Ag in any form disrupts normal pacing of cardiac contractions, and that these responses are likely not due to cytotoxicity. This evidence of nanoparticle-specific effects on physiology should encourage further research into nAg cardiotoxicity and other potential sublethal effects.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Ultra-rapid catalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol with ionic liquid recoverable and reusable ibuprofen derived silver nanoparticles
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Syeda Sara Hassan, Krista Carlson, Swomitra Kumar Mohanty, Sirajuddin, Ali Canlier

    This study reports a one-pot and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of spherical ibuprofen derived silver nanoparticles (IBU-AgNPs) in aqueous media using ibuprofen analgesics drug as capping as well as reducing agent. Formation of AgNPs occurred within a few min (less than 5 min) at room temperature without resorting to any harsh conditions and hazardous organic solvents. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized with common analytical techniques. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed the formation of spherical particles having a size distribution in the range of 12.5 ± 1.5 nm. Employment of IBU analgesic aided the control of better size distribution and prevented agglomeration of particles. Such AgNPs solution was highly stable for more than two months when stored at ambient temperature. The IBU-AgNPs solution showed excellent ultra-rapid catalytic activity for the complete degradation of toxic 4-nitrophenol (4-NPh) into non-toxic 4-aminophenol (4-APh) within 40 s. AgNPs were recovered with the help of water insoluble-room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This method provides a novel, rapid and economical alternative for the treatment of toxic organic pollutants to maintain water quality and environmental safety against water pollution. It is extendable for the control of other reducible contaminants in water as well. Furthermore, this catalytic activity for an effective degradation of organic toxins is expected to play a crucial role for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 6 set by United Nations.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • An empirical model to predict road dust emissions based on pavement and traffic characteristics
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Elio Padoan, Franco Ajmone-Marsan, Xavier Querol, Fulvio Amato

    The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources. However, no parameterization is available as a function of these variables.We investigated mobile road dust smaller than 10 μm (MF10) in two cities with different climatic and traffic conditions (Barcelona and Turin), to explore MF10 seasonal variability and the relationship between MF10 and site characteristics (pavement macrotexture, traffic intensity and proximity to braking zone). Moreover, we provide the first estimates of emission factors in the Po Valley both in summer and winter conditions. Our results showed a good inverse relationship between MF10 and macro-texture, traffic intensity and distance from the nearest braking zone. We also found a clear seasonal effect of road dust emissions, with higher emission in summer, likely due to the lower pavement moisture. These results allowed building a simple empirical mode, predicting maximal dust loadings and, consequently, emission potential, based on the aforementioned data. This model will need to be scaled for meteorological effect, using methods accounting for weather and pavement moisture. This can significantly improve bottom-up emission inventory for spatial allocation of emissions and air quality management, to select those roads with higher emissions for mitigation measures.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Source apportionment of secondary organic aerosol in China using a regional source-oriented chemical transport model and two emission inventories
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Peng Wang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Yingchao Lin, Hongjun Mao

    A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with source-oriented lumped SAPRC-11 (S11L) photochemical mechanism and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module was applied to determine the contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources to SOA concentrations in China. A one-year simulation of 2013 using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) shows that summer SOA are generally higher (10–15 μg m−3) due to large contributions of biogenic (country average 60%) and industrial sources (17%). In winter, SOA formation was mostly due to anthropogenic emissions from industries (40%) and residential sources (38%). Emissions from other countries in southeast China account for approximately 14% of the SOA in both summer and winter, and 46% in spring due to elevated open biomass burning in southeast Asia. The Regional Emission inventory in ASia v2.1 (REAS2) was applied in this study for January and August 2013. Two sets of simulations with the REAS2 inventory were conducted using two different methods to speciate total non-methane carbon into model species. One approach uses total non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and representative speciation profiles from the SPECIATE database. The other approach retains the REAS2 speciated species that can be directly mapped to S11L model species and uses source specific splitting factors to map other REAS2 lumped NMHC species. Biogenic emissions are still the most significant contributor in summer based on these two sets of simulations. However, contributions from the transportation sector to SOA in January are predicted to be much more important based on the two REAS2 emission inventories (∼30–40% vs. ∼5% by MEIC), and contributions from residential sources according to REAS2 was much lower (∼21–24% vs. ∼42%). These discrepancies in source contributions to SOA need to be further investigated as the country seeks for optimal emission control strategies to fight severe air pollution.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Nationwide ground-level ozone measurements in China suggest serious risks to forests
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Pin Li, Alessandra De Marco, Zhaozhong Feng, Alessandro Anav, Daojing Zhou, Elena Paoletti

    We processed hourly ozone (O3) concentrations collected in 2015 and in 2016 by a network of 1497 stations across China, with the main aim of assessing the risk that present ambient O3 exposure is posing to Chinese forests. Our results indicate that the values of the metrics AOT40 (the accumulated hourly O3 concentrations above 40 ppb during daylight hours) recommended as European Union standard, and W126 (the sum of weighted hourly concentrations from 8:00 to 20:00) recommended as USA standard for forest protection, exceeded the critical levels (5 ppm h across 6 months for AOT40 and 7–21 ppm h over 3 months for W126) on average by 5.1 and 1.2 times, respectively. N100 showed on average 65 annual exceedances of 100 ppb as hourly value. The 12-h and 24-h averages showed a small difference, suggesting high concentrations also at night. Risk was higher for the northern temperate climate than for the southern tropical and sub-tropical climates, and overall for the northern regions than for the southern regions. Higher risk occurred in the non-urban areas than in the urban areas in northern, south-west and north-west China, whereas risk was higher at urban areas in eastern and southern China. The overall results of this first nationwide assessment suggest a significant risk for forests over the entire China and warrant for urgent measures for controlling O3 precursor emissions and establishing standards of protection.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 associated with fall-related injury in six low- and middle-income countries
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Yanfei Guo, Hualiang Lin, Yan Shi, Yang Zheng, Xing Li, Jianpeng Xiao, Tao Liu, Weilin Zeng, Michael G. Vaughn, Lenise A. Cummings-Vaughn, Erik J. Nelson, Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Wenjun Ma, Fan Wu

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked with adverse health outcomes of the circulatory and nervous systems. Given that falls are closely related to circulatory and nervous health, we hypothesize that air pollution may adversely affect fall-related injury. We employed Wave 1 data from 36,662 participants aged ≥50 years in WHO's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health in six low- and middle-income countries. Ambient annual concentration of PM2.5 was estimated using satellite data. A three-level logistic regression model was applied to examine the long-term association between ambient PM2.5 and the prevalence of fall-related injury, and associated disease burden, as well as the potential effect modification of consumption of fruit and vegetables. Ambient PM2.5 was found to be significantly associated with the risk of fall-related injury. Each 10 μg/m3 increase corresponded to 18% (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.28) increase in fall-related injury after adjusting for various covariates. The association was relatively stronger among participants with lower consumption of fruit (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) than higher consumption (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.23), and among those with lower vegetable consumption (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.28) than higher consumption (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.27). Our study suggests that ambient PM2.5 may be one risk factor for fall-related injury and that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables could alleviate this effect.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Adsorption of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) to meet a MCL of 5 ppt
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Roger W. Babcock Jr., Bryce K. Harada, Krishna M. Lamichhane, Korey T. Tsubota

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a groundwater contaminant in the drinking water aquifers in Hawaii and some other states. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been used for 30 years to treat approximately 60 million gallons per day of TCP-contaminated groundwater in Hawaii. The State of Hawaii's current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for TCP is 600 ng/L (ppt), and consideration is being given to lower the MCL to 5 ppt. There is no EPA MCL for TCP. A study was conducted to determine if any GAC could meet a 5 ppt MCL for TCP, and if so, how many bedvolumes (BVs) could be treated prior to breakthrough. Constant Diffusivity-Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests (CD-RSSCTs) were performed to evaluate GAC adsorption of TCP. Three different groundwaters and six different GACs were utilized. The RSSCTs with the currently-utilized GAC were predictive of the performance of the GAC contactors (50,000 BVs to breakthrough). Any of the six GACs could meet a MCL of 5 ppt and some could do so for 150,000 or more BVs. No single GAC was optimal for all three well sites, indicating effects of subtle undefined differences in the water matrix and/or GAC physiochemical properties. The coal-based direct-activated carbon currently being used is the least optimal for all three well sites with respect to meeting a potential new TCP MCL of 5 ppt. The most effective GACs for Kunia were the Calgon coal-based GAC and the Siemens enhanced coconut shell GAC, while the most effective for Waipahu were the Siemens regular and enhanced coconut shell GACs, and the most effective for Mililani was the Calgon coal-based GAC. Choosing just one GAC for use at all three well sites (rather than the optimal for each site) would result in a reduction of treatment run time of 1 year at one well site (63% reduction).

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Diagnosis of complex mixture toxicity in sediments: Application of toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effect-directed analysis (EDA)
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Huizhen Li, Jie Zhang, Jing You

    Determining causality of sediment toxicity is of great importance in aquatic risk assessment, but there are tremendous challenges due to joint toxicity of trace pollutants in complex sediment matrices. Two approaches, namely toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effect-directed analysis (EDA) have been developed. Conventional sediment TIEs take the advantage of environmental relevance by using whole organism bioassays; however, they suffer from lack of effective methods for specifically identifying major contributors as it typically only evaluates contaminant class rather than specific contaminants. Alternatively, EDA is a powerful tool in identifying causes of sediment toxicity with sophisticated fractionation and chemical analysis of targeted and non-targeted non-polar organic toxicants, but it is not always environmentally relevant due to the use of in-vitro bioassays and exhaustive solvent extraction. An integrated TIE and EDA method would provide an environmentally relevant and toxicant specific approach to effectively determine causality of sediment toxicity by combining the merits of the two methods. Bioavailability-based extraction and dosing techniques are recommended to be incorporated into the integrated method to improve the accuracy of toxicity diagnosis. Besides considering bioavailability in the integrated TIE and EDA approach, the premise of adverse outcome pathways should also be considered. Generally speaking, both TIE and EDA have focused on adverse effects at cellular and organism levels. The addition of trait-based approaches in screening multiple toxicological endpoints helps to extend effects on cellular and organism levels to population level, and provides a better understanding of potential impacts to the community and ecosystem. The outcome pathway underlies the critical role of determining causality in interpreting impacts of complex mixtures to benthic community and aquatic ecosystem.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The reproductive responses of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209)
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Jun Liang, Xiaoqian Xia, Ling Yuan, Wei Zhang, Kuangfei Lin, Bingsheng Zhou, Shuangqing Hu

    Reproductive toxicity of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) along with coexisting decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) to earthworm Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) remains unknown. In the present study, the reproductive responses of E. fetida exposed to 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg−1 of nZVI showed a significant (P < 0.05) decline up to 35.6%, 60.0% and 93.3%, respectively, compared to the controls. Expression levels of annetocin (ANN) gene indicated a remarkable (P < 0.05) down-regulation (59.2%, 58.2% and 95.0%, correspondingly), and it was positively correlated with reproductive rates (R = 0.94). Iron contents in E. fetida were also relevant to reproductive behavior (R = 0.84) and ANN expression (R = 0.75). Additionally, seminal vesicles displayed a progressive degeneration with increasing nZVI levels. The addition of BDE209 to low level of nZVI-polluted group (100 mg kg−1 dw) barely caused clear changes on reproduction, histopathology and ANN, while the coexistence resulted in significant impacts in comparison with high level of single nZVI exposure (1000 mg kg−1 dw). These observations would provide some significant information concerning joint toxicity of the two chemicals in a soil system.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Photocatalytic degradation of 4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-disulfonamide stable hydrolysis product of hydrochlorothiazide: Detection of intermediates and their toxicity
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Sanja J. Armaković, Stevan Armaković, Dragana D. Četojević-Simin, Filip Šibul, Biljana F. Abramović

    In this work we have investigated in details the process of degradation of the 4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-disulfonamide (ABSA), stable hydrolysis product of frequently used pharmaceutical hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), as one of the most ubiquitous contaminants in the sewage water. The study encompassed investigation of degradation by hydrolysis, photolysis, and photocatalysis employing commercially available TiO2 Degussa P25 catalyst. The process of direct photolysis and photocatalytic degradation were investigated under different type of lights. Detailed insights into the reactive properties of HCTZ and ABSA have been obtained by density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Specifically, preference of HCTZ towards hydrolysis was confirmed experimentally and explained using computational study. Results obtained in this study indicate very limited efficiency of hydrolytic and photolytic degradation in the case of ABSA, while photocatalytic degradation demonstrated great potential. Namely, after 240 min of photocatalytic degradation, 65% of ABSA was mineralizated in water/TiO2 suspension under SSI, while the nitrogen was predominantly present as <img height="18" border="0" style="vertical-align:bottom" width="34" alt="View the MathML source" title="View the MathML source" src="http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0269749117317694-si1.gif">NH4+. Reaction intermediates were studied and a number of them were detected using LC-ESI-MS/MS. This study also involves toxicity assessment of HCTZ, ABSA, and their mixtures formed during the degradation processes towards mammalian cell lines (rat hepatoma, H-4-II-E, human colon adenocarcinoma, HT-29, and human fetal lung, MRC-5). Toxicity assessments showed that intermediates formed during the process of photocatalysis exerted only mild cell growth effects in selected cell lines, while direct photolysis did not affect cell growth.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • The role of different functional groups in a novel adsorption-complexation-reduction multi-step kinetic model for hexavalent chromium retention by undissolved humic acid
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Jia Zhang, Huilin Yin, Linpeng Chen, Fei Liu, Honghan Chen

    Undissolved humic acid (HA) has a great retention effect on the migration of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in soil, and HA functional groups play a predominant role in this process. However, the coupled mode between Cr(VI) retention and HA functional groups reaction is still unclear. In this study, it was found that a fair amount of Cr on HA existed in the forms of ion exchangeable and binding Cr(VI) during the reaction resulting from the ion exchange adsorption and complexation of Cr(VI). According to the results of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic analysis (2DCOS), HA functional groups participated in the reaction with Cr(VI) in the order of carboxyl ≈ chelated carboxyl > phenol > polysaccharide > methyl, and all the functional groups were more likely to be located at aromatic domains. Based on the results of XPS spectra, rather than to be oxidized by Cr(VI), carboxyl more tended to be complexed by chromium, which is regarded as the precondition for Cr(VI) reduction. Phenol, polysaccharide and methyl with distinct reaction activities successively acted as major electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction in different reaction stages. Consequently, it was determined that the retention of Cr(VI) by undissolved HA followed an adsorption-complexation-reduction mechanism, and based on this, a multi-step kinetic model with multiple types of complexation/reduction sites was developed to simulate the retention processes resulting in a much better fitting effect (R2 > 0.99) compared with traditional first-order and second-order kinetic models (R2 < 0.95). This demonstrated that the multi-step kinetic model is of great potential in accurately simulating the migration and transformation of Cr(VI) in soil environment.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption–A population-based study
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Nina Roswall, Jeppe Schultz Christensen, Pernille Envold Bidstrup, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Steen Solvang Jensen, Anne Tjønneland, Mette Sørensen

    BackgroundTraffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake.ObjectivesWe investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption.MethodsIn a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway).ResultsRoad traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19–0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10–1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses.ConclusionThe study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Interactive effects of increased temperature, pCO2 and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel on the fitness and breeding of the amphipod Gammarus locusta
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    P.G. Cardoso, E.M. Loganimoce, T. Neuparth, M.J. Rocha, E. Rocha, F. Arenas

    Given the lack of knowledge regarding climate change-chemical exposure interactions, it is vital to evaluate how these two drivers jointly impact aquatic species. Thus, for the first time, we aimed at investigating the combined effects of increased temperature, pCO2 and the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel on survival, growth, consumption rate and reproduction of the amphipod Gammarus locusta. For that, a full factorial design manipulating temperature [ambient temperature and warming (+4 °C)], pCO2 [normocapnia and hypercapnia (Δ pH 0.5 units)] and the progestin levonorgestrel (LNG: L1 – 10 ngLL−1 and L2 – 1000 ngLL−1, control – no progestin and solvent control – vehicle ethanol (0.01%)) was implemented for 21 days. G. locusta was strongly negatively affected by warming, experiencing higher mortality rates (50–80%) than in any other treatments. Instead, growth rates were significantly affected by interactions of LNG with temperature and pCO2. It was observed, in the short-term (7d) that under ambient temperature (18 °C) and hypercapnic conditions (pH 7.6), the LNG presence promoted the amphipod's growth, while in the medium-term (21d) this response was not observed. Relative consumption rates (RCRs), during the first week were higher than in the third week. Furthermore, in the first week, RCRs were negatively affected by higher temperature while in the third week, RCRs were negatively affected by acidification. Furthermore, it was observed a negative effect of higher temperature and acidification on G. locusta fecundity, contrarily to LNG. Concluding, the impact of increased temperature and pCO2 was clearly more adverse for the species than exposure to the synthetic progestin, however, some interactions between the progestin and the climate factors were observed. Thus, in a future scenario of global change, the presence of LNG (and other progestins alike) may modulate to a certain level the effects of climate drivers (and vice-versa) on the gammarids fitness and reproduction.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Stabilization of arsenic and lead by magnesium oxide (MgO) in different seawater concentrations
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Kentaro Kameda, Yohey Hashimoto, Yong Sik Ok

    Ongoing sea level rise will have a major impact on mobility and migration of contaminants by changing a number of natural phenomena that alter geochemistry and hydrology of subsurface environment. In-situ immobilization techniques may be a promising remediation strategy for mitigating contaminant mobility induced by sea level rise. This study investigated the reaction mechanisms of magnesium oxide (MgO) with aqueous Pb and As under freshwater and seawater using XAFS spectroscopy. Initial concentrations of Pb and As in freshwater strongly controlled the characteristics of the reaction product of MgO. Our study revealed that i) the removal of aqueous Pb and As by MgO was increased by the elevation of seawater concentration, and ii) the removal of As was attributed primarily to (inner-sphere) surface adsorption on MgO, independent on seawater concentrations, and iii) the retention mechanism of Pb was dependent on seawater concentrations where formations of Pb oxides and adsorption on the MgO surface were predominant in solutions with low and high salinity, respectively. The release of As fixed with MgO significantly increased in seawater compared to freshwater, although the amount of As desorbed accounted for <0.2% of total As.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    S. Pongpiachan, M. Hattayanone, D. Tipmanee, O. Suttinun, C. Khumsup, I. Kittikoon, P. Hirunyatrakul

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in “eastern seaboard” industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications.

    更新日期:2017-11-10
  • Cadmium accumulation in edible flowering cabbages in the Pearl River Delta, China: Critical soil factors and enrichment models
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Chengshuai Liu, Chunying Chang, Yingheng Fei, Fangbai Li, Qi Wang, Guangshu Zhai, Jing Lei
    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction, perturbations of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis involved in endothelial injury induced by silica nanoparticles
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Li Jing, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Lifang Gao, Lige Cao, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • The contribution of socioeconomic factors to PM2.5 pollution in urban China
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Peng Jiang, Jun Yang, Conghong Huang, Huakui Liu
    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • Excessive ER stress and the resulting autophagic flux dysfunction contribute to fluoride-induced neurotoxicity
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Qiang Niu, Jingwen Chen, Tao Xia, Pei Li, Guoyu Zhou, Chunyan Xu, Qian Zhao, Lixin Dong, Shun Zhang, Aiguo Wang
    更新日期:2017-11-01
  • Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Francesca De Falco, Maria Pia Gullo, Gennaro Gentile, Emilia Di Pace, Mariacristina Cocca, Laura Gelabert, Marolda Brouta-Agnésa, Angels Rovira, Rosa Escudero, Raquel Villalba, Raffaella Mossotti, Alessio Montarsolo, Sara Gavignano, Claudio Tonin, Maurizio Avella
    更新日期:2017-10-27
  • An update of the Pb isotope inventory in post leaded-petrol Singapore environments ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-27
    Gonzalo Carrasco, Mengli Chen, Edward A. Boyle, Jani Tanzil, Kuanbo Zhou, Nathalie F. Goodkin
    更新日期:2017-10-27
  • Effects of chronic pollution and water flow intermittency on stream biofilms biodegradation capacity ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Marko Rožman, Vicenç Acuña, Mira Petrović
    更新日期:2017-10-26
  • Seasonal variations and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds in a high-altitude city: Evidence from four-year observations
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Jiujiang Sheng, Hailong Wang, Xiaohua Yuan, Yuanqing He, Yun Qian, Tandong Yao
    更新日期:2017-10-24
  • Mercury bioaccumulation in bats reflects dietary connectivity to aquatic food webs ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Daniel J. Becker, Matthew M. Chumchal, Hugh G. Broders, Jennifer M. Korstian, Elizabeth L. Clare, Thomas R. Rainwater, Steven G. Platt, Nancy B. Simmons, M. Brock Fenton
    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • 更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Evaluating blood and excrement as bioindicators for metal accumulation in birds ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Åsa M.M. Berglund
    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Spatial avoidance to experimental increase of intermittent and continuous sound in two captive harbour porpoises ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Annebelle C.M. Kok, J. Pamela Engelberts, Ronald A. Kastelein, Lean Helder-Hoek, Shirley Van de Voorde, Fleur Visser, Hans Slabbekoorn
    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Ambient concentrations and deposition rates of selected reactive nitrogen species and their contribution to PM2.5 aerosols at three locations with contrasting land use in southwest China ☆
    Environ. Pollut. (IF 5.099) Pub Date : 2017-10-15
    Ling Song, Xuejun Liu, Ute Skiba, Bo Zhu, Xifeng Zhang, Meiyu Liu, Marsailidh Twigg, Jianlin Shen, Anthony Dore, Stefan Reis, Mhairi Coyle, Wen Zhang, Peter Levy, David Fowler

    The fast economic development of southwest China has resulted in significant increases in the concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere. In this study, an urban (Chengdu, CD), suburban (Shifang, SF) and agriculture (Yanting, YT) – dominated location in the Sichuan Province, southwest China, were selected to investigate the atmospheric composition of Nr, their concentrations and deposition rates. We measured Nr concentrations in precipitation (NH4+, NO3− and organic N (DON)), the gas phase (NH3 and NO2), and the aerosol particles (PM2.5), and calculated their fluxes over a two year period (2014–2016). Total annual N deposition rates were 49.2, 44.7 and 19.8 kg N ha−1 yr−1 at CD, SF and YT, respectively. Ammonia concentrations were larger at the urban and suburban sites than the agricultural site (12.2, 14.9, and 4.9 μg N m−3 at CD, SF and YT, respectively). This is consistent with the multitude of larger sources of NH3, including city garbage, livestock and traffic, in the urban and suburban areas. Monthly NO2 concentrations were lower in warmer compared to the colder months, but seasonal differences were insignificant. Daily PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 7.7 to 236.0, 5.0–210.4 and 4.2–128.4 μg m−3 at CD, SF and YT, respectively, and showed significant correlations with fine particulate NH4+ and NO3− concentrations. Ratios of reduced to oxidized N were in the range of 1.6–2.7. This implies that the control of reduced Nr especially in urban environments is needed to improve local air quality.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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