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  • Fano still resonating
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01

    More than half a century after describing interference of discrete states with a continuum, Ugo Fano's work is as relevant as ever. And Fermi beat him to it.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Quantum optics: Nanotube chemistry tunes light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Kartik Srinivasan, Ming Zheng

    Room-temperature single-photon emission at several wavelengths in the near-infrared, including the telecom window, is realized by organic colour centres chemically implanted on chirality-defined single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Frequency combs: Cavity solitons come of age
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Andrew M. Weiner

    The generation and manipulation of cavity solitons in microresonators is creating new opportunities for Kerr combs to aid applications such as optical communications and spectroscopy.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • View from... OSA Imaging and Applied Optics Congress 2017: Imaging with algorithms
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    David Pile

    Application of computational techniques, such as machine learning, is rapidly growing in the field of imaging.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Optical communications: Embracing nonlinearity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Antonio Mecozzi

    An innovative data transmission protocol that effectively makes an optical fibre link linear in its behaviour is shown to benefit high-speed, long-distance optical communication operating at high signal powers.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Fano resonances in photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Mikhail F. Limonov, Mikhail V. Rybin, Alexander N. Poddubny, Yuri S. Kivshar

    Rapid progress in photonics and nanotechnology brings many examples of resonant optical phenomena associated with the physics of Fano resonances, with applications in optical switching and sensing. For successful design of photonic devices, it is important to gain deep insight into different resonant phenomena and understand their connection. Here, we review a broad range of resonant electromagnetic effects by using two effective coupled oscillators, including the Fano resonance, electromagnetically induced transparency, Kerker and Borrmann effects, and parity–time symmetry breaking. We discuss how to introduce the Fano parameter for describing a transition between two seemingly different spectroscopic signatures associated with asymmetric Fano and symmetric Lorentzian shapes. We also review the recent results on Fano resonances in dielectric nanostructures and metasurfaces.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Unidirectional photonic wire laser
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Ali Khalatpour, John L. Reno, Nazir P. Kherani, Qing Hu

    A unidirectional photonic wire laser has been developed by integrating reflectors into terahertz quantum cascade lasers. The transverse dimension is much smaller than the lasing wavelength (80 μm). A record wall-plug power efficiency of 1% is achieved.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Qi-Fan Yang, Xu Yi, Ki Youl Yang, Kerry Vahala

    Counter-propagating solitons are generated in microresonator systems, producing dual-soliton frequency-comb streams with different repetition rates but high relative coherence useful for spectroscopy and laser ranging systems.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Variable potentials for thermalized light and coupled condensates
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    David Dung, Christian Kurtscheid, Tobias Damm, Julian Schmitt, Frank Vewinger, Martin Weitz, Jan Klaers

    Variable micropotentials for light are created by thermo-optic imprinting of a dye–polymer solution within a microcavity. A thermalized photon Bose–Einstein condensate as well as the coupling and eigenstate hybridization of sites are demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Nonlinear signal multiplexing for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Son Thai Le, Vahid Aref, Henning Buelow

    Current optical fibre transmission systems rely on modulation, coding and multiplexing techniques that were originally developed for linear communication channels. However, linear transmission techniques are not fully compatible with a transmission medium with a nonlinear response, which is the case for an optical fibre. As a consequence, the Kerr nonlinearity in fibre imposes a limit on the performance and the achievable transmission rate of the conventional optical fibre communication systems. Here we show that a transmission performance beyond the conventional Kerr nonlinearity limit can be achieved by encoding all the available degrees of freedom and nonlinearly multiplexing signals in the so-called nonlinear Fourier spectrum, which evolves linearly along the fibre link. This result strongly motivates a fundamental paradigm shift in modulation, coding and signal-processing techniques for optical fibre transmission technology.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Tunable room-temperature single-photon emission at telecom wavelengths from sp3 defects in carbon nanotubes
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Xiaowei He, Nicolai F. Hartmann, Xuedan Ma, Younghee Kim, Rachelle Ihly, Jeffrey L. Blackburn, Weilu Gao, Junichiro Kono, Yohei Yomogida, Atsushi Hirano, Takeshi Tanaka, Hiromichi Kataura, Han Htoon, Stephen K. Doorn

    Generating quantum light emitters that operate at room temperature and at telecom wavelengths remains a significant materials challenge. To achieve this goal requires light sources that emit in the near-infrared wavelength region and that, ideally, are tunable to allow desired output wavelengths to be accessed in a controllable manner. Here, we show that exciton localization at covalently introduced aryl sp3 defect sites in single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a route to room-temperature single-photon emission with ultrahigh single-photon purity (99%) and enhanced emission stability approaching the shot-noise limit. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inherent optical tunability of single-walled carbon nanotubes, present in their structural diversity, allows us to generate room-temperature single-photon emission spanning the entire telecom band. Single-photon emission deep into the centre of the telecom C band (1.55 µm) is achieved at the largest nanotube diameters we explore (0.936 nm).

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Norman Lippok, Martin Villiger, Alexandre Albanese, Eelco F. J. Meijer, Kwanghun Chung, Timothy P. Padera, Sangeeta N. Bhatia, Brett E. Bouma

    Owing to their electromagnetic properties, tunability and biocompatibility, gold nanorods are being investigated as multifunctional probes for a range of biomedical applications. However, detection beyond the reach of traditional fluorescence and two-photon approaches and quantitation of their concentration in biological tissue remain challenging tasks in microscopy. Here, we show how the size and aspect ratio that impart gold nanorods with their plasmonic properties also make them a source of entropy. We report on how depolarization can be exploited as a strategy to visualize gold nanorod diffusion and distribution in biologically relevant scenarios ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo. We identify a deterministic relation between depolarization and nanoparticle concentration. As a result, some of the most stringent experimental conditions can be relaxed, and susceptibility to artefacts is reduced, enabling microscopic and macroscopic applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Hao Sun, Leijun Yin, Zhicheng Liu, Yize Zheng, Fan Fan, Shilong Zhao, Xue Feng, Yongzhuo Li, C. Z. Ning

    Rare-earth optical materials with large optical gain are of great importance for a wide variety of applications in photonics and quantum information due to their long carrier lifetimes and quantum coherence times, especially in the realization of efficient lasers and amplifiers. Until now, such materials have achieved a gain of less than a few dB cm–1, rendering them unsuitable for applications in nanophotonic integrated circuits. Here, we report the results of the signal enhancement and transmission experiments on a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire. Our experiments demonstrate that a net material gain over 100 dB cm–1 at wavelengths around 1,530 nm is possible due to the nanowire's single-crystalline material quality and its high erbium concentration. Our results establish that such rare-earth-compound nanowires are a potentially important class of nanomaterials for a variety of applications including, for example, subwavelength-scale optical amplifiers and lasers for integrated nanophotonics, and quantum information.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Integrating solids and gases for attosecond pulse generation
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    T. J. Hammond, Sylvain Monchocé, Chunmei Zhang, Giulio Vampa, Dennis Klug, A. Yu. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum

    Control of the field of few-cycle optical pulses has had an enormous impact on attosecond science. Subcycle pulses open the potential for non-adiabatic phase matching while concentrating the electric field so it can be used most efficiently. However, subcycle field transients have been difficult to generate. We exploit the perturbative response of a sub-100 µm thick monocrystalline quartz plate irradiated by an intense few-cycle 1.8 µm pulse, which creates a phase-controlled supercontinuum spectrum. Within the quartz, the pulse becomes space–time coupled as it generates a parallel second harmonic. Vacuum propagation naturally leads to a subcycle electric-field transient whose envelope is sculpted by the carrier envelope phase of the incident radiation. We show that a second medium (either gas or solid) can generate isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet region. With no optical elements between the components, the process is scalable to very high energy pulses and allows the use of diverse media.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Temporal solitons in microresonators driven by optical pulses
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Ewelina Obrzud, Steve Lecomte, Tobias Herr

    Continuous-wave laser-driven, high-Q Kerr–nonlinear optical microresonators have enabled the generation of optical frequency combs, ultralow-noise microwaves and ultrashort optical pulses at tens of gigahertz repetition rate. Here, we break with the paradigm of the continuous-wave driving and instead use periodic, picosecond optical pulses. In a fibre-based Fabry–Pérot microresonator we observe the deterministic generation of stable femtosecond dissipative cavity solitons ‘on top’ of the resonantly enhanced driving pulses. The solitons lock to the driving pulse, which enables direct all-optical control of the soliton's repetition rate and tuning of its carrier-envelope offset frequency. When compared with continuous-wave-driven microresonators or non-resonant pulsed supercontinuum generation, this new approach is more efficient and can yield broadband frequency combs at an average driving power significantly below the continuous-wave parametric threshold. Bridging the fields of continuous-wave-driven resonant and pulse-driven non-resonant nonlinear optics, these results enable efficient microresonator frequency combs, resonant supercontinuum generation and microphotonic pulse compression.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Light is in the air
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01

    The International Day of Light, which will be held on 16 May every year, is a day for celebrating and highlighting the importance of light.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • 2D materials: Valley polaritons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Gabriele Grosso

    Spin–valley coupling in transition metal dichalcogenides has been shown to persist at room temperature when excitons are coherently coupled to cavity photons.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Free-space communications: Quantum space race heats up
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Richard J. Hughes, Jane E. Nordholt

    The realization of satellite-to-ground quantum cryptography would make quantum-secured communications possible on a global scale. Four recent breakthroughs suggest that this compelling capability could be achieved by the end of this decade.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Silicon photonics: Modulators make efficiency leap
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Jeremy Witzens

    Significant improvements in the loss and drive voltage of silicon photonics-based optical phase modulators look set to benefit both short-reach and long-distance data communications.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • View from... SPP8: The rise of plasmonic metasurfaces
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Rachel Won

    Ultrathin, versatile, integrated optical devices and high-speed optical information processing could be the upcoming real-world opportunities of plasmonic metasurfaces.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, T. Taubner

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) provide a unique combination of properties. On transformation from the amorphous to crystalline state, their optical properties change drastically. Short optical or electrical pulses can be utilized to switch between these states, making PCMs attractive for photonic applications. We review recent developments in PCMs and evaluate the potential for all-photonic memories. Towards this goal, the progress and existing challenges to realize waveguides with stepwise adjustable transmission are presented. Colour-rendering and nanopixel displays form another interesting application. Finally, nanophotonic applications based on plasmonic nanostructures are introduced. They provide reconfigurable, non-volatile functionality enabling manipulation and control of light. Requirements and perspectives to successfully implement PCMs in emerging areas of photonics are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Evanescent single-molecule biosensing with quantum-limited precision
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    N. P. Mauranyapin, L. S. Madsen, M. A. Taylor, M. Waleed, W. P. Bowen

    An evanescent single-molecule biosensor that operates at the fundamental precision limit, allowing a four-order-of-magnitude reduction in optical intensity while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity, is demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Heterogeneously integrated III–V/Si MOS capacitor Mach–Zehnder modulator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Tatsurou Hiraki, Takuma Aihara, Koichi Hasebe, Koji Takeda, Takuro Fujii, Takaaki Kakitsuka, Tai Tsuchizawa, Hiroshi Fukuda, Shinji Matsuo

    Hybrid silicon optical modulator brings efficiency benefits.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Jae-Hoon Han, Frederic Boeuf, Junichi Fujikata, Shigeki Takahashi, Shinichi Takagi, Mitsuru Takenaka

    Hybrid InGaAsP/Si optical modulator gives silicon photonics an efficient scheme for phase modulation.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Optical control of room-temperature valley polaritons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Zheng Sun, Jie Gu, Areg Ghazaryan, Zav Shotan, Christopher R. Considine, Michael Dollar, Biswanath Chakraborty, Xiaoze Liu, Pouyan Ghaemi, Stéphane Kéna-Cohen, Vinod M. Menon

    Valley-polarized light–matter quasiparticles in two-dimensional semiconductor microcavities are demonstrated. Access to spin–valley physics may be useful for photonic quantum technologies.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Valley-addressable polaritons in atomically thin semiconductors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    S. Dufferwiel, T. P. Lyons, D. D. Solnyshkov, A. A. P. Trichet, F. Withers, S. Schwarz, G. Malpuech, J. M. Smith, K. S. Novoselov, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. I. Tartakovskii

    Researchers excite valley-addressable polaritons in MoSe2 incorporated in a photonic microcavity. Understanding of the valley pseudospin retention is revealed and robust states demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Satellite-to-ground quantum-limited communication using a 50-kg-class microsatellite
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Hideki Takenaka, Alberto Carrasco-Casado, Mikio Fujiwara, Mitsuo Kitamura, Masahide Sasaki, Morio Toyoshima

    The recent rapid growth of satellite-constellation programmes for remote sensing and communications, enabled by the availability of small-sized and low-cost satellites, has provided impetus for the development of high-capacity laser communication (lasercom) in space. Quantum-limited communication can enhance the performance of lasercom and is also a prerequisite for the intrinsically hack-proof secure communication known as quantum key distribution. Here, we report a quantum-limited communication experiment between a microsatellite (48 kg, 50 cm cube) in low Earth orbit and a ground station. Non-orthogonal polarization states were transmitted from the satellite at a 10 MHz repetition rate. On the ground, by post-processing the received quantum states with ∼0.146 photons per pulse, clock data recovery and polarization reference-frame synchronization were successfully achieved, even under remarkable Doppler shifts. The quantum states were discriminated by a receiver with four photon counters, with a quantum bit error rate below 5%, validating the applicability of our technology to satellite-to-ground lasercom and quantum key distribution.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Sheng-Kai Liao, Hai-Lin Yong, Chang Liu, Guo-Liang Shentu, Dong-Dong Li, Jin Lin, Hui Dai, Shuang-Qiang Zhao, Bo Li, Jian-Yu Guan, Wei Chen, Yun-Hong Gong, Yang Li, Ze-Hong Lin, Ge-Sheng Pan, Jason S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Wen-Zhuo Zhang, Wei-Yue Liu, Juan Yin, Ji-Gang Ren, Xiang-Bin Wang, Qiang Zhang, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Jian-Wei Pan

    In the past, long-distance free-space quantum communication experiments could only be implemented at night. During the daytime, the bright background sunlight prohibits quantum communication in transmission under conditions of high channel loss over long distances. Here, by choosing a working wavelength of 1,550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre-coupling technology and ultralow-noise upconversion single-photon detectors, we have overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate free-space quantum key distribution over 53 km during the day. The total channel loss is ∼48 dB, which is greater than the 40 dB channel loss between the satellite and ground and between low-Earth-orbit satellites. Our system thus demonstrates the feasibility of satellite-based quantum communication in daylight. Moreover, given that our working wavelength is located in the optical telecom band, our system is naturally compatible with ground fibre networks and thus represents an essential step towards a satellite-constellation-based global quantum network.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • High-order multiphoton Thomson scattering
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Wenchao Yan, Colton Fruhling, Grigory Golovin, Daniel Haden, Ji Luo, Ping Zhang, Baozhen Zhao, Jun Zhang, Cheng Liu, Min Chen, Shouyuan Chen, Sudeep Banerjee, Donald Umstadter

    Electron–photon scattering, or Thomson scattering, is one of the most fundamental mechanisms in electrodynamics, underlying laboratory and astrophysical sources of high-energy X-rays. After a century of studies, it is only recently that sufficiently high electromagnetic field strengths have been available to experimentally study the nonlinear regime of Thomson scattering in the laboratory. Making use of a high-power laser and a laser-driven electron accelerator, we made the first measurements of high-order multiphoton scattering, in which more than 500 near-infrared laser photons were scattered by a single electron into a single X-ray photon. Both the electron motion and the scattered photons were found to depend nonlinearly on field strength. The observed angular distribution of scattered X-rays permits independent measurement of absolute intensity, in situ, during interactions of ultra-intense laser light with free electrons. Furthermore, the experiment's potential to generate attosecond-duration hard X-ray pulses can enable the study of ultrafast nuclear dynamics.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Phonon scattering inhibits simultaneous near-unity efficiency and indistinguishability in semiconductor single-photon sources
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Jake Iles-Smith, Dara P. S. McCutcheon, Ahsan Nazir, Jesper Mørk

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently emerged as a leading platform to generate highly indistinguishable photons efficiently, and this work addresses the timely question of how good these solid-state sources can ultimately be. We establish the crucial role of lattice relaxation in these systems in giving rise to trade-offs between indistinguishability and efficiency. We analyse the two source architectures most commonly employed: a QD embedded in a waveguide and a QD coupled to an optical cavity. For waveguides, we demonstrate that the broadband Purcell effect results in a simple inverse relationship, in which indistinguishability and efficiency cannot be simultaneously increased. For cavities, the frequency selectivity of the Purcell enhancement results in a more subtle trade-off, in which indistinguishability and efficiency can be increased simultaneously, although not arbitrarily, which limits a source with near-unity indistinguishability (>99%) to an efficiency of approximately 96% for realistic parameters.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Tunable room-temperature single-photon emission at telecom wavelengths from sp3 defects in carbon nanotubes
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Xiaowei He, Nicolai F. Hartmann, Xuedan Ma, Younghee Kim, Rachelle Ihly, Jeffrey L. Blackburn, Weilu Gao, Junichiro Kono, Yohei Yomogida, Atsushi Hirano, Takeshi Tanaka, Hiromichi Kataura, Han Htoon, Stephen K. Doorn

    Generating quantum light emitters that operate at room temperature and at telecom wavelengths remains a significant materials challenge. To achieve this goal requires light sources that emit in the near-infrared wavelength region and that, ideally, are tunable to allow desired output wavelengths to be accessed in a controllable manner. Here, we show that exciton localization at covalently introduced aryl sp3 defect sites in single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a route to room-temperature single-photon emission with ultrahigh single-photon purity (99%) and enhanced emission stability approaching the shot-noise limit. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inherent optical tunability of single-walled carbon nanotubes, present in their structural diversity, allows us to generate room-temperature single-photon emission spanning the entire telecom band. Single-photon emission deep into the centre of the telecom C band (1.55 µm) is achieved at the largest nanotube diameters we explore (0.936 nm).

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Nonlinear signal multiplexing for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Son Thai Le, Vahid Aref, Henning Buelow

    Current optical fibre transmission systems rely on modulation, coding and multiplexing techniques that were originally developed for linear communication channels. However, linear transmission techniques are not fully compatible with a transmission medium with a nonlinear response, which is the case for an optical fibre. As a consequence, the Kerr nonlinearity in fibre imposes a limit on the performance and the achievable transmission rate of the conventional optical fibre communication systems. Here we show that a transmission performance beyond the conventional Kerr nonlinearity limit can be achieved by encoding all the available degrees of freedom and nonlinearly multiplexing signals in the so-called nonlinear Fourier spectrum, which evolves linearly along the fibre link. This result strongly motivates a fundamental paradigm shift in modulation, coding and signal-processing techniques for optical fibre transmission technology.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Depolarization signatures map gold nanorods within biological tissue
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Norman Lippok, Martin Villiger, Alexandre Albanese, Eelco F. J. Meijer, Kwanghun Chung, Timothy P. Padera, Sangeeta N. Bhatia, Brett E. Bouma

    Owing to their electromagnetic properties, tunability and biocompatibility, gold nanorods are being investigated as multifunctional probes for a range of biomedical applications. However, detection beyond the reach of traditional fluorescence and two-photon approaches and quantitation of their concentration in biological tissue remain challenging tasks in microscopy. Here, we show how the size and aspect ratio that impart gold nanorods with their plasmonic properties also make them a source of entropy. We report on how depolarization can be exploited as a strategy to visualize gold nanorod diffusion and distribution in biologically relevant scenarios ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo. We identify a deterministic relation between depolarization and nanoparticle concentration. As a result, some of the most stringent experimental conditions can be relaxed, and susceptibility to artefacts is reduced, enabling microscopic and macroscopic applications.

    更新日期:2017-08-02
  • Valley-addressable polaritons in atomically thin semiconductors
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    S. Dufferwiel, T. P. Lyons, D. D. Solnyshkov, A. A. P. Trichet, F. Withers, S. Schwarz, G. Malpuech, J. M. Smith, K. S. Novoselov, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. I. Tartakovskii

    Researchers excite valley-addressable polaritons in MoSe2 incorporated in a photonic microcavity. Understanding of the valley pseudospin retention is revealed and robust states demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-07-25
  • Efficient low-loss InGaAsP/Si hybrid MOS optical modulator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Jae-Hoon Han, Frederic Boeuf, Junichi Fujikata, Shigeki Takahashi, Shinichi Takagi, Mitsuru Takenaka

    Hybrid InGaAsP/Si optical modulator gives silicon photonics an efficient scheme for phase modulation.

    更新日期:2017-07-25
  • Optical control of room-temperature valley polaritons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Zheng Sun, Jie Gu, Areg Ghazaryan, Zav Shotan, Christopher R. Considine, Michael Dollar, Biswanath Chakraborty, Xiaoze Liu, Pouyan Ghaemi, Stéphane Kéna-Cohen, Vinod M. Menon

    Valley-polarized light–matter quasiparticles in two-dimensional semiconductor microcavities are demonstrated. Access to spin–valley physics may be useful for photonic quantum technologies.

    更新日期:2017-07-25
  • Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Sheng-Kai Liao, Hai-Lin Yong, Chang Liu, Guo-Liang Shentu, Dong-Dong Li, Jin Lin, Hui Dai, Shuang-Qiang Zhao, Bo Li, Jian-Yu Guan, Wei Chen, Yun-Hong Gong, Yang Li, Ze-Hong Lin, Ge-Sheng Pan, Jason S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, Wen-Zhuo Zhang, Wei-Yue Liu, Juan Yin, Ji-Gang Ren, Xiang-Bin Wang, Qiang Zhang, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Jian-Wei Pan

    In the past, long-distance free-space quantum communication experiments could only be implemented at night. During the daytime, the bright background sunlight prohibits quantum communication in transmission under conditions of high channel loss over long distances. Here, by choosing a working wavelength of 1,550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre-coupling technology and ultralow-noise upconversion single-photon detectors, we have overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate free-space quantum key distribution over 53 km during the day. The total channel loss is ∼48 dB, which is greater than the 40 dB channel loss between the satellite and ground and between low-Earth-orbit satellites. Our system thus demonstrates the feasibility of satellite-based quantum communication in daylight. Moreover, given that our working wavelength is located in the optical telecom band, our system is naturally compatible with ground fibre networks and thus represents an essential step towards a satellite-constellation-based global quantum network.

    更新日期:2017-07-25
  • Heterogeneously integrated III–V/Si MOS capacitor Mach–Zehnder modulator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Tatsurou Hiraki, Takuma Aihara, Koichi Hasebe, Koji Takeda, Takuro Fujii, Takaaki Kakitsuka, Tai Tsuchizawa, Hiroshi Fukuda, Shinji Matsuo

    Hybrid silicon optical modulator brings efficiency benefits

    更新日期:2017-07-19
  • Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Hao Sun, Leijun Yin, Zhicheng Liu, Yize Zheng, Fan Fan, Shilong Zhao, Xue Feng, Yongzhuo Li, C. Z. Ning

    Rare-earth optical materials with large optical gain are of great importance for a wide variety of applications in photonics and quantum information due to their long carrier lifetimes and quantum coherence times, especially in the realization of efficient lasers and amplifiers. Until now, such materials have achieved a gain of less than a few dB cm–1, rendering them unsuitable for applications in nanophotonic integrated circuits. Here, we report the results of the signal enhancement and transmission experiments on a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire. Our experiments demonstrate that a net material gain over 100 dB cm–1 at wavelengths around 1,530 nm is possible due to the nanowire's single-crystalline material quality and its high erbium concentration. Our results establish that such rare-earth-compound nanowires are a potentially important class of nanomaterials for a variety of applications including, for example, subwavelength-scale optical amplifiers and lasers for integrated nanophotonics, and quantum information.

    更新日期:2017-07-19
  • Satellite-to-ground quantum-limited communication using a 50-kg-class microsatellite
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Hideki Takenaka, Alberto Carrasco-Casado, Mikio Fujiwara, Mitsuo Kitamura, Masahide Sasaki, Morio Toyoshima

    The recent rapid growth of satellite-constellation programmes for remote sensing and communications, enabled by the availability of small-sized and low-cost satellites, has provided impetus for the development of high-capacity laser communication (lasercom) in space. Quantum-limited communication can enhance the performance of lasercom and is also a prerequisite for the intrinsically hack-proof secure communication known as quantum key distribution. Here, we report a quantum-limited communication experiment between a microsatellite (48 kg, 50 cm cube) in low Earth orbit and a ground station. Non-orthogonal polarization states were transmitted from the satellite at a 10 MHz repetition rate. On the ground, by post-processing the received quantum states with ∼0.146 photons per pulse, clock data recovery and polarization reference-frame synchronization were successfully achieved, even under remarkable Doppler shifts. The quantum states were discriminated by a receiver with four photon counters, with a quantum bit error rate below 5%, validating the applicability of our technology to satellite-to-ground lasercom and quantum key distribution.

    更新日期:2017-07-11
  • Phonon scattering inhibits simultaneous near-unity efficiency and indistinguishability in semiconductor single-photon sources
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Jake Iles-Smith, Dara P. S. McCutcheon, Ahsan Nazir, Jesper Mørk

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently emerged as a leading platform to generate highly indistinguishable photons efficiently, and this work addresses the timely question of how good these solid-state sources can ultimately be. We establish the crucial role of lattice relaxation in these systems in giving rise to trade-offs between indistinguishability and efficiency. We analyse the two source architectures most commonly employed: a QD embedded in a waveguide and a QD coupled to an optical cavity. For waveguides, we demonstrate that the broadband Purcell effect results in a simple inverse relationship, in which indistinguishability and efficiency cannot be simultaneously increased. For cavities, the frequency selectivity of the Purcell enhancement results in a more subtle trade-off, in which indistinguishability and efficiency can be increased simultaneously, although not arbitrarily, which limits a source with near-unity indistinguishability (>99%) to an efficiency of approximately 96% for realistic parameters.

    更新日期:2017-07-04
  • High-order multiphoton Thomson scattering
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Wenchao Yan, Colton Fruhling, Grigory Golovin, Daniel Haden, Ji Luo, Ping Zhang, Baozhen Zhao, Jun Zhang, Cheng Liu, Min Chen, Shouyuan Chen, Sudeep Banerjee, Donald Umstadter

    Electron–photon scattering, or Thomson scattering, is one of the most fundamental mechanisms in electrodynamics, underlying laboratory and astrophysical sources of high-energy X-rays. After a century of studies, it is only recently that sufficiently high electromagnetic field strengths have been available to experimentally study the nonlinear regime of Thomson scattering in the laboratory. Making use of a high-power laser and a laser-driven electron accelerator, we made the first measurements of high-order multiphoton scattering, in which more than 500 near-infrared laser photons were scattered by a single electron into a single X-ray photon. Both the electron motion and the scattered photons were found to depend nonlinearly on field strength. The observed angular distribution of scattered X-rays permits independent measurement of absolute intensity, in situ, during interactions of ultra-intense laser light with free electrons. Furthermore, the experiment's potential to generate attosecond-duration hard X-ray pulses can enable the study of ultrafast nuclear dynamics.

    更新日期:2017-06-27
  • Electrical 2π phase control of infrared light in a 350-nm footprint using graphene plasmons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Achim Woessner, Yuanda Gao, Iacopo Torre, Mark B. Lundeberg, Cheng Tan, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Rainer Hillenbrand, James Hone, Marco Polini, Frank H. L. Koppens

    Phase velocity of graphene plasmons is electrically controlled in a set-up enabling tuning of the phase between 0 and 2π.

    更新日期:2017-06-27
  • Evanescent single-molecule biosensing with quantum-limited precision
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    N. P. Mauranyapin, L. S. Madsen, M. A. Taylor, M. Waleed, W. P. Bowen

    An evanescent single-molecule biosensor that operates at the fundamental precision limit, allowing a four-order-of-magnitude reduction in optical intensity while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity, is demonstrated.

    更新日期:2017-06-27
  • High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Shreetu Shrestha, René Fischer, Gebhard J. Matt, Patrick Feldner, Thilo Michel, Andres Osvet, Ievgen Levchuk, Benoit Merle, Saeedeh Golkar, Haiwei Chen, Sandro F. Tedde, Oliver Schmidt, Rainer Hock, Manfred Rührig, Mathias Göken, Wolfgang Heiss, Gisela Anton, Christoph J. Brabec

    Lead halide perovskite semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently high X-ray absorption cross-section and a significantly higher carrier mobility than any other low-temperature solution-processed semiconductor. So far, the processing of several-hundred-micrometres-thick high-quality crystalline perovskite films over a large area has been unresolved for efficient X-ray detection. In this Article, we present a mechanical sintering process to fabricate polycrystalline methyl ammonium lead triiodide perovskite (MAPbI3) wafers with millimetre thickness and well-defined crystallinity. Benchmarking of the MAPbI3 wafers against state-of-the-art CdTe detectors reveals competitive conversion efficiencies of 2,527 µC Gyair−1 cm−2 under 70 kVp X-ray exposure. The high ambipolar mobility–lifetime product of 2 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 is suggested to be responsible for this exceptionally high sensitivity. Our findings inform a new generation of highly efficient and low-cost X-ray detectors based on perovskite wafers.

    更新日期:2017-06-20
  • Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Nicholas C. Harris, Gregory R. Steinbrecher, Mihika Prabhu, Yoav Lahini, Jacob Mower, Darius Bunandar, Changchen Chen, Franco N. C. Wong, Tom Baehr-Jones, Michael Hochberg, Seth Lloyd, Dirk Englund

    Environmental noise and disorder play critical roles in quantum particle and wave transport in complex media, including solid-state and biological systems. While separately both effects are known to reduce transport, recent work predicts that in a limited region of parameter space, noise-induced dephasing can counteract localization effects, leading to enhanced quantum transport. Photonic integrated circuits are promising platforms for studying such effects, with a central goal of developing large systems providing low-loss, high-fidelity control over all parameters of the transport problem. Here, we fully map the role of disorder in quantum transport using a nanophotonic processor: a mesh of 88 generalized beamsplitters programmable on microsecond timescales. Over 64,400 experiments we observe distinct transport regimes, including environment-assisted quantum transport and the ‘quantum Goldilocks’ regime in statically disordered discrete-time systems. Low-loss and high-fidelity programmable transformations make this nanophotonic processor a promising platform for many-boson quantum simulation experiments.

    更新日期:2017-06-20
  • Planar metasurface retroreflector
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Amir Arbabi, Ehsan Arbabi, Yu Horie, Seyedeh Mahsa Kamali, Andrei Faraon

    Thin and lightweight retroreflectors of infrared light have been created from pairs of silicon metasurfaces.

    更新日期:2017-06-20
  • Valley-polarized exciton–polaritons in a monolayer semiconductor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-05
    Yen-Jung Chen, Jeffrey D. Cain, Teodor K. Stanev, Vinayak P. Dravid, Nathaniel P. Stern

    Single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional (2D) direct-bandgap semiconductors with degenerate, but inequivalent, ‘valleys’ in the electronic structure that can be selectively excited by polarized light. Coherent superpositions of light and matter, exciton–polaritons, have been observed when these materials are strongly coupled to photons, but these hybrid quasiparticles do not harness the valley sensitivity of the monolayer semiconductors. Here, we observe valley-polarized exciton–polaritons in monolayers of MoS2 embedded in a dielectric microcavity. These light–matter quasiparticles emit polarized light with spectral Rabi splitting and anticrossing indicative of strongly coupled exciton–polaritons in the topologically separate spin-coupled valleys. The interplay of intervalley depolarization and cavity-modified exciton dynamics in the high-cooperativity regime causes valley-polarized exciton–polaritons to persist at room temperature, distinct from the vanishing polarization in bare monolayers. Achieving polarization-sensitive polaritonic devices operating at room temperature presents a pathway for manipulating novel valley degrees of freedom in coherent states of light and matter.

    更新日期:2017-06-13
  • Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Yichen Shen, Nicholas C. Harris, Scott Skirlo, Mihika Prabhu, Tom Baehr-Jones, Michael Hochberg, Xin Sun, Shijie Zhao, Hugo Larochelle, Dirk Englund, Marin Soljačić

    Artificial neural networks are computational network models inspired by signal processing in the brain. These models have dramatically improved performance for many machine-learning tasks, including speech and image recognition. However, today's computing hardware is inefficient at implementing neural networks, in large part because much of it was designed for von Neumann computing schemes. Significant effort has been made towards developing electronic architectures tuned to implement artificial neural networks that exhibit improved computational speed and accuracy. Here, we propose a new architecture for a fully optical neural network that, in principle, could offer an enhancement in computational speed and power efficiency over state-of-the-art electronics for conventional inference tasks. We experimentally demonstrate the essential part of the concept using a programmable nanophotonic processor featuring a cascaded array of 56 programmable Mach–Zehnder interferometers in a silicon photonic integrated circuit and show its utility for vowel recognition.

    更新日期:2017-06-13
  • Compressive hyperspectral time-resolved wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-05
    Qi Pian, Ruoyang Yao, Nattawut Sinsuebphon, Xavier Intes

    Single-pixel system enables hyperspectral fluorescent lifetime imaging.

    更新日期:2017-06-13
  • Femtosecond optical polarization switching using a cadmium oxide-based perfect absorber
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-01
    Yuanmu Yang, Kyle Kelley, Edward Sachet, Salvatore Campione, Ting S. Luk, Jon-Paul Maria, Michael B. Sinclair, Igal Brener

    Ultrafast control of the polarization state of light may enable a plethora of applications in optics, chemistry and biology. However, conventional polarizing elements, such as polarizers and waveplates, are either static or possess only gigahertz switching speeds. Here, with the aid of high-mobility indium-doped cadmium oxide (CdO) as the gateway plasmonic material, we realize a high-quality factor Berreman-type perfect absorber at a wavelength of 2.08 μm. On sub-bandgap optical pumping, the perfect absorption resonance strongly redshifts because of the transient increase of the ensemble-averaged effective electron mass of CdO, which leads to an absolute change in the p-polarized reflectance from 1.0 to 86.3%. By combining the exceedingly high modulation depth with the polarization selectivity of the perfect absorber, we experimentally demonstrate a reflective polarizer with a polarization extinction ratio of 91 that can be switched on and off within 800 fs.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, G. Sansone

    An electrical pulse E(t) is defined completely by its time-dependent amplitude and polarization direction. For optical pulses the manipulation and characterization of the light polarization state is fundamental because of its relevance in several scientific and technological fields. In this work, we demonstrate the complete temporal reconstruction of the electric field of few-cycle pulses with a complex time-dependent polarization. Our experimental approach is based on extreme ultraviolet interferometry with isolated attosecond pulses and on the demonstration that the motion of an attosecond electron wave packet is sensitive to perturbing fields only along the direction of its motion. By exploiting the sensitivity of interferometric techniques and by controlling the emission and acceleration direction of the wave packet, pulses with energies as low as a few hundreds of nanojoules can be reconstructed. Our approach reveals the possibility to characterize completely the electric field of the pulses typically used in visible pump–probe spectroscopy.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Enlargement of optical Schrödinger's cat states
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-01
    Demid V. Sychev, Alexander E. Ulanov, Anastasia A. Pushkina, Matthew W. Richards, Ilya A. Fedorov, Alexander I. Lvovsky

    Superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states, introduced in Schrödinger's famous Gedankenexperiment, are an epitome of quantum ‘strangeness’ and a natural tool for determining the validity limits of quantum physics. The optical incarnation of Schrödinger's cat (SC)—the superposition of two opposite-amplitude coherent states—is also the backbone of continuous-variable quantum information processing. However, the existing preparation methods limit the amplitudes of the component coherent states, which curtails the state's usefulness for fundamental and practical applications. Here, we convert a pair of negative squeezed SC states of amplitude 1.15 to a single positive SC state of amplitude 1.85 with a success probability of ∼0.2. The protocol consists in bringing the initial states into interference on a beamsplitter and a subsequent heralding quadrature measurement in one of the output channels. Our technique can be realized iteratively, so arbitrarily high amplitudes can, in principle, be reached.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Dye-sensitized solar cells for efficient power generation under ambient lighting
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-01
    Marina Freitag, Joël Teuscher, Yasemin Saygili, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fabrizio Giordano, Paul Liska, Jianli Hua, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Jacques-E. Moser, Michael Grätzel, Anders Hagfeldt

    Solar cells that operate efficiently under indoor lighting are of great practical interest as they can serve as electric power sources for portable electronics and devices for wireless sensor networks or the Internet of Things. Here, we demonstrate a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) that achieves very high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) under ambient light conditions. Our photosystem combines two judiciously designed sensitizers, coded D35 and XY1, with the copper complex Cu(II/I)(tmby) as a redox shuttle (tmby, 4,4′,6,6′-tetramethyl-2,2′-bipyridine), and features a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.1 V. The DSC achieves an external quantum efficiency for photocurrent generation that exceeds 90% across the whole visible domain from 400 to 650 nm, and achieves power outputs of 15.6 and 88.5 μW cm–2 at 200 and 1,000 lux, respectively, under illumination from a model Osram 930 warm-white fluorescent light tube. This translates into a PCE of 28.9%.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Broadband image sensor array based on graphene–CMOS integration
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Stijn Goossens, Gabriele Navickaite, Carles Monasterio, Shuchi Gupta, Juan José Piqueras, Raúl Pérez, Gregory Burwell, Ivan Nikitskiy, Tania Lasanta, Teresa Galán, Eric Puma, Alba Centeno, Amaia Pesquera, Amaia Zurutuza, Gerasimos Konstantatos, Frank Koppens

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide–semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300–2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene–CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • High-efficiency multiphoton boson sampling
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-01
    Hui Wang, Yu He, Yu-Huai Li, Zu-En Su, Bo Li, He-Liang Huang, Xing Ding, Ming-Cheng Chen, Chang Liu, Jian Qin, Jin-Peng Li, Yu-Ming He, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Sven Höfling, Chao-Yang Lu, Jian-Wei Pan

    Boson sampling is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate ‘quantum computational supremacy’ over classical computers. However, previous proof-of-principle experiments suffered from small photon number and low sampling rates owing to the inefficiencies of the single-photon sources and multiport optical interferometers. Here, we develop two central components for high-performance boson sampling: robust multiphoton interferometers with 99% transmission rate and actively demultiplexed single-photon sources based on a quantum dot–micropillar with simultaneously high efficiency, purity and indistinguishability. We implement and validate three-, four- and five-photon boson sampling, and achieve sampling rates of 4.96 kHz, 151 Hz and 4 Hz, respectively, which are over 24,000 times faster than previous experiments. Our architecture can be scaled up for a larger number of photons and with higher sampling rates to compete with classical computers, and might provide experimental evidence against the extended Church–Turing thesis.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Imaging exciton–polariton transport in MoSe2 waveguides
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    F. Hu, Y. Luan, M. E. Scott, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, X. Xu, Z. Fei

    Imaging reveals properties of exciton–polaritons in MoSe2 waveguides.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon–dielectric interactions
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-05-15
    Qian Huang, Joon Lee, Fernando Teran Arce, Ilsun Yoon, Pavimol Angsantikul, Justin Liu, Yuesong Shi, Josh Villanueva, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Xuanyi Ma, Liangfang Zhang, Shaochen Chen, Ratnesh Lal, Donald J. Sirbuly

    A nanofibre optic force transducer with 0.2 pN sensitivity is demonstrated. The set-up is used to monitor bacterial motion, observe heart cell beating and detect infrasound power in solution.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Time stretch and its applications
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Ata Mahjoubfar, Dmitry V. Churkin, Stéphane Barland, Neil Broderick, Sergei K. Turitsyn, Bahram Jalali

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
  • Scattering media: A channel of perfect transmission
    Nat. Photon. (IF 37.852) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Patrick Sebbah

    New theoretical analysis predicts that the introduction of a carefully designed gain and loss profile into a scattering medium could enable the unperturbed flow of light with constant, uniform intensity.

    更新日期:2017-06-01
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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