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  • U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Confronts Critics
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Charlie Schmidt

    In May, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended against screening for thyroid cancer. After reviewing the available evidence, the task force concluded that thyroid cancer screening leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of tumors that rarely spread and that the likely harms from screening outweigh the benefits. Making such decisions is part of the task force’s mandate to provide independent recommendations on preventive services to primary-care clinicians and to people without obvious symptoms of the disease in question.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Examining the Link Between Hair Chemicals and Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Mike Fillon

    Does using chemical hair care products, particularly among women, increase the risk of developing cancer? A new study appearing in Carcinogenesis (doi:10.1093/carcin/bgx060) indicates that it might.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Updates to the National Cancer Institute’s PDQ Information from Recently Published Oncology Research
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-09-01

    PDQ (Physician Data Query) is the National Cancer Institute’s source of comprehensive cancer information. It contains peer-reviewed, evidence-based cancer information summaries on treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, genetics, and complementary and alternative medicine. The summaries are regularly updated by six editorial boards. The following PDQ summaries were recently updated:

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Two-by-Two Factorial Cancer Treatment Trials: Is Sufficient Attention Being Paid to Possible Interactions?
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Boris Freidlin, Edward L. Korn

    Factorial 2 × 2 designs can be used to combine evaluation of two treatments in a single study. The standard analysis approach is based on a factorial analysis that evaluates each treatment by pooling data over the other treatment. This approach relies on the assumption that the effect of each treatment is not substantially affected by the other treatment. In many oncology settings, this no-interaction assumption cannot be adequately supported at the time the trial is designed. In this Commentary, we consider current practices for the design and analysis of factorial trials by performing a survey of factorial treatment trials published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Journal of Clinical Oncology, and the New England Journal of Medicine (2007–2016). The protocol-specified sample size was derived based on the factorial (pooled) analysis in 96.7% of the 30 identified trials, and the factorial analysis was specified as the primary analysis in 90.0% of these identified trials. An interaction complicating study interpretation was reported in 16.7% of the trials. We provide recommendations for matching the trial analysis and design to the study goals to account for possible interaction and illustrate the recommendations on the data from several published trials.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2014, Featuring Survival
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-31
    Ahmedin Jemal, Elizabeth M. Ward, Christopher J. Johnson, Kathleen A. Cronin, Jiemin Ma, A. Blythe Ryerson, Angela Mariotto, Andrew J. Lake, Reda Wilson, Recinda L. Sherman, Robert N. Anderson, S. Jane Henley, Betsy A. Kohler, Lynne Penberthy, Eric J. Feuer, Hannah K. Weir

    The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This Annual Report highlights survival rates.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Editorial: US Cancer Statistics of Survival: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-07-26
    Shahinaz M. Gadalla, Brigitte C. Widemann

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, with an estimated 600 920 cancer deaths in 2017 (1). In this issue of the Journal, the American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries deliver their annual update on US cancer incidence and mortality trends (2). The report shows that during 1999 to 2013, cancer rates continued to decrease in men and remained stable in women. In contrast, mortality rates statistically significantly decreased in men and women (1.8% and 1.4% per year, respectively). Cancer site–specific statistics showed few exceptions. While these results are encouraging overall, they raise critical questions: Why do we see rate...

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Randomized Trial Comparing a Web-Mediated Follow-up With Routine Surveillance in Lung Cancer Patients
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-10
    Fabrice Denis, Claire Lethrosne, Nicolas Pourel, Olivier Molinier, Yoann Pointreau, Julien Domont, Hugues Bourgeois, Hélène Senellart, Pierre Trémolières, Thibaut Lizée, Jaafar Bennouna, Thierry Urban, Claude El Khouri, Alexandre Charron, Anne-Lise Septans, Magali Balavoine, Sébastien Landry, Philippe Solal-Céligny, Christophe Letellier

    The use of web-based monitoring for lung cancer patients is growing in interest because of promising recent results suggesting improvement in cancer and resource utilization outcomes. It remains an open question whether the overall survival (OS) in these patients could be improved by using a web-mediated follow-up rather than classical scheduled follow-up and imaging.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Editorial: The Patient Knows Best: Incorporating Patient-Reported Outcomes Into Routine Clinical Care
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-10
    Ryan Nipp, Jennifer Temel

    Patients with cancer experience many physical and psychological symptoms that negatively impact both their experience of their illness and health outcomes (1–4). Among patients with lung cancer, data suggest that symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, fatigue, and nausea are associated with worse quality of life (QOL) and increased psychological distress (5). Research has also demonstrated that both poor QOL and depression are associated with worse survival (6–13). Notably, studies have shown that clinicians often fail to reliably detect their patients’ symptoms and frequently underestimate their severity (14–17). In addition, studies suggest that patients with cancer may underreport their symptoms to their clinicians, resulting in poor symptom management (4,18–20). Thus, there is increasing interest in developing and testing interventions that allow patients...

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Aggressive End-of-Life Care for Metastatic Cancer Patients Younger Than Age 65 Years
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Aaron D. Falchook, Stacie B. Dusetzina, Fang Tian, Ramsankar Basak, Nandini Selvam, Ronald C. Chen

    Aggressive medical care at the end of life can be harmful to patients and families, but its prevalence in use among younger cancer patients is unknown. The goal of the study was to report on the use of aggressive care and hospice services for patients younger than age 65 years.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Editorial: On Quality and Quality Measurement in End-of-Life Cancer Care
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Gabriel A. Brooks

    In this issue of the Journal, Falchook and colleagues describe patterns of end-of-life cancer care observed among commercially insured adult patients younger than age 65 years (1). Their analysis focuses on five National Quality Forum–endorsed measures that assess health care utilization among cancer patients at the end of life, including use of the emergency department (ED), intensive care unit (ICU), chemotherapy, and hospice. Derived in large part from work by Craig Earle and colleagues (2,3), many of the prior analyses using these and related measures have focused on the Medicare population. This report by Falchook and colleagues is among the first to report comprehensive results of end-of-life cancer care quality in a nationally representative, commercially insured patient cohort.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Mammographic Density Change With Estrogen and Progestin Therapy and Breast Cancer Risk
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Celia Byrne, Giske Ursin, Christopher F. Martin, Jennifer D. Peck, Elodia B. Cole, Donglin Zeng, Eunhee Kim, Martin D. Yaffe, Norman F. Boyd, Gerardo Heiss, Anne McTiernan, Rowan T. Chlebowski, Dorothy S. Lane, JoAnn E. Manson, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Etta D. Pisano

    Estrogen plus progestin therapy increases both mammographic density and breast cancer incidence. Whether mammographic density change associated with estrogen plus progestin initiation predicts breast cancer risk is unknown.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • The Role of Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Factors in Pancreatic Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Study
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Valerie Gaborieau, Philip C. Haycock, Kaitlin H. Wade, Caroline L. Relton, Richard M. Martin, George Davey Smith, Paul Brennan

    Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include a cluster of metabolic conditions such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Given that these risk factors are correlated, separating out causal from confounded effects is challenging. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables, may facilitate the identification of the metabolic drivers of pancreatic cancer.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Editorial: Mendelian Randomization Analysis Identifies Body Mass Index and Fasting Insulin as Potential Causal Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer Risk
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, James Y. Dai, Ulrike Peters

    In this issue of the Journal, Carreras-Torres and colleagues present evidence for a potential causal role of body mass index (BMI) and fasting insulin with risk of pancreatic cancer in 7110 cases and 7264 controls (1). Specifically, genetically increased levels of BMI and fasting insulin were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer; the association with fasting insulin was limited to men. No evidence of a causal association was observed for type II diabetes, fasting glucose, glucose at two hours postchallenge, height, waist-to-hip circumference ratio, and four lipids (eg, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides).

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Local Treatment of Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    Theo Ruers, Frits Van Coevorden, Cornelis J. A. Punt, Jean-Pierre E. N. Pierie, Inne Borel-Rinkes, Jonathan A. Ledermann, Graeme Poston, Wolf Bechstein, Marie-Ange Lentz, Murielle Mauer, Gunnar Folprecht, Eric Van Cutsem, Michel Ducreux, Bernard Nordlinger

    Tumor ablation is often employed for unresectable colorectal liver metastases. However, no survival benefit hasever been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. Here, we investigate the long-term benefits of such an aggressive approach.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Editorial: Local Therapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases: Establishing Today’s Level of Evidence and Defining Tomorrow’s Roadmap
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    Yun Shin Chun, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey

    Despite a lack of randomized data, hepatic resection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases (CLM). To evaluate the efficacy of local therapy, the European Intergroup initiated a randomized phase III trial (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] 40004, Chemotherapy + Local Ablation Versus Chemotherapy, CLOCC trial) that assigned patients with unresectable, liver-only metastases from colorectal cancer to systemic treatment alone or systemic treatment plus RFA ± resection (1). The trial was amended to a phase II trial because of slow accrual, and long-term results by Ruers etal. (2) are presented in this issue of the Journal. After follow-up of nearly 10 years, RFA was associated with a statistically significant improvement in five-year overall survival (43.1% vs 30.3%, hazard...

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Phase II Study of Proton-Based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases: Importance of Tumor Genotype
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Theodore S. Hong, Jennifer Y. Wo, Darrell R. Borger, Beow Y. Yeap, Erin I. McDonnell, Henning Willers, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Eunice L. Kwak, Jill N. Allen, Jeffrey W. Clark, Shyam Tanguturi, Lipika Goyal, Janet E. Murphy, John A. Wolfgang, Lorraine C. Drapek, Ronald S. Arellano, Harvey J. Mamon, John T. Mullen, Kenneth K. Tanabe, Cristina R. Ferrone, David P. Ryan, A. John Iafrate, Thomas F. DeLaney, Andrew X. Zhu

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of risk-adapted, proton-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver metastases from solid tumors.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Evidence for a Mesothelial Origin of Body Cavity Effusion Lymphomas
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-23
    David Sanchez-Martin, Thomas S. Uldrick, Hyeongil Kwak, Hidetaka Ohnuki, Mark N. Polizzotto, Christina M. Annunziata, Mark Raffeld, Kathleen M. Wyvill, Karen Aleman, Victoria Wang, Vickie A. Marshall, Denise Whitby, Robert Yarchoan, Giovanna Tosato

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)–induced lymphoma that typically arises in body cavities of HIV-infected patients. PEL cells are often co-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). “PEL-like” lymphoma is a KSHV-unrelated lymphoma that arises in body cavities of HIV-negative patients. “PEL-like” lymphoma is sometimes EBV positive. The derivation of PEL/“PEL-like” cells is unclear.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Co-activation of STAT3 and YES-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) Pathway in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-31
    Imane Chaib, Niki Karachaliou, Sara Pilotto, Jordi Codony Servat, Xueting Cai, Xuefei Li, Ana Drozdowskyj, Carles Codony Servat, Jie Yang, Chunping Hu, Andres Felipe Cardona, Guillermo Lopez Vivanco, Alain Vergnenegre, Jose Miguel Sanchez, Mariano Provencio, Filippo de Marinis, Antonio Passaro, Enric Carcereny, Noemi Reguart, Charo Garcia Campelo, Cristina Teixido, Isabella Sperduti, Sonia Rodriguez, Chiara Lazzari, Alberto Verlicchi, Itziar de Aguirre, Cristina Queralt, Jia Wei, Roger Estrada, Raimon Puig de la Bellacasa, Jose Luis Ramirez, Kirstine Jacobsen, Henrik J. Ditzel, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Santiago Viteri, Miguel Angel Molina, Caicun Zhou, Peng Cao, Patrick C. Ma, Trever G. Bivona, Rafael Rosell

    The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by adaptive activation of cell survival signals. We hypothesized that both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Src-YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling are dually activated during EGFR TKI treatment to limit therapeutic response.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Targeting the Oncogenic Transcriptional Regulator MYB in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma by Inhibition of IGF1R/AKT Signaling
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-22
    Mattias K. Andersson, Maryam K. Afshari, Ywonne Andrén, Michael J. Wick, Göran Stenman

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with no curative treatment for patients with recurrent/metastatic disease. The MYB-NFIB gene fusion is the main genomic hallmark and a potential therapeutic target.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Editorial: Targeting MYB Oncogene Expression in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-05-22
    Scott A. Ness

    In an era of precision medicine, oncogenic transcription factors remain notoriously difficult to target. With the notable exception of PML-RARA, expressed in many promyelocytic leukemias, which can be inactivated by retinoic acid, there exist few targeted therapies for tumors expressing an activated, oncogenic transcription factor. An example is adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) bearing the recurrent t(6;9) translocation, in which the MYB oncogene on chromosome 6 becomes fused to the NFIB gene on chromosome 9 (1,2). The result is a highly expressed MYB gene, driven by enhancers from the NFIB fusion partner (3). The broken fusion gene also expresses truncated variants of the Myb protein lacking the C-terminal-negative regulatory domains that are likely activated and oncogenic (4–6). The t(6;9) MYB-NFIB fusion occurs in about half...

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Immune Modulatory microRNAs Involved in Tumor Attack and Tumor Immune Escape
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-05
    Stefan B. Eichmüller, Wolfram Osen, Ofer Mandelboim, Barbara Seliger

    Current therapies against cancer utilize the patient’s immune system for tumor eradication. However, tumor cells can evade immune surveillance of CD8+ T and/or natural killer (NK) cells by various strategies. These include the aberrant expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens, co-inhibitory or costimulatory molecules, and components of the interferon (IFN) signal transduction pathway. In addition, alterations of the tumor microenvironment could interfere with efficient antitumor immune responses by downregulating or inhibiting the frequency and/or functional activity of immune effector cells and professional antigen-presenting cells. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as major players in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, thereby controlling many physiological and also pathophysiological processes including neoplastic transformation. Indeed, the cellular miRNA expression pattern is frequently altered in many tumors of distinct origin, demonstrating the tumor suppressive or oncogenic potential of miRNAs. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that miRNAs could also influence antitumor immune responses by affecting the expression of immune modulatory molecules in tumor and immune cells. Apart from their important role in tumor immune escape and altered tumor-host interaction, immune modulatory miRNAs often exert neoplastic properties, thus representing promising targets for future combined immunotherapy approaches. This review focuses on the characterization of miRNAs involved in the regulation of immune surveillance or immune escape of tumors and their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or as therapeutic targets.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Response
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
    Joanne Kotsopoulos, Ping Sun, Steven Narod

    In their correspondence, Nolan et al. inquire specifically about the effect of oophorectomy on breast cancer risk in young women with BRCA1 mutations. At their request, we have revisited the data set described in our article and restricted the prospective analysis to 2222 BRCA1 carriers who were free of cancer at study entry and who were between age 25 and 45 years (mean age = 34.8 years). They were followed for breast cancer until age 50 years (mean = 5.2 years of follow-up). In this analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of breast cancer associated with oophorectomy (time-dependent analysis) was 0.99 (95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 1.47). The hazard ratio was adjusted for age at baseline, country of residence, family history, and breastfeeding. In our study, there is no evidence that oophorectomy is...

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Overall Survival Prediction and Usefulness of Second-Line Chemotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
    Angélique Vienot, Guillaume Beinse, Christophe Louvet, Louis de Mestier, Aurélia Meurisse, Francine Fein, Bruno Heyd, Denis Cleau, Christelle d’Engremont, Anne-Claire Dupont-Gossart, Zaher Lakkis, Christophe Tournigand, Olivier Bouché, Benoît Rousseau, Cindy Neuzillet, Franck Bonnetain, Christophe Borg, Dewi Vernerey

    Background: In advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (aPDAC), there is no consensual strategy for second-line chemotherapy (L2). Better discrimination of overall survival (OS) may help clinical decision-making. We aimed to predict OS from the beginning of L2 and to assess the benefit from chemotherapy among the identified risk groups.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • RE: Bilateral Oophorectomy and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
    Emma Nolan, François Vaillant, Jane E. Visvader, Geoffrey J. Lindeman

    The role for bilateral oophorectomy in reducing breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers remains an area of debate (1,2). A recent paper by Kotsopoulos et al. (3) has shed further light on this question. In a large prospective cohort study of unaffected carriers (with a mean follow-up of 5.6 years), the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) associated with oophorectomy was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.26), or 0.79 (95% CI = 0.55 to 1.13) if diagnosed prior to age 50 years. The multivariable hazard ratio, which adjusted for many key variables, similarly suggested no benefit for BRCA1 mutation carriers. There were, however, noteworthy differences (albeit expected) between the oophorectomy and nonoophorectomy groups across the entire (BRCA1 and BRCA2) cohort: 25.0% vs 77.1%...

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Tumor cells in the blood may indicate poor prognosis in early breast cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2014-05-13

    Tumor cells in bone marrow of early breast cancer patients predict a higher risk of relapse as well as poorer survival, but bone marrow biopsy is an invasive and painful procedure. Now, it may be possible to identify tumor cells in a routine blood sample and use them as prognostic markers, according to a study published May 15 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Association between hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk varies by race/ethnicity, body mass index, and breast density
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-08-29

    Breast cancer risk associated with use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among postmenopausal women was variable when analyzed by race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and breast density, according to a new study published September 3 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Consuming a high quality diet is associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-08-13

    People who reported dietary intake that was most consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans had lower risk of pancreatic cancer, according to a new study published August 15 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Estrogen Plus Progestin Use Linked With Increased Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-03-28

    Estrogen plus progestin use is linked with increased breast cancer incidence. In addition, prognosis is similar for both users and nonusers of combined hormone therapy, suggesting that mortality from breast cancer may be higher for hormone therapy users as well, according to a study published March 29 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake is Associated With Lower Risk of ER- Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-01-23

    There is no association between total fruit and vegetable intake and risk of overall breast cancer, but vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer, according to a study published January 24 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Erratum
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-01-10

    Erratum:“A population-based study of hepatitis D virus as potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.” Ji J, Sundquist K, Sundquist J. [J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 104 (10): 790-792] In the second paragraph, lines 12–18, the codes for acute HDV infection in HBV carriers were incorrect. This sentence should read: “Patients were identified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases using the following codes: B181 (chronic HBV infection without HDV), B180 (chronic HBV infection with HDV), and B170, B160, and B161 (acute HDV infection in HBV carriers).” The authors regret this error.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • HPV Associated Cancer Incidence Rates Point to Needed Efforts to Increase HPV Vaccination Coverage
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2013-01-07

    Despite the decline in cancer death rates in the U.S., there is an increase in incidence rates for cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and more efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination coverage levels to prevent the occurrence of these cancers in the future according to a study published January 7 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Women With Higher Carotenoid Levels Have Reduced Risk of Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-12-06

    Women with higher circulating carotenoid levels are at a reduced risk of breast cancer according to a study published December 6 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Higher Dietary Glycemic Load Linked to Worse Colon Cancer Survival
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-11-06

    Researchers have identified a link between higher dietary glycemic load and total carbohydrate intake and increased risk of cancer recurrences or death among stage 3 colon cancer patients, a finding that suggests that diet and lifestyle modification can have a role in improving patient survival, according to a study published November 7 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • 更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Study Showed Oxaliplatin Improved Colon Cancer Patient Survival
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-01-01

    Stage III colon cancer patients in the general population who receive adjuvant treatment for the disease have an improved rate of survival when oxaliplatin is added to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), according to a study published Jan. 20 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • The Challenges of Cancer Vaccines
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2012-01-01

    The first therapeutic cancer vaccine has now been approved by the FDA, and a diverse range of therapeutic cancer vaccines directed against a spectrum of tumor-associated antigens are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, according to a review published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Adjuvant Therapy May Not Be Necessary for Older Breast Cancer Patients
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2011-01-01

    Breast cancer patients over the age of 60 with early-stage, hormone-responsive small tumors who forego adjuvant endocrine, also called hormonal therapy, are not at an increased risk of mortality compared to women of the same age without breast cancer, according to a study published TK in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Toxicity of Aromatase Inhibitors May Explain Lack of Overall Survival Improvement
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2011-01-01

    The toxicities associated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may explain the lack of overall survival improvement compared with tamoxifen, according to a study published August 22 in the Journal of The National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • The Cancer Biomarker Conundrum: Too Many False Discoveries
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    The boom in cancer biomarker investments over the past 25 years has not translated into major clinical success. The reasons for biomarker failures include problems with study design and interpretation, as well as statistical deficiencies, according to an article published online August 12 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Estrogen Not Associated With Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among Postmenopausal Women
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    Use of estrogen alone did not increase lung cancer mortality in postmenopausal women, according to a study published online August 13 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Colorectal Cancer Survival Advantage in MUTYH-Associated Polyposis
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    Survival for colorectal cancer patients with MUTYH -associated polyposis was statistically significantly better than for patients with colorectal cancer from the general population, according to a recent study published online November 2 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Body Fat Distribution Associated With a Higher Risk of ER-negative Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2010-01-01

    Body fat distribution does not play an important role in the incidence of every subtype of premenopausal breast cancer, but is associated with an increased risk for estrogen receptor (ER)–negative breast cancer, according to a study published December 15 in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute .

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Africa’s Neglected Epidemic
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    Steve Graff

    Naftali Busakhala, M.D., an oncologist at the Chandaria Cancer and Chronic Disease Centre in Eldoret, Kenya, never really clocks out. That’s the reality when only eight oncologists work in a country of 46 million people.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • New Initiative Takes Fresh Approach To Increase Value in Cancer Care
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    Sue Rochman

    The cost of cancer care is a concern for patients and doctors in the United States. The American Cancer Society reports that about $87.8 billion was spent in the U.S. in 2014 on cancer-related health care, with nearly $4 billion coming directly from patients in out-of-pocket costs. Multiple groups have tried to address that problem. Now a group of oncologists and researchers are trying a new approach to reduce patient expenses.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Patient Consent: Defining Control of Genetic Information
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    Susan Jenks

    In the era of precision medicine, the case of Henrietta Lacks casts a long shadow over how scientists use genetic information in research, experts say.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Updates to the National Cancer Institute’s PDQ Information from Recently Published Oncology Research
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-10

    PDQ (Physician Data Query) is the National Cancer Institute’s source of comprehensive cancer information. It contains peer-reviewed, evidence-based cancer information summaries on treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, genetics, and complementary and alternative medicine. The summaries are regularly updated by six editorial boards. The following PDQ summaries were recently updated:

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1–Associated MPNST State of the Science: Outlining a Research Agenda for the Future
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-08-22
    Karlyne M. Reilly, AeRang Kim, Jaishri Blakely, Rosalie E. Ferner, David H. Gutmann, Eric Legius, Markku M. Miettinen, R. Lor Randall, Nancy Ratner, N. L. Jumbé, Annette Bakker, David Viskochil, Brigitte C. Widemann, Douglas R. Stewart

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma for which the only effective therapy is surgery. In 2016, an international meeting entitled “MPNST State of the Science: Outlining a Research Agenda for the Future” was convened to establish short- and long-term research priorities. Key recommendations included the: 1) development of standardized, cost-efficient fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging guidelines to evaluate masses concerning for MPNST; 2) development of better understanding and histologic criteria for the transformation of a plexiform neurofibroma to MPNST; 3) establishment of a centralized database to collect genetic, genomic, histologic, immunohistochemical, molecular, radiographic, treatment, and related clinical data from MPNST subspecialty centers in a standardized manner; 4) creation of accurate mouse models to study the plexiform neurofibroma-to-MPNST transition, MPNST metastasis, and drug resistance; 5) use of trial designs that minimize regulatory requirements, maximize availability to patients, consider novel secondary end points, and study patients with newly diagnosed disease. Lastly, in order to minimize delays in developing novel therapies and promote the most efficient use of research resources and patient samples, data sharing should be incentivized.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Reporting and Guidelines in Propensity Score Analysis: A Systematic Review of Cancer and Cancer Surgical Studies
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-22
    Xiaoxin I. Yao, Xiaofei Wang, Paul J. Speicher, E. Shelley Hwang, Perry Cheng, David H. Harpole, Mark F. Berry, Deborah Schrag, Herbert H. Pang

    Background: Propensity score (PS) analysis is increasingly being used in observational studies, especially in some cancer studies where random assignment is not feasible. This systematic review evaluates the use and reporting quality of PS analysis in oncology studies.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Editorial: Use of Propensity Scores To Design Observational Comparative Effectiveness Studies
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-22
    Robert J. Glynn

    In this issue of the Journal, Yao and colleagues (1) nicely document the explosive increase in use of propensity score (PS) methods in studies of cancer risk and its treatments. The reporting guidelines they develop can aid authors, reviewers, and editors to enhance the consistency of reports from such studies. However, in their focus on guidelines for PS analysis, they pay limited attention to the fundamental role of the PS in study design and the challenges to valid study design in observational settings. As a complement to their guidelines for reporting PS analysis, Box1 shows some questions related to use of a PS for study design.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Multiple Roles of APC and its Therapeutic Implications in Colorectal Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-04-07
    Lu Zhang, Jerry W. Shay

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor gene highly mutated in colorectal cancers (CRC). Mutation and inactivation of this gene is a key and early event almost uniquely observed in colorectal tumorigenesis. Alterations in the APC gene generate truncated gene products, leading to activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and deregulation of multiple other cellular processes. It has been a mystery why most patients with CRC retain a truncated APC protein, but accumulating evidence suggest that these C terminally truncated APC proteins may have gain of function properties beyond the well-established loss of tumor suppressive function. Here, we will review the evidence for both the loss of function and the gain of function of APC truncations and how together they contribute to CRC initiation and progression.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Colorectal Cancer Incidence Patterns in the United States, 1974–2013
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-02-28
    Rebecca L. Siegel, Stacey A. Fedewa, William F. Anderson, Kimberly D. Miller, Jiemin Ma, Philip S. Rosenberg, Ahmedin Jemal

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in the United States is declining rapidly overall but, curiously, is increasing among young adults. Age-specific and birth cohort patterns can provide etiologic clues, but have not been recently examined.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • The Impact of Social Contagion on Physician Adoption of Advanced Imaging Tests in Breast Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-14
    Craig E. Pollack, Pamela R. Soulos, Jeph Herrin, Xiao Xu, Nicholas A. Christakis, Howard P. Forman, James B. Yu, Brigid K. Killelea, Shi-Yi Wang, Cary P. Gross

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans are widely used in breast cancer practice despite unproven benefits. We examined the extent to which social contagion is associated with adoption of these imaging modalities.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Editorial: Peer Influence and Opportunities for Physician Behavior Change
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-14
    Nancy L. Keating

    A large body of evidence demonstrates substantial area-level variations in intensity of care and health care spending in the United States. This variation is evident both across and within regions and exists for all types of care, including oncology care (1) and care identified to be of low value (2). Although the sources of variation have been long debated, recent evidence suggests that physicians’ beliefs, independent of organizational factors, are the key drivers in explaining area-level variations in health care spending (3). Physicians in the United States have substantial autonomy in decisions about care for patients, and thus their decisions are important drivers of health care utilization. Current alternate payment models target provider organizations in the hope that they create opportunities for physicians to influence and improve...

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Breast Cancer Survival of BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutation Carriers in a Hospital-Based Cohort of Young Women
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Marjanka K. Schmidt, Alexandra J. van den Broek, Rob A. E. M. Tollenaar, Vincent T. H. B. M. Smit, Pieter J. Westenend, Mariël Brinkhuis, Wolter J. W. Oosterhuis, Jelle Wesseling, Maryska L. Janssen-Heijnen, Jan J. Jobsen, Agnes Jager, Adri C. Voogd, Flora E. van Leeuwen, Laura J. van ’t Veer

    Background: The primary aim of the study was to investigate prognosis and long-term survival in young breast cancer patients with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation compared with noncarriers. The secondary aim was to investigate whether differences in survival originate from associations with tumor characteristics, second cancers, and/or treatment response.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Regional Nodal Irradiation After Breast Conserving Surgery for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Results of a Subanalysis From the ALTTO Trial
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Isabelle Gingras, Eileen Holmes, Evandro De Azambuja, David H. A. Nguyen, Miguel Izquierdo, Jo Anne Zujewski, Moshe Inbar, Bjorn Naume, Gianluca Tomasello, Julie R. Gralow, Antonio C. Wolff, Lyndsay Harris, Michael Gnant, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Martine J. Piccart, Hatem A. Azim

    Background: Two randomized trials recently demonstrated that regional nodal irradiation (RNI) could reduce the risk of recurrence in early breast cancer; however, these trials were conducted in the pretrastuzumab era. Whether these results are applicable to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancer patients treated with anti-HER2-targeted therapy is unknown.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Editorial: Regional Nodal Irradiation in the Anti-HER2 Era
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-14
    Jennifer R. Bellon

    Regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in women with node-positive and high-risk node-negative breast cancer has long been controversial. The rate of clinically evident recurrence in either the supraclavicular (SCV) or internal mammary (IM) region among women with one to three involved axillary nodes is low (1), but nodal recurrence may not be the best metric for evaluating the benefit of RNI. Adding to the controversy is the inclusion of comprehensive nodal treatment in most randomized trials of postmastectomy radiation, a meta-analysis of which demonstrated a survival benefit (2). The question of nodal treatment was recently brought to the forefront by two randomized trials of RNI, both of which showed an improvement in disease-free survival (DFS). The NCIC MA.20 trial (3) randomly assigned 1832 women, all of whom had...

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • A Plasma Biomarker Panel to Identify Surgically Resectable Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-02-27
    Seetharaman Balasenthil, Ying Huang, Suyu Liu, Tracey Marsh, Jinyun Chen, Sanford A. Stass, Debra KuKuruga, Randall Brand, Nanyue Chen, Marsha L. Frazier, J. Jack Lee, Sudhir Srivastava, Subrata Sen, Ann McNeill Killary

    Background: Blood-based biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are urgently needed. Current biomarkers lack high sensitivity and specificity for population screening. The gold-standard biomarker, CA 19‐9, also fails to demonstrate the predictive value necessary for early detection.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Editorial: Circulating Biomarkers to Identify Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-02-27
    Michael Goggins

    In this issue of the Journal, Killary et al. evaluate a plasma biomarker combination (CA19-9, tissue factor pathway inhibitor [TFPI], and an isoform of tenascin C [TNC-FNIII-B]) for its ability to distinguish patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer from controls (1). The authors previously reported their initial experience evaluating these biomarkers (2). The authors’ study design had several strengths, including the use of multiple disease control groups, blinded analysis of samples, and multiple rounds of validation. The authors found their biomarker panel worked best when compared with controls without pancreatitis or diabetes, finding it could distinguish patients with low-stage pancreatic cancer from healthy controls with an accuracy of 82% (compared with 69% for CA19-9 alone, corresponding to 81% sensitivity, 84% specificity).

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Effects of CTGF Blockade on Attenuation and Reversal of Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Christian Erbel, Carmen Timke, Ute Wirkner, Monika Dadrich, Paul Flechsig, Alexandra Tietz, Johanna Pföhler, Wolfgang Gross, Peter Peschke, Line Hoeltgen, Hugo A. Katus, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Nils H. Nicolay, Rainer Saffrich, Jürgen Debus, Mark D. Sternlicht, Todd W. Seeley, Kenneth E. Lipson, Peter E. Huber

    Background: Radiotherapy is a mainstay for the treatment of lung cancer that can induce pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis. The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a central mediator of tissue remodeling.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Deciphering the Role of Oncogenic MITFE318K in Senescence Delay and Melanoma Progression
    J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (IF 12.589) Pub Date : 2017-03-14
    Caroline Bonet, Flavie Luciani, Jean-François Ottavi, Justine Leclerc, Fanélie-Marie Jouenne, Marina Boncompagni, Karine Bille, Véronique Hofman, Guillaume Bossis, Gian Marco de Donatis, Thomas Strub, Yann Cheli, Mickaël Ohanna, Frédéric Luciano, Sandrine Marchetti, Stéphane Rocchi, Marie-Christine Birling, Marie-Françoise Avril, Nicolas Poulalhon, Thomas Luc, Corine Bertolotto

    Background:MITF encodes an oncogenic lineage-specific transcription factor in which a germline mutation (MITFE318K) was identified in human patients predisposed to both nevus formation and, among other tumor types, melanoma. The molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic activity of MITFE318K remained uncharacterized.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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