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  • Experimentally validated mathematical model of analyte uptake by permeation passive samplers
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    F. Salim, M. Ioannidis, T. Górecki
    更新日期:2017-09-22
  • Multi-biomarker approach in the scallop Chlamys farreri to assess PAHs pollution in Qingdao coastal areas of China
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-21
    Luqing Pan, Mengyu Zhang, Qian Jin, Rongwang Ji
    更新日期:2017-09-21
  • The necessity of bioanalytical tools for advancing water and sediment quality assessment
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Edward P. Kolodziej, Kyungho Choi, Ruth Marfil-Vega, Bryan W. Brooks
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Development of suspect and non-target screening methods for detection of organic contaminants in highway runoff and fish tissue with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Bowen Du, Jonathan M. Lofton, Katherine T. Peter, Alexander D. Gipe, C. Andrew James, Jenifer K. McIntyre, Nathaniel L. Scholz, Joel E. Baker, Edward P. Kolodziej
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Correction: Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Joorim Na, Jisu Yoo, Gwiwoong Nam, Jinho Jung

    Correction for ‘Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna’ by Joorim Na et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c7em00078b.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Endocrine disrupting potential of PAHs and their alkylated analogues associated with oil spills
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    Sangwoo Lee, Seongjin Hong, Xiaoshan Liu, Cheolmin Kim, Dawoon Jung, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, Jong Seong Khim, John P. Giesy, Kyungho Choi
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-06
    Joorim Na, Jisu Yoo, Gwiwoong Nam, Jinho Jung
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Study of the simulated sunlight photolysis mechanism of ketoprofen: the role of superoxide anion radicals, transformation byproducts, and ecotoxicity assessment
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-04
    Yingfei Wang, Wen Deng, Fengliang Wang, Yuehan Su, Yiping Feng, Ping Chen, Jingshuai Ma, Haiying Su, Kun Yao, Yang Liu, Wenying Lv, Guoguang Liu
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Identification and assessment of ecotoxicological hazards attributable to pollutants in urban wet weather discharges
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-06-21
    Antoine Gosset, Claude Durrieu, Frédéric Orias, Rémy Bayard, Yves Perrodin
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • High throughput in vitro and in vivo screening of inland waters of Southern California
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-06-14
    A. C. Mehinto, D. R. VanDervort, W. Lao, G. He, M. S. Denison, S. M. Vliet, D. C. Volz, R. D. Mazor, K. A. Maruya
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Integration of community structure data reveals observable effects below sediment guideline thresholds in a large estuary
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-04-07
    Louis A. Tremblay, Dana Clark, Jim Sinner, Joanne I. Ellis
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Exploring the oxidative stress response mechanism triggered by environmental water samples
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2016-12-15
    Peta A. Neale, Maud E. S. Achard, Beate I. Escher, Frederic D. L. Leusch
    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Transferring mixtures of chemicals from sediment to a bioassay using silicone-based passive sampling and dosing
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Lukas Mustajärvi, Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund, Elena Gorokhova, Annika Jahnke, Anna Sobek

    Environmental mixtures of chemicals consist of a countless number of compounds with unknown identity and quantity. Yet, chemical regulation is mainly built around the assessment of single chemicals. Existing frameworks for assessing the toxicity of mixtures require that both chemical composition and quantity are known. Quantitative analyses of the chemical composition of environmental mixtures are however extremely challenging and resource-demanding. Bioassays may therefore serve as a useful approach for investigating the combined toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals in a cost-efficient and holistic manner. In this study, an unknown environmental mixture of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic to hydrophobic chemicals was sampled from a contaminated sediment in a coastal Baltic Sea area using the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as equilibrium passive sampler. The chemical mixture was transferred to a PDMS-based passive dosing system, and its applicability was demonstrated using the green algae Tetraselmis suecia in a cell viability assay. The proportion of dead cells increased significantly with increasing exposure level and in a dose-response manner. At the ambient concentration, the proportion of dead cells in the population was nearly doubled compared to the control; however, the difference was non-significant due to high inter-replicate variability and low number of the replicates. The validation of the test system regarding equilibrium sampling, loading efficiency to the passive dosing polymer, stability of the mixture composition, and low algal mortality in control treatments demonstrates that combining equilibrium passive sampling and passive dosing is a promising tool for investigating the toxicity of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic chemicals in complex environmental mixtures.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Selectivity of solid phase extraction for dissolved organic matter in the hypersaline Da Qaidam Lake, China
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Keli Yang, Yaoling Zhang, Yaping Dong, Wu Li
    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Mechanisms of distinct activated carbon and biochar amendment effects on petroleum vapour biofiltration in soil
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Khaled M. Bushnaf, George Mangse, Paola Meynet, Russell J. Davenport, Olaf A. Cirpka, David Werner
    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Experimentally Validated Mathematical Model of Analyte Uptake by Permeation Passive Samplers
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Faten Salim, Marios Ioannidis, Tadeusz Gorecki

    A mathematical model describing the sampling process in a permeation-based passive sampler was developed and evaluated numerically. The model was applied to the Waterloo Membrane Sampler (WMS), which employs a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane as a permeation barrier, and an adsorbent as a receiving phase. Samplers of this kind are used for sampling volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air and soil gas. The model predicts the spatio-temporal variation of sorbed and free analyte concentrations within the sampler components (membrane, sorbent bed and dead volume), from which the uptake rate throughout the sampling process can be determined. A gradual decline in the uptake rate during the sampling process is predicted, which is more pronounced when sampling higher concentrations. Decline of the uptake rate can be attributed to diminishing analyte concentration gradient within the membrane, which results from resistance to mass transfer and the development of analyte concentration gradients within the sorbent bed. The effects of changing the sampler component dimensions on the rate of this decline in the uptake rate can be predicted from the model. Performance of the model was evaluated experimentally for sampling of toluene vapors under controlled conditions. The model predictions proved close to the experimental values. The model provides a valuable tool to predict changes in the uptake rate during sampling, to assign suitable exposure times at different analyte concentration levels, and to optimize the dimensions of the sampler in a manner that minimizes these changes during the sampling period.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A in tree bark from different functional areas of Shanghai, China: levels and spatial distributions
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Tao Han, Ming-Hong Wu, Chao Zang, Rui Sun, Liang Tang, Ning Liu, Jian-Qiu Lei, Hai-Yang Shao, Jian-Zhong Gu, Gang Xu
    更新日期:2017-09-11
  • Standardisation of a European measurement method for organic carbon and elemental carbon in ambient air: results of the field trial campaign and the determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Richard J. C. Brown, Sonya Beccaceci, David M. Butterfield, Paul G. Quincey, Peter M. Harris, Thomas Maggos, Pavlos Panteliadis, Astrid John, Aleksandra Jedynska, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Angeliki Karanasiou
    更新日期:2017-09-11
  • The necessity of bioanalytical tools for advancing water and sediment quality assessment
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Edward P. Kolodziej, Kyungho Choi, Ruth Marfil-Vega, Bryan W. Brooks
    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-31
    Gwyneth Anne MacMillan, John Chételat, Joel P. Heath, Raymond Mickpegak, Marc Amyot
    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobutadiene in pumpkin seedlings after waterborne exposure
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Xingwang Hou, Haiyan Zhang, Yanlin Li, Miao Yu, Jiyan Liu, Guibin Jiang
    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Standardisation of a European measurement method for organic carbon and elemental carbon in ambient air: results of the field trial campaign and the determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Richard J C Brown, Sonya Beccaceci, David M Butterfield, Paul Quincey, Peter M Harris, Thomas Maggos, Pavlos Panteliadis, Astrid John, Aleksandra Jedynska, Thomas Kuhlbusch, Jean Putaud, Angeliki Karanasiou

    The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) Technical Committee 264 ‘Air Quality’ has recently produced a standard method for the measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon in PM2.5 within its Working Group 35 in response to the requirements of European Directive 2008/50/EC. It is expected that this method will be used in future by all Member States making measurements of the carbonaceous content of PM2.5. This paper details the results of a laboratory and field measurement campaign and the statistical analysis performed to validate the standard method, assess its uncertainty and define its working range to provide clarity and confidence in the underpinning science for future users of the method. The statistical analysis showed that the expanded combined uncertainty for transmittance protocol measurements of OC, EC and TC is expected to be below 25 %, at the 95 % level of confidence, above filter loadings of 2 μg/cm2. An estimation of the detection limit of the method for total carbon was 2 μg/cm2. As a result of the laboratory and field measurement campaign the EUSAAR2 transmittance measurement protocol was chosen as the basis of the standard method EN 16909:2017.

    更新日期:2017-09-05
  • Selectivity of solid phase extraction for dissolved organic matter in the hypersaline Da Qaidam Lake, China
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Keli Yang, Yaoling Zhang, Yaping Dong, Wu Li

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from the hypersaline Da Qaidam Lake by solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods with five different adsorbents: ENVI-Carb (non-porous graphitized carbon), as well as HLB, PPL, and XAD-8 (polymer based), and ENVI-18 (silica based). The structure-selective assessments of SPE-DOM isolated by different adsorbents were conducted by a combination of complementary analysis techniques, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) analysis, as well as elemental analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results indicated that the modified polymer based adsorbents (PPL and HLB) exhibited higher DOC recoveries than the others. The PPL and ENVI-Carb cartridges can recovery representative nitrogen-containing organic components from the hypersaline lake. The SPE-DOM isolates obtained by ENVI-18 and XAD-8 adsorbents contained higher proportions of purely aliphatics, alkene, and aromatics; the ENVI-Carb and PPL extracts showed higher affinity to polar functionalized aliphatics and nitrogen-containing compounds; HLB isolates enriched in oxygen-rich organic compounds and sulphur-bearing components. The structural and composition features of SPE-DOM for the hypersaline Da Qaidam Lake indicated the predominately autochthonous organic matter sources of the lake.

    更新日期:2017-09-05
  • Emerging investigator series: As(V) in magnetite: incorporation and redistribution
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Brittany L. Huhmann, Anke Neumann, Maxim I. Boyanov, Kenneth M. Kemner, Michelle M. Scherer
    更新日期:2017-09-05
  • Mechanisms of Distinct Activated Carbon and Biochar Amendment Effects on Petroleum Vapour Biofiltration in Soil
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Khaled M. Bushnaf, George Mangse, Paola Meynet, Russell Davenport, Olaf Cirpka, David Werner

    We studied effects of two percent by weight activated carbon versus biochar amendments in 93 cm long sand columns on the biofiltration of petroleum vapours released by a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source. Activated carbon greatly enhanced, whereas biochar slightly reduced the biofiltration of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) over 430 days. Sorbent amendment benefitted the VPH biofiltration by retarding breakthrough during the biodegradation lag phase. Subsequently, sorbent amendment briefly reduced the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons by limiting their bioavailability. During the last and longest study period, when conditions became less supportive of microbial growth, because of inorganic nutrient scarcity, the sorbents again improved the pollution attenuation by preventing the degrading microorganisms from being overloaded with VPHs. A 16s rRNA gene based analysis showed sorbent amendment effects on soil microbial communities. Nocardioidaceae benefitted the most from petroleum hydrocarbons in activated carbon amended soil, whereas Pseudomonadacea predominated in unamended soil. Whilst the degrading microorganisms were overloaded with VPHs in the unamended soil, the reduced mobility and bioavailability of VPHs in the activated carbon amended soil led to the emergence of communities with higher specific substrate affinity, which removed bioavailable VPHs effectively at low concentrations. A numerical pollutant fate model reproduced these experimental observation by considering sorption effects on the pollutant migration and bioavailability for growth of VPH degrading biomass, which is limited by a maximum soil biomass carrying capacity. Activated carbon was a much stronger sorbent for VPHs than biochar, which explained the diverging effects of the two sorbents in this study.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fire stations
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-29
    Raymond C. Bott, Katherine M. Kirk, Michael B. Logan, Damien A. Reid
    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-31
    Gwyneth Anne MacMillan, John Chételat, Joel Heath, Raymond Mickpegak, Marc Amyot

    Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂15N, ∂13C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N=339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REE generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (REE for 15 elements <0.1 nmolg-1), yet accumulation was an order of magnitude higher in liver tissues. Age- and length-dependent REE accumulation also suggest that REE uptake is faster than elimination for some species. Overall, REE bioaccumulation patterns appear to be species- and tissue-specific, with limited potential for biomagnification. This study provides novel data on the behaviour of REE in ecosystems and will be useful for environmental impact assessment of REE enrichment in northern regions.

    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Jennie Cox, Reshmi Indugula, Stephen Vesper, Zheng Zhu, Roman Jandarov, Tiina Reponen
    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Response of the phytoplankton community to water quality in a local alpine glacial lake of Xinjiang Tianchi, China: potential drivers and management implications
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Xiaotian Lu, Shuai Song, Yonglong Lu, Tieyu Wang, Zhaoyang Liu, Qifeng Li, Meng Zhang, Sarvajayakesavalu Suriyanarayanan, Alan Jenkins
    更新日期:2017-08-31
  • Diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fire stations
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-29
    Raymond Clinton Bott, Katherine Meredith Kirk, MIchael Bruce Logan, Damien Ashley Reid

    Firefighters are known to be exposed to a wide variety of combustion products during operational and training firefighting activities. However, the potential for exposure to diesel exhaust emissions, recently classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, also exists within the fire station environment. In this study, concentrations of diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the engine bays, duty offices and dormitory areas of eight fire stations in Queensland, Australia. Operation of fire appliances and mechanical equipment during start of shift checks were found to contribute more strongly to overall engine bay diesel particulate matter concentrations than the number of fire appliance departures and returns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be transported further into fire station living environments than diesel particulate matter. This study highlights a number of potential strategies for reducing firefighter exposures to components of diesel engine exhaust in the fire station environment.

    更新日期:2017-08-29
  • Epoxide formation from heterogeneous oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene with gas-phase ozone and indoor air
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-17
    Shouming Zhou, Leo W. Y. Yeung, Matthew W. Forbes, Scott Mabury, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
    更新日期:2017-08-29
  • Bioaccumulation of Hexachlorobutadiene in Pumpkin Seedlings after Waterborne Exposure
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Xingwang Hou, Haiyan Zhang, Yanlin Li, Miao Yu, Jiyan Liu, Guibin Jiang

    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) has been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention, and is now drawing more and more research interests. However, the understanding on its bioaccumulation, especially in plants, is still very limited. In this work, the behavior of HCBD in aqueous solution and pumpkin seedlings were studied through in-lab hydroponic exposure experiments. It was found that 69% HCBD volatilized from water to atmosphere after one day exposure, and only 1% remained in the solution after four days. The high volatility might be the main cause for low HCBD levels in the aqueous environment. Though a great amount of HCBD volatilized into the atmosphere, only a small proportion of airborne HCBD was captured by the leaves and stems of the blank pumpkin. The translocation of HCBD from the leaves to the bottom roots, as well as the release from roots to water, was detected. For the exposure groups, pumpkin absorbed HCBD from both hydroponic solution and air by roots and leaves, respectively. The concentration of HCBD in exposed pumpkin roots linearly increased with the continuous addition of HCBD in the exposure system. Upward translocation from roots to leaves and downward translocation from leaves to roots existed simultaneously in the exposed pumpkin. However, the concentrations of HCBD in leaves, stems and roots in exposure group were much higher than that of blank plant controls, suggesting little contribution of the airborne HCBD in the hydroponically exposed pumpkin. Lipid contents did not show obvious effects on the bioaccumulation and biodistribution of HCBD in pumpkin, indicating that the translocation of HCBD within the pumpkin might be an active process. This study provided new findings on the environmental behavior of HCBD, which would be helpful for understanding their exposure risks.

    更新日期:2017-08-25
  • Minor methane emissions from an Alpine hydropower reservoir based on monitoring of diel and seasonal variability
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-11
    Sébastien Sollberger, Bernhard Wehrli, Carsten J. Schubert, Tonya DelSontro, Werner Eugster
    更新日期:2017-08-25
  • Comparison of Indoor Air Sampling and Dust Collection Methods for Fungal Exposure Assessment Using Quantitative PCR
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Jennie Dian Cox, Reshmi Indugula, Stephen J. Vesper, Zheng Zhu, Roman Jandarov, Tiina Reponen

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48-hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n=14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48-hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r=0.64-0.79, p<0.05), with the exception of the vacuumed floor dust and newly settled dust. In addition, fungal cell concentrations of indoor associated species correlated well between all four dust sampling methods (r=0.68-0.86, p<0.01). No correlation was found between the fungal concentrations in the air and dust samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48-hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Development of suspect and non-target screening methods for detection of organic contaminants in highway runoff and fish tissue with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Bowen Du, Jonathan M. Lofton, Katherine T. Peter, Alexander D. Gipe, C. Andrew James, Jenifer K. McIntyre, Nathaniel L. Scholz, Joel E. Baker, Edward P. Kolodziej
    更新日期:2017-08-21
  • Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Martin Jiskra, Jan G. Wiederhold, Ulf Skyllberg, Rose-Marie Kronberg, Ruben Kretzschmar
    更新日期:2017-08-21
  • Epoxide Formation from Heterogeneous Oxidation of Benzo[a]pyrene with Gas-phase Ozone and Indoor Air
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-17
    Shouming Zhou, Leo Yeung, Mathew W Forbes, Scott Mabury, Jonathan Abbatt

    The formation of two classes of epoxide products from the heterogeneous reaction of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with gas-phase ozone was demonstrated. BaP was coated on a Pyrex glass tube and oxidized with different concentrations of ozone. After oxidation, the epoxide products were derivatized by N-acetylcystein (NAC) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that in addition to mono-epoxides, diol-epoxides were also formed. BaP exposed to genuine indoor air also produces mono- and diol-epoxides, having similar chromatograms as those produced by oxidation of BaP by low concentrations of ozone. Although it is well recognized that diol-epoxides are formed from BaP oxidation in the human body and that they exhibit carcinogenicity via formation of adducts with DNA, this is the first demonstration that such classes of compounds can be formed by abiotic heterogeneous oxidation.

    更新日期:2017-08-17
  • Sequestration of Pb–Zn–Sb- and As-bearing incidental nanoparticles by mineral surface coatings and mineralized organic matter in soils
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Michael Schindler, Michael F. Hochella, Jr.
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • Comparison of air samplers for determination of isocyanic acid and applicability for work environment exposure assessment
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Mikolaj Jan Jankowski, Raymond Olsen, Yngvar Thomassen, Paal Molander
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Matthew J. Binnington, Ying D. Lei, Lucky Pokiak, James Pokiak, Sonja K. Ostertag, Lisa L. Loseto, Hing M. Chan, Leo W. Y. Yeung, Haiyong Huang, Frank Wania
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • The status and characteristics of eutrophication in tropical coastal water
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Nooshin Peyman, Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Mohammad Tajfard, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, David J. Karlen
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • Understanding the mobilisation of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Magaly Valencia-Avellan, Rebecca Slack, Anthony Stockdale, Robert John George Mortimer
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • Atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs at Indo-Gangetic sites
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-07
    Puneet Kumar Verma, Dinesh Sah, K. Maharaj Kumari, Anita Lakhani
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • Airborne persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in China: occurrence and its implication associated with air pollution
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-04
    Pu Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Yingming Li, Julius Matsiko, Ya Zhang, Guibin Jiang
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • The effect of probe choice and solution conditions on the apparent photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-06-30
    Andrew C. Maizel, Christina K. Remucal
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • Indirect photodegradation of the lampricides TFM and niclosamide
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-06-22
    Megan B. McConville, Stephen P. Mezyk, Christina K. Remucal
    更新日期:2017-08-16
  • The effect of sub-zero temperature on the formation and composition of secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    K. Kristensen, L. N. Jensen, M. Glasius, M. Bilde,
    更新日期:2017-08-14
  • Minor methane emissions from an Alpine hydropower reservoir based on monitoring of diel and seasonal variability
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-11
    Sébastien Sollberger, Bernhard Wehrli, Carsten Schubert, Tonya DelSontro, Werner Eugster

    We monitored CH4 emissions during the ice-free period of an Alpine hydropower reservoir in the Swiss Alps, Lake Klöntal, to investigate mechanisms responsible for CH4 variability and to estimate overall emissions to the atmosphere. A floating eddy-covariance platform yielded total CH4 and CO2 emission rates at high temporal resolution, while hydroacoustic surveys provided no indication of CH4 ebullition. Higher CH4 fluxes (2.9±0.1 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) occurred during the day when surface water temperatures were warmer and wind speeds higher than at night. Piston velocity estimates (k600) showed an upper limit at high wind speeds that may be more generally valid also for other lakes and reservoirs with limited CH4 dissolved in the water body: above 2.0 m s-1 a further increase in wind speed did not lead to higher CH4 fluxes, because under such conditions it is not the turbulent mixing and transport that limits effluxes, but the resupply of CH4 to the lake surface. Increasing CH4 fluxes during the warm season showed a clear spatial gradient once the reservoir started to fill up and flood additional surface area. The warm period contributed 27% of the total CH4 emissions (2.6 t CH4 yr-1) estimated for the full year and CH4 accounted for 63% of carbonic greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, the average CH4 emissions (1.7 to 2.2 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 determined independently from surface water samplings and eddy covariance, respectively) were small compared to most tropical and some temperate reservoirs. The resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in CO2-equivalents revealed that electricity produced in the Lake Klöntal power plant was relatively climate-friendly with a low GHG-to-power output ratio of 1.24 kg CO2,eq MWh-1 compared to 6.5 and 8.1 kg CO2,eq MWh-1 associated with the operation of solar photovoltaics and wind energy, respectively, or about 980 kg CO2,eq MWh-1 for coal-fired power plants.

    更新日期:2017-08-11
  • Long-range transport clusters and positive matrix factorization source apportionment for investigating transboundary PM2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Peter Molnár, Lin Tang, Karin Sjöberg, Janine Wichmann
    更新日期:2017-08-11
  • Development of Suspect and Non-Target Screening Methods for Detection of Organic Contaminants in Highway Runoff and Fish Tissue with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Bowen Du, Jonathan M Lofton, Katherine Peter, Alex D Gipe, Christopher Andrew James, Jenifer K McIntyre, Nathaniel Scholz, Joel Baker, Edward P Kolodziej

    Untreated urban stormwater runoff contributes to poor water quality in receiving waters. The ability to identify toxicants and other bioactive molecules responsible for observed adverse effects in a complex mixture of contaminants is critical to effective protection of ecosystem and human health, yet this is a challenging analytical task. The objective of this study was to develop analytical methods using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) to detect organic contaminants in highway runoff and in runoff-exposed fish (adult coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch). Processing of paired water and tissue samples facilitated contaminant prioritization and aided investigation of chemical bioavailability and uptake processes. Simple, minimal processing effort solid phase extraction (SPE) and elution procedures were optimized for water samples, and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) procedures were optimized for fish tissues. Extraction methods were compared by detection of non-target features and target compounds (e.g., quantity and peak area), while minimizing matrix interferences. Suspect screening techniques utilized in-house and commercial databases to prioritize high-risk detections for subsequent MS/MS characterization and identification efforts. Presumptive annotations were also screened with an in-house linear regression (logKow vs. retention time) to exclude isobaric compounds. Examples of confirmed identifications (via reference standard comparison) in highway runoff include ethoprophos, prometon, DEET, caffeine, cotinine, 4(or 5)-methyl-1H-methylbenzotriazole, and acetanilide. Acetanilide was also detected in runoff-exposed fish gill and liver samples. Further characterization of highway runoff and fish tissues (14 and 19 compounds, respectively with tentative identification by MS/MS data) suggests that many novel or poorly characterized organic contaminants exist in urban stormwater runoff and exposed biota.

    更新日期:2017-08-09
  • Sequestration of Pb–Zn–Sb- and As-bearing incidental nanoparticles by mineral surface coatings and mineralized organic matter in soils
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Michael Schindler, Michael F. Hochella, Jr.
    更新日期:2017-08-09
  • Endocrine disrupting potential of PAHs and their alkylated analogues associated with oil spills
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    Sangwoo Lee, Seongjin Hong, Xiaoshan Liu, Cheolmin Kim, Dawoon Jung, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, Jong Seong Khim, John P. Giesy, Kyungho Choi
    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • Correction: Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Joorim Na, Jisu Yoo, Gwiwoong Nam, Jinho Jung

    Correction for ‘Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna’ by Joorim Na et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c7em00078b.

    更新日期:2017-08-07
  • The status and characteristics of eutrophication in tropical coastal water
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Nooshin Peyman, Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Mohammad Tajfard, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, David J. Karlen
    更新日期:2017-08-04
  • Response of phytoplankton community to water quality in local alpine glacial lake of Xinjiang Tianchi, China: potential drivers and management implications
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Xiaotian Lu, Shuai Song, Yonglong Lu, Tieyu Wang, Zhaoyang Liu, Qifeng Li, Meng Zhang, Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavalu, Alan Jenkins

    Eutrophication has become one of the most serious threat to aquatic ecosystems in the world. With the combined drivers of climate change and human activities, eutrophication has expanded from warm shallow lakes to cold-water lakes in relatively high latitude regions, and has attracted greater concerns over lake aquatic ecosystem health. A two-year field study was carried out to investigate water quality, phytoplankton characteristics and eutrophication status in a typical alpine glacial lake of Tianchi, a scenic area and an important drinking water source in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China in 2014 and 2015. Clear seasonal and annual variations of nutrients and organic pollutants were found especially during rainy seasons. For the phytoplankton community, Bacillariophyta held the dominant position in terms of both species and biomass throughout the year, suggesting the dominant characteristics of diatoms in phytoplankton structure in such a high-altitude cold-water lake. It was quite different from those plain and warm lakes troubled with cyanobacteria blooming. Moreover, the dominant abundance of Cyclotella sp. in Tianchi might suggest a regional warming affected by climate change, which might cause profound effects on local ecosystems and hydrological cycle. Based on water quality parameters, a comprehensive trophic level index TLI (Σ) was calculated to estimate the current status of eutrophication, and the results inferred emerging eutrophication in Tianchi. Results from Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and correlation analysis of phytoplankton genera and physico-chemical variables of water indicated that abiotic factors significantly influenced the phytoplankton community and its succession in Tianchi Lake. Those abiotic factors could explain 77.82% of the total variance,and ammonium was identified as the most discriminant variable, which could explain 41% of the total variance followed by TP (29%).An estimation of annual nutrient loadings to Tianchi was made, and the results indicated that about 212.97 t of total nitrogen and 32.14 t of total phosphors were transported into Tianchi Lake annually. Human social-economic activities (runoff caused by historical overgrazing and increasing tourism) were identified as the most important contributors to Tianchi nutrient loadings.

    更新日期:2017-08-03
  • Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Martin Jiskra, Jan Wiederhold, Ulf Skyllberg, Rose-Marie Kronberg, Ruben Kretzschmar

    Terrestrial runoff represents a major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. In boreal forest catchments, such as the one in northern Sweden studied here, mercury bound to natural organic matter (NOM) represents a large fraction of mercury in the runoff. We present a method to measure Hg stable isotope signatures of colloidal Hg, mainly complexed by high molecu- lar weight or colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) in natural waters based on pre-enrichment by ultrafiltration, followed by freeze-drying and combus- tion. We report that Hg associated with high molecular weight NOM in the boreal forest runoff has very similar Hg isotope signatures as compared to the organic soil horizons of the catchment area. The mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures (∆199Hg and ∆200Hg) measured in soils and runoff was in agreement with typical values reported for atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) and distinctly different from reported Hg isotope signatures in precipitation. We therefore suggest that most Hg in the boreal terrestrial ecosystem originated from the deposition of Hg0 through foliar uptake rather than precipitation. Using a mixing model we calculated the contribution of soil horizons to the Hg in the runoff. At moderate to high flow runoff conditions, that prevailed during sampling, the uppermost part of the organic horizon (Oe/He) contributed 50-70 % of the Hg in the runoff, while the underlying more humified organic Oa/Ha and the mineral soil horizons displayed a lower mobility of Hg. The good agreement of the Hg isotope results with other source tracing approaches using radiocarbon signatures and Hg:C ratios provides additional support for the strong coupling between Hg and NOM. The exploratory results from this study illustrate the potential of Hg stable isotopes to trace the source of Hg from atmospheric deposition through the terrestrial ecosystem to soil runoff, and provide a basis for more in-depth studies investigating the mobility of Hg in terrestrial ecosystems using Hg isotope signatures.

    更新日期:2017-08-03
  • Comparison of air samplers for determination of isocyanic acid and applicability for work environment exposure assessment
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Mikolaj Jan Jankowski, Raymond Olsen, Yngvar Thomassen, Paal Molander
    更新日期:2017-08-03
  • Sequestration of Pb- Zn- Sb- and As-bearing incidental nanoparticles by mineral surface coatings and mineralized organic matter in soils
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Michael Schindler, Michael F. Hochella

    Nanoparticles (NPs) often play significant roles in dictating the transport, distribution, bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in the environment. Incidental NPs (i.e. NPs of anthropogenic origin but not purposely engineered) are often overlooked in contaminant transport and fate studies; yet in many systems they dominate contaminant transport processes. Using surficial contaminated regosols from Trail, British Columbia, Canada, a metal smelting and refining area along the banks of the Columbia River, we show that sequestration of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-bearing incidental NPs is strongly influenced by their aggregation, crystal growth, and/or particle attachment to mineral surface coatings (MSC) and in mineralized organic matter (MOM). Transmission electron microscopy shows the occurrence of NPs of anglesite (PbSO4), Fe-As-phosphate, kintoreite (Pb[(Fe,Al)3(P(As)O4) (PO3(OH))(OH)6]), and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) in matrices of amorphous silica which retain different stages of their agglomeration and aggregation Other identified nano-size phases in the MSC and MOM indicate a complex and previously unrecognized mineralogy of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-phase in surficial soils. Mineralogical complexity and the various sequestration processes observed in this study indicate a new dimension of nano-scale processes on mineral surfaces and organic matter that have been previously overlooked when studying the fate of contaminants with bulk-analytical tools such as micro-X-ray diffraction or synchrotron-based spectroscopic methods.

    更新日期:2017-08-03
  • Long-range transport clusters and positive matrix factorization source apportionment for investigating transboundary PM2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Peter Molnar, Lin Tang, Karin Sjöberg, Janine Wichmann

    Source apportionment studies of particulate matter are common and have been performed either as source region analyses using air mass back trajectories or by source type using source apportionment techniques. By combining the two approaches, it is possible to estimate the relative importance of emitters in different regions. PM2.5 samples were collected in Gothenburg between September 2008 and September 2009. The mean daily PM2.5 level was 6.1 μg m-3 (range 0.79–30.91 μg m-3). Elemental analyses were done using Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Source apportionment was carried out using the US EPA PMF 5.0 software. The sources long-range transport (LRT), LRT-Pb (lead-containing LRT), ship emissions, combustion, marine, and resuspension were identified. Air mass trajectories were estimated using HYSPLIT model (version 4.9). Six transport clusters were identified: South Scandinavia 21%, North Scandinavia 11%, Baltic Sea 8%, Eastern Europe 6%, UK/North Sea/Denmark 25%, and North Atlantic Ocean 30%. LRT was the major contributor to PM2.5 levels across all six transport clusters (48%) followed by ship emissions (20%) and combustion (19%). The transport cluster associated with the highest PM2.5 levels was Eastern Europe followed by South Scandinavia, UK/North Sea/Denmark, and Baltic Sea. After considering the frequency of the transport clusters, the transport clusters associated with the highest PM2.5 levels were UK-NorthS-DK, S-Scandic, and N-Atlantic, while Eastern Europe only contributed 9% towards PM2.5 levels. Abatement strategies aimed at reductions of ship emissions, industry emissions, and road traffic emissions on an European level and local combustion sources on a city-scale level would be the two most effective directions for reducing ambient PM2.5 in Gothenburg.

    更新日期:2017-08-03
  • Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods
    Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts (IF 2.592) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Matthew J. Binnington, Ying D. Lei, Lucky Pokiak, James Pokiak, Sonja K. Ostertag, Lisa L. Loseto, Hing M. Chan, Leo W. Y. Yeung, Haiyong Huang, Frank Wania
    更新日期:2017-08-03
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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