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  • A physics-based fractional order model and state of energy estimation for lithium ion batteries. Part I: Model development and observability analysis
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-09-20
    Xiaoyu Li, Guodong Fan, Ke Pan, Guo Wei, Chunbo Zhu, Giorgio Rizzoni, Marcello Canova

    The design of a lumped parameter battery model preserving physical meaning is especially desired by the automotive researchers and engineers due to the strong demand for battery system control, estimation, diagnosis and prognostics. In light of this, a novel simplified fractional order electrochemical model is developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications in this paper. In the model, a general fractional order transfer function is designed for the solid phase lithium ion diffusion approximation. The dynamic characteristics of the electrolyte concentration overpotential are approximated by a first-order resistance-capacitor transfer function in the electrolyte phase. The Ohmic resistances and electrochemical reaction kinetics resistance are simplified to a lumped Ohmic resistance parameter. Overall, the number of model parameters is reduced from 30 to 9, yet the accuracy of the model is still guaranteed. In order to address the dynamics of phase-change phenomenon in the active particle during charging and discharging, variable solid-state diffusivity is taken into consideration in the model. Also, the observability of the model is analyzed on two types of lithium ion batteries subsequently. Results show the fractional order model with variable solid-state diffusivity agrees very well with experimental data at various current input conditions and is suitable for electric vehicle applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Electrochemical modification of nickel surfaces for efficient glycerol electrooxidation
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Mohamed S.E. Houache, Emily Cossar, Spyridon Ntais, Elena A. Baranova
    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • The critical relation between chemical stability of cations and water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells environment
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Dario R. Dekel, Sapir Willdorf, Uri Ash, Michal Amar, Srdjan Pusara, Shubhendu Dhara, Simcha Srebnik, Charles E. Diesendruck
    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • 3D-Graphene supports for palladium nanoparticles: Effect of micro/macropores on oxygen electroreduction in Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Sadia Kabir, Alexey Serov, Plamen Atanassov
    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • La and Al co-doped CaMnO3 perovskite oxides: From interplay of surface properties to anion exchange membrane fuel cell performance
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-09-01
    Michael J. Dzara, Jason M. Christ, Prabhuram Joghee, Chilan Ngo, Christopher A. Cadigan, Guido Bender, Ryan M. Richards, Ryan O'Hayre, Svitlana Pylypenko

    This work reports the first account of perovskite oxide and carbon composite oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts integrated into anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs). Perovskite oxides with a theoretical stoichiometry of Ca0.9La0.1Al0.1Mn0.9O3-δ are synthesized by an aerogel method and calcined at various temperatures, resulting in a set of materials with varied surface chemistry and surface area. Material composition is evaluated by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The perovskite oxide calcined at 800 °C shows the importance of balance between surface area, purity of the perovskite phase, and surface composition, resulting in the highest ORR mass activity when evaluated in rotating disk electrodes. Integration of this catalyst into AEMFCs reveals that the best AEMFC performance is obtained when using composites with 30:70 perovskite oxide:carbon composition. Doubling the loading leads to an increase in the power density from 30 to 76 mW cm−2. The AEMFC prepared with a composite based on perovskite oxide and N-carbon achieves a power density of 44 mW cm−2, demonstrating an ∼50% increase when compared to the highest performing composite with undoped carbon at the same loading.

    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Highly efficient transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbide-derived carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-31
    Sander Ratso, Ivar Kruusenberg, Maike Käärik, Mati Kook, Laurits Puust, Rando Saar, Jaan Leis, Kaido Tammeveski
    更新日期:2017-09-04
  • Nanocarbon/oxide composite catalysts for bifunctional oxygen reduction and evolution in reversible alkaline fuel cells: A mini review
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Mengjie Chen, Lei Wang, Haipeng Yang, Shuai Zhao, Hui Xu, Gang Wu
    更新日期:2017-08-25
  • In-line monitoring of Li-ion battery electrode porosity and areal loading using active thermal scanning - modeling and initial experiment
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Przemyslaw Rupnowski, Michael Ulsh, Bhushan Sopori, Brian G. Green, David L. Wood III, Jianlin Li, Yangping Sheng

    This work focuses on a new technique called active thermal scanning for in-line monitoring of porosity and areal loading of Li-ion battery electrodes. In this technique a moving battery electrode is subjected to thermal excitation and the induced temperature rise is monitored using an infra-red camera. Static and dynamic experiments with speeds up to 1.5 m min−1 are performed on both cathodes and anodes and a combined micro- and macro-scale finite element thermal model of the system is developed. It is shown experimentally and through simulations that during thermal scanning the temperature profile generated in an electrode depends on both coating porosity (or area loading) and thickness. It is concluded that by inverting this relation the porosity (or areal loading) can be determined, if thermal response and thickness are simultaneously measured.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Synthesis and characterization of high performing Fe-N-C catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in Alkaline Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Md Mosaddek Hossen, Kateryna Artyushkova, Plamen Atanassov, Alexey Serov

    In this article, three different Fe-N-C oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts derived from different organic molecules i.e. Fe-NMG, Fe-NMP, Fe-MBZ have been synthesized, characterized by physical-chemical methods and studied in the reaction of oxygen reduction (ORR). It is found that Fe-NMG shows higher ORR performance than Fe-NMP and Fe-MBZ, by both rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) and fuel cell tests. From characterization and surface analysis, it can be explained that the presence of higher amount of surface oxides and pyridinic nitrogen is the main reason for better performance towards ORR in alkaline media. To achieve the highest performance in alkaline exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC), the optimization of catalyst layer composition using various concentrations of ionomer (Tokuyama, AS4) was performed. At the optimum cathode layer configuration utilizing Fe-NMG produces the peak power density of 218 mWcm−2, which is one of the highest values presented in the open literature.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Effect of cathode thickness on the performance of planar Na-NiCl2 battery
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Xiaochuan Lu, Hee Jung Chang, Jeff F. Bonnett, Nathan L. Canfield, Keeyoung Jung, Vincent L. Sprenkle, Guosheng Li

    Na-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy storage and grid applications. Commercial NBBs are typically constructed in tubular designs, primarily because of their ease of sealing. However, planar designs are considered superior to tubular counterparts in terms of power output, cell packing, ease of assembly, and thermal management. In this paper, the performance of planar NBBs has been evaluated at an intermediate temperature. In particular, planar Na-NiCl2 cells with different cathode loadings and thicknesses have been studied at 190 °C. The effects of the cathode thickness, charging current, and discharging power output on the cell capacity and resistance have been investigated. More than 60% of theoretical cell capacity was retained with constant discharging power levels of 200, 175, and 100 mW/cm2 for 1x, 2x, and 3x cathode loadings, respectively. The cell resistance with 1x and 2x cathode loadings was dominated by ohmic resistance with discharging currents up to 105 mA/cm2, while for 3x cathode loading, it was primarily dominated by ohmic resistance with currents less than 66.67 mA/cm2 and by polarization resistance above 66.67 mA/cm2.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-04
    Dario R. Dekel
    更新日期:2017-08-05
  • Methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured Ruthenium-Palladium nanoparticles: Relationship between structure and electrochemical behavior
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-04
    Markus Kübler, Tilman Jurzinsky, Dirk Ziegenbalg, Carsten Cremers

    In this work the relationship between structural composition and electrochemical characteristics of Palladium(Pd)-Ruthenium(Ru) nanoparticles during alkaline methanol oxidation reaction is investigated. The comparative study of a standard alloyed and a precisely Ru-core-Pd-shell structured catalyst allows for a distinct investigation of the electronic effect and the bifunctional mechanism. Core-shell catalysts benefit from a strong electronic effect and an efficient Pd utilization. It is found that core-shell nanoparticles are highly active towards methanol oxidation reaction for potentials ≥0.6 V, whereas alloyed catalysts show higher current outputs in the lower potential range. However, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments reveal that the methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured catalysts proceeds via the incomplete oxidation pathway yielding formaldehyde, formic acid or methyl formate. Contrary, the alloyed catalyst benefits from the Ru atoms at its surface. Those are found to be responsible for high methanol oxidation activity at lower potentials as well as for complete oxidation of CH3OH to CO2 via the bifunctional mechanism. Based on these findings a new Ru-core-Pd-shell-Ru-terrace catalyst was synthesized, which combines the advantages of the core-shell structure and the alloy. This novel catalyst shows high methanol electrooxidation activity as well as excellent selectivity for the complete oxidation pathway.

    更新日期:2017-08-05
  • A practical method for measuring the ion exchange capacity decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes during intrinsic degradation
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Klaus-Dieter Kreuer, Patric Jannasch

    In this work we present a practical thermogravimetric method for quantifying the IEC (ion exchange capacity) decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) during intrinsic degradation mainly occurring through nucleophilic attack of the anion exchanging group by hydroxide ions. The method involves measuring weight changes under controlled temperature and relative humidity. These conditions are close to these in a fuel cell, i.e. the measured degradation rate includes all effects originating from the polymeric structure, the consumption of hydroxide ions and the release of water. In particular, this approach involves no added solvents or base, thereby avoiding inaccuracies that may arise in other methods due to the presence of solvents (other than water) or co-ions (such as Na+ or K+). We demonstrate the method by characterizing the decomposition of membranes consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) functionalized with trimethyl-pentyl-ammonium side chains. The decomposition rate is found to depend on temperature, relative humidity RH (controlling the hydration number λ) and the total water content (controlled by the actual IEC and RH).

    更新日期:2017-08-03
  • Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-29
    Eun Joo Park, Christopher B. Capuano, Katherine E. Ayers, Chulsung Bae
    更新日期:2017-07-30
  • Degradation of radiation grafted anion exchange membranes tethered with different amine functional groups via removal of vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium hydroxide
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Richard Espiritu, Bernard T. Golding, Keith Scott, Mohamed Mamlouk

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-based anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with 65% degree of grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) were tethered with different amine functionalities namely, trimethyl amine (TMA), 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) and N-methylpiperidine (NMP), and were subjected to degradation test by immersing the OH− exchanged AEMs in deionised water at 60 °C, a condition analogous to fuel cell and electrolyser environment. All the quaternised membranes, regardless of the tethered amine functional group, exhibited similar degradation loss of ca. 5% IEC per month. Benzylic peroxide was detected in the degradation solution in all the tested AEMs. The observed degradation of the OH− exchanged AEMs was mainly attributed to peroxide and hydroxide radical attacks on the ternary (benzylic) carbon resulting in the release of vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium hydroxide (VBTMA) as a whole which was also detected. The degradation test performed on TMA-functionalised membrane under nitrogen, oxygen and 3 wt% H2O2 showed similar degradation products namely benzylic peroxide and VBTMA suggesting that the degradation mechanisms under these three conditions are similar. The over three-fold increase in the degradation rate under oxygen saturated solution compared to nitrogen is due to the higher peroxide concentration produced from oxygen reduction to superoxide via ylide.

    更新日期:2017-07-28
  • Electrocatalysis of the Ethylene glycol oxidation reaction and in situ Fourier-transform infared study on PtMo/C electrocatalysts in alkaline and acid media
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    W.J. Pech-Rodríguez, C. Calles-Arriaga, D. González-Quijano, G. Vargas-Gutiérrez, C. Morais, T.W. Napporn, F.J. Rodríguez-Varela
    更新日期:2017-07-28
  • Influence of the concentration of borohydride towards hydrogen production and escape for borohydride oxidation reaction on Pt and Au electrodes – experimental and modelling insights
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Pierre-Yves Olu, Antoine Bonnefont, Guillaume Braesch, Vincent Martin, Elena R. Savinova, Marian Chatenet

    The Borohydride Oxidation Reaction (BOR), the anode reaction in a Direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC), is complex and still poorly understood, which impedes the development and deployment of the DBFC technology. In particular, no practical electrocatalyst is capable to prevent gaseous hydrogen generation and escape from its anode upon operation, which lowers the fuel-efficiency of the DBFC and raises safety issues in operation. The nature of the anode electrocatalysts strongly influences the hydrogen escape characteristics of the DBFC, which demonstrates how important it is to isolate the BOR mechanism in conditions relevant to DBFC operation. In this paper, from a selected literature review and BOR experiments performed in differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) in a wide range of NaBH4 concentration (5–500 mM), a microkinetic model of the BOR for both Pt and Au surfaces is proposed; this model takes into account the hydrogen generation and escape.

    更新日期:2017-07-26
  • Improved electrochemical performance of Fe-N-C catalysts through ionic liquid modification in alkaline media
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-20
    Ioanna Martinaiou, Thomas Wolker, Ali Shahraei, Gui-Rong Zhang, Arne Janßen, Stephan Wagner, Natascha Weidler, Robert W. Stark, Bastian J.M. Etzold, Ulrike I. Kramm
    更新日期:2017-07-21
  • Steady state and transient simulation of anion exchange membrane fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Dario R. Dekel, Igal G. Rasin, Miles Page, Simon Brandon
    更新日期:2017-07-15
  • Phase separation and ion conductivity in the bulk and at the surface of anion exchange membranes with different ion exchange capacities at different humidities
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-12
    Taro Kimura, Ryo Akiyama, Kenji Miyatake, Junji Inukai
    更新日期:2017-07-13
  • Performance of polyethylene based radiation grafted anion exchange membrane with polystyrene-b-poly (ethylene/butylene)-b-polystyrene based ionomer using NiCo2O4 catalyst for water electrolysis
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-12
    Gaurav Gupta, Keith Scott, Mohamed Mamlouk

    A soluble anion exchange ionomer with high OH− ion conductivity comparable to that of H+ conductivity of Nafion is synthesised by chloromethylation of polystyrene-b-poly (ethylene/butylene)-b-polystyrene (SEBS) and used with NiCo2O4 electro-catalyst for water electrolysis. The ionomer has an ion exchange capacity of 1.9 mmol g−1 and ionic conductivity of 0.14 S cm−2 at 50 °C. The cell voltage at 20 °C at 100 mA cm−2 is 1.77 and 1.72 V in, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaOH, respectively, for an optimum loading of 10 mg cm−2 NiCo2O4. At 10 mg cm−2 NiCo2O4 electrolyser cell performance is at least equal to or superior to that of IrO2 at 2 mg cm−2 with excellent stability over 1 h. When the catalyst is sprayed on the GDL instead of CCM, the performance is further improved to 1.65 V at 100 mA cm−2 at 60 °C & 0.1 M KOH. The limited AEM electrolyser performance when operating with deionised water in comparison to PEM and alkaline electrolyser arises from the sluggish OER in the AEM environment equivalent to pH of 11.5 and the two orders of magnitude lower HER activity with respect to acid medium combined with the high Tafel slope of 120 mV dec−1.

    更新日期:2017-07-12
  • Durability of template-free Fe-N-C foams for electrochemical oxygen reduction in alkaline solution
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Albert Mufundirwa, George F. Harrington, Břetislav Smid, Benjamin V. Cunning, Kazunari Sasaki, Stephen M. Lyth

    Due to the high cost and limited availability of platinum, the development of non-platinum-group metals (non-PGM) catalysts is of paramount importance. A promising alternative to Pt are Fe-N-C-based materials. Here we present the synthesis, characterization and electrochemistry of a template-free nitrogen-doped carbon foam, impregnated with iron. This low-cost and gram-scale method results in materials with micron-scale pore size and large surface area (1600 m2g-1). When applied as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst in alkaline solution, the Fe-N-C foams display extremely high initial activity, slightly out-performing commercially available non-PGM catalysts (NCP-2000, Pajarito Powder). The load-cycle durability in alkaline solution is investigated, and the performance steadily degrades over 60,000 potential cycles, whilst the commercial catalyst is remarkably stable. The post-operation catalyst microstructure is elucidated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to provide insight into the degradation processes. The resulting images suggest that potential cycling leads to leaching of atomically dispersed Fe-N2/4 sites in all the catalysts, whereas encapsulated iron nanoparticles are protected.

    更新日期:2017-07-12
  • Electrocatalytic oxidation of meso-erythritol in anion-exchange membrane alkaline fuel cell on PdAg/CNT catalyst
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-06
    Neeva Benipal, Ji Qi, Ryan F. McSweeney, Changhai Liang, Wenzhen Li
    更新日期:2017-07-08
  • Assessing the impact of electrolyte conductivity and viscosity on the reactor cost and pressure drop of redox-active polymer flow batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Vinay A. Iyer, Jonathon K. Schuh, Elena C. Montoto, V. Pavan Nemani, Shaoyi Qian, Gavvalapalli Nagarjuna, Joaquín Rodríguez-López, Randy H. Ewoldt, Kyle C. Smith
    更新日期:2017-07-05
  • Recyclable cross-linked anion exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell application
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Jianqiu Hou, Yazhi Liu, Qianqian Ge, Zhengjin Yang, Liang Wu, Tongwen Xu
    更新日期:2017-06-29
  • Anion exchange composite membrane based on octa quaternary ammonium Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane for alkaline fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-06-23
    Vijayakumar Elumalai, Dharmalingam Sangeetha
    更新日期:2017-06-24
  • Anion exchange membranes based on terminally crosslinked methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-06-22
    Sohyun Kwon, Anil H.N. Rao, Tae-Hyun Kim
    更新日期:2017-06-24
  • Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Liang Zhu, Xuedi Yu, Michael A. Hickner
    更新日期:2017-06-17
  • 更新日期:2017-06-09
  • Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    P.A. García-Salaberri, D.G. Sánchez, P. Boillat, M. Vera, K.A. Friedrich

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

    更新日期:2017-05-27
  • Highly durable direct hydrazine hydrate anion exchange membrane fuel cell
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Tomokazu Sakamoto, Alexey Serov, Teruyuki Masuda, Masaki Kamakura, Koji Yoshimoto, Takuya Omata, Hirofumi Kishi, Susumu Yamaguchi, Akihiro Hori, Yousuke Horiuchi, Tomoaki Terada, Kateryna Artyushkova, Plamen Atanassov, Hirohisa Tanaka

    The factors influenced on degradation of direct hydrazine hydrate fuel cells (DHFCs) under operation conditions are analyzed by in situ soft X-ray radiography. A durability of DHFCs is significantly improved by multi-step reaction DHFCs (MSR-DHFCs) approach designed to decrease the crossover of liquid fuel. An open circuit voltage (OCV) as well as cell voltage at 5 mA cm−2 of MSR-DHFC construct with commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM) maintained for over of 3500 h at 60 °C. Furthermore, the commercial proton exchange membrane (PEM) is integrated into AEM of MSR-DHFCs resulting in stable power output of MSR-DHFCs for over than 2800 h at 80 °C.

    更新日期:2017-05-25
  • Water permeation through anion exchange membranes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Xiaoyan Luo, Steven Holdcroft

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

    更新日期:2017-05-25
  • Importance of balancing membrane and electrode water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-05-09
    T.J. Omasta, L. Wang, X. Peng, C.A. Lewis, J.R. Varcoe, W.E. Mustain
    更新日期:2017-05-10
  • Special Issue: “Microbial fuel cell: From fundamentals to applications”: Guest Editors note
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-29
    Carlo Santoro, Catia Arbizzani, Benjamin Erable, Ioannis Ieropoulos

    更新日期:2017-04-29
  • Electricity generation using continuously recirculated flow electrodes in reverse electrodialysis
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Fei Liu, Orlando Coronell, Douglas F. Call

    Capacitive flow electrode systems that generate electricity from salinity gradients are limited by low power densities, inefficient electrical current collection, and complex system operation. We show here the proof-of-concept that a single reverse electrodialysis cell using continuously recirculated activated carbon flow electrodes can generate uninterrupted electricity from an artificial sea/river water gradient. Power densities reached 61 ± 5.7 mW m−2 (normalized to total membrane surface area) and current densities 2.4 ± 0.13 A m−2 when a 10% by weight carbon loading was used with graphite plate current collectors. Using high-surface area graphite brush current collectors, maximum power densities increased more than 320% to 260 ± 8.7 mW m−2 and maximum current densities more than 400% to 14 ± 0.59 A m−2. The performance improvements were attributed to a more than 80% decrease in electrode resistances when brushes were used instead of plates. A control static capacitive electrode system obtained slightly higher average power densities (290 ± 8.7 mW m−2), but could not produce it continuously, highlighting the operational advantage of the recirculated flow electrode design.

    更新日期:2017-04-26
  • Performance of a vanadium redox flow battery with tubular cell design
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Simon Ressel, Armin Laube, Simon Fischer, Antonio Chica, Thomas Flower, Thorsten Struckmann

    We present a vanadium redox flow battery with a tubular cell design which shall lead to a reduction of cell manufacturing costs and the realization of cell stacks with reduced shunt current losses. Charge/discharge cycling and polarization curve measurements are performed to characterize the single test cell performance. A maximum current density of 70 mAcm−2 and power density of 142 Wl−1 (per cell volume) is achieved and Ohmic overpotential is identified as the dominant portion of the total cell overpotential. Cycling displays Coulomb efficiencies of ≈95% and energy efficiencies of ≈55%. During 113 h of operation a stable Ohmic cell resistance is observed.

    更新日期:2017-04-26
  • Nanoconfined phosphorus film coating on interconnected carbon nanotubes as ultrastable anodes for lithium ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Zhiwei Xu, Yan Zeng, Liyuan Wang, Nan Li, Cheng Chen, Cuiyu Li, Jing Li, Hanming Lv, Liyun Kuang, Xu Tian

    Elemental phosphorus (P) is extensively explored as promising anode candidates due to its abundance, low-cost and high theoretical specific capacity. However, it is of great challenge for P-based materials as practical high-energy-density and long-cycling anodes for its large volume expansion and low conductibility. Here, we significantly improve both cycling and rate performance of red P by cladding the nanoconfined P film on interconnected multi-walled carbon nanotube networks (P-MWCNTs composite) via facile wet ball-milling. The red P-MWCNTs anode presents a superior high reversible capacity of 1396.6 mAh g−1 on the basis of P-MWCNTs composite weight at 50 mA g−1 with capacity retention reaching at ∼90% over 50 cycles. Even at 1000 mA g−1, it still maintains remarkable specific reversible capacity of 934.0 mAh g−1. This markedly enhanced performance is ascribed to synergistic advantages of this unique structure: Intimate contacts between nanosized red P and entangled MWCNTs not only shorten the transmission routes of ions through MWCNTs toward red P, but also motivate the access with electrolyte to open structures of P film. Besides, the confined nanosized P film moderate volume expansions effectively and the entangled MWCNTs networks acted as conductive channels activate high ionic/electronic conductivity of the whole electrodes.

    更新日期:2017-04-26
  • A nitrogen-doped 3D hierarchical carbon/sulfur composite for advanced lithium sulfur batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Xiaoyan Liu, Wenlong Huang, Dongdong Wang, Jianhua Tian, Zhongqiang Shan

    Hybrid nanostructures containing one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous carbon sphere have many promising applications due to their unique physical chemical properties. In this study, a novel 3D hierarchical carbon material (MCCNT) composed of mesoporous carbon sphere core and nitrogen rich CNTs shell is successfully prepared via an aerosol spray and subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. Owning to its well defined porous structure and favorable conductive framework, MCCNT is used as a potential sulfur host in lithium sulfur batteries through a classic melt-diffusion method. When cycled at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 1675 mA h g−1), it delivers an initial capacity as high as 1438.7 mAh g−1. Even if the current density increase to 1 C, the specific capacity still remain up to 534.6 mAh g−1 after 300 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the hybrid structure of MCCNT, in which, the porous core works as a host to confine sulfur and accommodate volume expansion and the external CNTs provide excellent electron and ion conductive frame work. Furthermore, the in-situ doped nitrogen on the surface of CNTs enables effective trapping of lithium polysulfides, leading to a much-improved cycling performance.

    更新日期:2017-04-26
  • Enhanced energy capacity of lithium-oxygen batteries with ionic liquid electrolytes by addition of ammonium ions
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Shoichi Matsuda, Kohei Uosaki, Shuji Nakanishi
    更新日期:2017-04-26
  • 更新日期:2017-04-26
  • CuCo2O4 nanoplate film as a low-cost, highly active and durable catalyst towards the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane for hydrogen production
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-25
    Quanbing Liu, Shengjie Zhang, Jinyun Liao, Kejun Feng, Yuying Zheng, Bruno G. Pollet, Hao Li

    Catalytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane is one of the most promising routes for the production of clean hydrogen as it is seen as a highly efficient and safe method. However, its large-scale industrial application is either limited by the high cost of the catalyst (usually a noble metal based catalyst) or by the low activity and poor reusability (usually a non-noble metal catalyst). In this study, we have successfully prepared three low-cost CuCo2O4 nanocatalysts, namely: (i) Ti supported CuCo2O4 film made of CuCo2O4 nanoplates, (ii) Ti supported CuCo2O4 film made of CuCo2O4 nanosheets, and (iii) unsupported CuCo2O4 nanoparticles. Among the three catalysts used for the hydrolytic dehydrogeneration of ammonia borane, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film exhibits the highest catalytic activity with a turnover frequency (TOF) of ∼44.0 molhydrogen min−1 molcat −1. This is one of the largest TOF value for noble-metal-free catalysts ever reported in the literature. Moreover, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film almost keeps its original catalytic activity after eight cycles, indicative of its high stability and good reusability. Owing to its advantages, the CuCo2O4 nanoplate film can be a promising catalyst for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane, which may find important applications in the field of hydrogen energy.

    更新日期:2017-04-25
  • Preparation and performance evaluation of novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-24
    Muhammad Irfan, Erigene Bakangura, Noor Ul Afsar, Md. Masem Hossain, Jin Ran, Tongwen Xu

    Novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes are prepared from various amounts of N-methyl dipicolylamine (MDPA) and brominated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO). The dipicolylamine and MDPA are synthesized through condensation reaction and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The morphologies of prepared membranes are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical and physical properties of AEMs are tested comprising water uptake (WU), ion exchange capacity (IEC), alkaline stability, linear expansion ratio (LER), thermal stability and mechanical stability. The obtained hydroxide conductivity of MDPA-4 is 66.5 mS/cm at 80 °C. The MDPA-4 membrane shows good alkaline stability, high hydroxide conductivity, low methanol permeability (3.43 × 10−7 cm2/s), higher selectivity (8.26 × 107 mS s/cm3), less water uptake (41.1%) and lower linear expansion (11.1%) despite of high IEC value (1.62 mmol/g). The results prove that MDPA membranes have great potential application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell.

    更新日期:2017-04-24
  • Ab initio study of the operating mechanisms of tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite as a multifunctional additive for Li-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-23
    Dong Young Kim, Hosang Park, Woon Ih Choi, Basab Roy, Jinah Seo, Insun Park, Jin Hae Kim, Jong Hwan Park, Yoon-Sok Kang, Meiten Koh

    Tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite (P(OSi(CH3)3)3) is a multifunctional electrolyte additive for scavenging HF and forming a cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI). Systematic analysis of the HF reaction pathways and redox potentials of P(OSi(CH3)3)3, OP(OSi(CH3)3)3, P(OSiF3)3, and OP(OSiF3)3, and their reaction products, using ab initio calculations allowed us to elucidate the operating mechanism of P(OSi(CH3)3)3 and verify the rules that determine its HF reaction pathways and electrochemical stability. While OSi cleavage is the predominant HF scavenging pathway for P(OSi(CH3)3)3, OP cleavage is stabilized by replacing CH3 with an electron-withdrawing group. Thus, P(OSiF3)3 scavenges HF mainly through OP cleavage to produce PF3, which has high oxidation stability. However, the OSi cleavage pathway produces P(OSi(CH3)3)2OH, P(OSi(CH3)3) (OH)2, and P(OH)3 sequentially, along with Si(CH3)3F. These PO3 systems, which are oxidized earlier than carbonate solutions and form tightly bonded units following oxidation, act as seed units for compact CEI growth. Moreover, the HF scavenging ability of PO3 systems is maintained during oxidation until all OSi bonds are broken. As a strategy for developing additives with enhanced functionality, modifying P(OSi(CH3)3)3 by replacing CH3 with an electron-donating group to exclusively utilize the OSi cleavage pathway for HF scavenging is recommended.

    更新日期:2017-04-23
  • Improvement of rate capability by graphite foam anode for Li secondary batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-23
    Sunghyun Lim, Ji-Hyun Kim, Yuto Yamada, Hirokazu Munakata, Young-Seak Lee, Sung-Soo Kim, Kiyoshi Kanamura

    The rate performances of Li batteries are severely influenced by the electrochemical properties of anode material. The graphite foams (GFms) is prepared by simple process from mesophase pitch (MP) precursor. The physical and electrochemical properties are investigated for Li secondary battery anode. The rate performances of GFms anode cell is more than 92% at the 30 C-rate compare to 1 C-rate current, which is very promising to the high power applications such as electric vehicles. For the quantitative analysis of rate capability improvement, the charge transfer resistance and diffusivity are measured by microelectrode system with single particle and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). The diffusion coefficient of GFms is in the range of 3.2 × 10−12 - 2.0 × 10−9 cm2/s, which is 2 orders higher than that of commercialized graphite anodes.

    更新日期:2017-04-23
  • Experimental research on short-term feeding of dust contaminated gas to a molten carbonate fuel cell cathode
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-23
    Rafał Bernat, Jarosław Milewski, Tomasz Wejrzanowski

    The paper presents initial research on processes present on the cathode side of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), when the supplied gas is an aerosol containing solid particulate matter. The research is based on experiments conducted at the Institute of Heat Engineering of Warsaw University of Technology. The main task is to determine whether and to what extent solid particles disable or hinder the operation of a molten carbonate fuel cell. It is thought that they might change the penetrability of porous layers by clogging their void volumes. Under investigation are the sizes and amount of solid particles required to significantly affect the processes occurring on the triple phase. Experimental investigation was conducted that determined the change in operational parameters due to dust contamination. Surprisingly, there is no sudden drop in the electric parameters of the fuel cell subject to dust poisoning. Supposedly, the dust creates a porous, permeable to gases, structure on the electrode. The only varying parameter was the pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet to the cathode.

    更新日期:2017-04-23
  • A novel strategy for high-stability lithium sulfur batteries by in situ formation of polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-23
    Liming Jin, Gaoran Li, Binhong Liu, Zhoupeng Li, Junsheng Zheng, Jim P. Zheng
    更新日期:2017-04-23
  • Effect of CeO2 coprecipitation on the electrochemical performance of Li(Li,Ni,Mn,Co)O2-CeO2-C composite cathode materials
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    K.A. Kurilenko, O.A. Shlyakhtin, D.I. Petukhov, A.V. Garshev

    Composite electrode materials Li[Li0.13Ni0.2Mn0.47Co0.2]O2 (LNMC)–CeO2–С are obtained by the coprecipitation of Co, Ni, Mn and Ce hydroxides followed by the coating of LNMC–CeO2 composites with pyrolytic carbon. The introduction of 5% CeO2 promotes the reduction of LNMC grain size from 190–230 to 100–170 nm and the corresponding increase in the electrochemical capacity of LNMC-CeO2 composite. The pyrolytic coating consists of the network of 2–5 nm polymer-carbon particles at the surface of LNMC crystallites. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data, which was performed after the galvanostatic cycling, demonstrated considerably lower charge transfer resistance of the carbon-coated composites compared to the bare LNMC and the LNMC-CeO2 composites. The values of the discharge capacity of LNMC-CeO2-C composites are superior to the capacity of LMNC-CeO2 and LMNC-C composites at all discharge rates (C/10 – 5C). The increase of the upper boundary of potentials to 4.8 V after cycling at 5C (U – 2÷4.6 V) promotes the increase of low rate electrochemical capacity of LNMC-CeO2-C composite to 220 mAh g−1.

    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • Defect-rich TiO2-δ nanocrystals confined in a mooncake-shaped porous carbon matrix as an advanced Na ion battery anode
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Hanna He, Qi Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Hehe Zhang, Jiadong Li, Zhiguang Peng, Yougen Tang, Minhua Shao
    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • Recent progress in stabilizing hybrid perovskites for solar cell applications
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Jianqing Chen, Xin Cai, Donghui Yang, Dan Song, Jiajia Wang, Jinghua Jiang, Aibin Ma, Shiquan Lv, Michael Z. Hu, Chaoying Ni
    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • A novel approach for supercapacitors degradation characterization
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Alon Oz, Danny Gelman, Emanuelle Goren, Neta Shomrat, Sioma Baltianski, Yoed Tsur
    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • In situ construction of Ir@Pt/C nanoparticles in the cathode layer of membrane electrode assemblies with ultra-low Pt loading and high Pt exposure
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Dai Dang, Lei Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zeng, Xinlong Tian, Chong Qu, Haoxiong Nan, Ting Shu, Sanying Hou, Lijun Yang, Jianhuang Zeng, Shijun Liao
    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride as an effective corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel current collectors in magnesium chloride complex electrolytes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Jung Hoon Ha, Jae-Hyun Cho, Jong Hak Kim, Byung Won Cho, Si Hyoung Oh
    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • Effect of carbon-sulphur bond in a sulphur/dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile/reduced graphene oxide composite cathode for lithium-sulphur batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Aishuak Konarov, Zhumabay Bakenov, Hitoshi Yashiro, Yang-Kook Sun, Seung-Taek Myung
    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • Template-engaged synthesis of spinel-layered Li1.5MnTiO4+δ nanorods as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Ngoc Hung Vu, Sanjith Unithrattil, Van Hien Hoang, Sangeun Chun, Won Bin Im

    Spinel-layered composites of Li1.5MnTiO4+δ were studied for their use as high-energy, low-cost, and environmentally benign cathode materials. The bulk particles showed an attractive specific capacity of up to 250 mAh g−1 at C/10. To improve the performance of this cathode at a high C-rate, a spinel-layered Li1.5MnTiO4+δ nanorod was successfully synthesized using a β-MnO2 nanorod template. The nanorod, which had an average diameter of 200 nm and a length of 1 μm, showed specific capacity as high as the bulk particle at C/10. However, owing to a one-dimensional nanostructure with a large effective contact area for Li+ diffusion, the nanorod sample exhibited enhanced capacities 11% (170 mAh g−1) and 167% higher (80 mAh g−1) at 1C and 10C rates, respectively, compared to the bulk particles. Moreover, both samples showed good cycle stability and capacity retention of over 85% after 100 cycles at 1C.

    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • Influence of Li3BO3 additives on the Li+ conductivity and stability of Ca/Ta-substituted Li6.55(La2.95Ca0.05)(Zr1.5Ta0.5)O12 electrolytes
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    L.C. Zhang, J.F. Yang, Y.X. Gao, X.P. Wang, Q.F. Fang, C.H. Chen

    The cubic Ca/Ta-substituted Li6.55(La2.95Ca0.05)(Zr1.5Ta0.5)O12 (LLCZTO) electrolytes were synthesized at 800 °C with Li3BO3 as additives. The optimal amount of Li3BO3 and its influences on the microstructure, crystal structures, Li+ conductivity and the stability of the Li6.55(La2.95Ca0.05)(Zr1.5Ta0.5)O12 were studied by SEM, XRD and EIS. Among all the samples, when the molar ratio of Li3BO3 to the Li6.55(La2.95Ca0.05)(Zr1.5Ta0.5)O12 is 4:5, the highest Li+ conductivity of 1.33 × 10−4 S cm−1 at 30 °C is obtained. When the LLCZTO samples are exposed in air, the Li+ conductivity is deteriorated possibly owing to the side reactions between the LLCZTO and the H2O or CO2 in the air. The Li3BO3 addition can alleviate such deterioration of the Li+ conductivity.

    更新日期:2017-04-22
  • High performance direct methanol fuel cell with thin electrolyte membrane
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Nianfang Wan

    A high performance direct methanol fuel cell is achieved with thin electrolyte membrane. 320 mW cm−2 of peak power density and over 260 mW cm−2 at 0.4 V are obtained when working at 90 °C with normal pressure air supply. It is revealed that the increased anode half-cell performance with temperature contributes primarily to the enhanced performance at elevated temperature. From the comparison of iR-compensated cathode potential of methanol/air with that of H2/air fuel cell, the impact of methanol crossover on cathode performance decreases with current density and becomes negligible at high current density. Current density is found to influence fuel efficiency and methanol crossover significantly from the measurement of fuel efficiency at different current density. At high current density, high fuel efficiency can be achieved even at high temperature, indicating decreased methanol crossover.

    更新日期:2017-04-21
  • Enhanced rate performance of Li4Ti5O12 anodes with bridged grain boundaries
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Xu-Yong Feng, Xiang Li, Mingxue Tang, Alberic Gan, Yan-Yan Hu

    Excellent rate performance of Li4+xTi5O12 (0 < x < 3, LTO) electrodes results from mixed Li site occupancy and facile Li ion exchange at 8a and 16c sites. In this paper, we reveal that inter-particle connectivity within LTO electrodes affects 8a and 16c site occupancies upon discharge and impacts Li ion diffusion. LTO electrodes of the same primary crystal structure but of different grain boundary structures were prepared and they showed significantly different electrochemical performance. LTO electrodes with a percolated 3D structural network and bridged grain boundaries offered balanced 8a-16c occupancy, Li ion exchange at 8a and 16c sites upon discharge, high ionic conductivities, and good rate performance. While LTO electrodes with isolated clusters of particles showed strong rate dependence of 8a-16c occupancy, a lack of Li ion exchange at 8a and 16c sites, large over-potential, and substantial capacity decay upon fast charging. Bridged grain boundaries in LTO secondary particles facilitate apparent solid-solution process during electrochemical cycling by maintaining Li site exchange and thus enhance the rate performance of LTO electrodes.

    更新日期:2017-04-21
  • Double-shell CuS nanocages as advanced supercapacitor electrode materials
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Jinxue Guo, Xinqun Zhang, Yanfang Sun, Xiaohong Zhang, Lin Tang, Xiao Zhang
    更新日期:2017-04-21
  • A high performance quasi-solid-state supercapacitor based on CuMnO2 nanoparticles
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Lu Wang, Muhammad Arif, Guorong Duan, Shenming Chen, Xiaoheng Liu
    更新日期:2017-04-21
  • High-performance zinc bromine flow battery via improved design of electrolyte and electrode
    J. Power Sources (IF 6.395) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    M.C. Wu, T.S. Zhao, H.R. Jiang, Y.K. Zeng, Y.X. Ren

    The zinc bromine flow battery (ZBFB) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for large-scale energy storage attributed to its high energy density and low cost. However, it suffers from low power density, primarily due to large internal resistances caused by the low conductivity of electrolyte and high polarization in the positive electrode. In this work, chloride based salts including KCl and NH4Cl are investigated as supporting electrolyte to enhance electrolyte conductivity, while graphite-felt electrodes are thermally treated to improve electrocatalytic activity. It is found that the use of 4 M NH4Cl as a supporting electrolyte enables the battery to be operated at a current density of 40 mA cm−2 with an energy efficiency of 74.3%, whereas without the addition of a supporting electrolyte the battery only outputs an energy efficiency of 60.4%. In combination with a thermally treated graphite-felt electrode, efficiency further reaches up to 81.8% at the same current density. More impressively, we demonstrate that even at a high current density of up to 80 mA cm−2, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of 70%, representing one of the highest performances of ZBFBs in the open literature.

    更新日期:2017-04-21
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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